paramata bhangam

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paramata bhangam




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Introductory  Comments on this Tamil Prabhandham
This is a very important Prabhandham derived from
a very famous debate of Swamy  Desikan with leaders of 
other Mathams in front of Lord DevanAthan on the banks of 
PeNNai river . Swamy Desikan defeated all his challengers and
firmly established the Supermacy of VisishtAdhvaitham
over 15 other SiddhAnthams . Lord DevanAthan was
very pleased at the accomplishment of His dear devotee
and blessed him profusely .

The avathAram of Para Matha Bhngam
After this historic debate , Swamy  Desikan composed
the major MaNipravALa SrI Sookthi named "PARA MATHA
BHANGAM " to summarize the content of his debate
with the people of Para Mathams ( other SiddhAnthams) .

There are 24 chapters in that SrI Sookthi/Rahasyam .
Swamy Desikan took the first and the last paasurams of these
24 chapters that were in chaste TamiL and strung  them
together as a garland along with 6 more special Paasurams 
to create the FOURTH Desika Prabhandham with the same 
name of "PARA MATHA BHANGAM " . There are thus 
54 Tamil Paasurams in this Fourth Desika Prabhandham .

The Original SrI Sookthi in MaNipravALam
The original  MaNipravALa Version of "Para Matha Bhangam "
is an intellectual achievement of the highest magnitude. Abhinava
Desikan , Vaikunta Vaasi , SrI UttamUr  Swamy has blessed us
with a commentary for this MaNipravALa version entitled
"AnapAya PrabhA ". It has 1168 pages of commentary .
Erudition to grasp the fine points of this grantham is beyond
the capabilities of many of us . Only a very few AchAryAs
can help us understand atleast a small portion of this extraordinary
creation of Swamy Desikan.

The SrI Sookthis of Swamy  Desikan such as Tatthva Muktha KalApam ,
Satha DhUshaNi , SarvArTa Siddhi , MeemAmsa PadhukA ,
The Five RakshA granthams have material  related to  Para Matha
Bhangam. It will take many lives and SadAchArya KatAksham
to get even  a glimpse of the deep doctrines covered by Swamy  
Desikan in the original SrI Sookthi of Para Matha Bhangam .

For our benefit , Swamy  Desikan has assembled the 54 Tamil Paasurams
of the original SrI Sookthi to realize the Fourth Desika Prabhandham
named Para Matha Bhangam . That Tamil Prabhandham will be
the subject of the subsequent postings for the next few days.
Please bear with adiyEn's  incompetence to summarize them .

Swamy  Desikan's Prayer to Lord DevanAthan
The original MaNipravALa Version starts with the prayer of
Swamy Desikan to Lord DEvanAthan , who was waiting eagerly 
on the banks of PeNNai River during one of His Uthsavam to witness
this debate between His intimate devotee and the challengers
from the other Mathams. The prayer of Swamy  Desikan 
to Lord DevanAthan at the beginning of this debate is  :

" apaayAsthu tama: pumsAm anapAya prabhAnvitha:
  AhIndhranagarE nithyam udhithOayam ahaskara: "

Word by Word Meaning
anapAya PrabhA anvitha :  = the Lord with never leaving lustre
(prabhA) of SrI HemAbhja Naayaki 

AhIndhra NagarE = at His dhivya dEsam of AhIndhrapuram

nithyam = always

udhitha: = rising 

ayam = this Lord , the origin of this SrI Sookthi

Ahaskara: =  is shining as the radiant Sun

PumsAm Tama: nithyam apAsyathu = May He banish
the darkness (tamas) of nescience and viparItha Jn~Anam of
the chEthanams !

( Integrated Meaning ):  Lord DEvanAthan with the unique
lakshaNam of His eternal Prabhai of SrI HemAbhja
Naayaki  . Her is always resplendent as the rising Sun.
May this Lord of Thiruvaheendhrapuram chase away all
the spirtual darkness of people with His matchless lustre!

This prayer is linkable to the command of Manu in His Smruthi
according to Sri UtthamUr Swamy :

" yaa vEda-bAhyaa: smruthayO yaasccha kaasccha kudhrushtaya:
  SarvasthA: nishphalA: prEthya tamOnishtA hi taa: smruthA:"

Para Mathams are born due to the influence of TamO guNam 
and are rooted in that guNam . The prayer to the ishta dhaivam of 
Swamy  Desikan is to remove the Tamo GuNam of people through
study of the SrI Sookthi born out of Lord DEvanAthan's grace .
Paraphrasing Manu , the First Law giver , Swamy  Desikan 
condemns the Veda BAhya and Kudhrushti Mathams as 
nishphalam ( fruitless) and prays to the Lord to banish 
the TamO GuNam   that stands in the way of the ChEthanams 
to adopt the Vedam-prescribed UpAyam of SaraNAgathy 
to gain freedom from the cycles of Births and Deaths 
in the SamsAric world (Moksham ).  

The Scope of Para Matha Bhangam
Swamy  Desikan was a Master of all Darsanams . He was
one of the greatest scholars of all times to understand the faulty
assumptions and conclusions of Veda Baahya Mathams and
Kudrushti Mathams . He was also a Master of the tenets of
SrI VisishtAdhvaitham as developed by Rishis like
VyAsa-ParAsara-Parankusa and PoorvAchAryAs
like Swamy  Nathamuni, EmperumAnAr and other AchAryas
like NadathUr AmmAL and AathrEya RaamAnujar  (His own

Swamy  Desikan used his immense scholarship to provide
the logic-based critique about the deficiencies and pitfalls of  
15 other Mathams(SaarvAkam , Four kinds of Bhouddha Matham ,
Jainam , Adhvaitham , BhAskara-Yaadhava Matham , VyAkaraNa 
Matham , KaNAtha Matham , Gouthama Matham , MeemAmsaka 
Matham , Saankhya Matham , Yoga and Paasupatha Mathams ) 
and established the unassailable superiority of VisishtAdhvaitha
SiddhAntham .

Swamy  Desikan created the major MaNipravALa commentary
as his critique of all the other SiddhAnthams and to establish
the glories of  VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham over all of
them . There are 24 chapters in the MaNipravALa Rahasyam
known as "Para Matha Bhangam ".

These 24 chapters of Paramatha Bhangam are:

1.PrasthAvanAdhikAram ( The chapter serving as
an Introduction / Preface to this Sri Sookthi )

2. Jeeva TatthvAdhikAram (Sentient Tatthvam)
3. Achith TattvAdhikAram (insentient Tatthvam)
4. Para TatthvAdhikAram (Iswara Tatthvam) 

Chapters 2, 3 and 4 deal with the Tatthva Thrayams of
ChEthanam , achEthanam and Iswaran .

5. SamudhAya DhOshAdhikAram

This chapter deals with the defects /blemishes (dhOshams)
common to all (samudhAya dhOshams) of the Para Mathams

6. LokAyadhika BhangAdhikAram /SaarvAka Matham critique
7. MadhyAmika BhangAdhikAram/ criticism of MaadhyAdhmikam
8. YogAchAra BhangAdhikAram/Criticism of YogAchAram
9. SouuthrAndhika BhangAdhikAram
10. VaibhAshika BhangAhikAram
11. Prachanna BHouddha BhangAdhikAram
12. Jaina BhangAdhikAram
13. BhAskara-Yaadhava BnagAdhikAram
14. VyAkaraNa BhangAdhikAram
15. VaisEshika BhangAdhikAram
16. Goudhama(NyAya) BhangAdhikAram
17. NirIswara MemAmsA BhangAdhikAram
18. NeerIswara Saankhya NirAkaraNAdhikAram
19. Yoga SiddhAntha BhangAdhikAram/Criticism of Yoga Matham
20. Paasupatha BhashikArAdhikAram

The above 15 chapters (  6-20 ) serve as the criticism of
the specific dhOshams of  each of the above 15 Para Mathams .

21. Salutation to PaancharAthra Saasthram/
      Bhagavath Saasthra VirOdha BhangAdhikAram.

This chapter is constructed as the defense of Paancha Raathra
Aagamam and to establish that it does not belong to the category of
Para Mathams .

22. ParOkthOpAya BhangAdhikAram
23. ParOktha PrayOjana BhangAdhikAram

These two chapters assert that the UpAyam and Phalan /
PrayOjanam advocated by the 15 Para Mathams are
insubstantial, inappropriate and not lasting to gain
Moksha Sukham in distinct contrast with the UpAyam
and Phalan realizable with the Parama Vidhika Matham
of VisishtAdhvaitham.

24. Nigamana AdhikAram

Based on Tarkam , Nigamanam means conclusion
in a Syllogism. Nigamana AdhikAram can also be
intrepreted as that which has Vedic Sanctions.
This is the concluding chapter of the illustrious SrI Sookthi
of  Para Matha Bhngam .

Swamy Desikan ThiruvadigaLE SaraNam
Daasan , Oppiliappan Koil  Varadachari Sadagopan



1. the first three Paasurams of Para Matha Bhangam . 

The first Paasuram consists  of
Swamy  Desikan's salutaions to Lord Sudarsanar ,
the embodiment of the Sankalpa Sakthi of SriMan NaarAyaNan.
The second and the Third Paasurams are tributes to AchAryans
for their great UpakAram to us.

154) Salutations to Sudarsana BhagavAn
vaNN taLa ambhuyatthuL ilankum aRu kOnam misai
   vaNN paNilam Thikiri vaLai vill vaLai-vaay Musalam
tiNN kaiyil ankusam seer thihazhum Gadhai senkamalam
   yeNN padai yEnthi ninRAn yezhil Aazhi IRayavanE

(Meaning ): Lord Sudarsanar is standing on top of
a eight petaled Lotus flower housing the six cornered
yanthram . He is radiant with the eight weapons in His
eight hands : Conch , Chakram , Bow , Axe , Pestle ,
Elephant Goad , Mace , Lotus shaped weapon.

Additional Comments:
The soundharyam of Lord Sudarsanar is saluted as
"Yezhil Aazhi IRayavan" . His status as  the Master of the battle field
is recognized by the choice of the name "IRayavan " ( Lord ) .
The weapons are held firm in His hands (tiNN kayil ) for immediate
use (prayOgam) . " VeNN paNilam " refers to the white hued
conch. " VaLai moonRu vill " denotes the Saarngam bow bent at three
places . Lord Sudarsanar is ready to fly in to action as indicated by
His PrathyAleeDam posture with one step  mounted forward .
Swamy  Desikan seeks the protective power of Lord Sudarsana
in the context of the imminent debate with the Para MathasthAL.

