Law Enforcement Toolkit
Community and Police Training Manuals for DV, Rape and Sexual Assault
Further information: RAINN 1.202.544.0227 or 1.800.656.HOPE (4673)
See also: Communication with rape victims
"This guide analyzes the progress of the past two decades in the response to sexual assault cases by law enforcement agents, prosecutors and emergency medical care providers. Looking Back also speaks to the development of rape crisis centers and other victim services that concentrate on meeting the needs of the victim."
"The Need for a Comprehensive
These agencies and their roles are depicted in a figure contained in the above mentioned report (National Victim Center, 1992). This figure identifies roles for five types of agencies/disciplines in responding to sexual assaults:
As the figure indicates, victims who report rapes to law enforcement will likely have contact with medical and victim service professionals as well as law enforcement. If an arrest is made, prosecution professionals become involved. If there is a conviction, then corrections becomes involved. The NVC report strongly advocates establishing community sexual assault interagency councils with representatives from these areas. The report also suggests these interagency councils should negotiate a multiagency protocol specifying how sexual assault cases should be handled.
Even though establishing an interagency council is difficult and may be impractical in some communities, the importance of cooperation cannot be overemphasized. Law enforcement is critically important, but law enforcement cannot succeed without the assistance and support of other agencies." National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center
"A learning center for the advancement of new thinking, practices and strategies to prevent violence against women and girls."
Rape of College Students,
COPS, March 2002, NCJ 195868. (61 pages).
"Rape is the
most common violent crime on American
Guides for Police series is very much a
"Domestic violence training is now available for law enforcement officers, the public and private business professionals through the National Institute of Crime Prevention."
"P.T.I. is a consulting firm that specializes in training seminars, curriculum development and a myriad of public relations functions on the issues of violence against women and children and workplace violence."
"Sisters, Mothers, Daughters is a half hour documentary that commemorates the lives of two women and one teenager murdered by their husbands or boyfriends. Currently in use by law enforcement agencies, domestic violence agencies and several branches of the US military, the documentary is accompanied by a leadership guide for use in training and classrooms."
"This four video set comes with a manual and sample domestic violence report. Although, they were primarily created for law enforcement, they are designed to "stand alone" without a live presenter and can be used in the training of prosecutors, probation, judges, victim services personnel, volunteers, dispatchers, medical personnel, educators, etc."
"Sergeant Anne O'Dell (Retired) is a twenty year veteran of the San Diego Police Dept., who now trains nationally and internationally on Domestic Violence and related issues."
"SATI, Inc. training is essential for criminal justice professionals, including police, prosecutors, judges, probation and parole officers. Community-based advocates, social workers, military personnel, state victim/witness assistance employees, sexual assault forensic examiners and other medical staff will also greatly benefit by obtaining a clear understanding of the role of law enforcement and how collaborative efforts can improve coordinated community responses to crimes of sexual violence. "
"Still useful, informative and practical after ten years, this manual provides basic domestic violence education for law enforcement officers and highlights key elements of a model policy for a police response to domestic violence. "
"This program offers a unique opportunity for a participating jurisdiction to decide on, plan, and implement a community-policing response to violence against women...."
"This section contains resources that may be helpful to trainers and organizations that are looking for already published violence prevention training manuals, curricula and teaching resources to assist them with violence prevention training."
"NCVLI's Center for Law and Public Policy on Sexual Violence (CLPPS) was established in 2003 as an outgrowth of the Violence Against Women Project...legal resources for lawyers, prosecutors, judges, law enforcement, legislators, policy analysts, advocates and researchers working to end sexual violence."
"Domestic Violence: The Law Enforcement Response is a comprehensive training package for first responders produced by the Law Enforcement Resource Center (LERC), 612-872-8284 in Minneapolis, and the Duluth National Training Project (NTP), 218-722-2781. It includes four video tapes that accompany a detailed instructors manual. The training has 18 modules which can be covered in one or two days. Agencies can either purchase the training tapes and manual and use it on their own or they can contact the Duluth National Training Project for trainers to come to their community and teach the course."
"FTSI and PTSI offer more than 75 courses at this time. Please check this site frequently for updates or sign up for our email newsletter to automatically be notified when we add courses that may be of interest to you."
"A model that effectively addressed the many needs of the judicial system, the treatment providers, and the offender and his or her family."
"Accept the fact that you are a potential rape victim. Many women operate under the illusion 'it will never happen to me.' It may."
Violence Against Women: Synthesis of Research for Law Enforcement Officials, NIJ-Sponsored, 9/2003, NCJ 198372. (36 pages).
Find documents on Improving the Community Response to Sexual Assault Victims at the website for the National Criminal Justice Reference Service website.
Law Enforcement Management and Administrative manuals.
"A study exploring the nature of both positive and negative survivor-police experiences from the perspective of rape crisis counselors and ED advocates."
