- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
related PTSD from The New York City Alliance Against Sexual Assault, originally from NCVC
Information about PTSD
(posttraumatic stress disorder) or RTS (rape trauma syndrome) information
from the National Center for Victims of Crime.
The four major symptoms
of Rape-related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder are:
the trauma (Rape victims may experience uncontrollable intrusive
thoughts about the rape)
- Social withdrawal
- Avoidance behaviors
(a general tendency to avoid any thoughts, feelings, or cues which
could bring up the catastrophic and most traumatizing elements
of the rape)
- Irritability, hostility,
rage and anger
Also listed by The
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as:
"PTSD symptoms in...
- Intrusion (re-experiencing
of the trauma, including nightmares, flashbacks, recurrent thoughts)
- Avoidance (avoiding trauma-related
stimuli, social withdrawal, emotional numbing)
- Hyperarousal (increased
emotional arousal, exaggerated startle response, irritability)"
One helpful coping
tactic is to carry a small notebook with you and write down where
you parked your car, phone numbers and names (especially emergency
Assault against Females from
The National Center for PTSD
A summary of the effects
Recommended treatments from The National Center for PTSD and from
for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders at MGH:
There are a number
of effective medications available to treat the symptoms of PTSD,
including antidepressants and some newer anti-anxiety or mood-stabilizing
medications. Many individuals with PTSD do well with treatment that
includes both psychotherapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral
therapy (CBT), including prolonged exposure (PE), Cognitive Processing
Therapy (CPT), and Skills Training in Affect and Interpersonal Regulation
(STAIR) is effective for many patients with PTSD and involve working
closely with a therapist to systematically process the traumatic
event, identify and modify negative thoughts that interfere with
recovery from the trauma, and learn to face situations or feelings
associated with the trauma. In addition, CBT helps individuals learn
skills for managing difficult emotions and overcoming difficulties
in interpersonal relationships.
is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? from
Disorder, or PTSD, is a psychiatric disorder that can occur following
the experience or witnessing of life-threatening events such as
military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious
accidents, or violent personal assaults like rape.
is PTSD? from NIMH
Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure
to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred
or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include
violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents,
or military combat.
is PTSD? from NCPTSD
The National Center
for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was created within the
Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989, in response to a Congressional
mandate to address the needs of veterans with military-related PTSD.
Its mission was, and remains: To advance the clinical care and social
welfare of America's veterans through research, education, and training
in the science, diagnosis, and treatment of PTSD and stress-related
disorders. This website is provided as an educational resource concerning
PTSD and other enduring consequences of traumatic stress.
The above site is not designed for rape victims but if you enter
the term rape in the search engine it has articles relating to rape
in women and assault victims from NCPTSD
"The most widely
studied psychological consequence of sexual assault is Posttraumatic
Stress Disorder (PTSD)."
Related links: Flashbacks,
and PTSD, PTSD
and communication, Communication
with rape victims
information on ptsd and rape trauma syndrome click here.
Hensley, L. (2002). Treatment
for Survivors of Rape: Issues and Interventions. Journal of
Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 24.
Seritan, A., (2005). Hysteria
and the Mind-Brain Connection. Psychiatric Times, 52 (13), 41-42.
Schnurr PP. Friedman MJ.
Bernardy NC. (2002). Research on posttraumatic stress disorder:
epidemiology, pathophysiology, and assessment. Journal of Clinical
Norman, Judith. (2000). CONSTRUCTIVE
NARRATIVE IN ARRESTING THE IMPACT OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.
By: Clinical Social Work Journal. 28 (3). p303-319, 17p. link
Does writing reduce
posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms? Deters, Pamela B.; Range,
Lillian M.; Violence and Victims, Vol 18(5), Oct 2003. pp. 569-580.
Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant,
Richard A.; Gordon, . (2003). Evian Processing angry and neutral
faces in post-traumatic stress disorder: An event-related potentials
study. Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research.
14(5). pp. 777-780. link
Use of drawing technique
to encourage verbalization in adult survivor of sexual abuse. Lev-Wiesel,
Rachel; Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol 25(4), 1998. pp. 257-262. link
Bibliography: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
you like to add a resource on PTSD and rape trauma?