PHOTO ARCHIVING TASK FORCE
KEY WORDS (ENHANCEMENT TERMS), AND PHOTO TYPE WORDS
FOR DIGITAL PHOTO ARCHIVES
Usage Guidelines and Alternatives
Rev. 1.1 JULY, 1995
AGRICULTURE - see also GARDEN, FARM, RANCH.
AIDS - the disease, not implements that assist. Use with DISEASE.
not air force; use MILITARY.
AIRCRAFT - use for helicopters, commercial airliners, bombers, spy planes, and inflatable transportation vehicles, such as weather balloons, the Goodyear blimp, etc. See also SATELLITE, SPACECRAFT.
ALCOHOL - see also BEVERAGE, WINE.
not alien; use IMMIGRANT, MIGRANT, REFUGEE, TRAVEL.
not amusement park; use ATTRACTION.
ANATOMY - see also BODY, NUDITY.
APPLIANCE - see also EQUIPMENT.
not archery; use ** in supplemental category field.
not archive; use LIBRARY or MUSEUM.
not army; use MILITARY.
not arms or armament; use WEAPON.
not arms control; use WEAPON and CONTROL.
ART - a photo of a painting, collage, etc.; see also SCULPTURE.
ASTRONOMY - includes asteroids, comets, galaxies, planets (except earth), stars, and other celestial objects. See also ECLIPSE, MOON, SUN.
ATHLETE - use to distinguish between persons with same or similar name.
ATTRACTION - A place or event to which a tourist might want to go.
AUDIO - use with EQUIPMENT for audio equipment.
AWARD - includes medal, trophy, certificate, honorary degree, national honor.
BABY - includes last trimester of pregnancy through age 2; Age 3 to teens use CHILD;
then TEENAGER or JUVENILE, as appropriate.
not ballet; use DANCE.
BALLOON - toy; use AIRCRAFT for inflatable air transportation vehicles and weather balloons.
not band; use MUSIC and GROUP.
BANK - includes depository, S&L, credit union, etc.
BAR - see also RESTAURANT.
not baseball; use BBA, BBN, BBO, or BBC in supplemental category field. See also COACH,
not basketball; use BKN, BKC, BKW, or BKO in supplemental category field.
BEAUTY - use with CONTEST for beauty contest.
BICYCLE - the vehicle; for bicycle racing use ** in supplemental category field.
not billboard; use SIGN.
not billiards; use ** in supplemental category field.
not blizzard; use SNOW and STORM.
BOAT - see also SHIP and YACHT.
BODY - see also ANATOMY, NUDITY.
not boxing; use BOX in supplemental category field.
not brandname; use LOGO.
not broadcasting; use RADIO or TELEVISION.
BUILDING - use as noun; CONSTRUCTION is used as the verb or activity.
CANAL - includes locks.
CARTOON - includes comics and comic books; see list of graphic types at end of this document.
CASINO - see also GAMBLING, RESORT.
CHILD - use for age 3 to teen age; then use ADOLESCENT or TEENAGER, as appropriate; use BABY for age 2 and younger.
CHURCH - see also MOSQUE and SYNAGOGUE.
CIRCUS - use with PERFORMANCE where appropriate. See also ATTRACTION, FAIR.
COACH - sports; not a vehicle.
not coal; use ENERGY, FUEL, or MINING.
COLD - temperature; not the illness.
COLLEGE - includes university.
not concentration camp; use WAR and PRISON.
not concert; use PERFORMANCE.
CONSERVATION - preservation or repair of objects or sites in nature; use RESTORATION when referring to human-made objects.
CONSTRUCTION - use as a verb or a reference to the activity; use BUILDING as a noun, referring to objects.
CONTEST - use as noun.
CONTROL - use with CROWD or DISEASE or POLLUTION, etc.
CONVENTION - use with POLITICS or BUSINESS or CHURCH, etc.
COURTSHIP - see also WEDDING and LOVE; could be used with ANIMAL or other terms as appropriate.
COWBOYS - includes cowgirls.
CRAFT - handicraft.
CROWD - a large group of people in one place. See also DEMONSTRATION, LOOTING,
CURRENCY - see also COIN.
DAIRY - see also FOOD, FRUIT, GRAIN, MEAT, POULTRY, VEGETABLE.
DAM - use LAKE or RIVER, as appropriate, for the body of water behind a dam.
DANCE - all types of dance, including ballroom or social dancing, ballet, folk dancing, tap dancing etc. Use with PERFORMANCE as appropriate. See also ENTERTAINER. not day care; use CHILD or BABY and CARE.
DEATH - use with ANNIVERSARY for event recalling a death or deaths on that date in previous year(s).
not defense industry; use MILITARY and INDUSTRY.
DEMONSTRATION - a group of people advocating an action or position; see also CROWD, RIOT, VIOLENCE.
not department store; use RETAIL and STORE.
not dinosaur; use EXTINCT and ANIMAL.
not disabled; use HANDICAPPED.
not diving; use SCUBA; use SWIMMING for recreational diving; for competition use ** in supplementary category field. See also SUBMARINE.
DRUG - refers to illegal activities; use MEDICINE for legal use of medications and other controlled substances.
EMBASSY - includes consulate, ministry, trade office, etc.
END - the final event, last time, closing, etc.
EQUIPMENT - use with MEDICAL for dental and medical devices. See also APPLIANCE.
EXCAVATION - use with ARCHAEOLOGY or BRIDGE or CONSTRUCTION, etc.
not exhibition; use SHOW.
EYE - see also GLASSES.
FAD - see also FASHION and HAIR.
FAMILY - see Special Uses/Refinements List at end of this document.
not famine; use HUNGER and DROUGHT.
FARM - see also AGRICULTURE, GARDEN, RANCH.
not field hockey; use HKO in supplemental category field.
FIRST - the beginning; first time; opening; unveiling.
not floor hockey; use HKO in supplemental category field.
FLOWER - see also PLANT
FOOD - in general use when more than 2 food groups are depicted. See also DAIRY, FRUIT, GRAIN, MEAT, POULTRY, VEGETABLE.
not football; use FBN, FBC, or FBO in supplemental category field.
FUNERAL - includes memorial service; use DEATH and ANNIVERSARY for event recalling a death or deaths on that date in previous year(s).
not gallery; use ART and MUSEUM or STORE.
GAME - competition; use ANIMAL for wild animals.
GARDEN - see also AGRICULTURE, FARM, RANCH.
GLASSES - includes contact lenses.
not golf; use GLF in supplemental category field.
GOVERNMENT - use with BUILDINGS or in connection with government-sponsored research, employees, etc. See also ELECTION, LEGISLATURE, POLITICS.
GRADUATION - don't use END with GRADUATION unless something other than that class' school years are ending.
GRAIN - list includes DAIRY, FOOD, FRUIT, MEAT, POULTRY, VEGETABLE.
GROCERY - for a bag or cart full of groceries, etc.; use with RETAIL for the store.
not gymnastics; use GYM in supplemental category field.
not hairstyling; use HAIR and FASHION.
not handgun; use WEAPON; see comment in ``Missing Word'' section of the accompanying notes.
HANDICAPPED - use instead of disabled.
not handicraft; use CRAFT.
not helicopter; use AIRCRAFT.
not highway; use ROAD.
not hockey; use HKN, HKC or HKO in supplemental category field.
not homicide; use MURDER.
not horse racing; use RAC in supplemental category field.
HOSPITAL - includes hospice; see also CLINIC, MEDICAL.
HOTEL - includes bed & breakfast, hostel, inn, lodge, motel.
HURRICANE - see also MONSOON, STORM, TORNADO, TYPHOON.
ICE - weather condition; includes ice cubes; for ice sculpture, use ICE and SCULPTURE.
not ice hockey; use HKN, HKC or HKO in supplemental category field.
IMMIGRANT - see also MIGRANT, REFUGEE.
INAUGURATION - for heads of state; use CEREMONY for other investitures.
not infant; use BABY; see definition at BABY.
INSTRUMENT - musical instrument; see also APPLIANCE, EQUIPMENT.
not jail; use PRISON.
JOGGING - use instead of running.
JUVENILE - people of teen age linked to illegal activities; use TEENAGER in other cases.
LABOR - for labor union use LABOR and ORGANIZATION.
LAKE - includes pond and reservoir.
LIBRARY - includes archive in some cases; see also MUSEUM.
LOGO - includes brand name and trade mark.
not machinery; use EQUIPMENT.
not mall; use SHOPPING and BUILDING.
MEAT - see also DAIRY, FOOD, FRUIT, GRAIN, POULTRY, VEGETABLE.
not medal; use AWARD.
MEDICINE - for prescription material; use DRUG for illegal activity.
MEMORIAL - a structure; includes monument and statue. Use FUNERAL for memorial services, or DEATH and ANNIVERSARY as appropriate.
MIGRANT - see also IMMIGRANT, REFUGEE.
MISSILE - weapon.
not mob; use CROWD, DEMONSTRATION, RIOT, LOOTING as appropriate.
MODEL - an object; not a person.
not money; use CURRENCY or COIN.
MONSOON - see also HURRICANE, STORM, TORNADO.
MOSQUE - see also CHURCH and SYNAGOGUE.
MUSEUM - includes archive in some cases; see LIBRARY.
not narcotic; use DRUG or MEDICINE as appropriate.
not navy; use MILITARY.
NUCLEAR - includes atomic.
OCEAN - includes salt water gulf.
not olympics; use OLY in supplemental category field.
not orchestra; use MUSIC and GROUP.
not pageant; use BEAUTY and CONTEST for beauty contest.
PAINTING - use as a verb; use ART for a photo of a painting.
not parachuting; use SKYDIVING.
PARK - use as a noun.
not physical fitness; use EXERCISE.
not planets; use ASTRONOMY or EARTH.
PLANT - living vegetation; not a BUILDING; see also TREE.
POOL - for swimming or wading; see also STADIUM.
POOR - people with few or no economic resources.
POSTOFFICE - see also STAMP.
POULTRY - see also DAIRY, FOOD, FRUIT, MEAT, GRAIN, VEGETABLE.
not poverty; use POOR.
PRISON - includes jail, boot camp correctional institutions, etc.
not prize; use AWARD.
not protest movement; use DEMONSTRATION.
RACE - see also ETHNIC.
RADIO - includes broadcasting.
RANCH - see also AGRICULTURE, FARMS, GARDEN.
REFUGEE - see also IMMIGRANT, MIGRANT.
not refuse; use GARBAGE or WASTE.
RELATED - see Special Uses/Refinements section at the end of this document.
RESCUE - see also SEARCH.
not reservoir; use LAKE.
RESORT - see also CASINO, GAMBLING, TRAVEL.
RESTORATION - refers to human-made objects; use CONSERVATION for preservation or repair of nature settings.
not reward; use AWARD.
RIOT - violent disorder or disturbance, usually accompanied by substantial personal injuries or deaths or property damage; see also CONTROL, CROWD, DEMONSTRATION, LOOTING, VIOLENCE.
ROAD - includes alley, street, highway, expressway.
ROBOT - includes robotics.
not rocket; use MISSILE or SPACECRAFT, as appropriate. See also AIRCRAFT.
not roller skating or roller blading; use ** in supplemental category field.
not rowing; use ** in supplemental category field.
not running; use RUN in supplemental category for the sport. See also JOGGING.
SATELLITE - a human-made device; not a celestial body.
SEARCH - see also RESCUE.
not securities & commodity exchange; use STOCK.
SHIP - see also BOAT, YACHT.
not shopping mall; use SHOPPING and BUILDING. See also RETAIL, STORE.
SHOW - an exhibition.
not shrub; use TREE; see also PLANT.
SIGN - includes billboard.
SKATING - recreational; for competition use ** in supplementary category field.
SKIING - recreational; for competition use SKI in supplementary category field.
SKYDIVING - includes parachuting.
SLED - includes sleigh; recreation and transportation; for competition use ** in supplementary category field.
not soccer; use SOC in supplemental category field.
not softball; use ** in supplemental category field.
SPACECRAFT - see also SATELLITE.
SPEAKING - see Special Uses/Refinements List at the end of this document.
STADIUM - any sports facility, except POOL.
STAMP - see also POSTOFFICE.
not star; use ASTRONOMY.
STOCK - any financial market, including stock market, commodity exchange, and options trading location.
STORE - a sales establishment; see also RETAIL.
STORM - see also MONSOON, TYPHOON, TORNADO.
not street; use ROAD.
SUBMARINE - includes diving bell and other underwater exploration vehicle, manned and unmanned; see also ROBOT.
SUBWAY - an underground passageway and vehicles that use it.
SWIMMING - recreational; includes recreational diving; for competition use ** in supplementary category field. See also SCUBA.
TEENAGER - in normal settings; use JUVENILE in connection with lawbreaking.
TELEVISION - includes broadcasting.
not tennis; use TEN in supplemental category field.
THEATER - use also BUILDING or PERFORMANCE, etc, as appropriate.
not tool; use EQUIPMENT.
TORTURE - see also EXECUTION.
not track (athletics); use RUN in supplemental category field.
not trademark; use LOGO.
not train; use RAILROAD or SUBWAY.
TREE - includes shrub; see also PLANT.
TRIP - see Special Uses/Refinements List at the end of this document.
TYPHOON - see also MONSOON, STORM, TORNADO.
not university; use COLLEGE.
VEGETABLE - see also FOOD, FRUIT, GRAIN, MEAT, POULTRY.
VOLLEYBALL - recreational; for competition use ** in supplementary category field.
WEDDING - see also COURTSHIP and LOVE.
not weightlifting; use ** in supplementary category field.
not wrestling; use ** in supplemental category field.
YACHT - see also BOAT, SHIP.
These enhancement terms are used to describe the photo itself or the way it was made, not its content.
MUG - photo that can be cropped to a good head shot.
PORTRAIT - formal photo
DRAWING - a scene.
SPECIAL USES / REFINEMENTS
These enhancement terms are used to sharpen a search where there are many photos of the subject, such as a president, dictator, pope, actor, legislative leader, or leading sports figure.
FAMILY - photos with his/her family
PERFORMANCE - when the subject is making a public performance.
RELATED - photos in which the subject is not included: the subject's dog, car, house, papers, etc.
SPEAKING - includes making a public statement or sermon.
TRIP - when the subject travels away from his/her customary surroundings for more than one day;
excludes campaign trips.
VALID ENTRIES IN SPECIAL CATEGORY FIELD.
This list contains terms currently used (June, 1995) by the Associated Press, as well as certain sports for which special category terms have not yet been assigned. Not all of these terms will be used by Tribune newspapers. They are listed as reference.
ADV - Advance
APN - APNewsFeatures
ENT - Entertainment
FEA - Feature pictures of a non-news nature
MAP - Map or graphic
WEA - Weather
OBIT - Obituary
FILE - File photo
HFR - Hold for Release (embargoed for same-day release)
NAT - National Geographic weekly package
SPF - Special Features weekly package
SPCL - Specials
PM - PM cycle
CVN - National political conventions
ELN - Election campaigns
XGR - State Legislatures
BBA - Professional baseball - American League
BBN - Professional baseball - National League
BBO - Professional baseball - minor league or related to neither league
BBC - College baseball
BKN - NBA basketball
BKC - Men's college basketball
BKW - Women's college basketball
BKO - Other basketball including high school and semi-pro
BOX - Boxing
CAR - Racing (car, speedboat, motorcycle)
FBN - NFL Football
FBC - College football
FBO - Other football including high school and semi-pro
GLF - Golf
GYM - Gymnastics
HKN - NHL hockey
HKC - College hockey
HKO - Other hockey including high school and minor league; includes field hockey and floor hockey.
OLY - Olympics
RAC - Racing (animals)
RUN - Track and Field
SKI - Skiing
SOC - Soccer
TEN - Tennis
Sports for which terms have not been assigned:
- Bicycle racing
- Roller skating
- Roller blading
- Ice skating
- Swimming and diving
Enhancement Terms (Keywords) for Electronic Photo Archiving
1998 SLA News Division Preliminary Program
SLA News Division Home