155) The great help of AchAryAs ; A verse with 16 lines
This Paasuram is set in PathinARu SeerAsiriya Chandha
Viruttham . It is a majestically moving Paasuram with
beautiful Chandham and has to be recited without break
to enjoy the TaaLa PramAnam. :

vidu neRi anji vidat-thodakkiya
   vithiyar adainthu thozhat-tazhaitthu yezhu
vizhi aruL tanthu vilakku adi kaLai
   virahil iyambi vilakki vaitthanar

kodu vinai yenpathanai tinatthinai
   koNarthal ihantha guNat-tanatthinar
Kuruhayil vanthu kozhuppu adakkiya
   Kulapathy tantha kuRippil Vaitthanar

Kadu narahu anbhu kazhaRRi maRRoru
     kathi peRum anpil yemmaip-porutthinar
Kamalai uhantha kadal kidaikkadal
     karuNai uyarntha tidarkku orukkinar

padu mudhal inRi vaLarttha naRRkkalai
    pala pala onRa yemakku uraitthanar
pazha maRaiyanthi nadaikku idaic-chuvar
   Para Matham yenRu idittha pattharE

(meaning): The Para Mathams (Veda Baahya and Kudhrushti
Mathams ) were obstacles to the spreading of  our timeless
Matham rooted in Veda/VedAnthams. Our parama BhAgavatha
AchAryAs refuted the incorrect doctrines of Para Mathams
through their SrI Sookthis and one-on-one debates with
the challengers from Para Matham. We went and prostrated before
these AchAryAs driven by our fear of following the sinful ways
(deceptively alluring Para Mathams) .Those merciful AchAryAs
blessed us with affection and cast their auspicious glances on us.
They instructed us about (1) the misfortunes that would result from
the sins that block our pursuit of the right UpAyams (2) the need for
observance of the right upAyam to gain Moksham . Those AchAryAs
have the caring disposition to make sure that no sins come our
way. They made us follow the way shown by Swamy
NammAzhwAr , who with His sweet paasurams refuted
the unsound doctrines of Para Mathams.They asked us
to be aware of the deeds that will land us in Narakam
and made us long for Moksham .They made us fit objects
for approaching the Lord resting in the Milky Ocean .They
initiated us in to many eternal vidhyAs . Many indeed are
the matchless upakArams extended to us by  our most
merciful AchAryans .

Special Notes based on SrI UtthamUr Swamy's commentary:
Question may  arise as to the appropraiteness of the Viraktha
SikhAmaNis like our AchAryas to engage in acts of refutation
and deflation of the Para mathams. In reality , it is the way shown by
our PoorvAchAryAs. There is nothing wrong with such refutations.
This refutation is not to condemn the Para Matha AchAryAs ;
it is for the auspiciousness of the world and to spare one's own
sishyAs from being confused and agitated . It is like removing
the weeds from a planted field for the health of the crop under
cultivation.In creating this KhaNDana Grantham , Swamy Desikan
points out that it is not only dhUshaNam (finding fault with
the premises of other Veda Baahya and Kudhrushti mathams )
but it is also Sva-paksha sTApanam ( securing the  foundations
of one 's own Matham : VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham).
Para Matha nirasanam or condemnation of the faulty doctrines of
other Mathams is defended as an important duty of an AchAryan.
This is the legitimate duty of a SadAchAryan : Sva Paksha sTApanam
and Para Paksha Prathikshiptham . Both have to go together :
Establishment of the soundness of one's doctrines as well as
the logical rejection of the faulty doctrines of Para Mathams .

Additional Notes on this Paasuram
Para Mathams were like the blocking walls between
the straight way of ancient VedAntham ( Para Matham pazha
maRayanthi nadaikku idaic-chuvar). Those walls had
to come down.AchAryAs broke them down so that
there are no more obstructions to travel on the right royal
road of VedAntham . AchAryAs are saluted here as
" Idaic-chuvar idittha Patthar ".

The fortunate sishyAs were afraid to travel on the misleading routes of
Para Matham and abandoned such travel ( vidu neRi anji vidat-
thodakkiya vithiyar ) and prostrated before the sacred feet
of their AchAryAs ( adainthu Thozha) . What did the AchAryAs
do ? They cast their merciful glances on these sishyas ( aruL vizhi
tanthu) and instructed them on the futile pursuit of Para Mathams
for gaining Moksham and removed  their doubts like a farmer
will remove the weeds from the field to protect the main crop
( vilaku adi kaLai iyampi ) . They not only  saved us from
observance of sinful deeds but also initiated us in the performance of
the UpAyam ( Bhakthi or Prapatthi yOgam ) befitting our sakthi.

The AchAryAs helped us with additional things as well :
(1) They positioned us to comprehend and practise the deep
doctrines of our Kulapathi , Swamy  NammAzhwAr ( Kulapathy tantha
kuRippil vaitthanar).

(2) They removed our penchant for committing sins through
their SadhupadEsams (kodu vinai tavirtthanar).

(3) They kindled our longing for Moksha Sukham  ( maRRoru
gathi peRum anbil yeMMai porutthinar).

(4) They raised us to the elevated plateau , where the most
merciful Lord is resting ( KaruNai tidarkku orukkinar).

(5) They revealed to us many vidhyAs bequeathed to them
by PoorvAchAryAs and Sages ( pala pala nall kalai uraitthanar ).

Such is the grand Compassion and UpakAram of our AchAryAs !

156) The act of AchAryAs instructing us only on the essence of Doctrines
pOm uraikkum poruL yaamm aRiyOm poruL aar maRayil
    uraikkinRa thAmE aRiyum taram udayArAm
uraikkinra ivai aayntu yedutthu AaraNa nool vazhiyE
   nAmm uraikkum vahai nall aruL yEnthi navinRanaRE

(meaning ):  The Veda manthrams with their true meanings of doctrines
are like the  deep ocean . We can not know without the help of AchAryAs
as to which Veda Manthrams are to be used and which are to be discarded .
Our AchAryAs have the power to see directly , what they speak about
as upadEsams. Out of their boundless mercy towards us , they have
searched deeply among the Veda manthrams and picked those , which are
indispensable  for us and instructed us on them .As a result , we (Swamy
Desikan )  embraced the path of VedAntham and are able to create
this SrI Sookthi of  Para Matha Bhangam .

Before the AchArya UpadEsam , we were ignorant ones , who had
no idea about which portions of the vast Vedam is appropriate
for us and which one are not (PoruL aar maRayil  pOm uraikkum
poruL yaamm aRiyOm ) .

The quality of our AchAryAs is such that they have the power to
directly visualize what they teach us ( tAmm uraikkinrana tAmE
aRiyum taram udayAr ).

These glorious AchAryAs have DayA towards us and have analyzed
the entire gamut of Veda Manthrams , picked among them whatever
is appropriate for us ( nall aruL yEnthi , aaynthu ivai uraikkum aamm
yenRu). Then they instructed us on those selected manthrams
in the way in which Vedam shows ( aaraNa nool vazhiyE nAmm
uraikkum vahai navinRanar).

Additional Comments
We do not know the Bhaava Patha arTams of the Veda Manthrams.
We can not use yukthi vaadham or kutarkkam to establish which of
the meanings of Veda Manthrams is lasting and which are not .
AchAryAs endowed with satthva GuNam are able to distinguish
Nithya ( lasting) and anithya (non-lasting ) meanings and have the vivEkam
to instruct us about the true and lasting meanings of SaarIradhi

2. the  Four Paasurams of Para Matha Bhangam of PrasthAvanAdhikAram
dealing with Jeeva and achEthana TatthvAdhikArams .

  There are two paasurams for each of the two subjecs:
  ChEthanam and achEthanam .
  157) Chastisement of the Para Mathams that confuse even the VivEkis
  chitthum achitthum IRayumenat-teLivuRRu ninRa
     tatthvam moonRum tanittani kaattum tani maRayAl
  mutthi vazhikku ithu moolam yenat-tuNivArkaLayum
     katthi mayakkum kathakarai nAmm kadihinRanamE
  (Meaning): VedAntha Saasthrams define distinctly the individual
  Svaroopams and SvabhAvams of the three tatthvams : ChEthanam ,
  achEthnam and Iswaran . VivEkis ( those with discriminating intellect )
  clearly understand these distinctions. They also know that this
  understanding about the Tatthva Thrayams is the basis of  gaining
  MOksham. We , who have been blessed with AchArya UpadEsam ,
  condemn those prathivAdhis , who enchant even these vivEkis
  with their ensnaring and loud arguments .
  158) Removal of doubts about the three kinds of Jeevans
  mutthin vadangaL yena Mukundhan punai moovahayAm
     chitthil arum suruthi .c-chevvai mARiya sinthaihaLAl
  patthil iraNDu meykkap-pahattum para vAdhiyar tamm
      katthil vizhunthu adainthaa-avazhukkuinRu kazhaRRinamE
  (Meaning): EmperumAn adorns the three kinds of Jevans
  ( Bhaddhar , Mukthar and Nithyar) as a pearl necklace on
  His chest . About these three kinds of Jeevans , Para Matha
  Vaadhis attack with their doctrines that areinconsistent with
  the VedAs . They argue loudly to see if they can make atleast
  two of their ten faulty points stick and blabber to confuse the VivEkis.
  We (Swamy  Dsikan ) have cleared these erroneous statements
  of  Para Matha Vaadhis in this chapter on Jeva Tatthva adhikAram.
  Yeka Jeeva Vadham , Aanandha Taara Tamyam in Moksham ,
  the confusion that Isvaran is the AathmA and the other confusion
  about the AathmA being understood as the body are some of
  the befuddlements that can confuse even a VivEki. Jeevan has
  the eight guNams , prakruthi vilakshaNathvam and Iswara
  Seshathvam as the ten guNams. Yet , the Para Matha Vadhis
  conclude incorrectly that dEham is AathmA and Iswaran is
  the Jeevan . Swamy Desikan states that in the JeevAthma
  TatthvAdhikAram , he engaged the Para Matha Vaadhis in debate
  and showed that their intrepretations about the JeevAthmA
  and its realtionaships to achEthanam andn Iswaran are utterly false .
  159) The removal of the confusion about achEthana Tatthvam
  nAkku iyalum vahai nammai aLitthavar nall aruLAl
     bhAkkiyam yEnthip-paran adiyAr tiRam pArtthaRppin
  thAkkiyar tangaL talai misai tAkkit-tanimaRai tAnn
     bhOkkiyam yenRatanil poy mathangaLai pOkkuvamE
  (Meaning): We , who had no knowledge about tatthvams
  ( their svaroopams and SvabhAvans) have been blessed to
  speak about them with confidence due to our AchArya
  UpadEsam and anugraham. We presented the correct
  description about the Jeevans in the previous chapter.
  In this adhikAram , we criticize those , who use aabhAsa
  yukthis ( disgusting arguments) to advance their incorrect
  doctrines about the achEthanam (BhOgyam ) enjoyed  by
  the Jeevan ( bhOkthA).
  Upanishads describe the three Tathtvams as " BhOkthA
  (Jeevan, the one that enjoys) , BhOgyam ( the vasthu that
  is being enjoyed by the BhOkthA ) and PrEritha ( Iswaran,
  the Commander ).
  Boudha-VaisEshAdhikaL' s celebration of ParamANu Vaadham ,
  adhvaithin's view that the world is a myth , misintrepretation of
  Kaalam and Nithya VibhUthi are some of the points that Swamy
  Desikan attacks under the achEthana adhikAram.
  160) Explanation of AchEthanam according to AchAryAs
  thee vajai mARRi anRu ohr tEril aaraNam paadiya
     Devaki seer mahanAr tiRampA aruL soodiya nAmm
  moovahaiyAm aRiyAt-tatthuvathtin muham aRivAr
     naa vahayE nadatthum nadai paartthu nadanthanamE
  (Meaning ): DEvaki's son , KrishNa ParamAthmA decided
  to uplift the Jeevans from SamsAric mire. He stood as
  the charioteer for Arjunan during the great war .Our Lord
  used Arjunan as an excuse to instruct the beings of the world
  on the meanings of VedAnthams through His SrI Sookthi of
  Geethai. We who have been blessed by th Lord explained
  the intrinsic nature(Svaroopams) and SvabhAvams  of
  achEthana entities such as Prakruthi, Kaalam , Suddha
  Satthvam as our AchAryAs explained to us from the SrI Sookthis
  of Sages VyAsa , ParAsarar and the AzhwArs.
3. the  two Paasurams of Para Matha Bhangam dealing with Isvara (Para )
TatthvAdhikArams .

