From: Exhibits of the Joint Committee, PHA, Pt. 15, Pp. 1585-93

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EXHIBIT NO. 51
                                                  THE JOINT BOARD,
                                              JOINT PLANNING COMMITTEE,
                                            Washington, August 18, 1941.
J B. No. 325 (Serial 717)

Secret
From: The Joint Planning Committee,
To. The Joint Board.

Subject: Joint Canadian-United States Basic Defense Plan No. 2 (Short
         Title-ABC-22).
Enclosure: (A) Subject Plan (draft of 28 July 1941) with permanent Joint
           Board on Defense letter of transmittal, dated: Montreal, 30th
           July, 1941.

The subject plan, which was prepared in collaboration with the War Plans Divisions of the War and Navy Departments, is transmitted herewith with recommendation that it be approved.

                                        (Signed) L. T. Gerow
                                                 L. T. GEROW,
                                        Brigadier General, U. S. Army. 
                                        (Signed) C. J. Moore
                                                 C. J. MOORE,
                                              Captain, U. S. Navy. 
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J. B. No. 325 (Serial 717)                                     Secret

CANADA-UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-PERMANENT JOINT BOARD ON DEFENCE

     Office of the Secretary
East Block Parliament Buildings
           Ottawa

                                             MONTREAL, 30th JULY, 1941. 

To: The Chief of Naval Operations, United States Navy
    The Chief of Staff, United States Army
    The Chief of Naval Staff, Canada
    The Chief of the General Staff, Canada
    The Chief of the Air Staff, Canada

There is submitted herewith a copy of Joint Canadian-United States Basic Defence Plan No. 2 (short title ABC-22) prepared by the Service members of the Permanent Joint Board on Defence.

                                           (Sgd) S. D. Embick
                                                 S. D. EMBICK, 
                                           Major-General, U. S. Army. 
                                           (Sgd) H. W. Hill
                                                 H. W. HILL 
                                           Captain, U. S. Navy. 
                                           (Sgd) Forrest Sherman
                                                 FORREST SHERMAN, 
                                           Commander, U. S. Navy. 
                                           (Sgd) Clayton Bissell
                                                 CLAYTON BISSELL, 
                                           Lieut.-Colonel, U. S. Army. 
                                           (Sgd) F. L. Houghton
                                                 F. L. HOUGHTON,
                                           Captain, R. C. N. 
                                           (Sgd) Maurice Pope
                                                 M. A. POPE, 
                                           Brigadier. 
                                           (Sgd) A. A. L. Cuffe
                                                 A. A. L. CUFFE, 
                                           Air Commodore, R. C. A. F. 

SECRET
U. S. Registered Copy No. 34 [1] J. B. No. 325 (Serial 717) This Draft includes corrections made up to 28 July 1941.
JOINT CANADIAN-UNITED STATES BASIC DEFENSE PLAN No. 2
(Short Title ABC-22)
SECTION I-PURPOSE OF THIS PLAN

1. There has been submitted to the Government of the United States and to His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom a report of Staff Conversations held in Washington from January 29, 1941 to March 27, 1941. The United Kingdom Government has referred this report to the Canadian Government for their concurrence. The report, which bears the short title "ABC-1", includes a United States-British Commonwealth Joint Basic War Plan.

2. ABC-1 assumes that joint agreements between Canada and the United States for common action in war under the concepts of ABC-1 will conform generally to the agreements reached in the United States-British Staff Conversations. This plan is intended to supplement those agreements, and to provide for the most effective use of Canadian and United States Forces for the purposes listed in paragraph 3, should the United States and the British Commonwealth be associated in a war against Germany and her allies.

3. Under such circumstances, cooperative action by Canadian and United States Forces will be required primarily for purposes connected with:

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(a) the protection of overseas shipping within the northern portions of the Western Atlantic and Pacific Areas;

(b) the protection of sea communications within the coastal zones;

(c) the defense of Alaska, Canada, Newfoundland, (which includes Labrador) and the northern portion of the United States.

4. The coastal zones are the whole area of the navigable waters- adjacent to the seacoast and extend seaward to include the coastwise sea lanes and focal points of shipping approaching and departing from the coast.

[2]

SECTION II-SPECIAL PROVISIONS

5. Except as otherwise provided herein, the assumptions, concept and other provisions of ABC-1, where applicable, shall form a part of this plan.

6. Coordination of the military effort of the United States and Canada shall be effected by mutual cooperation, and by assigning to the forces of each nation tasks for whose execution such forces shall be primarily responsible. These tasks may be assigned in Joint Canadian-United States Basic Defense Plans, or by agreement between the Chiefs of Staff concerned, the United States Chief of Naval Operations being considered as such.

