News Division Continuing Education Course

The Era of Digital News Libraries:
Practical Applications



  1. Draw a MAP. (of current photo workflow)
  2. Develop or review your Collection Policy Statement.
  3. Identify your long term Image Management Goals.
  4. Identify what you like or don't like about your current setup.
  5. Do a System Design Plan. (what equipment pieces will connect to what?)
  6. Identify the Operators . (who fixes it when it's broke?)
  7. Map the New Workflow. (who does what to whom when?)
  8. Plan the Architecture. (what WAS that folder called and on WHICH file server ?)
  9. Develop System Standards. (naming conventions for equipment, passwords, etc.)
  10. Schedule the Training. (avoid "I don't know HOW to DO that.")


Managing an effective digital image Archiving requires:

  1. The ability to work with batches of photos (with no need for concern over the number in the batch).
  2. The ability to search, select, and retrieve thumbnail images quickly.
  3. The ability to search specific fields (such as photographer name) connected by AND / OR / NOT plus proximity of words within the record.
  4. The ability to view simultaneously on the screen:
    - a contact sheet of at least 12 thumbnails,
    - the image and it's record of text information.
  5. The ability to zoom into a larger image while being able to edit the text of the image record.
  6. The ability to update one record and then apply that same update information to several following records.
  7. The ability to Cut & Paste from captions to keyword field.
  8. The ability to save searches.
  9. The ability to update the database as a background task.
  10. The ability to compact and backup the database as background tasks.
  11. Thesaurus capabilities built into the keyword list. ( If you look for a photo of "brook" and I look for a photo of a "stream" we'll both end up with the same group of photos.)
  12. The ability to move photos about while keeping them in a compressed format until output.

M.J.Crowley, Information Editor
The Star-Ledger, 201-877-1710


The Associated Press, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10020
(212) 621-1720 Contact: Randy Anmuth-Simpson (609) 860-6900
Product: Seamless interface to LEAF picture desk. Can be used across a MAC Ethernet. Includes data record with IPTC compatibility. New Database search engine is PLS
Currently selling "level 3" 3.5 will include NewsLinks for multi-media over WWW. Level 4 will drop the Leaf Desk (1st quarter 1996).

Applied Graphics Technologies, 1580 Emerson St., Rochester, NY 14606
Contact: Kevin McVea (716) 277-1760
Product: Windows-based seamless interface to Kodak PhotoCD scans. Captured image is written to CDs for permanent storage. Allows I/O of RGB TIFF. Supports IPTC record data. Database search engine is SQL Server.

Digital Technologies International, 500 West 1200 South, Orem, Utah 84058
Contact: Tim Clawson (801)-226-2984
Product: Macintosh-based client with UNIX server handling photos, graphics, display ads and editorial ASCCI text. Developing page image display. Supports IPTC data record. Database search engine is Sybase SQL or Conquest
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: EPSF; TIFF; JPEG; PICT; Illustrator, Freehand, Quark

T/One Inc. , Batterymarch Park I , Quincy, MA 02169
Contact: Dave Tenebaum (617) 328-6645
Product: MAC or Windows clients ; Windows NT Advance file server; interfaces to AP LEAF. Supports IPTC data record. CD-ROM jukebox for hi-res storage or RAID array storage. Has assignment tracking function (TRAX database). Has Robowrap. Database search engine is FOXPRO. Expects to take text.

Systems Research & Applications Corp., 000 15th St. North, Arlington, VA 22201
Contact: Anirudh Kulkarni 703-803-1883
Product: MAC system (Windows 95 and Power MAC will be available in 95) with graphics capability. Single to 30 simultaneous users. Database engine doesn't matter, can be sybase. Natural language searching. Handles over 1 million images.

VU/TEXT Library Services, Suite 1010, 2005 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
Contact: Joe DiMarino (215) 587-4404
Product: Current version is a MAC based image browser which allows viewing of thumbnail images in folders and database searching of Apple Search database. Version due at end of 1996 will have MAC, Windows and WWW clients on new integration with SAVE.
Drag and drop to various applications. Current database search engine is PLS, integrated search engine will be Fulcrum.