This is the Fourth adhikAram 
of Para Matha Bhangam.The second and the third 
adhikArams were about he Jeevan and achEthana 
Tathtvams . 

For  additional information on the three Tatthvams and 
ParadEvathA nirUpaNam , the bhakthAs are referred to
SWamy  D esikan's  SrImth Rahasya Thrayam Chapters of 
(1) Tatthva Thraya ChinthanAdhikAram and (2) ParadEvathA 

161)  Isvara Tatthvam : Explanation according to AchAryAs
velaip-puRam aham kANpathu pOl vEda nannERi sEr 
    noolaip-puRam aham kANDalil nuNN aRivnRi ninReer
Maalaip-peRa vazhi kAttiya Desikar VaachakamE
    Olaip-puRatthil yezhuthuhinROm uLL yezhuthumin 

(Meaning ) : Oh AaasthikAs ! It is impossible to see 
the inside and outside of the great ocean. Similarly , it
is a difficult  task to comprehend the simple and 
the deeper inner meanings of  the SaasthrAs that 
describe Veda mArgam . You do not have the sharp
intellect to accomplish that task.Therefore , we are 
writing the essence of the AchArya UpadEsams on
the UpAyam for Moksham . May You inscribe this
message in your mind and benefit from it !
162) Isvaran: Explanation to remove confusions
siRai nilayAm bhavatthil siRu tEn inbham uNDu uzhlvAr
   maRai nilai kaNDu aRiyA mayal mARRiya mann aruLAl
thuRai nilai pAram yenat-tuLangA amuthak-kadalAm
  iRai nilai yAmm uraitthOm yemm gurukkaL iyambinavE

This SamsAric life is like the life in prison. The happiness
(Sukham ) that one experiences in this SamsAric life is
like an insignificant drop of honey that is tasted  in between
all the sufferings . The chEthanams deeply comitted to SamsAram 
think of this trivial sukham as great  and   are enveloped in 
ajn~Anam that prevents them from engaging in the learning of 
the meanings of VedAntham (VaakyArTams and TaathparyArTams.
Sath SampradhAyam isessential for the understanding of these 
VedArTams .Our AchAryAs are powerful to destroy our ajn~Anam 
with their DayA for us through their merciful upadEsams on our
Sath SampradhAyam .Our AchAryAs reveal Isvaran as 
(1) the descending steps (ThuRai) for  the ocean of  Bliss 
(2) as our  enduring home (3) as the other bank of the ocean of 
SamsAram and (4) as the tranquil ocean of nectar . Following our 
AchAryan's upadEsams , we (Swamy  Desikan ) reveal the Svaroopam 
and SvabhAvam of Iswaran .

Special Notes about the Fourth AdhikAram ( Para Tatthva adhikAram)
We will follow the commentary of UtthamUr  Swamy now .
The second and the third adhikArams were about Jeevan (BhOkthA)
and AchEthana (BhOgyam ) Tathvams. The fourth adhikAram is 
about Iswaran (PrErithA ) and His Svaroopam as well as SvabhAvam 
according to VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham. 

PrErithA means one who commands (niyamikkiRavan/yEvuhiravan). 
He is the One who orders the chEthanams as their indweller. 
He  is Omniscient (Sarvajn~an) .He can only be seen through 
SaasthrAs ( Saasthraika vEdhyan). He (Vaikunta NaaTan)
can not be seen with one 's own physical eyes on this earth.
Our inability to see Him and enjoy His physical form , guNams
and Iswaryams here is known as anulabdhi. It can be overcome 
by the knowledge about His SaasthrAs that  reveal  His presence here. 
He can be seen & enjoyed only in His archA roopam on this earth 
by us until we reach SrI Vaikuntam by practising one of the two

The Creation , protection and destruction of the universe 
and its beings is carried out by this Iswaran . He is UpAdhAna and 
Nimittha KaaraNan.Thus , He is Sarva Sakthan with SarIrAthma
Sambhandham and as One Brahman carries out the Srushti, STithi
and PraLayam .He becomes the UpAsyan ( the One to be meditated 
upon ) for Mumukshus ( those who desire MOksham).

Iswaran is avAptha Samastha Kaaman ( one who has gained
all fruits/phalans and needs nothing ).Therefore He has no
( want for any gain ).

In this Para Tatthva adhikAram (Para Tatthva NirNaya adhikAram ),
Swamy  Desikan proves the invalidity of the assumptions of Para
Mathams about Iswara Tathvam and instructs us on the Veda Maarga
prathishtApitha Iswara Tatthvam in all its correctnness and glories. 
Swamy  Desikan reminds us of the Atarava Sikhpanishad Vaakyam:
"KaaraNam tu dhyEya: " ( One who is the Jagath KaaraNan should
be the object of one's dhyAnam ) and proves that He is SrIman NaarAyaNan ,
the Supreme Tatthvam, Para Brahmam and Param JyOthi .  He is full of
all auspicious attributes and is free from any blemishes .

This Iswaran is the One who is SaasthrIya Sarva Karma SamArAdhyan 
( all karmAs sanctioned by the Vedams is NaarAyaNa AarAdhanam; 
whatever is a dreesed to  other DevathAs , who are all influenced by 
their karmAs ( karma VasyALs) reach Him ). This Iswaran is Sarva
Karma Phala pradhan (as RaajAdhi Raajan , He grants the fruits
for all KarmAs ).He is the One , who can say with clarity , conviction
and authority  : " MokshayishyAmi Maa sucha: " ( Do not grieve; I will 
chase away all your sins and grant you freedom from the cycles of
births and deaths).Thus He is Moksha Phala Pradhan .

Summing up, Swamy  Desikan states here that for those , 
who were incessantly tasting the bitterness (kasappu ) of 
the Taapa Thrayams of SamsAram  , he has shown 
the sukhAnubhavam of the taste of a little drop of
the honey of Iswaran in this Para Tatthva adhikAram
and attempted to remove their ajn~Anam & ViparItha 

The three adhikArams covered so far are elaborations of
"Sva -paksha sTApana pEtikai " ( Statement and defense of 
one's SiddhAntham ); the next 17 adhikArams are about 
the logical criticisms and condemnations  of the other Pakshams
( Para Paksha prathikshEpa pEtikai) , where Swamy  Desikan
reaches dizzying  heights of scholarship and AchAryakathvam .  

4. the  two Paasurams of SamudhAya dhOshAdhikAram of Para Matha Bhangam

dealing with the integrated analysis of the defects found
in the approaches by the Para Mathams  regarding
Tatthva Thrayams as well as Hitham and Parama PurushArTam.

VeRi aar tuLavudai Vitthahan tanmayin meyyaRivAr
     kuRiyAr nediyavar yenRu oru kuRRam piRarkku urayAr
aRiyAr tiratthil aruL purinthu AaraNa nanneRiyAl
    siRiyAr vazhigaL azhippathum theengu kazhippathaRkkE

(Meaning) : Our AchAryAs who fully understand the Svaroopa-
SvabhAva visEshams of the Lord of mysterious deeds adorning
the fragrant TuLasi garland will not venture to cast even the smallest
of  accusations (blames ) on other AchAryAs s. It is not their nature
to engage in such activities.  Inspite of this leaning , the reason for
these merciful AchAryAs with deep faith in Veda mArgam , to criticize
the incorrect docrines  of other mathams is to protect the simple people ,
who may be enchanted and ensnared by these alluring (bewitching)
appeal of  doctrines of Para Mathams even if they have faulty premises.
Our AchAryAs point out the inaccuracies and blemishes in Para Mathams
purely out of their dayA to save us , the saadhAraNa adhikAris(the

Special Notes:
The key passage of this Paasuram is : " AaraNa nool neRiyAl
siRiyAr vazhikaL azhippathum , aRiyAr tiRatthil aruL purinthu
theengu kazhippathaRkkE " ( Following the path laid out by
the never-failing VedAs , our merciful AchAryAs destroy
the incorrect  siddhAnthams that either misintrepret VedAs
or stand outside the Vedic doctrines. This they do to remove
the damages done  from following these alpa darsanams
by unsuspecting simple folks).

These AchAryAs are fully aware (mey aRivAr) of the Svaroopam
and SvabhAvam (tanmai) of the Lord (MaayOn/Vitthahan ) ,
who sports the fragrant  TuLasi garland ( VeRiyAr TuLavudai
Vitthahan) . That is why they undertake on themselves the duties
of a SadAchAryan to instruct us on the true doctrines based on
the correct intrepretations of the VedAs .

Veda PramANam
Vedams are the best among PramANams to reveal the hollowness
of other inaccurate doctrines of Para Mathams . Therefore AchAryAs
choose Sabdha (Veda ) PramANam for their efforts .Swamy  Desikan
suggests that Matha DhUshaNam is not to be mixed with manushya
dhUshaNam , while they (AchAryAs) are engaged in the criticism of
mathams created by those with either alpa jn~Anam about the true meanings
of the VedAs or   created by them with total disregard for Vedic
They have no legitimate pramANams to back them up.

PramAnam and PramEyam
PramANa is derived from the root " PramA " meaning valid and true
knowledge.PramANa means the instrument ( reason ) for valid

PramEya is the object of cognition/object of knowledge.

VisishtAdhvaitha VedAntham accepts Perception ,
inference and verbal testimony ( Sabdha) as PramANmas .

ChArvaka Matham accepts perception (prathyaksha) as
the only means of valid knowledge.

The Bhuddhists and VaisEshikAs accept two PramANams :
Perception (pratyaksha ) and inference ( anumAna ) .

PrabhAkara MeemAmsa accepts Prathyaksha, anumAna and
Sabdha along with presumption (arthApatti ) as PramANams .