7. In effecting mutual cooperation, as provided in paragraph 6, the forces of one nation will, to their utmost capacity, support the appropriate forces of the ether nation.

8. Each nation shall retain the strategic direction and command of its own forces, except as hereinafter provided.

9. A unified command may, if circumstances so require, be established over United States and Canadian forces operation in any area or areas, or for particular United States and Canadian forces operating for a common purpose:

(a) when agreed upon by the Chiefs of Staff concerned, or

(b) when the commanders of the Canadian and United States forces concerned agree that the situation required the exercise of unity of command and further agree as to the Service that shall exercise such command. All such mutual agreements shall be subject to confirmation by the Chief's of Staff concerned, but this provision shall not prevent the immediate establishment of unity of command in cases of emergency.

10. Unity of command, when established, vests in one commander the responsibility and authority to coordinate the operations of the participating forces of both nations by the setting up of task forces, the assignment of tasks, the designation of objectives, and the exercise of such coordinating control as the commander deems necessary to ensure the success of the operations. Unity of command does not authorize a commander exercising it to control the administration and discipline of the forces of the nation of which he is not an officer, nor to issue any instructions to such forces beyond those necessary for effective coordination. In no case shall a commander of a unified force move naval [3] forces of the other nation from the North Atlantic or the North Pacific Ocean, nor move land or air forces under his command from the adjacent land areas, without authorization by the Chief of Staff concerned.

11. The assignment of an area to one nation shall not be construed as restricting the forces of the other nation from temporarily extending appropriate operations into that area, as may be required by particular circumstances.

12. For all matters requiring common action, each nation will require its commanders in all echelons and services, on their own initiative, to establish liaison with and cooperate with appropriate commanders of the other nation. The principal commanders of Canadian and United States forces who will cooperate under this plan are as follows:

             Canada                             United States

Commodore Commanding Newfound-        Commander in Chief, United States 
  land Force (RCN)                      Atlantic Fleet, (USN)
Commanding Officer, Atlantic Coast    Task Force Commanders, United 
  (RCN)                                 States Atlantic Fleet (USN)
Air Officer Commanding, Eastern Air   Commander North Atlantic Naval 
  Command (RCAF)                        Coastal Frontier (USN)
General Officer Commanding in Chief,  Commanding General Northeast De-
  Atlantic Command (CA)                 fense Command (USA)
Officer Commanding Eastern Air        Commanding General, GHQ
  Command (RCAF) 

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             Canada                             United States

Commanding Officer, Pacific Coast     Commander in Chief, United States 
  (RCN)                                 Pacific Fleet (USN)
Air Officer Commanding Western Air    Task Force Commanders, United 
  Command (RCAF)                        States Pacific Fleet (USN) 
                                      Commander Pacific Northern Naval 
                                        Coastal Frontier (USN) 
Officer Commanding in Chief           Commanding General Western Defense
  Pacific Command (CA)                  Command (USA) 
Air Officer Commanding Western Air 
  Command (RCAF) 

13. Under the provisions of ABC-1 the United States will assume responsibility for the control and protection of Associated Overseas shipping in the Western Atlantic and Pacific Areas. Pending the establishment of effective United States agencies the British Naval Control Service Organization will, in accordance with ABC-1, continue in the exercise of its present functions.

14. Within the coastal zones of Canada and the United States, responsibility for routing and protection of shipping is allocated as follows:

[4]

(a) Canada will be responsible for routing and protecting coastwise and independently routed overseas shipping within the coastal zones of Canada and Newfoundland.

(b) The United States will be responsible for routing and protecting Associated overseas shipping except as provided in sub-paragraph (a).

(c) The routing of shipping passing from the coastal zone of one nation into the coastal zone of the other, will be effected in the Atlantic by agreement between the Canadian Commanding Officer, Atlantic Coast, and the United States Commander, North Atlantic Naval Coastal Frontier; and in the Pacific by agreement between the Canadian Commanding Officer, Pacific Coast, and the United States Commander, Pacific Northern Naval Coastal Frontier.

15. Each nation will provide within its own territory certain base facilities for use by the other nation. These facilities are listed in Annex II. So far as practicable, each nation will make available its own bases, harbors, and repair facilities, for use by the forces of the other.

16. To facilitate common decision and action, Canada and the United States will establish in Washington and Ottawa, respectively, officers of all Services who will be charged with the duty of representing their own Chiefs of Staff, vis--vis, the appropriate Chief of Staff of the other nation. They will also arrange to assign liaison officers where needed for effectuating direct cooperation between Commanders of forces in the field.

17. This plan will be placed in effect by the Chiefs of Staff of Canada and the United States when so directed by the Canadian and United States Governments.

SECTION III-JOINT TASK OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

18. Protect the sea communications of the United States and the British Commonwealth, and defend the territory of Canada, Newfoundland, and the United States, including Alaska, in order to ensure the ultimate security of Canada and the United States.

SECTION IV-TASKS

[5]

19. The tasks set forth in this section are those which will be undertaken Jointly by the armed forces of Canada and the United States, should the latter enter the war. These Joint tasks are:

JOINT TASK ONE: PROTECT ASSOCIATED OVERSEAS SHIPPING IN THE NORTHERN PORTIONS OF THE WESTERN ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC AREAS.

JOINT TASK TWO: DEFEND NEWFOUNDLAND AND PROTECT ASSOCIATED SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE COASTAL ZONE.

JOINT TASK THREE. DEFEND EASTERN CANADA AND THE NORTHEASTERN PORTION OF THE UNITED STATES, AND PROTECT SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE COASTAL ZONES.

JOINT TASK FOUR: DEFEND ALASKA AND PROTECT SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE COASTAL ZONE.

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JOINT TASK FIVE: DEFEND WESTERN CANADA AND THE NORTHWESTERN PORTION OF THE UNITED STATES, AND PROTECT SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE COASTAL ZONES.

20. Joint Task One: PROTECT ASSOCIATED OVERSEAS SHIPPING IN THE NORTHERN PORTIONS OF THE WESTERN ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC AREAS.

Canadian Tasks

All Services-Support the United States Navy in the execution of this joint task.

United States Tasks

Army-Support Associated naval operations.

Navy-Protect overseas shipping by escorting, covering, and patrolling, as may be appropriate, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

21. Joint Task Two: DEFEND NEWFOUNDLAND AND PROTECT ASSOCIATED SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE COASTAL ZONE.

Canadian Tasks

Army-Defend Newfoundland, in cooperation with other Canadian and United States Services. Cooperate in the defense of United States bases in Newfoundland.

Navy-Protect sea communications in the coastal zone. Provide the naval defense of St. John's and Botwood. Support the defense of Newfoundland.

[6]

Cooperate with the Royal Canadian Air Force in denying Hudson Strait to enemy forces. Assist the United States Navy in initial movements of United States forces from the Maritime Provinces to Newfoundland.

Air Force-Defend Newfoundland in cooperation with other Canadian and United States Services. Cooperate in the defense of United States bases in Newfoundland.

United States Tasks

Army-Defend Newfoundland in cooperation with Canadian and other United States Services. Defend United States bases. Support associated naval operations.

Navy-Support the defense of Newfoundland and its coastal zone. Patrol Placentia Bay. Provide sea transportation for the initial movement and the continued support of United States forces in Newfoundland.

22. Joint Task Three: DEFEND EASTERN CANADA AND THE NORTHEASTERN PORTION OF THE UNITED STATES, AND PROTECT SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE COASTAL ZONE.

Canadian Tasks

Army-Defend the Maritime Provinces and the Gaspe Peninsula.

Navy-Protect sea communications in the Canadian Coastal Zone. Provide the naval defense of the harbors of Gaspe, Halifax, Sydney, Shelburne, and Saint John, N. B.

Air Force-Defend-Eastern Canada. Support Associated naval operation.

United States Tasks

Army-Defend the northeastern portion of the United States. Support Associated naval operations. Support the defense of the Maritime provinces and the Gaspe Peninsula.

Navy-Protect sea communications in the United States Coastal Zone. Support the defense of the northeastern portion of the United States. Support the defense of Eastern Canada and its Coastal zone.

23. Joint Task Four: DEFEND ALASKA AND PROTECT SEA COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE COASTAL ZONE.

Canadian Tasks

Navy-Protect sea communications in the Canadian coastal zone. Assist the United States Navy in the initial [7] movements of United States forces between the United States and Alaska.

Air Force-Support the defense of Alaska. Support Associated naval operations.

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United States Tasks

Army-Deny the use by the enemy of sea and land bases in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Defend United States military and naval bases and installations in Alaska. Support Associated naval operations.

Navy-Protect shipping in the United States coastal zone. Support the defense of Alaska. Provide sea transportation for the initial movement and continued support of United States forces in Alaska.

24. Joint Task Five-DEFEND WESTERN CANADA AND THE NORTHWESTERN PORTION or THE UNITED STATES, AND PROTECT SEA COMMUNICATIONS IN THE COASTAL ZONES.

