names: southern hackberry, hackberry, sugarberry.
Synonyms: Celtis laevigata Willdenow var. anomala
Sargent, Celtis laevigata Willdenow var. brachyphylla
Sargent, Celtis laevigata Willdenow var. laevigata,
Celtis laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sargent, Celtis
laevigata Willdenow var. texana Sargent, Celtis mississippiensis
Bosc, Celtis smallii Beadle.
A medium to large-sized deciduous tree, usually 20–30 m (65–100 ft.)
tall when mature. Older twigs have chambered pith, which sometimes
becomes hollow. Bark is usually light gray and smooth, but often bears
a few scattered to many warty outgrowths. Leaves are alternate, typically
small to medium sized (6–8 cm long), usually twice as long wide, with
a long-pointed tip. Leaves are usually lanceolate, ovate or oval shaped,
and often curve to one side. Leaf margins are mostly untoothed, but
a few (rarely many) small teeth may be present. Leaves bear 3 prominent
veins that branch from the base of the leaf blade. Flowers occur in
small clusters, with functionally unisexual female and male flowers
on the same tree, occasionally with male and females flowers combined.
Fruits are small (0.4–0.9 cm long) drupes that are usually orangish-red
in color, sometimes purple. Southern Hackberry occurs most commonly
in bottomland forests of the Piedmont, where it often grows along
the edges of rivers and streams.
with buds Close-up