Bhatta MeemAsa and Adhvaitham accepts the traditional three
along with three more as PramANAs: comparison , presumption
and noncognition ( anupalabdhi) .

Saiva SiddhAntham accepts Siva-chith-Sakthi as  the primary
pramAnam and accepts the traditional three as secondary pramANams.
DvaithAs have two kinds of PramANAs: Anu pramANa and
Kevala PramANa . Latter is defined as an object as it is. For
Dvaitha VedAnthins , the traditional three PramANAs are grouped
under the category of anu-pramANa (Source of valid knowledge) .

Veda PrAmANyam ( True Validity of the VedAs ) is
common to Advaitha, Dhvaitha and VisishtAdhvaitha
Darsanams . Buddhism, Jainism do not  accept the validity
of the VedAs and are therefore called Veda Baahya Mathams.

164) The common dhOshams of Para Mathams
minDu uraikka virahu tarum tarukkam koNDE
    vENDumkAl vENDuvathE viLampuhinrAr
kaNDatharkku viparItham katthuhinrAr
    kANAtha kuRai maRayil kAtta niRpAr
PaNDu orutthan kaNDu uraitthEn nAnE yennap-
   pala vahayilum upAthihaLAl padinthu veezhvAr
KoNDal okkum ThirumEni Maayak-kUtthan
   kurai kazhal sEr vithi vahayil koodAthArE

(Meaning ): The followers of KaNAtha-Gouthama-
VyAkaraNa -MeemAmsa darsanams say whatever
they want at the desired times and use illogic that
gives rise to futile debates . Those who belong to
the BhAskara-Yaadhava adhvaitham will distort
what they see  (Prathyaksham/Perception ) and
shout about them . The ChArvAka- Bhoudda -Jaina
Matham followers will declare that Vedam is created by
humans and  deny its apourushEyam origin from the Lord
Himself. Those who belong to Saankhya-Yoga and
Paasupatha mathams believe in the statements of Sage Kapila,
BrahmA and Siva that they invented these mathams and
eat and seek dhravyams to make their lives comfortable.
Alas ! What a pity that none of those belonging to these
Para Mathams have the good fortune of seeking
the divine feet of SrIman NaarAyaNan and enjoy
them as Parama bhOgyam and PurushArTam.

5. the  two Paasurams dealing with the criticism of the ChArvAka Matham .

165) Condemnation of the ChaarvAka /UlOhAyatha Matham
KaNdathu mey yenil kANum maRayil aRivu kaNDOm
    kaNDathu alAthathu ilathu yenil ithil kuRRam kaNDilam
kaNDathu pOl maRai kAttuvathum kaNDathu otthathanAl
    uMDathu kEtkkum ulOhAyathar  yenRu meeruvathE

The Doctrine of ChArvakam :  Prathyaksham alone is PramANam says 
ChArvaakAs.Only those recognized by direct perception (Prathyaksham) 
are true according to them. Rest are false . Therefore , every thing 
described by Vedam that is not seeable by the direct perception 
such as  Dharmam, adharmam , Iswaran , the Other world are all false 
according to CharvAkAs.

These CharvAkAs equate arTa kAmams (POruL , Inbham) as
equal to PurushArTam ( Veedu). Swamy Desikan rejects the view
that Prathyaksham alone is PramANam.He goes on to establish why
anumAnam and Sabdham(Vedam)  are additional necessary PramANams.
Swamy  Desikan quotes Swamy ParAsara Bhattar's SrI RangarAja Sthava
SlOkam 2.5 to refute CharvAkA's claim that Vedam is not PramANam .
Here Bhattar argues that CharvAkAs hear the Vedam through their ears ,
which is Prathyaksham since it is a prathyaksha  indhriyam and 
develop knowledge about the Meanings of the Vedam (arTa Jn~Anam )
from there.  Bhattar asks how one can categorize Vedam as Meaningless , 
when the knowledge about meaning is obtained through one's ears . 
The chief reason for Prathyaksham is the assistance of an Indhriyam .
When the ear as an Indhriyam hears it and develops arTa Jn~Anam , 
Bhattar asks how can you reject sabdham(Vedam )  as false .

Some CharvAkAs include anumAnam and aagamam in Prathyaksham .
Swamy  Desikan rejects that view and points out that Prathyaksham and
anumAnam are separate PramANams .Swamy Desikan's  arguments 
are deep and incisive to reject ChArvaka Matham as unacceptable
as elaborated in the next paasuram.

166) The inconsistency between the ChArvakA's doctrines and actions
KaNDathanAl kANathathu anumikkinranar
    KaNDu Orutthan uraitthatanai kavaruhinRAr
uNDu pasi kedum yenRE uNarnthu uNkinrAr 
    onRAlE onRait-tAmm sAdhikkinRAr 
paNDu mulai uNDu athanaal mulai uNkinrAr 
    pArkkinrAr pala allAt-taMMai maRRum 
kaNDu mathi ketta nilai kANahillAr 
   kANathathu ilathu yenRu kalnguvArE 

(Meaning ): ChArvakAs infer the presence of Agni from
the directly seen smoke. Another believes in the vishayam
that is directly seen and experienced by the ear  and accepts it . 
>From this , it is clear that the charvAkAs accept anumAnam  and
sabdham. They consume food with the knowledge that hunger will
be relieved , when one is hungry. They do not know however that 
hunger will be removed by eating , before eating through the power of
prathyaksham . Further ,  as Vaadhis , they point why they agree 
with the PrathivAdhis on the reasons and state that the unseen 
vasthu exits. By this act, they have agreed to the validity of 
anumAnam and Sabdham. 

The CharvAkAs , who only  accept the body that is 
seeable by prathyaksham and reject the unseeable aathmA
as nonexistent can come up with the only answer for the new born
baby drinking mother's milk because of poorva janma vaasanai 
(memories of previous births). By this they have to agree that 
there is an eternal aathmA other than the SarIram . Further , 
the CharvAkAs who equate the body with the aathmA see
the aathmA , which has no hand or leg or eye in the same way
as the limbs of the SarIram ( hand, leg, eye of that SarIram )
that they can see by direct perception (Prathyaksham).

Thus the CharvAkAs know that their doctrines are inconsistent
with their actions and lose their minds and yet wont give up their 
faulty doctrines. 

6. Today , we will study  the  two Paasurams dealing with
Swamy  Desikan's  criticism of the MaadhyAmika Matham .

Before we proceed with the study of the meaning of the Paasurams
realted to the refutation of the doctrines of the four sects of Bhouddha
Matham , it would be useful to have an overview of this matham
as elaborated in SarvArTa Siddhi of Swamy  Desikan . The excerpts from
the Doctoral thesis of Dr.V.N.SeshAdhriyAcchAr about SarvArTa Siddhi  is :

" There are four schools of Buddhism: VaibhAshika , Sautraanika ,
YogAchAra and Maadhyamika.They have some common points:
(1) all entities are impermanent , transitory and in a continous state of
change (2) apart from the flow of cognitions , there is no soul or
Aathman as the seat of cognition or consciousness.

Coming to The School of Budhdism of Maadhyamika , it has close
relationship with the school of nihilists of western  philosophy in
the real existence of every thing  seen within and around us....
The MaadhyAmikas deny the reality of everything in  the universe.
Even consciousness or intellect (chaitanya) is considered unreal .
Nothing comes into existence nor perishes. Like other schools of
Buddhism , MaadhyAmikas hold that things are momentary...
There is a close relationship to Advaitham among the doctrines of
MaadhyAmikam (Samvruthi in MaadhyAmikam is the same as
the term avidhya in advaitham).Adhvaithin holds every thing except
Brahman is unreal and the appearance of thing as existing is due to the
superimposition on the basis (adhishtAna) , namely , Brahman which alone
is real as per his (adhvaitin's) contention , MaadhyAmika finds no purpose
in holding even that Brahman as real to serve as basis (adhishtAna) for
superimposition and maintains that no cognition requires a basis.The
MaadhyAmika asks: " What harm would arise if Brahman alone is denied
? .
The  MaadhyAmika does not  accept the authority of Vedam
and has no scruples in denying the need for a real basis (adhishtAna) for
unreality. Thus, MaadhyAmikan  denies the existence of Brahman
and is an atheist.

Swamy  Desikan refuted soundly the MaadhyAmika's views , which
seek to prove the void of the universe as opposed to the reality of
the universe. "

167) Criticism of the  MaadhyAmika Matham
kANa(tha)thu ilathu yenuumkalviyinArai kaDinthathaRppin
    kONAr kutharkkangaL koNDE kuzhappum bhavuttharhaLil
nANAthu anaitthum ilathu yenRum nAlvahai anRu yenRum
    VaazhnAL aRukkinRa matthimatthAn vazhi mARRuvamE

(Meaning): One of the four sishyAs of Bhuddha is Maadhyamikan,
who developed the doctrine : "Sarvam Soonyam " (all is void )
and without hesitation declares that there are no Tatthvams. He was
the most favored sishyan of Buddha. It is generally accepted that there
are four kinds of vasthus in the Prapancham (universe):

(1) Sath (Truly existing ) , (2) asath (nonexistent ) , (3) Sathasath
( Mixture of true and untrue ) and (4) sathasath vilakshaNam
( one which is neither Sath or asath).

Maadhyamikan holds that the Universe can not be classified as
any one of the above four kinds. He denies the existence of
Iswaran and the vasthus of the universe belonging to Him and therefore
loses the fruits obtained through the grace of Iswaran . In this context ,
MaadhyAmikan is like the women , who hates her living husband and
cuts her MangaLa Soothram and throws it away. Swamy  Desikan
says that He refutes MaadhyAmikam as the First of the four Buddhistic
systems in the 7th adhikAram of his Para Matha Bhangam.

168) Protecting the world from being stolen/deluded  by MaadhyAmikAs
mAnam ilai mEyam ilai yenRu maRROr
   Vaadha neRi ilai yenRum vaathu pooNDa
thAnumilai tannurayum poruLm ilai
   tatthuvathtin uNartthi sayam illai yenRum
vAnavarum mAnavarum manamum veLha
  vaLam pEsu mathkEdan MatthimatthAn
tEna neRi koNDu anaitthum thiruDA vaNNam
  sezhumathi pOl yezhum mathiyAR-semitthOmE

(Meaning ): MaadhyAmikan's doctrine is that all is
soonyam (void). In his matham , there is no pramANam
to comprehend the different vasthus. There is no debating
method . He is not there for engaging in debate. There is
no vaakyam uttered by him and no meaning for those vAkyams.
There is no Tathtva Jn~Anam . There is no victory in debates.
Inview of these strange  aspects of his matham , the DevAs and
humans laugh at his doctrines and his own mind also chuckles
about his stupidity . We (Swamy  Desikan ) refuted these
strange doctrines of MaadhyAmikan , which makes every thing void
and denies the existence of Iswaran and His sentient and insentient

7.  Swamy  Desikan's  criticism of the Second of the Four Matham
associated with Buddhism : YogAchAram.

 Before we proceed further with the study of the meaning of the Paasurams
 realted to the refutation of the doctrines of the four sects of Bhouddha
 Matham , it would be useful to have another summation of this matham
 as elaborated in SarvArTa Siddhi of Swamy  Desikan . The excerpts from
 the Doctoral thesis of Dr.V.N.SeshAdhriyAcchAr about SarvArTa Siddhi  is

" There are three corner stones of Buddhism with the exception of
VaibhAshika matham : (1)Nothing is permanent , (2) Nothing has any self or
inner substratum , and (3) NirvANa is tranquility . According to Yamakami,
these three are fundamental tenets of Buddhism , which distinguishes it
from all other religious systems in the history of the world. According to
Buddhists , there is no being , but there is only becoming . All
objects are unstable  nad ephemeral. Every thing , be it a person ,
a thing or God  , is therefore merely an aggregation of component
elements. Further in all  individuals  , with  out any exception ,
the relation of their component parts is eternally  changing  and
is never the same  even for two consecutive moments.Putting
together implies  becoming  , becoming means becoming different ,
and becoming different  can not arise without  a dissolution-- 
a passing away , which must inevitably and finally be complete."

As an introduction to YogAchAra matham , the summing up by
Dr.V.N.SeshaadhriyAcchAr is pertineny :

" Things may be considered as permanent only if , at all times,
present , past and future , they remain the same without undergoing
any change or assuming a new future. If it suffers any alteration or
acquires a new feature  or peculiarity  , which did not exist before ,
it can not be maintained  as permanent . To the Buddhists , there is
no distinction between the  attributes (dharma) and the thing
possesesing that  attribute(dharmi) . The attribute and the thing
which is supposed by the scholars of other doctrines as having that
attribute are one and the same. So if a new change or attribute or
feature occurs in the thing , it is a new thing , the old thing having
ceased to exist ... YogAchAran  denies the existence of three
different entities , namely , cognition , its object and the cognizer.
The existence of them as distinct entities according to YogAchAran
is due to illusion ."

169) Refutation of YogAchAra Matham
muRRum chahatthil ilathu yenRE pahattiya muttarai nAmm
   suRRum thuRanthu thuRayil ninRE tuhaL-Aakkiya pinn
maRRu onRu ilathu mathi pala uNDenRu vanchanyAl 
   saRRum thuRantha yOgAchAranai sathikkinRanamE 

(Meaning) : One of the four groups of Bhouddham with
the name of MaadhyAthmikan propagated his foolish doctrine 
that every thing is void in this world and cheated the human
beings with his trickery. Earlier , We stood firmly on VedAnthic 
ground and refuted his matham and pulverized his doctrines. Now ,
we refute the doctrines of the second group of Bhouddham
known as YogAchAram , which also tried to enchant the world
with its sophistry. 

YogAchAran's main contention is that Jn~Anam alone
is true. It is of many kinds. Beyond that , there is neither 
the knower nor the vasthus understood by that Jn~Anam.
Since he rejected himself as the knower and the objects
enjoyed by him , he is a forever loser that forefeits even 
the trivial phalans that he is entitled to in this & the other world. 

Dr.SeshAdriyAcchAr sums up this philosophy of YogAchAryan
this way: " Cognitions apprehend their objects as if the objects were 
distinct from the cognitions and as existing externally. Hence , 
the yogAchAran is called " aathma-khyAti vaadin " . 
If the so-called external objects , he says , are spoken of
as being real, it is due to their having only the empirical
reality ( Samvruthi-sathyatA )... As a matter of fact , there 
is neither a separate apprehender  nor even a seperate 
apprehended object . One and the same apprehension 
appears in three forms as apprehender , apprehension and 

In the next paasuram , Swamy  Desikan says that the two eyes of
YogAchaaran are  KshaNikathvam and NirAkArathvam. 
These are his PramANam and PramEyam. Swamy Desikan
says that he used VedAnthic  arguments to destroy them 
as meaningless babble.
170) Establishment of the Universe denied by YogAchAran
uLak-kathiyai nAmm uLLI uLLam tERi 
   ulahatthAr uhanthu isaya ulahu uNDu yenROm
iLakka arithAhiya nall tarukkam sErntha 
   yezhil maRayil Isanudan yemmaik-kaNDOm
viLakku nirai pOl mathikaL vERAy vERu
   onRu aRiyAthE viLangumena viLambuhinRa 
kaLak-karutthan kaNNIraNDu azhitthOm nANA
   kAham pOl thirinthu avan kathaRumARE

(Meaning ): The doctrine of YogAchAryan is that Jn~Anam is 
born from moment to moment in new forms and ceases to exist 
the next moment(KshaNikatthvam)  .This Jn~Anam will not 
relate to any thing other than itself. Therfore , there are no 
external objects (nirAkArathvam). The successions of the Jn~Anam
that is born every second and dies is considered as AathmA . 
This leads to the inevitable conclusion that AathmA is not eternal.
At the same time , consideration of AathmA as Jn~Anam 
confers its firm presence as a lasting entity (sTiram). Therefore,
there is a fundamental contradiction in YogAchAran's views.
Just as the flames (JwAlAs) emanating from a lamp (Dheepam ) varies 
from moment to moment and yet is the same dheepam that is behind 
these variations in a firm and steady manner to give the  Jn~Anam 
that it is the same Dheepa JwAlai , it is concluded that Aathma is
anithyam and the doctrines of YogAcchAran are incorrect.

YogAchAran negates ChEthanam , achEthanam and Iswaran
using untenable logic. He says that " the knower is false"
and " the known vasthu is false (nonexistent)". Swamy  Desikan
states that he has destroyed  the above two "eyes" of YogAchAra
matham and reduced the status of YogAchaaran as a wailing 
blind man . He compares the YogAcharan's status to that of
the KaakAsuran , who committed unforgivable apachArams to
SithA PirAtti and sought without  success some one to protect him in
all the three worlds and finally lost one of his eyes to the blade of
grass empowered by Lord Raamachandran to serve as BrahmAsthram .
Swamy Desikan says that KakAsuran wailed over loss of one eye ,
where as YogAchAran symbolically lost both his eyes(KshaNikatthvam
and NIrAkAratthvam )  in the debate with him and was wailing over
that unbearable loss. 
8. Criticism of  the Third of the Four Mathams associated with Buddhism :
SouthrAnthikam .

Before studying the two Paasurams of Swamy  Desikan on
this branch of Buddhism , let us summarize the key aspects of
SouthrAnthikam as presentedd  by Dr.V.N.SeshAdhriyAcchAr
Swamy ( Dr.V.N.S Swamy ) :

1. The MadhyAmikan focused on Soonya Vaadham.

2. The YogAchAryan stayed with the theory of the Phenomenality of
the world.

3. SauthrAnthikan represented that things being imperceptible are to be
inferred by their forms imprinted in the cognitions.

Buddhist's views of momentariness of all things (KshaNikathvam )
and the theory that substratum is no more than an aggregation of qualities
(nirAkArathvam )  are broadly present in all of the four Buddhistic

Although momentary features can not be completely denied such as Cloud ,
flood et al , this does not lead to the conclusion that non-momentary
entities do not exist. Dr.Varadachary of the French Institute of Indology
points out in this context that Recognition proves that stability
(AakArathvam instead of nirAkArathvam) is at the basis of
the worldly things in most of the Vaidhika Mathams .

Coming back to SautrAntikan , he hods that the external objects like pot
and cloth are real but they can not however be directly percieved by
the senses . He states that these (pot or cloth) can only be inferred by
the cognition , which bears their " form " or "likeness".

SautrAntikan 's view of the process of generation of a perception
and subsequent cognition  is described by Dr.V.N.S Swamy this way :

"  There are few requisites for every cognition: (1) Aalambana Pratyaya
(2) Samanantara Pratyaya (3) SahakAri Pratyaya and (4) Adipathi Pratyaya .

( Let us understand each of the four Pratyayas and their

(1) Aalambana   pratyaya relates to the objects , which are
the causes of the cognitions in which , in the absence of those
objects , can not come in to being .

(2) Samanatara pratyaya is a cognition that enables the succeding
cognition to recieve the form of the external objects.

(3) SahakAri pratyaya refers to light etc. which are responsible  in
making the cognition distinct  with regard to its object. The absence of
light disables a person from having  a clear apprehension of an object
placed in the darkness.Therefore light is sahakAri (assistive).

(4) Adhipathi pratyaya  refers to the sense organs . It is the sense
organs that make the objects present their forms to the cognition
in the succeeding moment .

As the external objects present their forms to the Cognition , so do
the internal objects like pleasure, pain and hatred ; thus they too
become inferable . "

SautrAntikan's view  is based on an untenable theory and has been
criticized by the other two Mathams associated with Buddhism
( YogAcharam and VaibhAshikam). AchArya RaamAnuja and
Swamy Desikan have soundly criticized the SautrAntrikan's theories
using Tarkam and VedAntham. Acharya Raamanuja  asks the question :
" If things are contended to be MOMENTARY , the external things
would cease to exist in the moment of the presentation of their form to
the mind. In the absence of such a thing , how can its form  alone
survive to be presented to the mind?

The unsoundness of the SautrAntikan's views is severely criticized by
Swamy  Desikan in SarvArTa Siddhi  and Para Matha Bhangam as
well as in the Desika Prabhandham carrying the same name.

171) Refutation of the SautrAntika Matham
PoruL onRu ilathu yenRu bhOdham onRum kONDa poyyarai nAmm
   teruL kONDu theertha pinnkANavoNNA poruL tEDuhinRa
maruL koNDa soothu uraikkum SoutthhirAnthakan vaNNikkai nAmm
  iruL koNDa pAzhamkiNaRu yenRu ihazhnthu Ooda viyampuvamE

(Meaning) : YogAchAran has the doctrine that there are no external
objects and that Jn~Anam alone exists. We (Swamy  Desikan )
refuted those views with our special Jn~Anam acquired from
our AchAryAs in the previous adhikAram. The Buddhist belonging
to SautrAnthika Matham accepts the reality of external objects.
The SautrAnthikan due to his ignorance tries to use beguiling
ruses to prove the existence of the external objects and internal
entities through anumAnam (inference ). His unconvincing arguments
are like the Paazhum KiNaRu ( dark and dangerous empty well ).
If any one stumbles in to this type of well will lose his life . We
(Swamy  Desikan ) criticized severely the SautrAnthika Matham
so that VivEkis will develop a distaste for this Matham and
stay away from it.