Harris Publishing Systems, P.O. Box 8700, Melbourne, FL 32902
Contact: Russ Latch (407) 242-5330
Product: MAC , windows & Sun clients. SPARC file server. Supports IPTC data record. Writes to Raid array or to Optical.; will be adding CD-ROM juke box.

Imaging Database Applications, 10019 Howell Dr., Upper Marlboro, MD 20772
Contact: Tony Buttrick (301) 627-5212
Product: Robust multimedia client-server. Supports Mac, UNIX, DOS, Windows NT. Database engine is Media. Handles ascci text, images and graphics.

Cascade Systems, 1 Carpet Drive, Andover, MA 01810
Contact: Bill Hayes (508) 794-8000
Product: Networked SPARC file server and PC or MAC clients using Adobe Acrobat Reader. Database search engine is Muscat (probabilistic) Supports IPTC

EDS, 1251 Avenue of the Americas, 41st Floor, New York, NY 10020
Contact: (212) 403-6019
Product: Windows95 clients (MAC under development running a search engine by Conquest; also a search capability that runs under Netscape browser. Object-oriented (rather than relational) database that runs on Silicon Graphics workstation.

Gannett Media Technologies, Inc. , 151 W. 4th Suite 201, Cincinnati, OH 45202
Contact: Mike Tucker (513) 665-3777
Product: Mac-based client on UNIX server (being developed for Windows 3.1) It accepts text from Quark pages plus ATEX copy as well. Photos can be imported from LEAF through "Photoweb" into MAC Ethernet network. Use "Frontier" software for automatic scripting. System can also store RIP image of Quark pages and related story text. Database search engine developed by Digital Collections.

Nexis-Lexis, P.O. Box 933, Dayton, OH 45401
Contact: Betsy Ashton (800) 227-9597 x1819
Product: Windows-based system, also has MAC client. Does both text and images (no full page display). Supports IPTC data. Database search engine is Folio Views.

Software Construction Company, 4350 Georgetown Square, Suite 717
Contact: Mike Evans (770) 457-7661
Product: Mac or windows clients robust and scaleable client server database system that is compatible with any ODBC level 2 database system. 1st version runs under Microsoft SQL server. Has automatic insertion for data from MAC or windows NT workstation.
(will accept ANY file format including sound and moving pictures)

Auto-Grafica, 58A Hobart Street, Hackensack, New Jersey 07601
Contact: (201) 343-8585
Product: SD Page Box, SD Browser are IMB PC or MS- windows 3.1 compatible. Storage capacity 50,000, unlimited with removable optical media.

Stauffer Media Systems, Box 1330, Joplin, MO 64802-1330
Contact: Mike Foreman (417) 782-0280
Product: Archiving for text & photos with DOS or MAC clients. Writes to Optical disk drive. (No full page display) Database search engine is Baseview.

Thunderstone Software, 11115 Edgewater Dr. Cleveland, OH 44102 Contact: Bart Richards (216) 631-8544
Product: MAC or Windows clients, can have WWW Browser interface with HTML documents. Database is Texis with Metamorph intelligent search engine. Has on/off thesaurus.


Adobe Systems Inc. Box 7900, Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 (415) 962-2616
Product: Mac platform, Maximum images per catalog is 250,000. Multimedia files. Automatic update. $295 for multi-user.

Image Concepts Inc. , 33 Boston Post Rd. West, Marlboro MA. 01752-1867
Contact: Cliff Nickerson (508)-481-6882
Product: MAC and Windows clients with UNIX server. SUN, HP, IBM customized system. Proprietary search engine and database. Synonym - thesaurus with fielded Boolean archive. No limit on catalog size. Scanned images, video automatically updated. Do not now support IPTC . Single user $5,000. $20,000 for 5 simultaneous users
Can interface to PhotoCD or Optical for permanent storage. (August / Sept. release)
FILE FORMATS: handles 36 different file formats.

Advance Imaging Concepts Inc. , 301 North Harrison St., Suite 266, Princeton, NJ 08540-3512
Contact: (908) 274-1877
Product: Windows platform. No limit on catalog size. Automatic update.
$1400 for starter unit.

Imspace Systems Corp., 2665 Ariane Dr., Suite 207, San Diego, CA 92117-3422
Contact: (619) 272-2600
Product: Mac and Windows. 64,000 image limit. Multi-user with automatic update.

Multi-Ad Services Inc., 1720 W. Detweiller Dr. , Peoria, IL 61615-1695
Contact: (309) 692-1530
Product: MAC platform. Maximum catalog is 160,000. Multi-user with automatic update. $249.
Imaging Database Applications, 10019 Howell Dr., Upper Marlboro, MD 20772
Contact: Tony Buttrick (301) 627-5212
Product: Thumbsup Medium-sized MAC based client-server system also Windows 3.1 Catalogs and indexes still photography, video, graphic image files. Database engine is 4D


NewsCom Contact: (800) 601-NEWS
2801 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1050
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Search, view and download multiple items simultaneously. Vendor of AFP; Federal News Service; Los Angeles Times syndicate; New York Times News service; Solo Syndication; UPI Photos. Adding WWW delivery by summer 1996.

Media Link (PressLink) Contact: (703) 758-1740
11800 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 22091-5302
Vendor of several archives including: AFP, Allsport, Bettman, Knight-Ridder Tribune, ABC-TV and many others. Has WWW delivery (

Publishers Depot Contact: Vic Clough (703) 312-6210
Picture Network International
2000 15th St. North
Arlington, VA 22201
Natural language searching of stock photo databases. Includes fonts, clipart and some royalty free photos. Adding contents such as sound, music and video clips.
Has WWW delivery ( Best with Netscape browser.

Wieck Photo Service Contact: Tim Roberts (214) 416-3686
P.O. Box 59408 (after Oct 24,1994)
Dallas, TX 75229
Vendor of Travel photos; New York Times Pix; Free pix; Newhouse Pix, AFP; EMPICS photos and others using BBS software. No charge for thumbnail viewing.

Compiled by M.J.Crowley and David Cole. Updated 6/1/96
NOTE: This is in no way a comprehensive list of image archiving vendors. It does represent those vendors who have been active in the publishing marketplace.
For a more complete list of small systems see: "The Cure for Image Disorder" by Stephen Muller. PUBLISH ; pp66+, March 1995 ; see also "Finding the Perfect Imaging Solution" by Lee Mantelman. IMAGING; p62+, April 1995 VOl.4, No.1. )

Image Archiving

Below is the text of a speech delivered by Rande Anmuth Simson on June 9, 1996 as a member of an Image archiving panel at SLA during a CE course titled: The Era of Digital News Libraries: Practical Applications.

Rande Anmuth Simpson began working for the Associated Press in 1983 as a photo editor in New York. She later transferred to the Washington AP bureau as a photo editor, covering a wide variety of assignments including domestic and international Presidential trips, political conventions and Olympics. In 1990 she climbed on the AP technology bandwagon. Rande was part of the original group who traveled the country teaching editors and pre-press staff how to use the AP LeafDesk and later the AP Preserver archive. Rande is currently the Sales Support Manager in the Technology Department.

Good afternoon.

The Preserver archive was originally designed by Leaf Systems to compliment the AP Leaf Picturedesk. At that time the archive was designed to be seamlessly accessed by the Picturedesk. The archive actually was part of the Leafnet Lan. User training on the archive was fairly simple since most editorial staffs were already familiar with the same interface used for the AP Leafdesk. The first archive was installed in 1992 in Phoenix Arizona.

Today, thanks to the input of our users, the archive is a more mature and stabile product and is installed or scheduled to be installed in over 50 sites around the world. Including newspapers, television stations, photo agencies and government agencies.The archive still can compliment the AP Leafdesk with seamless access from the Leaflan, but with the move to non-proprietary lans and hardware, the archive now sits on any network as well. And can be accessed from Macs and PCs not connected to the Leaflan.

In the past year, we have updated the original software to include an off-the-shelf optical driver and we moved from a non-standard 3 part file to a standard single format for storing images. Graphic files are stored in their native formats and views are displayed for graphics in the Preserver.

In our most recent release of the AP archive we have made some major changes. One was to add the Personal Library Software database which brings full text searching capability as well as relevance ranking on hits, fuzzy term searching and related term searching. PLS also provides us with links to other PLS text databases. We feel PLS has an easier to use and faster search engine than the relational database that Informix provided the archive.

