News Division Continuing Education Course
The Era of Digital News Libraries:
HOW DO YOU PLAN FOR ELECTRONIC ARCHIVING?
- Draw a MAP. (of current photo workflow)
- Develop or review your Collection Policy Statement.
- Identify your long term Image Management Goals.
- Identify what you like or don't like about your current
- Do a System Design Plan. (what equipment pieces will connect to what?)
- Identify the Operators . (who fixes it when
- Map the New Workflow. (who does what to whom
- Plan the Architecture. (what WAS that folder
called and on WHICH file server ?)
- Develop System Standards. (naming conventions
- Schedule the Training. (avoid "I don't know
HOW to DO that.")
NEEDS SPECIFIC TO IMAGE ARCHIVING
Managing an effective digital image Archiving requires:
- The ability to work with batches of photos (with no need for concern over the
number in the batch).
- The ability to search, select,
and retrieve thumbnail images quickly.
- The ability to search specific fields (such as photographer
name) connected by AND / OR / NOT plus proximity of words within
- The ability to view simultaneously on the screen:
- - a contact sheet of at least 12 thumbnails,
- - the image and it's record of text information.
- The ability to zoom into a larger image while being able to
edit the text of the image record.
- The ability to update one record and then apply that same update information to several following records.
- The ability to Cut & Paste from captions to keyword field.
- The ability to save searches.
- The ability to update the database as a background task.
- The ability to compact and backup the database as background
- Thesaurus capabilities built into the keyword list. ( If
you look for a photo of "brook" and I look for a photo
of a "stream" we'll both end up with the same group
- The ability to move photos about while keeping them in a
compressed format until output.
M.J.Crowley, Information Editor
The Star-Ledger, 201-877-1710
IMAGE ARCHIVE VENDOR LIST
The Associated Press, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10020
(212) 621-1720 Contact: Randy Anmuth-Simpson (609) 860-6900
Product: Seamless interface to LEAF picture desk. Can
be used across a MAC Ethernet. Includes data record with IPTC
compatibility. New Database search engine is PLS
Currently selling "level 3" 3.5 will include NewsLinks
for multi-media over WWW. Level 4 will drop the Leaf Desk (1st
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: EPS; JPEG TIFF; LEAF TIFF; PDF ; Illustrator;
DIGITAL LINK GATEWAY
Applied Graphics Technologies, 1580 Emerson St., Rochester, NY
Contact: Kevin McVea (716) 277-1760
Product: Windows-based seamless interface to Kodak PhotoCD
scans. Captured image is written to CDs for permanent storage.
Allows I/O of RGB TIFF. Supports IPTC record data. Database
search engine is SQL Server.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF; PhotoCD; AP TIFF; Reuters JPEG
IMAGE SPEED and JAVELIN
Digital Technologies International, 500 West 1200 South, Orem,
Contact: Tim Clawson (801)-226-2984
Product: Macintosh-based client with UNIX server handling
photos, graphics, display ads and editorial ASCCI text. Developing
page image display. Supports IPTC data record. Database search
engine is Sybase SQL or Conquest
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: EPSF; TIFF; JPEG; PICT; Illustrator, Freehand,
T/One Inc. , Batterymarch Park I , Quincy, MA 02169
Contact: Dave Tenebaum (617) 328-6645
Product: MAC or Windows clients ; Windows NT Advance file
server; interfaces to AP LEAF. Supports IPTC data record.
CD-ROM jukebox for hi-res storage or RAID array storage. Has
assignment tracking function (TRAX database). Has Robowrap. Database
search engine is FOXPRO. Expects to take text.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: EPS; JPEG TIFF; LEAF TIFF;
Systems Research & Applications Corp., 000 15th St. North,
Arlington, VA 22201
Contact: Anirudh Kulkarni 703-803-1883
Product: MAC system (Windows 95 and Power MAC will be
available in 95) with graphics capability. Single to 30 simultaneous
users. Database engine doesn't matter, can be sybase. Natural
language searching. Handles over 1 million images.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF, JPEG, PHOTOCD, PICT, CMYK.
PRESSLINK EXPLORER ARCHIVE
VU/TEXT Library Services, Suite 1010, 2005 Market Street, Philadelphia,
Contact: Joe DiMarino (215) 587-4404
Product: Current version is a MAC based image browser
which allows viewing of thumbnail images in folders and database
searching of Apple Search database. Version due at end of 1996
will have MAC, Windows and WWW clients on new integration with
Drag and drop to various applications. Current database search
engine is PLS, integrated search engine will be Fulcrum.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: EPS; JPEG; TIFF; LEAF TIFF; GIF
Harris Publishing Systems, P.O. Box 8700, Melbourne, FL 32902
Contact: Russ Latch (407) 242-5330
Product: MAC , windows & Sun clients. SPARC file server.
Supports IPTC data record. Writes to Raid array or to Optical.;
will be adding CD-ROM juke box.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF; JPEG and EPS.
TEXT AND IMAGE ARCHIVES
Imaging Database Applications, 10019 Howell Dr., Upper Marlboro,
Contact: Tony Buttrick (301) 627-5212
Product: Robust multimedia client-server. Supports Mac,
UNIX, DOS, Windows NT. Database engine is Media. Handles ascci
text, images and graphics.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF, Pict, JPEG, PhotoCD, EPS
Cascade Systems, 1 Carpet Drive, Andover, MA 01810
Contact: Bill Hayes (508) 794-8000
Product: Networked SPARC file server and PC or MAC clients
using Adobe Acrobat Reader. Database search engine is Muscat
(probabilistic) Supports IPTC
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: EPS; JPEG TIFF; LEAF TIFF
EDS, 1251 Avenue of the Americas, 41st Floor, New York, NY 10020
Contact: (212) 403-6019
Product: Windows95 clients (MAC under development running
a search engine by Conquest; also a search capability that runs
under Netscape browser. Object-oriented (rather than relational)
database that runs on Silicon Graphics workstation.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: JPEG, EPS, video
Gannett Media Technologies, Inc. , 151 W. 4th Suite 201, Cincinnati,
Contact: Mike Tucker (513) 665-3777
Product: Mac-based client on UNIX server (being developed
for Windows 3.1) It accepts text from Quark pages plus ATEX copy
as well. Photos can be imported from LEAF through "Photoweb"
into MAC Ethernet network. Use "Frontier" software
for automatic scripting. System can also store RIP image of Quark
pages and related story text. Database search engine developed
by Digital Collections.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: JPEG; QUARK
PHOTOVIEW / NEWSVIEW
Nexis-Lexis, P.O. Box 933, Dayton, OH 45401
Contact: Betsy Ashton (800) 227-9597 x1819
Product: Windows-based system, also has MAC client.
Does both text and images (no full page display). Supports IPTC
data. Database search engine is Folio Views.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF; JPEG; IMJPEG; AP TIFF; PHOTO
Software Construction Company, 4350 Georgetown Square, Suite 717
Contact: Mike Evans (770) 457-7661
Product: Mac or windows clients robust and scaleable client
server database system that is compatible with any ODBC level
2 database system. 1st version runs under Microsoft SQL server.
Has automatic insertion for data from MAC or windows NT workstation.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF, GIF, JPEG, PDF,EPS
(will accept ANY file format including sound and moving
Auto-Grafica, 58A Hobart Street, Hackensack, New Jersey 07601
Contact: (201) 343-8585
Product: SD Page Box, SD Browser are IMB PC or MS- windows
3.1 compatible. Storage capacity 50,000, unlimited with removable
FILE FORMATS: TIFF , JPEG and Targa
STAUFFER GOLD LIBRARY & PHOTO MANAGER
Stauffer Media Systems, Box 1330, Joplin, MO 64802-1330
Contact: Mike Foreman (417) 782-0280
Product: Archiving for text & photos with DOS or
MAC clients. Writes to Optical disk drive. (No full page display)
Database search engine is Baseview.
FILE FORMATS: TIFF, JEPG
Thunderstone Software, 11115 Edgewater Dr. Cleveland, OH 44102
Contact: Bart Richards
Product: MAC or Windows clients, can have WWW Browser
interface with HTML documents. Database is Texis with Metamorph
intelligent search engine. Has on/off thesaurus.
IMAGE FILE FORMATS: TIFF, GIF, JPEG, PDF,EPS
SMALLER ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
Adobe Systems Inc. Box 7900, Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 (415)
Product: Mac platform, Maximum images per catalog is
250,000. Multimedia files. Automatic update. $295 for multi-user.
Image Concepts Inc. , 33 Boston Post Rd. West, Marlboro MA. 01752-1867
Contact: Cliff Nickerson (508)-481-6882
Product: MAC and Windows clients with UNIX server. SUN,
HP, IBM customized system. Proprietary search engine and database.
Synonym - thesaurus with fielded Boolean archive. No limit on
catalog size. Scanned images, video automatically updated.
Do not now support IPTC . Single user $5,000. $20,000 for 5
Can interface to PhotoCD or Optical for permanent storage.
(August / Sept. release)
FILE FORMATS: handles 36 different file formats.
Advance Imaging Concepts Inc. , 301 North Harrison St., Suite
266, Princeton, NJ 08540-3512
Contact: (908) 274-1877
Product: Windows platform. No limit on catalog size.
$1400 for starter unit.
KUDO IMAGE BROWSER
Imspace Systems Corp., 2665 Ariane Dr., Suite 207, San Diego,
Contact: (619) 272-2600
Product: Mac and Windows. 64,000 image limit. Multi-user
with automatic update.
Multi-Ad Services Inc., 1720 W. Detweiller Dr. , Peoria, IL 61615-1695
Contact: (309) 692-1530
Product: MAC platform. Maximum catalog is 160,000. Multi-user
with automatic update. $249.
Imaging Database Applications, 10019 Howell Dr., Upper Marlboro,
Contact: Tony Buttrick (301) 627-5212
Product: Thumbsup Medium-sized MAC based client-server
system also Windows 3.1 Catalogs and indexes still photography,
video, graphic image files. Database engine is 4D
FILE FORMATS: PICT, JPEG;EPS
REMOTE DIAL-UP IMAGE PROVIDERS
NewsCom Contact: (800) 601-NEWS
2801 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1050
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Search, view and download multiple items simultaneously. Vendor
of AFP; Federal News Service; Los Angeles Times syndicate; New
York Times News service; Solo Syndication; UPI Photos. Adding
WWW delivery by summer 1996.
Media Link (PressLink) Contact: (703) 758-1740
11800 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 22091-5302
Vendor of several archives including: AFP, Allsport, Bettman,
Knight-Ridder Tribune, ABC-TV and many others. Has WWW delivery
Publishers Depot Contact: Vic
Clough (703) 312-6210
Picture Network International
2000 15th St. North
Arlington, VA 22201
Natural language searching of stock photo databases. Includes
fonts, clipart and some royalty free photos. Adding contents
such as sound, music and video clips.
Has WWW delivery (www.publishersdepot.com) Best with Netscape
Wieck Photo Service Contact: Tim Roberts
P.O. Box 59408 (after Oct 24,1994)
Dallas, TX 75229
Vendor of Travel photos; New York Times Pix; Free pix; Newhouse
Pix, AFP; EMPICS photos and others using BBS software. No charge
for thumbnail viewing.
Compiled by M.J.Crowley and David Cole. Updated 6/1/96
NOTE: This is in no way a comprehensive list of image archiving
vendors. It does represent those vendors who have been active
in the publishing marketplace.
For a more complete list of small systems see: "The Cure
for Image Disorder" by Stephen Muller. PUBLISH ; pp66+,
March 1995 ; see also "Finding the Perfect Imaging Solution"
by Lee Mantelman. IMAGING; p62+, April 1995 VOl.4, No.1. )
Below is the text of a speech delivered by Rande Anmuth Simson on June 9,
1996 as a member of an Image archiving panel at SLA during a CE course
titled: The Era of Digital News Libraries: Practical Applications.
Rande Anmuth Simpson began working for the Associated Press in 1983 as a
photo editor in New York. She later transferred to the Washington AP bureau
as a photo editor, covering a wide variety of assignments including domestic
and international Presidential trips, political conventions and Olympics. In
1990 she climbed on the AP technology bandwagon. Rande was part of the
original group who traveled the country teaching editors and pre-press staff
how to use the AP LeafDesk and later the AP Preserver archive. Rande is
currently the Sales Support Manager in the Technology Department.
The Preserver archive was originally designed by Leaf Systems to compliment
the AP Leaf Picturedesk. At that time the archive was designed to be
seamlessly accessed by the Picturedesk. The archive actually was part of the
Leafnet Lan. User training on the archive was fairly simple since most
editorial staffs were already familiar with the same interface used for the
AP Leafdesk. The first archive was installed in 1992 in Phoenix Arizona.
Today, thanks to the input of our users, the archive is a more mature and
stabile product and is installed or scheduled to be installed in over 50
sites around the world. Including newspapers, television stations, photo
agencies and government agencies.The archive still can compliment the AP
Leafdesk with seamless access from the Leaflan, but with the move to
non-proprietary lans and hardware, the archive now sits on any network as
well. And can be accessed from Macs and PCs not connected to the Leaflan.
In the past year, we have updated the original software to include an
off-the-shelf optical driver and we moved from a non-standard 3 part file to
a standard single format for storing images. Graphic files are stored in
their native formats and views are displayed for graphics in the Preserver.
In our most recent release of the AP archive we have made some major changes.
One was to add the Personal Library Software database which brings full text
searching capability as well as relevance ranking on hits, fuzzy term
searching and related term searching. PLS also provides us with links to
other PLS text databases. We feel PLS has an easier to use and faster search
engine than the relational database that Informix provided the archive.
Another development was to make the Archive a Web server. This enables us to
use Netscape as client software to compliment the Picture desk software which
is still available. Netscape is truly cross-platform and can be used on Macs,
PCs, Sun or IBM unix clients via Intranet and Internet.. We chose to use an
HTML browser because of the programming possibilities with Java Script and
its easy to use interface. Netscape provides the AP Preserver archive with
yet another familiar interface which requires minimal training for the
newspaper staffs to use.
We have consolidated hardware choices for our system to the latest, fastest
and less expensive RS6000 PowerPC cpus, which resulted in a price reduction
for the archive.
A most exciting development is a cooperation between AP and DataTimes to link
the Preserver with EyeQPublisher, a text archive. This combination will allow
users to search text, graphics and images from a single Netscape client.
Rather than re-invent the wheel AP decided to rely on a text vendor to handle
the text end of the archive. Oklahoma City will be our beta site for the
combined text and image archives. I'm sure Carol Campbell will be happy to
keep you all informed of developments on that end.
One of our Preserver sites, the Minneapolis Star-Tribune, developed a photo
assignment tracking database which compliments the Preserver. Assignment
information is parsed into the appropriate fields when the image enters the
archive, saving some of the indexing work. The AP and the Minneapolis
Star-Tribune have decided to make this assignment module available to other
newspapers with Preservers and those without as well.
Our future plans for the archive include integration with the AP server
picture desk and true support for multimedia. We are watching developments
with Digital Video Disk as an optional storage media.
And if the following isn't enough techno-bable for the overloaded
brain try: http://www.nww.com/netref/technobabble.html
analog: a method of data storage and transmission by a
continuous stream of information in varying intensity. Analog
is the traditional transmission method of voice as well as of
ANSI: American National Standards
ASCII: American Standard Code for
Information Interchange. A code for exchanging information
between data processing systems and peripherals.
Autokan: a high resolution input/output device used to
create half-tones for film or paper
AIFF: a digital audio format. WAV and AIFF
are among the most popular choices for both PC/Windows and Macintosh
users. In general, it may be easier to play "WAV" files
on a PC and "AIFF" files on Macs..
backbone network: a network to which several, usually smaller
networks are attached. The smaller networks typically serve departmental
work groups and may be located on separate floors of a building
with a vertical backbone network spanning the floors.
bandwidth: a measure of a communication medium's capacity
to transmit information. Technically, it is the difference, expressed
in hertz, between the highest and lowest frequencies that the
medium can transmit.
BBS: Bulletin Board System. A communication
system using modems for sending, storing and retrieving messages
binary: a code representing decimal numbers which makes
use of exactly two distinct characters, usually 0 and 1.
bit: the smallest unit of computerized information. In
computer binary language, this is the simple on-and-off code.
bridge: a device that connects two or more physically separate
LAN's, effectively converting them into one logical network.
browser: (In photo terms) a piece of software which
allows the user to look at thumbnails of images, or view image
files easily regardless of location or format.
(In Internet terms) usually refers to Netscape
or other World Wide Web viewing software which allow users to
see images and graphics as well as text.
buffer: an area of memory that's used to hold data enroute
to somewhere else.
A print buffer holds data as it travels between your computer
and the printer output.
bus: a common channel / pathway between hardware devices
either internally between components in a computer, or externally
between workstations in a network.
byte: a unit of measurement ( 8 bits ) used to rate storage
capacity of disks; For convenience : 1,000 bytes is a kilobyte;
a million bytes is a megabyte; 1 billion bytes is a gigabyte,
a trillion bytes is a terabyte.
cache: An area of internal memory (RAM) set aside in a
server, between disk
storage and CPU, to hold data that a client is expected to request
CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only
Memory. A disc for storage of digital data. Data can be
image, text or audio or other digital formats.
CCD: Charged Coupled Device. A photo-sensitive
chip used in video cameras and scanners. One chip can record all
three colors or black and white.
client: a LAN node that requests services from another
network node. Client nodes are often called "workstations"
to distinguish them from servers.
CMYK: abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow
and key (black printer). The subtractive primaries or process
colors used in color printing.
color separation process: a process that takes a color
image and prepares it for printing by the creation of printing
plates using one each of the four color process cyan magenta yellow
and black (CMYK).
communication server: a network node that serves as a
gateway to external computer systems and networks. Such a server
may be configured with modems, bisynchronous communications adapter,
or other components.
compression: a mathematical interpretation or algorithm
of an image. An algorithm is created to condense images by not
saving all the bytes and bits.
Compression (making files smaller) is achieved by software or
hardware (compression boards) or both.
CPU: (central processing unit) the "brain" of
the computer that interprets instructions.
cropping: shaping or editing the photograph. This is an
artistic judgment which trims the image to fill available space.
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube. A common name for a computer
DAT: Digital Audiotape, a type of tape
often used for network or server backup.
daisy chain: a form of bus topology in which LAN nodes
are cabled to one after another after another
densitometer: an instrument used to measure density on
paper (reflection) or used to measure coverage of exposed film
digital: method of data storage and transmission, in which
each code is given a combination of bits. Each bit indicates
the presence of absence of a condition (on-off, yes-no)
digitize: to convert, via scanner, photographic or other
graphic images to a series of binary codes which can be processed
by a computer.
Digital Paper: a form of optical storage
disc: usually refers to optical storage medium; see disk
disk: (usually refers to magnetic storage) A coated platter
for storing programs and data files. The main types are floppy
or hard disks.
dodge and burn: a printing term for making portions of
a picture darker or lighter.
dots per inch: the actual number of dots of ink contained
in an inch of picture which is generated by the half-tone process.
Digital images measure pixels per inch. The recommended pixels
per inch is two times the accepted dots per inch to achieve the
DPI: a measure of resolution. see: dots per inch.
DVD: digital (video or virtual
decided) disc. THE next generation CD-ROM. Can store up
to 8 gig of information.
electronic digital camera: a camera that uses no film or
processing. The images as shot is digitized, stored on a disc
or sent to a computer.
electronic picture desk: (also referred to as an electronic
darkroom). this workstation receives, stores and manipulates electronic
image files which can then be output to black and white or color
E-mail: Electronic mail.
emulation: Terminal emulation is a program that runs in
a workstation that makes it look, to both the user and the host,
like a specific type of data terminal.
EPS: (Encapsulated PostScript) An
image file format licensed by Adobe. Many graphic file formats
like Freehand are converted into EPS files for output.
erasable optical: (also called Magneto Optical) a form
of optical storage - usually a disc - based on magnetic polarity.
Ethernet: LAN cabling and basic protocol standard. Supported
by most computer suppliers.
file format: the way data is stored in a file; how pixels
are arranged. EPS, TIFF and PICT are all file formats.
file server: A type of server that holds files in private
and shared subdirectories for LAN users. See also server.
flat bed scanner: used to scan reflective art
floppy disk: a flexible magnetic disk used to record text
or store programs. also called a diskette.
front-end editorial system: the word processing system
used by reporters and editors for writing and editing stories.
So-called because the it is in front of (before) the press and
printing part of publishing.
gateway: A computer that connects subnets of different
types. These subnets run different protocols and operating systems.
Gateways can also provide access to mini and mainframe computers
as well as to Hans (Wide Area Networks)
GIF: Graphic Interchange Format. Developed
by Compuserve to allow different computer platforms to exchange
images. GIF are smaller in k than the original native file format.
gigabyte: (GB or gig) a unit of measure of store
data corresponding to 1,024 megabytes or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
GPIB: General Purpose Interface Bus
allows different types of computers to interface. The Leaf desk
only has one per server causing many "headaches".
GUI: (Graphical User Interface, pronounced
"goo-ey") a program interface that uses graphical
elements such as icons, dialog boxes and pull-down menus.
half-tone: the process that converts continuous tone into
an image that can be printed by converting the contents to scaled
half-tone photograph: an image which has been converted
from a glossy image to a printable, ink-carrying format by means
of breaking up the tonal values of the photograph into dots of
hardware: the equipment that makes up a computer system,
as opposed to the programming or instructions sets for the system
header information: an encoded series of instructions at
the beginning of a digital file that lets the computer know the
specifics to follow.
high-resolution image: a digitized image which contains
the greatest amount of pixels per inch. Glossy paper printing
requires more pixels per inch for quality reproduction to a half-tone
than do newspapers.
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language.
A subset of the text markup language SGML which identifies author,
title, paragraphs, subheads, etc. Used for creating documents
for WWW display.
image setter: a device using a laser beam to output type,
line drawings, photos, etc.
interface: usually refers to an electronic device that
enables one piece of equipment to communicate with or control
intranet: In-house or inter-corporate use of popular Web
browsers and Internet protocols to communicate, share files and
view documents. (basically a LAN network)
JPEG: abbreviation for an image compression algorithm (Joint
Photographic Experts Group)
LAN: Local Area Network. a method
for connecting PCs so that they can share software, information
and peripherals (printers, CD-readers etc.) Usually within a working
group or within a building.
LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation. The laser is an intense
light beam that can produce images by electronic impulses to a
laser printing device.
layout: a drawing showing the typographic parts (ads,
photos, text) in their proper positions.
megabyte: (MB) a unit of measure of store data corresponding
to 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes.
network: a group or system of electronic components and
connecting circuitry designated to function in a specific manner.
node: A point in a network that connects a workstation,
server or any input/output peripheral. Also called a station
on line: connected to a computer and using its logic.
OPI server: Open Pre-press Interface
server The collection server for all the page elements (in
various file formats) needed to output a printed page. Output
usually comes out as postscript.
optical scanner: a device that uses light to scan and
convert text, graphics or other images into digitized data that
can be read by a computer.
page description language: a program that allows rasterizing
output devices such as laser printers and typesetters to output
images that may include both text and graphics.
pagination: the process of laying out newspaper or magazine
computer hardware and software.
PBX: Private Branch Exchange. Private
switch equipment for telephone and data communications.
PDF: Portable Document Format. A compressed
format for pages created from layout systems like Quark using
Adobe products. Requires postcript output for formatting. Adobe
Acrobat reads (displays) the files.
PICT: (Abbreviation for PICTURE) an image file format used
by Apple Macintosh.
pixel: the smallest portion of a picture for which information
is stored. Pixels are made up of bits.
pixels per inch / pixels per centimeter: resolution standard
for digital images. In many newspapers, files may contain no fewer
than 170 pixels per inch to achieve a high enough resolution desired
POP: Point of Presence. An electronic location
for an Internet service provider.
postscript: Adobe page description language. Becoming
a defacto output file format standard. GICL is another example
of page description language.
PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol. A
connection to an Internet service provider that allows your computer
to be a real Internet host.
protocol: a set of rules governing various aspects of
communication between network nodes. e.g. TCP/IP, 3COM, DECnet,
RAID: Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.
A method of creating a fault tolerant storage system.
raster: the set of parallel horizontal scans reproduced
many times per second to form an image.
raster image processor: (RIP) usually software in a device
that takes pixels and turns them into dots for the printed image.
The RIP prepares data for output on a raster image device such
as a laser printer.
repeater: A device that amplifies and regenerates signals
so they can travel farther on a cable. A buffered repeater also
controls the flow of messages to prevent collisions.
resolution: the quality of the information measured in
pixels per inch or pixels per centimeter for digital images.
RGB: Red, Green, Blue color format
for most image files processed with Photoshop or other picture
RIP: see Raster Image Processor.
router: a computer in a large network that reads the destination
of a message and selects the best route on the network.
server: (or File Server) Any computer on a network that
makes files and communication services available to other network
Scitext: probably the most-used color output system in
U.S. newspaper publishing.
SLIP: Single Line Internet Protocol
SNA: System Network Architecture.
A proprietary data communication model and network architecture
SPOOL: Save Printing Operation On
Line. A queue for print jobs waiting for access to an output
StarLAN: Ethernet derivative from AT&T.
station: A point in a network that connects a workstation,
server or input/output device. Also called a node.
T1: a digital communication service offered by telecommunication
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol /
Internet Protocol. A set of communication protocols
developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to
inter-network dissimilar systems. TCP controls the transfer of
the data and the IP provides the routing mechanism.
TIFF: Tagged Image File Format.
An image file format commonly use for photographs.
URL: Uniform Resource Locator. The address
of a server or of a file on the World Wide Web.
WAN: Wide Area Network (usually
refers to a PC network which reaches beyond a single building)
WORM: Write Once Read Many.
A form of permanent optical disc storage.
Definitions adapted from: Newspapers & Technology 1992 Buyer's
Guide; "Coming to Terms with Photo Jargon" by Mary Ann
Skinner. News Library News, November 18, 1991; Networking for
Dummies; and from 1996 McQueen and Associates, as well as M.J.'s
own (can you tell which is which?) I don't guarantee any of
6/9/1996 M.J.Crowley, The Star-Ledger
1996 News Division Program for the SLA Annual Conference
SLA News Division Home
Reformatted on 03/23/03