172) The Inconsistencies of the SautrAntikan's doctrines
nilayillA poruL mathiyai viLaitthu tAnn sER
   niRam kodutthu tAnn azhiyum tannAl vantha
nilayillA mathi tannil niRatthaik-kANum
   ithu kANum poruL kANNKai yenRa neesan
mulai illAt-tAai koduttha mulaip-paal uNNUm
   muhamilla mozhi yenavE mozhintha vArtthai
talai illAt-taaL oorum kaNakkAi ninRa
   kattaLai nAmm kaNDu inRu kaattinOmE

(Meaning): In contrast to YogAchAran , SautrAnthikan
accepts the existence of external objects. SautrAntikan's
doctrine is: External objects generate Jn~Anam and hand
over the white , yellow and other colors to that Jn~Anam
and become extinct. Therefore , the Indhriyams can not
apprehend /comprehend these objects , which have
the svabhAvam of extinction after enriching Jn~Anam
about their attributes like their colors. Even id these external
objects cease to exist, we can comprehend the objects
through the information transferred to Jn~Anam about
the colors through a process of anumAnam (inference).
Even this Jn~Anam with transferred  information on
the colors of the external objects becomes extinct in
a trice (KshaNam ). This Jn~Anam is equivalent to
the AathmA. This Jn~Anam will enjoy the colors like
blue , yellow  et al that has been given to it by the external
objects. This anubhavam is termed Vasthu SaakshAthkAram.

In SautrAntikan's doctrine , one has to accept that
Jn~Anam is generated after the birth of the Vasthu .
That vasthu exists for a KshaNam and ceases to
exist after that kshaNam . During that KshaNam
of its existence , the external object  creates Jn~Anam
and imparts information about itself  to Jn~Anam and
thereafter the external object  ceases to exist . Thus this
external object that is destined to become extinct in
a kshaNam has to be born first,  Create Jn~Anam in
the first second , transfer the information to Jn~Anam
in the second Second and in the third second has to become
extinct. This is totally impossible to concieve . Further,
the Jn~Anam housing the imparted information also becomes
extinct after a KshaNam . First second, Jn~Anam is born ,
the next second it becomes the repository of information
from the external objects and in the third second , it has
to become extinct . How can that Jn~Anam accomplish
Vasthu SaakshAthkAram ( Visualization of external objects )?
It is inconceivable and imposisble . The situation here is
similar to the baby helping itself to mother's mik from
a mother , who has no breasts; it is like speaking , when
there is no face ; it is like the movement by the feet , when
there is no head in the body to command it. Thus we refute
the inconsistent and unsound theories of SautrAnthikam
says Swamy  Desikan in this Paasuram.

9.  criticism of  the fourth of the Four Mathams associated with Buddhism
: VaibhAshikam .

Before studying the two Paasurams of Swamy  Desikan on
this branch of Buddhism , let us summarize the key aspects of
VaibhAshikam as presented  by U.Ve. Dr.V.N.SeshAdhriyAcchAr
Swamy ( Dr.V.N.S Swamy ) and his elder brother ,
U.Ve. V.N.SrIrAma DesikAcchAr  Swamy :

" The Four Schools of Buddhism , namely , VaibhAshika , 
SautrAntika , YogAchAra and Maadhyamika , inspite of
many differences in their principles , have some aggrements 
in their viewpoints : 

(1) All entities are impermanent , transitory  and in a continous 
state of change (2) apart from the flow of cognitions , there is
no soul or aathman as the seat of cognition or consciousness.
Unlike the two latter Buddhists (YogAchara and MaadhyAmika) ,
the VaibhAshika and the SautrAntika hold both mental and 
physical entities as real and existing . The VaibhAshika contends that 
all external objects are real and apprehensible by perceptions 
generated by the sense organs . Space and NirvANa are ,
according to him , eternal ; matter and mind which is not 
an entity distinct  from the so-called soul or atman , 
are impermanent and momentary. For the reason that some 
entities are held as permanent and non-momentary ,
the VaibhAshika is condemned as a non-buddhist 
even by his colleagues , who uphold the momentariness
of all existing entities.

The VaibhAshika is grouped with SautrAntika because
both of them maintain the reality of external things. Consequently,
they are both called Sarva-asti-vAdhins .The VaibhAshika objects 
however to the contention of SautrAntika on the point of presentation 
of a form by the external thing to the mind ". 
173) Swamy  Desikan's condemnation of VaibhAshikam
KaaNkinravan ilai kAtcchiyum kaNDathum uNDu avai tAmm
    yENN koNDana anRu ivaRRil guNamum nilayum ilai
sENN koNDa santhathiyAl sErnthum onRu yena niRkum yenRa
    kONN koNDa kOLUrai VaibhAtikan kuRai kUruvamE 

(Meaning ): VaibhAshika's doctrine are: (1) The Jn~AthA , who
knows the meaning is false ( poy aavAn) (2) Jn~Anam , and the entity 
comprehended by the Jn~Anam are real entities(3) That Jn~Anam 
and the vasthus comprehended by it are limitless(4) Both of them
however have no attributes (GuNams) (5) They do not stay permanent
and are destroyed in a moment. (6) Vasthus will stay as assemblies of 
ParamANus ( sub-atomic entiites ).

Some weird and distorted  inferences are made form this ParamAnu
theory of VaibhAshikan . According to him , although the ParamANus
are limitless , their assembly makes the entity of similar ParmANus
that we call as a Pot or the flame made up of  similar ParamANus of 
fire(microcosms of fire ) . Even if the sparks of flames are similar 
ParamANus to make the mighty flame , it is confusing to extend 
the instaneously perishing sarks to become an existign flame. 
This kind of Vakra (distorted) rguments are criticized heavily 
by Swamy  Desikan in VaibhAshika BangAdhikAram .

(174) The contrast between Theory and Reality in VaibhAshikam
kumbhiduvAr yAr yenRu tEduhinRAr  
   guNangaLayum tangaLuku kooRuhinRAr 
tamm padiyai tamarkku urIaitthup-padivikkinRAr
   tamakku ini mEl VeedenRu sAthikkinRAr 
tamm pudavai uNal kuritthu nedithu yeNkinRAr
   santhatikkut-tavam palikkat-tAmm pOhinRAr
sempadavar seyhinRa siRRinippaic-
   chEvahap-paRRudanE nAmm sehtthittOmE 

(Meaning ): VaibhAshikars accept Jn~Anam and vasthu 
as real and yet reject guNams (attributes) in them and state 
their existence is momentary. These doctrines counter their
behavior . VaibhAshikAs spend a lot of time and effort to
collect sishyAs  for the sake of amassing wealth and glory .
They proclaim that they possess dispassion (VairAgyam ) 
and non-violence (ahimsA) . They instruct the sishyAs 
about their doctrine that  they will secure MOksham , the moment
their bodies fall down at the end of their life span . They take 
a lot of trouble to amass wealth and food and worry quite 
a bit on bodily matters. They state that they perform penance
for the upliftment of their sishyAs and family . All of these are
inconsistent with their doctrines that all entities are momentary 
and these entities have no attributes. We (Swamy  Desikan ) 
have refuted all these inconsitencies between the VaibhAshikA's 
acts and their professed philosophies .

The use of the Tamil word in this Paasuram "Sempadavan " has 
double meanings: (1) Sempadavar means fishermen . Hers the VaibhAshikAs 
are compared to fishermen , who use their distorted logic to attract 
the minds of the people to win them over to their doctrines 
(2) Sem+padavar means one , who wears ochre robes ( KaashAyam).       

10.  criticism of Adhvaitham .

At the outset , let me request all who to read this posting to treat it as
a historical summary with no intention to hurt anybody's feelings .  This
particular posting is aimed at the students of Philosophy .

Source Literature
There are many outstanding books on Advaitha, Dhvaitha ,
VisishtAdhvaitha VedAnthams by eminent AchAryAs going back to
many  centuries . In most recent times , the following books on
the comparitive analysis and defense of Advaitha and VisishtAdhvaitha
Darsanams would be of immense use to the students of such darsanams :

1. SrI Madhusoodhana Saraswathi ( 1540-1647 C.E) : Advaitha Siddhi

2. Swamy  Desikan (1268-1369 C.E) : Satha DhUshaNi   & Other SrI Sookthis
    such as AdhikaraNa SaarAvaLi  , 11th chapter of Para Matha Bhangam

3. SrI AnanthakrishNa  Saasthri ( 1956) : Satha BhUshaNi

4. SrI UtthamUr Swamy ( 1959): ParamArTa BhUshaNam

5.SrI S.M.S. Chari 1961) : Advaita and VisishtAdhvaitha
   (A study based on Vedanata Desika"s Sata DhUshaNi ).

6. SrI S.M.S. Chari ( 1998): The Philosophy of the Vedantha SoothrAs

Before studying the two Paasurams of Swamy  Desikan on
Advaitham , let us summarize the key aspects of  Advaitham
as presented  by U.Ve. Dr.V.N.SeshAdhriyAcchAr
Swamy ( Dr.V.N.S Swamy ) and his elder brother ,
U.Ve. V.N.SrIrAma DesikAcchAr  Swamy along
the lines of AchArya RaamAnujA in SrI BhAshyam
(laghu and MahA SiddhAntham) and Swamy  Desikan in
Satha DhUshaNi, Tatthva Muktha KalAPam ,
SarvArTa Siddhi and Para Matha  Bhangam (11th Chapter:
Pracchanna Bhouddha BhangAdhikAram) .

Adhi Sankara's contributions
His contributions are many from PrakaraNa granthams
to moving sthOthrams and subhAshithams like Bhaja Govindham.
Adhi Sankara destroyed the faulty doctrines of Veda-Baahya
mathams like Bhuddhism and Jainism and established the authority of
Vedams and crushed the nihilistic theories of Bhuddhisam . We are
indebted to Adhi Sankara for these unique contributions .

Adviatham & Buddhism (Continued)
Dr.V.Varadachary's observations on Adhvaitham developed
by Aadhi Sankara are : " Idealism of the Bhuddhists found
room in SankarA's system in which Brahman assumed
the place of Knowledge. Brahman is without attributes and is
the only Reality. The world of animates and inanimates (ChEthanams
and achEthanams ) has  only phenomenal existence and while dividing
existence thus in to absolute and phenomenal , SankarA paved the way for
living a virtous life leading finally to absolutism ". In view of
overlaps with Buddhistic doctrines in some key areas ,
some have described adhvaitham as Pracchanna Bhouddham.

Some disagreements
VaishNavite Achaaryas have over centuries disagreed
with the basic premises of Advaitham in the follwing areas
as defined by Dr.S.M.S. Chari in his classical monograph
entitled "Advaitha and VisishtAdhvaitha " :

(1) The validity of PramANAs for Advaita VedAntham
(2) The nature and content of Perception (3) TheNature of
Consciousness (4) The nature of Jeevan (5) The Nature of Brahman:
SaguNa or NirguNa Brahman (6) The nature of Jagath (Universe)
(7) The doctrine of avidhya and (8) Sadhana and Mukthi .

As Dr.S.M.S. Chari points out , there have been criticisms
Advaitham by VisishtAdhvaitham and vice versa over
centuries and continues even today.

Darsanams wiht different view points
Professor P.N. SrInivAsAchAri's wise  assessment
has to be borne in mind, while we treat this subject
( the Two schools of VedAnthA ) in this series of
Postings on Para Matha Bhangam .

" Every VedAnthic System has a synthetic purpose as it claims be
a criticism of and fulfilment of previous systems. The conflicts between
two schools of thought do not in any way affect their value as a system of
philosophy . On the other hand , they enrich them in so far as they serve
an impetus to further development of Philosophic thought " .

The Core Doctrines of Adhvaitham
Samkara Advaitha has the core doctrines:

" Brahma Satyam  Jagan Mithya , JivO Brahmaiva na Para: "

This core statement of Advaitham affirms (1) the nonduality of  Brahman /
the onenness of the individual Jeevan with the absolute Brahaman/
the nondifference between the Jevan and Brahaman
(2) the nonreality of the empirical world around us and
(3) Brahman alone is True.

The key concept in Advaitha VedAntha is avidhyA /MaayA ) .
It is used  to explain  the distinction between the attributeless (nirguNa
Brahman and the One with attributes (SaguNa Brahman ) and to
explain the distinction between non-dual reality appearing as Jeevans
and as God ( Iswaran) .

175) Refutation of Adhvaitham
VedangaL mouli viLanga ViyAsan virittha nal nool
   paadhangaL aana pathinARil Isan padi maRaitthu
BhEthangaL illai yenRu ohR birama picchu iyambuhinRa
   bhOdham kazhinthavanai Bhuddhar mAttudan poottuvamE

(Meaning): For the purpose of understanding the true meaning of
Upanishads  , Sage VyAsa compiled Brahma Soothrams in four
adhyAyams containing  sixteen padhams . Adhvaithins do not accept
Iswaran's anantha kalyANa guNams and Svaroopam proclaimed
by the above VedAntha Saasthram . Instead , they describe Brahman as
mere JN~Ana Svaroopan without any guNams (nirguNa Brahman).
They  assert Brahman alone is Real (sathyam ) and all else are false.
They declare that MayA does make all these unreal objects
appear real to Brahman as a result of its Ajn~Anam . We have no
choice under these circumstances  to link adhvaitham with Bhouddham
and reject both as unsound in this adhikAram of Pracchanna
BhouddhA Matha Bangam .

176) Condemnation of the avidhyA sambhandham to Brahman
pirivu illa iruL onRu piNakku onRu illA
   peru-veyilai maRaitthu ulaham kaattum yenna
aRivillA aRivu onRai avitthai moodi
   aham puRam yenRu ivai anaithtum amaikum yenpAr
seRivu illA Buddharudan sErnthu kettAr
   seevanayum Isanayum chithaikkap-pArthAr
neRi illA nErvazhiyum tAnE aanAn
   NedumAlai nAmm adainthu nilai peRROME

(Meaning ) : The main tenet of Adhvaithis is that Brahmam
alone is true (sathyam). It has no GuNams like Jn~Anam.
But it (Brahman) stands as the Jn~Ana Svaroopam . There is no real
Vasthu other than Jn~Anam .Brahma Svaroopam has sambhandham
from time immemorial to a vasthu called MaayA. The nature of MaayA
is to hide its aadhAram , Brahman.Sine Brahman is hidden by MaayA ,
Brahma svaroopam does nor shine as it should in its real nature.

This MaayA is a vasthu made up of the three guNams , Satthvam ,
Rajas and Tamas ; it can not be described either as real or unreal;
it has the svabhAvam (nature ) to hide its substratum (aadhAram);
it changes constantly.It hides Brahma Svaroopam and shows
transformed vasthus like Water, Earth ( Pruthvee) and similarly
through its thirOdhanam (hiding Brahman ) , shows up as
variations such as Desire (icchA ), Jn~Anam and DhvEsham
( resentment). These are the key doctrines of Advaitham.

The description of avidhyai hiding Brahman to create all
vasthus is like saying that a mighty darkness hides the brightest
luminous body and that mighty darkness shows all vasthus
of the world to the people ( IruL onRu peru veyilai maRaitthu
ulaham kAttum yenna) .

It is YogAchAran's doctrine that Jn~Anam alone is sathyam
and the rest are false.He says that Jn~Anam is momentary in
existence.It ceases to exist every moment and newer Jn~Anams
are born and perish the next second. This anithyathvam
(impermanence) and Bhauthvam ( nature of being many Jn~Anmas)
are figments of fancy and are not consistent with Veda PramANams.
In this Bhouddha Matham , Jn~AthA (the knower ) is false ( asathyam)
and the phalans of the Jn~Anam are also unreal. Adhvaitham
overlaps thus with YogachAras in some areas and MaadhyAmikas
in other areas . There are commonalities between the two mathams.
Bhouddham is an avaidhika matham ( Veda Baahya matham ) and does
not accept Vedam as PramANam. Adhvitham is indeed a Vaidhika matham
but misintreprets the true meanings of VedAntham as revealed by
Sage VyAsa in his Brahma Soothrams.The key outcome for adhvaitham
is that they do not accept that Jeevan and Iswaran are different
The Adhvaithins believe in the identity of Jeevan with Brahman .
In Adhvaitham , " All things other than Brahman are unreal because
they are different from Brahman, like the shell-Silver . Avidhya
(ignorance ) makes one see the universe in Brahman even though 
the Universe has no real existence...This doctrine of avidhyA or 
MaayA is the very life blood of Adhvaitha " .With the use of avidhyA ,
the realtion between Brahman and the Universe is distorted
by adhvaithins.

VisishtAdhvathins stoutly refute many of the above doctrines
of Adhvaitham.They hold that The Universe is Real and the Supreme
Being is full of kalyAna GuNams . Brahman is held to be playing the role
of Soul to the Universe , which is recognized as His own body.
The Body-Soul relationship between the Universe and Brahman
is the life blood of VisishtAdhvaitham . All the chEthanams
and achEhtanams form the body of Brahman .

VisishtAdhvaitham's central tenet is " Brahman (the Supreme Being)
having the Universe of ChEthanams and achEthanams as its body
is the ONLY Real thing and there is NOTHING , which is not
the body of Brahman and which is independent of the same
Supreme Being .Whereas in the doctrine of Adhvaitha ,
Brahman alone is real, and every thing else--Sentients and
insentients -- is false ; the VisishtAdhvaitha while presenting
the view  that brahman alone is real explains that brahman includes
sentients and insentients , which are proved to be inseparable
attributes and body of Brahman. This intrepretation reveals
a vast gulf of difference between Adhvaitham and
VisishtAdhvaitham ".

Swamy  Desikan states in this slOkam : " neRi illA nEr vazhiym
tAnE aanAn, NedumAlai adainthu nilai peRROM " ( We performed
the UpAyam of SaraNAgathy to the Lord , SrIman NaarAyaNan ,
who has no other alternative except Himself  for granting MOksham
and we as Sesha BhUthans protected out Svaroopam as His 
eternal servant through rejection of other misleading Mathams 
like Adhvaitham .

11. refute the avaidhika Matham of Jainam 

( 12 thChapter of Para Matha Bhangam: Jaina Matha BhangAdhikAram).

177) Refutation of Jainism
sOthanai vittu orutthan sola meyyenac-chOhatarai
   sEthanai aRRavar yenRu sithaittha pinn seevarkatkkOr 
vEdanai seyhai veRum maRam yenRu viLampi vaitthE 
   maatavam yenRu mayir paRippAr mayal maaRRuvamE
(Meaning): The Jains do not  accept the eternal VedAs 
as having been created  by no human beings (apourushEyam) .
Tthey do not  accept the Vedams bequeathed to us by the Lord 
as PramAnam.Bouddhism is in the same category of
Veda Baahya Mathams . In this chapter , we refute
the Jaina Matham as we did before the four kinds of 
Bhouddha mathams. The key doctrine of Jainism is
nonviolence to every living being. Inspite of this avowed 
doctrine not to cause any pain to living beings , they pull
out their own hair and cause harm to themselves and 
consider that act of himsai as a great act of penance.
We will remove their ignorance about fundamental tatthvams.
The reason for many to like Jaina Matham over Buddha Matham 
is because of its difference from Buddhism in accepting that 
the world is real and that here are nithya and anithya vasthus. 
They agree however with the Bhuddhists that mind is not 
a distinct entity from the Soul.They preach ahimsai but perform 
forcible pulling of their hairs as dhigambhara  monks  and cause
himsai to themselves.
The nigamana (concluding , suming up) paasuram on Jainism
goes in to more details about the doctrines of this Matham 
and its inconsistencies and contradictions .
178) Inconsistencies of doctrines 
sonnAr tAmm sonnathu yelAm thuravOmyenRum 
   sonnathuvE sonnathu alathu aahum yenRum
siRiyanumAm periyanumAm seevan yenRu
   mannAthum mannumathum onRE yenRum 
vaiyamellAm vizhuhinRathu yenRum yenRum 
   tennAdum vada naadum sirikka pEsum 
sina neRiyAr sinam yellAm sithaitthittOmE
(Meaning): Jaina Matham's chief doctrine is that
there is no Iswaran . TFor them , he ParamANus ( sub-atomic 
particles ) are the cause of the Universe.Every vasthu
in this world consists of the duals of Sathyam-asathyam ,
bhEdham-abhEdham , nithyathvam-anithyathvam . They
are made of dhvandhvams(duads) , which are polar opposites.
If some one from other Matham points out that the acceptance
of polar opposites of the kinds pointed above would lead to
the acceptance of other dhvandhvams as well , then the Jains 
accept them all without objection. If some one says that 
their views are inconsistent with PramANams , then they 
point out there is no problem since they consider inconsistency 
as a guNam in vasthus.They say that what can be eaten
and what can not be eaten among vasthus is one and the same.
They say that the Jeevan will have the same size as one's body.
They say that vasthus would be eternal (nithyam ) and at
the same time evanescent (anithyam/limited life). They 
state that the Earth because of its weight is forever 
descending downwards . All of these strange beliefs and
statements make them national laughing matter.We have 
rejected their doctrines(saptha bhangee Vaadham) 
in this adhikAram .  