Another development was to make the Archive a Web server. This enables us to use Netscape as client software to compliment the Picture desk software which is still available. Netscape is truly cross-platform and can be used on Macs, PCs, Sun or IBM unix clients via Intranet and Internet.. We chose to use an HTML browser because of the programming possibilities with Java Script and its easy to use interface. Netscape provides the AP Preserver archive with yet another familiar interface which requires minimal training for the newspaper staffs to use.

We have consolidated hardware choices for our system to the latest, fastest and less expensive RS6000 PowerPC cpus, which resulted in a price reduction for the archive.

A most exciting development is a cooperation between AP and DataTimes to link the Preserver with EyeQPublisher, a text archive. This combination will allow users to search text, graphics and images from a single Netscape client. Rather than re-invent the wheel AP decided to rely on a text vendor to handle the text end of the archive. Oklahoma City will be our beta site for the combined text and image archives. I'm sure Carol Campbell will be happy to keep you all informed of developments on that end.

One of our Preserver sites, the Minneapolis Star-Tribune, developed a photo assignment tracking database which compliments the Preserver. Assignment information is parsed into the appropriate fields when the image enters the archive, saving some of the indexing work. The AP and the Minneapolis Star-Tribune have decided to make this assignment module available to other newspapers with Preservers and those without as well.

Our future plans for the archive include integration with the AP server picture desk and true support for multimedia. We are watching developments with Digital Video Disk as an optional storage media.

Digital Dictionary

Digitally Speaking….

And if the following isn't enough techno-bable for the overloaded brain try:

analog: a method of data storage and transmission by a continuous stream of information in varying intensity. Analog is the traditional transmission method of voice as well as of computer data.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A code for exchanging information between data processing systems and peripherals.
Autokan: a high resolution input/output device used to create half-tones for film or paper
AIFF: a digital audio format. WAV and AIFF are among the most popular choices for both PC/Windows and Macintosh users. In general, it may be easier to play "WAV" files on a PC and "AIFF" files on Macs..
backbone network: a network to which several, usually smaller networks are attached. The smaller networks typically serve departmental work groups and may be located on separate floors of a building with a vertical backbone network spanning the floors.
bandwidth: a measure of a communication medium's capacity to transmit information. Technically, it is the difference, expressed in hertz, between the highest and lowest frequencies that the medium can transmit.
BBS: Bulletin Board System. A communication system using modems for sending, storing and retrieving messages via computer.
binary: a code representing decimal numbers which makes use of exactly two distinct characters, usually 0 and 1.
bit: the smallest unit of computerized information. In computer binary language, this is the simple on-and-off code.
bridge: a device that connects two or more physically separate LAN's, effectively converting them into one logical network.
browser: (In photo terms) a piece of software which allows the user to look at thumbnails of images, or view image files easily regardless of location or format.
(In Internet terms) usually refers to Netscape or other World Wide Web viewing software which allow users to see images and graphics as well as text.
buffer: an area of memory that's used to hold data enroute to somewhere else.
A print buffer holds data as it travels between your computer and the printer output.
bus: a common channel / pathway between hardware devices either internally between components in a computer, or externally between workstations in a network.
byte: a unit of measurement ( 8 bits ) used to rate storage capacity of disks; For convenience : 1,000 bytes is a kilobyte; a million bytes is a megabyte; 1 billion bytes is a gigabyte, a trillion bytes is a terabyte.
cache: An area of internal memory (RAM) set aside in a server, between disk
storage and CPU, to hold data that a client is expected to request again.
CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory. A disc for storage of digital data. Data can be image, text or audio or other digital formats.
CCD: Charged Coupled Device. A photo-sensitive chip used in video cameras and scanners. One chip can record all three colors or black and white.
client: a LAN node that requests services from another network node. Client nodes are often called "workstations" to distinguish them from servers.
CMYK: abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black printer). The subtractive primaries or process colors used in color printing.
color separation process: a process that takes a color image and prepares it for printing by the creation of printing plates using one each of the four color process cyan magenta yellow and black (CMYK).
communication server: a network node that serves as a gateway to external computer systems and networks. Such a server may be configured with modems, bisynchronous communications adapter, or other components.
compression: a mathematical interpretation or algorithm of an image. An algorithm is created to condense images by not saving all the bytes and bits.
Compression (making files smaller) is achieved by software or hardware (compression boards) or both.
CPU: (central processing unit) the "brain" of the computer that interprets instructions.
cropping: shaping or editing the photograph. This is an artistic judgment which trims the image to fill available space.
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube. A common name for a computer terminal display.
DAT: Digital Audiotape, a type of tape often used for network or server backup.
daisy chain: a form of bus topology in which LAN nodes are cabled to one after another after another…..
densitometer: an instrument used to measure density on paper (reflection) or used to measure coverage of exposed film (transmission).
digital: method of data storage and transmission, in which each code is given a combination of bits. Each bit indicates the presence of absence of a condition (on-off, yes-no)
digitize: to convert, via scanner, photographic or other graphic images to a series of binary codes which can be processed by a computer.
Digital Paper: a form of optical storage
disc: usually refers to optical storage medium; see disk
disk: (usually refers to magnetic storage) A coated platter for storing programs and data files. The main types are floppy or hard disks.
dodge and burn: a printing term for making portions of a picture darker or lighter.
dots per inch: the actual number of dots of ink contained in an inch of picture which is generated by the half-tone process. Digital images measure pixels per inch. The recommended pixels per inch is two times the accepted dots per inch to achieve the desired resolution.
DPI: a measure of resolution. see: dots per inch.
DVD: digital (video or virtual …they haven't decided) disc. THE next generation CD-ROM. Can store up to 8 gig of information.
electronic digital camera: a camera that uses no film or processing. The images as shot is digitized, stored on a disc or sent to a computer.
electronic picture desk: (also referred to as an electronic darkroom). this workstation receives, stores and manipulates electronic image files which can then be output to black and white or color processing/printing systems.
E-mail: Electronic mail.
emulation: Terminal emulation is a program that runs in a workstation that makes it look, to both the user and the host, like a specific type of data terminal.
EPS: (Encapsulated PostScript) An image file format licensed by Adobe. Many graphic file formats like Freehand are converted into EPS files for output.
erasable optical: (also called Magneto Optical) a form of optical storage - usually a disc - based on magnetic polarity.
Ethernet: LAN cabling and basic protocol standard. Supported by most computer suppliers.
file format: the way data is stored in a file; how pixels are arranged. EPS, TIFF and PICT are all file formats.
file server: A type of server that holds files in private and shared subdirectories for LAN users. See also server.
flat bed scanner: used to scan reflective art
floppy disk: a flexible magnetic disk used to record text or store programs. also called a diskette.
front-end editorial system: the word processing system used by reporters and editors for writing and editing stories. So-called because the it is in front of (before) the press and printing part of publishing.
gateway: A computer that connects subnets of different types. These subnets run different protocols and operating systems. Gateways can also provide access to mini and mainframe computers as well as to Hans (Wide Area Networks)
GIF: Graphic Interchange Format. Developed by Compuserve to allow different computer platforms to exchange images. GIF are smaller in k than the original native file format.