"The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) provides videos and other resources designed to inform and assist victim service providers and allied professionals in their efforts to respond to crime victims."
"The researchers considered whether the type of interview (personal or telephone) and the presence of another person (particularly a spouse) influenced or "gagged" the reporting of rape and domestic violence in the NCVS. It is hypothesized that the inclusion of such yes/no questions would more easily allow victims to report rape or domestic violence incidents in telephone interviews, even with spouses present in the home during the interview."
Behavior to expect from rape victims
"The study examined the effects of reporting and arrest on the repeat of assaults against intimate partners... The analysis suggests that police involvement has a strong deterrent effect while the effect of arrest is small and statistically insignificant."
Domestic Violence Policy: Exploring Impacts on Informing Police, Arresting the Offender, and Deterring Domestic Violence, Final Report, NIJ-Sponsored, 10/2002, NCJ 196854.
Lesson plans for classroom awareness raising
"Rape and violence against women in the aftermath of humanitarian disasters is no new problem. Internationally, rape in refugee situations has become quite common. According to the Human Rights Watch document “Sexual Violence Against Refugees: Guidelines on Prevention and Response”, there are several causes or circumstances which allow sexual attacks to take place"
Toolkit to End Violence Against Women, OVW, 2004. NCJ 206041.
Meeting the Needs of Underserved Victims Video and Guidebook, OVC, 2005. NCJ 195656.
Phone numbers for information:
Further information on rape crisis information, incest abuse, hotlines or counseling: RAINN 1.800.656.HOPE (4673)
For medical information call the Santa Monica-UCLA Medical Center at 1-800-END-RAPE (1-800-363-7273) or (310) 319-4000
For information on therapy (rape trauma syndrome, DID, OCD or self injury) call the NMHA at 1.800.969.6642, the APA at 1.800.964.2000 or (for the UK) 0845.766.0163
A site dedicated to developing specific ways of sharing services and criminal justice information on a global scale. The World Criminal Justice Library Network was formed at a meeting of librarians and criminal justice information specialists in April, 1991, at the Rutgers School of Criminal Justice. There is also a discussion list.
The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD) preserves and distributes computerized crime and justice data from Federal agencies, state agencies, and investigator initiated research projects to users for secondary statistical analysis. Search terms: victimization, National Crime Victimization Survey. This site has some very interesting information and articles.
The Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center (OVCRC) is your information clearinghouse for emerging victim issues. This site has a database of abstracts as well as victim services directory.
Research reports on violence against women from the National Institute of Justice.
Lawlink provides quick access to important legal information from the American Bar Association and other resources. Each site is selected and evaluated by a member of the ABA's Legal Technology Resource Center staff.
Books, videos and cassettes on psychology and understanding trauma.
Under archive of decisions select "by topic" 1990- present. Click the criminal law link and then add the search term "sexual assault" in the text box.
Criminal justice responses to sexual assault from Australia
This project involves the collection and analysis of information on the underreporting and 'hidden' recording of sexual assault within national and cross-national perspectives; promotion and implementation of research on sexual assault against women; and the identification of the rate of recidivism amongst sexual assault offenders and their key characteristics. The project is funded by the Office for Women (previously the Office of the Status of Women).
Sexual Assault injuries (nonfatal) in the US per 100,000 people totaled 73,834 for 2003. Of these 67,085 were women and 6,749 were men. 10,259 for every 100,000 women died as a result of violence in the US in 2002 while 39,418 males died as a result of general violence in 2002.
This database allows you to find the number of injuries or deaths per year by cause or intent. It also allows you to limit the criteria in a variety of ways for each search.
Daane, Diane M. (1991). Rape intervention. In: Crisis intervention in criminal justice/social service. Hendricks, James E.; Springfield, IL, England: Charles C Thomas, Publisher. pp. 147-177. [Original Chapter]
(from the chapter) rape crisis interveners can be anyone who has contact with a rape victim immediately after the rape / typical interveners in rape cases include police officers, ambulance attendants, nurses, physicians, hospital chaplains, and social workers / the intervener must understand the typical responses of victims and their families to the rape crisis / the intervener must also know how to provide information and support to help the victim draw upon her own coping skills for bringing about a recovery definition of rape / myths / victim reaction to rape / crisis intervention with the rape victim / family and mate response and intervention / reporting rape to the police / the rape victim and the criminal justice system (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)
Advocating for Women in the Criminal Justice System
in Cases of Rape, Domestic Violence
and Child Abuse
Other topics of interest:
police and rape victims, police treatment of rape victims, law enforcement and rape victims, law enforcement and rape survivors, police and rape survivors, reporting rape to police, reporting rape to law enforcement
National Victim Center (1993). Looking back, moving forward: A guidebook for communities responding to sexual assault. Washington, DC: Sponsored by the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice.