Pramanas The means of valid knowledge
According to Visistadvaita, for a knowledge to be valid it should
fulfill two conditions.
- It should reveal things as they are.
- It should serve a practical need.
Pramana signifies the means of arriving
at prama (vaild knowledge).
Visistadvaita admits three pramanas
- Pratyaksa Perception
- Anumana Inference
- Sabda Verbal testimony
Other schools of thought admit more or less than three pramanas.
- Mimaamsakas as well as Advaitins regard upamAna (Comparison), arthApatti (presumption) and anupalabdhi (non-apprehension) as additional pramanas.
- Carvakas regard Pratyaksa (perception) as the only valid pramana
- Buddhists regard Pratyaksa (perception) and Anumana (inference) as the only pramanas and deny authority to Sabda (Verbal testimony).