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adiyEn will attempt tosummarize the essence of NyAya SiddhAnjanam .
adiyEn thanks SrImAn Krishna Kalale (Kousik)for preseting me a book based
on the Ph.D Thesis of Dr.Melkote Embar RangAchar on Swamy Desikan's NyAya
SiddhAnjanam. The various information points are drawn from there for
ready reference. Additional works of Great VaishNavite scholars will be
referred to understand the complex subject matter of an esoteric nature.
Please permit me to introduce the concepts covered by NYAya SiddhAnjanam
with the comments from two scholars, who wrote the PrasthAvana (
Introductory comments) for this monograph of Dr.M.E.RangAcchAr Swamy .
Foreword by Swamy HarshAnandhA :
** " The exposition of AasthikA (VaidhikA) Systems of Philosophy like
VedAntha requires two things:
1) proving that its basic tenets are based on the primary authority of ,
Viz., the VedAs (including the Upanishads and the Bhagavad GitA )
2) Logically defending it from the attack of rival schools.
Treatises of this type are called PrakaraNa granthAs.
The NyAya parisuddhi and NyAya SiddhAnjana of VedAntha Desika are two
works of this type. They are complimentary to each other. If the former
deals with the PramANAs (valid means of knowledge) , the latter deals with
the pramEyAs : what is to be known (about) the ultimate truths like God,
Soul and Nature (Isvara, Jeevan and Prakruthi).
The NyAya darsana (NyAya Philosophy) of Sage Gautama is an excellent work
on Indian Logic. Its knowledge is of fundamental importance to all systems
of Indian philosophy. VedAntha DesikA's view is that the work -- NyAya
SoothrAs-- gives not only the details of the PramANAs but also of the
PramEyAs , which are very near to the ones given in VisishtAdvaitha
philosophy . Boldly differing from the traditional commentators of the
NyAya SoothrAs , VedAntha Desikan has given his own intrepretation ,
bringing that (NyAya)system much nearer to VisishtAdhvaitha VedAntha. "
---From the preface of Swami Harshanandha of RamakrishNA Mutt, Bangalore
for Dr. RangAcchAr's monograph on NyAya SiddhAnjanam ( His Ph.D Thesis).
MahAmahOpAdhyAya N.S. RaamAnuja TaatAchaarya Swamy , Former Vice
Chancellor of RaashtrIya Samskrutha VidhyApeetA, Thiruppathi has given a
brilliant and succinct introduction for this book in Sanskrit. Here are
some excerpts to serve as background before we get into details on the
subject matter of NyAya SiddhAnjana:
" VatsyAyana , the great commentator of NyAya Darsana founded by Sage
Gautama , in the beginning (of his work) said that the entire substances
of the universe can be included under the four categories (i.e)., PramANam
( the valid source of knowledge) , PramEyam ( objects of knowledge),
PramAta (the agent) and Pramiti (valid knowledge). In the absence of any
one of them (the four) , knowledge becomes impossible . PramAta (agent) is
one who acts being instigated (stimulated) by desire or abandoning
the(that) desire. An Object that is known is PramEyam. The knowledge of
an object is Pramiti. The means of knowing is PramANam. He (VatsyAyana)
told that these things are very useful in the day-to-day transactions. The
great sages and AchAryAs , who wrote SoothrAs, BhAshyAs and VaartikAs
wrote them on the basis of these four concepts.
Among these four, PramAna and PramEyA are very important concepts. NyAya
and VaisEshikA (systems) took birth to give us the correct knowledge about
them . Without PramANa , there can not be PramEyA and vice-versa .
Therefore , if one is intrepreted , the other too needs intrepretation.
In this regard, the philosophy of NYAya founded by Gautama deals mainly
with PramANAs , whereas VaisEshikA school founded by KaNAda deals with
PramEyas. Apart from these two schools of philosophy , other schools like
Saankya , Yoga, MeemAmsa and VedAntA also were born. They are orthodox
systems (Vaidhika Darsanams). All these systems discuss PramANAs and
PramEyAs. The systems of ChaarvAka , Buddha and Jaina are heterodox
systems (Veda Baahya darsanams) . All of these systems discuss PramANAs
Number of the means of knowledge and their definition and their purpose ,
like that , the number of PramEyAs , their definition and the purpose of
their knowledge are delineated in their respective philosophies. But in
every respect , we can not expect agreement. On the other hand , we see
differences of opinion. To establish their respective philosophies , it
becomes their (Darsana SthApakar's) duty to refute (KaNDanam) other
In this juncture, it becomes necessary to decide with discretion , the
position of VisishtAdvaitha regarding PramANAs and PramEyAs.Having this in
mind , SrI NigamAntha MahA Desikan composed two great works, (i.e)., NyAya
parisuddhi and NyAya SiddhAnjana , which are pearls among great works.
In NyAya Parisuddhi , PramANAs are discussedin detail and PramEyAs are
introduced in concised form. Desika wrote NyAya SiddhAnjana separately to
explain PramEyAs in detail. This was stated by AchArya Desika himself in
the beginning of NyAya SiddhAnjana .(He went on to explain the reasons
behind the choice of the name of NyAya SiddhAnajna): PaDalA is a type of
eye-disease. Under its influence , one can not perceive things properly
(vision is impaired). If an ointment (anjanam) is applied , a person
infected with PaDAla can also see things clearly. In the same way , if a
person of erroneous knowledge applies a collyrium prepared(presented) in
this work , he will see the truths of VedAs in their proper perspective .
This is stated in the invocatory stanza (MangaLa slOkam) itself:
BaalAnAm athivElamOha paDalAbashtambhaseedhadhrusaam
samyaktha Tatthava nirIkshaNAya tanuthE sattharka SiddhAnjanam
In this way , NyAya SiddhAnjanam is radiant with attractive yukthis . A
person who masters this work (prakaraNa grantham) with maning and without
omitting a single letter becomes capable of understanding PramEyAs without
doubt or erroneous knowledge. This is the experience of erudite scholars
The Six Chapters of NyAya SiddhAnjana
Rare and extraordinary insights are given in this grantham , which is
divided in to the following six chapters :
1.Jada dhravya ParicchEdham
4.Nithya VibhUthi ParicchEdahm
SrI RaamAnuja TatAchArya Swamy points out the four unique aspects of NyAya
SiddhAnjanam of Swamy Desikan :
A. ProuDa gambhIra Parimitha vachA: (Immensely majestic word filled SrI
B. Yukthi-pramAna GarbhA: ( Housing brilliant Yukthis and PramANams)
C. mathAnthara vivEchana poorvakam PramEya nishkarsha: ( refuting the
pramEyams of other --avaidhika and Veda Virudhda -- Mathams
D. Sakala sankA nirAsa Poorvakam ( Removal of all doubts about pramEyAs).
Such is the power of this SrI Sookthi of Swamy Desikan !