gigabyte: (GB or gig) a unit of measure of store data corresponding to 1,024 megabytes or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
GPIB: General Purpose Interface Bus allows different types of computers to interface. The Leaf desk only has one per server causing many "headaches".
GUI: (Graphical User Interface, pronounced "goo-ey") a program interface that uses graphical elements such as icons, dialog boxes and pull-down menus.
half-tone: the process that converts continuous tone into an image that can be printed by converting the contents to scaled dots.
half-tone photograph: an image which has been converted from a glossy image to a printable, ink-carrying format by means of breaking up the tonal values of the photograph into dots of varying sizes
hardware: the equipment that makes up a computer system, as opposed to the programming or instructions sets for the system (software).
header information: an encoded series of instructions at the beginning of a digital file that lets the computer know the specifics to follow.
high-resolution image: a digitized image which contains the greatest amount of pixels per inch. Glossy paper printing requires more pixels per inch for quality reproduction to a half-tone than do newspapers.
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language. A subset of the text markup language SGML which identifies author, title, paragraphs, subheads, etc. Used for creating documents for WWW display.
image setter: a device using a laser beam to output type, line drawings, photos, etc.
interface: usually refers to an electronic device that enables one piece of equipment to communicate with or control another.
intranet: In-house or inter-corporate use of popular Web browsers and Internet protocols to communicate, share files and view documents. (basically a LAN network)
JPEG: abbreviation for an image compression algorithm (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
LAN: Local Area Network. a method for connecting PCs so that they can share software, information and peripherals (printers, CD-readers etc.) Usually within a working group or within a building.
LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The laser is an intense light beam that can produce images by electronic impulses to a laser printing device.
layout: a drawing showing the typographic parts (ads, photos, text) in their proper positions.
megabyte: (MB) a unit of measure of store data corresponding to 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes.
network: a group or system of electronic components and connecting circuitry designated to function in a specific manner.
node: A point in a network that connects a workstation, server or any input/output peripheral. Also called a station
on line: connected to a computer and using its logic.
OPI server: Open Pre-press Interface server The collection server for all the page elements (in various file formats) needed to output a printed page. Output usually comes out as postscript.
optical scanner: a device that uses light to scan and convert text, graphics or other images into digitized data that can be read by a computer.
page description language: a program that allows rasterizing output devices such as laser printers and typesetters to output images that may include both text and graphics.
pagination: the process of laying out newspaper or magazine pages using
computer hardware and software.
PBX: Private Branch Exchange. Private switch equipment for telephone and data communications.
PDF: Portable Document Format. A compressed format for pages created from layout systems like Quark using Adobe products. Requires postcript output for formatting. Adobe Acrobat reads (displays) the files.
PICT: (Abbreviation for PICTURE) an image file format used by Apple Macintosh.
pixel: the smallest portion of a picture for which information is stored. Pixels are made up of bits.
pixels per inch / pixels per centimeter: resolution standard for digital images. In many newspapers, files may contain no fewer than 170 pixels per inch to achieve a high enough resolution desired for printing.
POP: Point of Presence. An electronic location for an Internet service provider.
postscript: Adobe page description language. Becoming a defacto output file format standard. GICL is another example of page description language.
PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol. A connection to an Internet service provider that allows your computer to be a real Internet host.
protocol: a set of rules governing various aspects of communication between network nodes. e.g. TCP/IP, 3COM, DECnet, IPX/SPX
RAID: Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A method of creating a fault tolerant storage system.
raster: the set of parallel horizontal scans reproduced many times per second to form an image.
raster image processor: (RIP) usually software in a device that takes pixels and turns them into dots for the printed image. The RIP prepares data for output on a raster image device such as a laser printer.
repeater: A device that amplifies and regenerates signals so they can travel farther on a cable. A buffered repeater also controls the flow of messages to prevent collisions.
resolution: the quality of the information measured in pixels per inch or pixels per centimeter for digital images.
RGB: Red, Green, Blue color format for most image files processed with Photoshop or other picture desk software.
RIP: see Raster Image Processor.
router: a computer in a large network that reads the destination of a message and selects the best route on the network.
server: (or File Server) Any computer on a network that makes files and communication services available to other network stations.
Scitext: probably the most-used color output system in U.S. newspaper publishing.
SLIP: Single Line Internet Protocol
SNA: System Network Architecture. A proprietary data communication model and network architecture from IBM.
SPOOL: Save Printing Operation On Line. A queue for print jobs waiting for access to an output device.
StarLAN: Ethernet derivative from AT&T.
station: A point in a network that connects a workstation, server or input/output device. Also called a node.
T1: a digital communication service offered by telecommunication companies.
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. A set of communication protocols developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to inter-network dissimilar systems. TCP controls the transfer of the data and the IP provides the routing mechanism.
TIFF: Tagged Image File Format. An image file format commonly use for photographs.
URL: Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a server or of a file on the World Wide Web.
WAN: Wide Area Network (usually refers to a PC network which reaches beyond a single building)
WORM: Write Once Read Many. A form of permanent optical disc storage.

Definitions adapted from: Newspapers & Technology 1992 Buyer's Guide; "Coming to Terms with Photo Jargon" by Mary Ann Skinner. News Library News, November 18, 1991; Networking for Dummies; and from 1996 McQueen and Associates, as well as M.J.'s own (can you tell which is which?) I don't guarantee any of them…..

6/9/1996 M.J.Crowley, The Star-Ledger

1996 News Division Program for the SLA Annual Conference
SLA News Division Home

Reformatted on 03/23/03
Jessica Baumgart