Canadian Tasks

Army-Defend Western Canada. Cooperate with the United States Army in the defense of the Straits of Juan de Fuca-Puget Sound Area.

Navy-Provide the naval defenses of Esquimalt-Victoria, Vancouver and Prince Rupert. Protect sea communications in the Canadian coastal zone.

Air Force Defend Western Canada. Support military and naval operation particularly in the straits of Juan de Fuca-Puget Sound Area.

United States Tasks

Army-Defend the northwestern portion of the United States. Support the defense of Western Canada. Cooperate with Canadian forces in the defense of the Straits of Juan de Fuca-Puget Sound Area. Support Associated naval operations.

Navy-Protect sea communications in the United States coastal zone. Support the defense of the northwestern portion of the United States. Support the defense of Western Canada and its coastal zone.

[8]

SECTION V

25. The forces estimated to be available for the operations required by this plan are indicated in Annex I-Military Forces.

SECTION VI

26. The facilities to be provided by the two governments concerned for the joint execution of this plan are indicated in Annex II-Facilities to be Provided by Canada and the United States.

SECTION VII

27. The general communication principles outlined in Annex IV of ABC-1 shall serve as a guide for this plan, subject to such additional instructions as may be issued from time to time by the Chiefs of Staff concerned.

[9]

ANNEX I-MILITARY FORCES

In view of the uncertainties which exist as to the stability of the strategic situations in various theatres, and as to the date on which the United States may enter the war, the strengths of forces listed below must be regarded as subject to change in the light of the strategic situation which may exist when the plan is placed in effect. The forces now estimated to be initially available for the operations required by this plan as of 15 July, 1941, are:

(A) ATLANTIC

    Ocean Escorts United States Atlantic Fleet
      6 Battleships
      5 8" Cruisers
     54 Destroyers
      4 Mine Sweepers (destroyer type)
     54 Patrol Planes

    North Atlantic Naval Coastal Force (U. S. N.)
      5 Eagle Boats
      3 Gunboats
      4 Patrol Yachts
     18 Patrol Planes

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    Newfoundland Force (R. C. N.) (Allocated to operate with Ocean 
      Escorts, U. S. Atlantic Fleet)
      5 Destroyers
     15 Corvettes

    Atlantic Coast Command (R. C. N.)
      8 Destroyers
     28 Corvettes
      4 Mine Sweepers
      4 Magnetic Mine Sweepers
     11 Armed A/S Yachts

    Eastern Air Command (R. C. A. F.)
      Headquarters
        Maritmes
          Three Bomber Reconnaissance Squadrons
          One Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron (Partly Operational)
          One Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron (Not Fully Equipped)
          One Fighter Squadron (Partly Operational)
          One General Reconnaissance School Squadron (Partly 
            Operational)
          One Operational Training Reconnaissance and Bombing Squadron
           (Partly Operational)
          Three Coast Artillery Cooperation Detachments
[10]

        Newfoundland
          One Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron
        Newfoundland Base Command (U. S. A.)
          Force Headquarters
          One Regiment Infantry (Less two battalions)
          Two Batteries Coast Artillery A. A., 37 mm Gun (Reinforced)
          Two Batteries Coast Artillery A. A., 90 mm Gun (Reinforced)
          Two Batteries Coast Artillery A. A., M. G. (Reinforced)
          One Battery Coast Artillery, 8" RR.
          One Battery Coast Artillery 155 mm Gun (Reinforced)
          One Reconnaissance Squadron (Heavy)
          One Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor)
          Service Troops
              Total Force, 5400
        Northeast Defense Command (U. S. A.)
          Headquarters First Army
          One Army Corps (Three Divisions)
          One Division
          Harbor Defense Units
          4 Regiments Infantry
          1 Battalion Field Artillery (Pack)
          Service Troops
              Total, 130 000 
          Antiaircraft Artillery and pursuit aviation units may be 
              assigned as warranted by the category of defense. 
        Atlantic Command, Canadian Army
          Atlantic Command Headquarters ....................     65 
            Maritimes ...................................... 10,508
              Three Fortress Headquarters
              Five Infantry Battalions
              Two M. G. Battalions
              Four A. A. Batteries
              Four G/L Batteries
              Harbor Defense Units
              Service Troops
            Newfoundland ...................................  2,911
              Headquarters
              Two Infantry Battalions
              One A. A. M. G. Battery
              Two Heavy Batteries (CA)
              Service Troops
            General Reserve
              One Infantry Division (less units overseas)
                  Total Force .............................. 34,630 

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[11]

