Before you start reading: I am not a native speaker, so there are probably spelling/grammatical errors in this document. Feel encouraged to inform me of mistakes.
The webserver you hopefully will get after having read this howto is composed of several parts, the original apache sources with some (well, many) patches and some external executables. I recommend using the software versions I tried, they will probably compile without greater problems and result in a fairly stable daemon. If you are courageous, you can try to compile all the latest-stuff-with-tons-of-new-features, but don't blame me if something fails ;-). However, you may report other working configurations to be included in future versions of this document. All of the steps were tested on a linux 2.0.35 box, so the howto is somewhat linux-specific, but you should be able to use it for other unixes as well.
You do not necesserily have to compile in all components. I tried to structure this howto so that you can skip the parts you are not interested in.
The document is neither a user manual to Apache, SSL, PHP/FI nor frontpage. Its prime intention is to save webservice providers some headaches when installing their server and to do my little contribution to the linux community.
PHP is a scripting language that supports dynamic HTML pages. It is a bit like Apache's SSI, but by far more complex and has database modules for many popular dbs. The GD libraries are needed by PHP.
SSL is an implementation of Netscape's Secure Socket Layer that allow secure connections over insecure networks, e.g. to transmit credit card numbers to web based forms.
frontpage is a wysiwyg web authoring tool that makes use of some server-specific extensions called webbots. Some people think frontpage is cool because you can create feedback forms and discussion webs without having to know a bit about html or cgi. It even protects the designer from uploading his/her site via ftp by using a builtin publisher. If you wish to support frontpage but do not like to setup a windows server, the apache server extensions are your choice.
Though this document has been downloaded some 100 times since I published it, I received only little feedback. In particular, noone told me of other working combinations. Combinations that work for me are:
v0.0/Apr 98: Preview version
v1.0/Jun 98: Now using Apache 1.2.6, updated fp section, minor corrections
v1.1/Jul 98: Sgmlized and restructered version
You can find the latest version of this document at http://www.faure.de
You will need:
Get the sources you want. Untar apche, php, gd and ssl to
/usr/src. Untar the SSL patch to
cd to /usr/src/gd1.2 and type make. This will build the GD
libgd.a, that should be copied to
php-2.0.1 and run
The relevant questions are:
Would you like to compile PHP/FI as an Apache module? [yN] y Are you compiling for an Apache 1.1 or later server? [Yn] y Are you using Apache-Stronghold? [yN] y Does your Apache server support ELF dynamic loading? [yN] y Apache include directory (which has httpd.h)? [/usr/local/include/apache] /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src Would you like to build an ELF shared library? [yN] y Additional directories to search for .h files : /usr/src/gd1.2 Would you like the bundled regex library? [yN] n
Like the frontpage extensions, phtml includes a security problem because it is run under the uid of the webserver. Be sure to turn on safe mode in src/php.h and restrict the search path to a save value. There are some other options in php.h you may want to edit. If you are very concerned about security, compile php as a cgi. However, this will be a performance loss and not as smart as the module version.
make to build all files. When the compilation is done,
/usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src Add a line
Module php_module mod_php.oto the end of
-lphp -lm -lgdbm -lgdto the
EXTRA_LIBSin the same file,
application/x-httpd-php phtmlto Apache's
AddType application/x-httpd-php .phtmlto Apache's
You may also want to add
that file so that a file index.phtml is automatically loaded when its
directory is requested.
cd /usr/src/SSL-0.8.0; ./Configure linux-elf; make; make rehash
This will create libraries needed by apache. You may issue
to verify the compilation.
You have to apply a patch to apache. It is important that you apply it
before the frontpage patch, otherwise frontpage will not work.
/usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src and issue
patch < /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/SSLpatch.
Module proxy_module is disabled otherwise Apache won't
compile. If you are in need of a proxy, go for Squid
make certificate to generate
fp30.linux.tar.Z file to
otherwise the install script will not find it. Run
to copy the extension files to
/usr/local/frontpage. zcat can
usually be invoked as /usr/bin/zcat.
You now have to apply the FP patch.
/usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src and type
patch < /usr/src/frontpage/version3.0/apache-fp/fp-patch-apache_1.2.5
This will create the
mod_frontpage.* files and do some modifications
Configuration etc. The 1.2.5 patch will work with both
apache 1.2.5 and 1.2.6. Skip the part about installing webs, you can do
The modules I use besides SSL, PHP and frontpage are:
Module env_module mod_env.o Module config_log_module mod_log_config.o Module mime_module mod_mime.o Module negotiation_module mod_negotiation.o Module dir_module mod_dir.o Module cgi_module mod_cgi.o Module asis_module mod_asis.o Module imap_module mod_imap.o Module action_module mod_actions.o Module alias_module mod_alias.o Module rewrite_module mod_rewrite.o Module access_module mod_access.o Module auth_module mod_auth.o Module anon_auth_module mod_auth_anon.o Module digest_module mod_digest.o Module expires_module mod_expires.o Module headers_module mod_headers.o Module browser_module mod_browser.o
If you are an ISP (you probably are when you read this) you will
want to improve security. The suexec utility allows you to do so; it will
execute cgi's under the UID of the webowner instead of executing it
under the webservers UID.
chmod 4711 suxec and copy it to the location specified in
../src/httpd.h which is
by default. If the path seems a little cryptic to you - it did to me - edit
httpd.h and set the path to a more comfortable value.
/usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src and edit
Configuration to set all the Modules you want to include in your
Apache daemon. When done, run
make. This is
the last (and most complicated) compilation step, so cross your fingers. If it
cp httpsd to
/usr/sbin. The daemon is somewhat
big, consider this when assembling your webserver. Create the directory
/var/httpd with subdirectories
to suit your needs and copy them to
mime.types. Copy the
make certificate to
/var/httpd/conf. Use the
ServerType standalone Port 80 Listen 80 Listen 443 User wwwrun Group wwwrun ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org ServerRoot /var/httpd ErrorLog logs/error_log TransferLog logs/access_log PidFile logs/httpd.pid ServerName www.yourhost.com MinSpareServers 3 MaxSpareServers 20 StartServers 3 SSLCACertificatePath /var/httpd/conf SSLCACertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem SSLCertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem SSLLogFile /var/httpd/logs/ssl.log <VirtualHost www.virt1.com> SSLDisable ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot /var/httpd/virt1 ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/httpd/virt1/cgi-bin/ ServerName www.virt1.com ErrorLog logs/virt1-error.log TransferLog logs/virt1-access.log User virt1admin Group users </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost www.virt1.com:443> ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org DocumentRoot /var/httpd/virt1 ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/httpd/virt1/cgi-bin/ ServerName www.virt1.com ErrorLog logs/virt1-ssl-error.log TransferLog logs/virt1-ssl-access.log User virt1admin Group users SSLCACertificatePath /var/httpd/conf SSLCACertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem SSLCertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem SSLLogFile /var/httpd/logs/virt1-ssl.log SSLVerifyClient 0 SSLFakeBasicAuth </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost www.virt2.com> SSLDisable ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot /var/httpd/virt2 ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/httpd/virt2/cgi-bin/ ServerName www.virt2.com ErrorLog logs/virt2-error.log TransferLog logs/virt2-access.log </VirtualHost>
Depending on the modules compiled in, not all directives may be available.
You can retrieve a list of available directives with
/usr/local/frontpage/version3.0/bin and load
apache-fp. The next
questions should be answered the following way:
Enter server config filename: /var/httpd/conf/httpd.conf Enter host name for multi-hosting : www.virt2.com Starting install, port: www.virt2.com:80, web: "" Enter user's name : virt2admin Enter user's password: Confirm password: Creating root web Recalculate links for root web Install completed.
The user name must be the unix login of the webowner. The password does not
necessarily have to match the system password.
You have to manually add
/usr/local/frontpage/www.virt2.com:80.conf, otherwise your users
will not be able to send web-generated eMails.
kill -HUP your
httpsd to make fp reread its config. You can
www.virt2.com with your frontpage client.
Under some circumstances
fpsrvadm complaints that a root web has
to be installed first. This is pretty useless, but you should do so to silence
Start Apache with
httpsd -f /var/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. You can
www.virt1.com both through http and https which is pretty
cool. Of course you have to pay for a real certificate if you want to offer
webwide SSL or users might laugh at you.
Copy one of the demo files from the php examples directory to
to test phtml.
Do not use frontpage 97 extensions. They do not work, at least under
Linux. When installing specific versions of the c++ libraries, they
appear to work but your logs will soon fill with
premature end of script
headers and your mailbox will fill with complaints.
Do not use frontpage 98 extensions before version 126.96.36.1990. Do not be
confused, version numbers are somewhat inheterogenous. When telnetting
to port 80, typing "get / http/1.0" and hitting return twice, you get a
version number 3.0.4 for frontpage.
You can find out the more specific version
number by executing
Older versions have a nasty bug that requires httpd.conf to be writable
by the gid of the webserver. This should make you scream if you are at all
concerned about security.
Versions since 188.8.131.520 are more usable.
Recalculate Links in the frontpage client, the server
starts a process that consumes 99% cpu cycles and some 10 mb of memory. But
even for medium-sized webs and fast machines, the client sometimes recieves
a timeout message, though the calculation will be finished correctly. Inform
frontpage users to be patient and not to hit
several times. Inform yourself to equip the server with at least 64MB.
Please note that at the time of writing both SSL and frontpage work, but not at the same time, that means you can neither publish your web using ssl nor make use of the webbots through https. You can publish your web on port 80 and access it encrypted on port 443, but your counters etc. will be broken. I consider this a bug. This problem shall be fixed in SSL 0.9.0.
For those who think the title of this howto is nearly as long as the document: Did you ever listened to Meat Loaf?
O.K. readers, you're done for today. Feel free to send me your feedback, eternal gratitude, flowers, ecash, cars, oil sources etc.