(B) PACIFIC
    Naval Local Defense Force, Pacific Northern Naval
      Coastal Frontier, (U. S. N.)
       5 Destroyers
       1 Eagle Boat
       1 Gunboat
       2 Submarines
      12 Patrol Planes
    Pacific Coast Command (R. C. N.)
       1 Armed Merchant Cruiser
       1 Corvette
       2 Armed A/S Yachts
    Western Air Command (R. C. A. F.)
       Headquarters
       Three Bomber Reconnaissance Squadrons (Not Fully Equipped)
       One Operational Training Reconnaissance Squadron
       One Coast Artillery Cooperation Detachment
   Pacific Command, Canadian Army
      Pacific Command Headquarters .........................     45
        Puget Sound Area ...................................  4,180
          Victoria-Esquimalt Fortress Headquarters
          Headquarters Vancouver Defenses
          Two Infantry Battalions and Six Platoons
          One A. A. Battery
          Two Search Light Batteries
          Coast Defenses
          Service Troops
        Prince Rupert ......................................  1,222
          Headquarters Prince Rupert Defenses
          One Infantry Battalion
          One Search Light Battery
          One Heavy Battery
        General Reserve ....................................  3,717
          One Infantry Brigade
          One Infantry Battalion

            Total Force ....................................  9,164
   Western Defence Command (U. S. A.) 
      Headquarters Fourth Army
      One Army Corps (Two Divisions)
      One Army Corps (One Division)
      Harbor Defense Units
      1 Cavalry Brigade
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      1 Cavalry Regiment
      5 Field Artillery Battalions (75 mm Gun)
      1 Infantry Regiment
      2 Antitank Battalions
      Service Troops
            Total, 100,000.
   Antiaircraft artillery and pursuit aviation units may be assigned as
      warranted by the category of defense
   Alaska Defense Command (U. S. A.)
      3 Regiments and 3 Companies of Infantry
      1 Light Tank Company
      1 Composite Battalion and 1 Battery, Field Artillery
      3 Regiments and 4 Batteries of Antiaircraft Artillery
      2 Battalions and 2 Batteries of Harbor Defense, Coast Artillery
      1 Squadron each of pursuit, bombardment medium, bombardment
        heavy, and transport aviation
      1 Air Base Group
      Service Troops
        Total, 24,000.

[13]

ANNEX II--FACILITIES TO BE PROVIDED BY CANADA AND THE UNITED
STATES

In order to provide for the joint execution of the tasks contained in this plan, the two governments concerned have agreed to provide facilities as follows, primarily for use by the military forces of either or both nations;

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By Canada

At the Newfoundland Airport, facilities for the operation of a composite group (73 planes) of United States Army aircraft, and storage for 1,500,000 gallons of aviation gasoline.

In the Botwood-Lewisporte area, storage for 1,000,000 gallons of aviation gasoline.

In the Botwood area, shore facilities permitting the operation of one squadron of United States Navy Patrol planes.

Land plane staging facilities at Sydney, Nova Scotia, including radio facilities.

A fighter aerodrome in the vicinity of St. Johns, N F.

Defenses for the ports of St. Johns, Botwood, and for other points as required.

Expansion of the aircraft operating facilities in the Maritime Provinces to include provisions for the early operation by the United States of one squadron and the ultimate operation of four squadrons of naval patrol planes (48 planes).

Staging facilities for aircraft en route between Alaska and the continental United States.

Airdromes on the north end of Vancouver Island and at Uceleulet.

Additional coast defenses at Christopher Point, B. C.

By United States

At Argentina, a defended base for the operation of two squadrons of patrol planes (24 planes), including storage for 110,000 barrels of fuel oil and 1,800,000 gallons of aviation gasoline.

[14]

Staging facilities at Stephenville for short range aircraft between Sydney and the Newfoundland Airport, these to include radio facilities.

Improvement of the Newfoundland railway and an increase in rolling stock of 5 locomotives and 100 cars to meet United States requirements.

Development of airways and other transportation facilities leading into Eastern Canada.

Army bases at Anchorage and Fairbanks.

Land aviation facilities at Ketchikan, Yakutat, Cordova, Anchorage, Bethel, Nome, Boundary and Big Delta.

Naval air stations at Sitka, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor and their defenses.

Airways between Ketchikan and Kodiak, and between Nome and Boundary.

Readjustment of coast defenses in Juan de Fuca Straits to coordinate with Canadian fixed defenses at Esquimalt.

Aircraft operating facilities at Seattle, Whidby Island, Tongue Point, Aberdeen, Bellingham, Everett, Olympia and Spokane County.


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