12.  refute the BhAskara- Yaadhava Mathams 

( one of the BhEdha- AbhEdha  Matham ).  The detailed account of this
matham as a group of FIVE MATHAMS and its refutation is housed in the 6th
Chapter of SrImath Rahasya Thraya Saaram . Durign Jan 16, 1999 HH
Prakrutham Azhagiya Singar gave a Tele-upanyAsam on the Subject that has
been summarized by me in the Ahobila Matam Web pages:
 Please refer to this posting for details .  
Please refer to this posting for details on the BhAskara-
YadhavaprakAsa Matham.If you have difficulty in accessing these
pages, please search with Google search engine with the string :
Bhaskara+yaadhava . Pages 2 & 3 of the 7 page posting cover
in detail the key  aspects of BhEdhAbhEdham doctrines .
adiyEn will summarize the content below.  
 179) Refutation of  BhAskara-Yaadhava Matham
 yEkAnthikam illai yenRu aasayau t-thAmuduppAr
     sOkAnthamAhat-thuRappunDa pinn thozhil vaidhikam
 yenRu EkAnthikaL sonna Isan padiyil vikaRpam yeNNUM
    lOkAntha VeeNar tamm vEdAntha Vaartthai vilakkuvamE
 (Meaning ): Jaina AchAryaas wear the directions as their dress
 ( they are naked). They were saying that there are no vasthus with 
 the same svabhAvam. They became less sure about that declaration
after hearing our criticisms of that concept in the earlier chapter . 
 Sages VyAsa, ParAsara are the great ones , who established Brahma 
 Svaroopam as firm and having the same nilai .In those doctrines
established by Sages VyAsa and ParAsarar , the BhAskara-Yaahava 
 matham followers create discord by suggesting BhEdham and  
 abhEdham are  in Brahman .They keep telling that their BhEdhAbhEdha 
 doctrines are rooted in the VedAs and VedAntham.We will refute their
 Matham as unsound in this chapter . 
  180) Condemnation of the BhEdha-abhEdha Matham of Bhaskara-Yaadhava
  onRenavum palavenavum thORRuhinRa
     ulahu yellAm oru Bhiramam tAnE aakki
  nanRu yenavum theethu yenavum pirintha yellAm
     nanRu anRu theethu yenRE yena navinRAr
  kanRum alar pasuvum alar aahi ninRE
     kanRAhi PasuvAhi ninRa vaNNam
  inRu maRai mAttukku ohr idayanAna
     yEkAnthi isayinthada nAmm iyambinOmE

BhAskara Matham: Jeevan and Braman will stay united
without any variations (BhEdham) .This kind of non-difference
(abhEdham ) is natural for Brahman. The differences (BhEdham)
from Brahaman for Jevans is thru the UpAthi of Buddhi, Indhriyam ,
SarIram et al. For the insentients ( achEthanam ) and Brahman , both
BhEdham and abhEdham are natural manifestations.

Yaadhava PrakAsa Matham: The bhEdham and abhEdham
between Brahman and Jeevan as well as that between
achEthanam and Brahman are natural manifestations(SvabhAvikam)
of Brahman . Yaadhava Matham asserts that  the Svaroopam of Brahaman
has the capacity to transform in to chEthanams and achEthanams.

BhAskara-Yaadhava (B-Y) Matham was a powerful Matham in their 
day . That was why Sudarsana Suri , the author of Srutha PrakAsikA ,
the author of the authoritative Commentary on AchArya RaamAnujA's
SrI BhAshyam spent a lot of effort to refute the above doctrines of
B-Y matham.

DIFFERENCE. The authors of B-Y matham had elegant but 
illogical arguments to sustain this untenable position. How can
there be Identity in difference ? Ultimately , as history tells us
YaadhavaprAkAsa , one time AchAryan of SrI RaamAnujA 
surrendered his loyalty to B-Y matham and became a devout
SishyA of  VisishtAdhvaitham as developed by  AchArya 
RaamAnujA . From the history of Philosophy , B-Y matham
has to be looked at .The 180th Paasuram covers Swamy
Desikan's refutation based on the views of his PoorvAchAryAs.
Swamy  Desikan refutes the central doctrine of B-Y Matham  
that the Svaroopam of Brahman transforms in to ChEthanam 
and achEthanam . VisishtAdhvaitham avers that the Svaroopam
of Brahman is totally  different from ChEthanams and achEthanams 
and the Brahama-ParinAma vAdham of B-Y matham is undefendable
based on Saasthrams and Upanishads .

Issues in B-Y Matham
The issue centers on the explanation of the material 
causality of Brahman ? For reference , a lump of clay is
the material cause (UpAdhana KaaraNam ) for an
earthern pot . How does Brahman , whcih Upanishads 
assert as immutable transform in to the Universe ? How is
the material casuality of Brahman accounted for without 
affecting the Svaroopam  of Brahman ?

B-Y Matham accounted for this by stating that Brahman
itself transforms into the material universe .This is known
as the Brahma PariNAma Vaadham .

VisishtAdhvaithins connected Brahman with ChEthanam 
and AchEthanam (sentient/chith and insentient/achith) and 
held that the subtle form of assoication  of Brahman with
chith and achith ( Sookshma-chith-achith visihta form). 
The material causality of Brahman is explained through 
the Brahman becoming antharyAmi for all chith and achith
while retaining its Svaroopam (with out any vikAram or
changes) . VisishtAdhvaithin's position is therefore considered 
as a modified Brahma-PariNAma Vaadham . 

Adhvaithins hold their  view on matrerial causality  based on
the illusory nature (MaayA) of the Universe. They believe that 
Brahman is the basis of the illusory appearance of the universe 
and links it to the material cause.Swamy  Desikan classed this view 
as Vivartha Vaadham and dismissed both the Adhvaithin's and B-Y 
views  following the doctrines of VisishtAdhvaitham elaborated by
AchArya RaamAnujA. 

In YadhavaprakAsa's matham , Brahman has three fold power 
(sakthi) and transforms in to Chith , achith and Isvara sakthis.
Brahman , which is BEING (SATH)  transforms itslf in to 
a triadic form , while mintaining its svaroopam unchanged 
(abhEdham ) although its sakthi undergoes transformation
(bhEdham )  . This matham of YaadhavaprakAsa was rejected by 
Swamy  Desikan as unsound on the basis that the acceptance of
bhEdham and abhEdham in one breath amounts to
SELF-CONTRADICTION .This Aathmaikyam ( the identity 
of aathmA /ParamAthmA with prapancham (material universe)
is thus rejected. 

The key words of this Paasuram are: " OnRu yenavum 
pala yenavum thORRuhinRa ulaham yellAm oru Brahmam
tAnE aaki " (The whole world staying as one vasthu or as
many vasthus in B-Y matham is viewed as being driven by 
BhEdhAbhEdham through Brahma PariNAma Vaadham).
The Self-contradiction arising from this premise is pointed 
out by Swamy  Desikan .

13. reject VyAkaraNa Matham

for accepting amsams(aspects ) of Adhvaitham , Yaadhava,
Jaina and Bhouddha Mathams as the planks in its foundation.
Swamy Desikan dismisses VyAkaraNa matham as Brahma
Vivartha Vaadha matham .

181) chAyA maRaihaLil sattham teLinthida c-chARRutalAl
          thUyAr ivar yenRu tOnRa ninRE  pala soothuhaLAna
        mAyA mathamum maRu sina vaathum bhavatthumum sEr
           vyAkaraNar sollum maRu mARRangaL mARRuvamE

(Meaning ): VyAkaraNar came to be considered as the pious & pure
ones because they established the precise ways to pronounce ( precise
akshara , Svara , Matthirai  pronunciation ) of Veda manthrams
so that the meanings of these Veda Manthrams are not distorted through
their VyAkaraNa Saasthram . Yet they have made their arguments about
the superiority of their matham by adopting illogical doctrines from
Adhvaitham ,
Jainism and Bhouddham. Their Vivarttha vAdha doctrines are suspect
and therefore VyAkaraNa matham has to be rejected.

What is this Vivarttham ? In the waterless desert , the hot Sun creates
a mirage creating the appearance of  floods and waves , which really
do not exist. The phenomenon of one appearing as the other is
known as Vivarttham. Adhvaithins hold that the Universe (Prapancham )
is the Vivarttham of Brahman .

VyAkaraNa matham holds that there is a vasthu known as SphODam besides
aksharam , word ( padham made up of aksharam ) and Svaram . That SphODam
is attributed to produce meanings to Aksharam and Padhams and that SphODam
is Brahman. The VyAkaraNars describe the entire Prapancham to be the
of that SphODam . Here they are close to Adhvaithins' vivarttha Vaadham
(Prapancham is a Vivarttham of Brahman)  . Brahman never loses its
and is distinct from Prapancham ( Jeevans and insentients) according to
VisishtAdhvaitham .

BhAskara-Yaadhava Matham described derisively as Jaina VedAnthAm
asserts that Brahmam transforms in to Prapancham and undergoes vikArams.
Brahman gives up its svaroopam (thru the  act of pariNAmam) to become
some thing else (viz)., Prapancham according to this Matham .Some of the
believe that sabdha roopa Brahman transforms in to Prapancham through
the act of PariNAmam . Thus VyAkaraNar agrees with BhAskara-Yaadhava
matham in the matter of adopting Brahma PariNAmam that has been rejected
as untenable by VisihtAdhvaithins .

One class of VyAkaraNar and BhouddhAs believe that the individual
words constituting a sentence have their own meanings ( artha Jn~Anam
the Padhams forming the Vaakyams  )  and the integrated use of these words
create a Jn~Anam known as PrathibhA , which provides the true total
Here , there is correlation between the two groups --Bhouddham and
on one hand and VyAkaraNars on the other --and this is also unacceptable..

Swamy Desikan rejects the VyAkaraNa matham for borrowing the faulty
doctrines of the three mathams that have been proven earlier to be unsound

182) The delusion of the VyAkaraNars led by the nose by other Mathams
Kalahatthil kalangi varum kANikku yellAm
    kaNNARu sathira vazhi kattuvAr pOl
ulahatthil maRai sErntha uraihaL tammAl
    oru pizhayum sErAmal ubhaharitthAr
pala katthum Bhouddhar mudhalAna paNDaip-
    pahar kaLLar pahattazhikka paravum poyyAm
sila kaRRu siddhAntham aRiyahillA c-
   chiRvar ini mayangAmal sEmitthOmE

(Meaning ): In the case of ownership over the boundaries of
a disputed land , it is customary to ask for the help of mediators
(MadhyastharkaL) to intervene and resolve the disputations.
The correct boundary agreed upon with the help of MadhyasthAs
is known as "KaNNARu ". Similarly , VyAkaraNar served as
madhyasthAs to establish the true meanings of Veda Vaakyams
using VyAkaraNa Saasthram . Inspite of this great help, VyAkaraNars
fell for the ostentatious propaganda of BhouddhAs and accepted
number of doctrines unique to Bhouddha Matham and were travelling on
dangerous roads going no where.We (Swamy Desikan ) intervened and
saved them from the dangers of the borrowed doctrines from Jainam ,
Bhouddham and adhvaitham.

14.  reject KaNAtha Matham

for creating concepts (padhArthams)  not accepted by
PramANam like Prathyaksham ;  they also do not accept
Iswaran as revealed by the sabdha pramANam of Vedam .
They declare that the timeless Vedams were created by
ordinary humans (PourushEyam ) instead of by the eternal
Iswaran (apourushEyam ) .

183) kaNDathu alAthana kattuthalAl kaNDa vittathanAl
              paNDu uLathAna MaRaikkup-pazhamayai maaRRuthalAl
         koNDathum Isanaik-koLLA vahai yenRu kURuthalAl
              kaNDakarAy ninRa kaNAthar vAdham kazhaRRuvamE

(Meaning ): KaNAtha Matham invented concepts that are not
consistent with Prathyaksha PramANam .Some of these strange
concepts are different from avayavam such as avayavee, SaamAnyam ,
VisEsham , SamavAyam , abhAvam et al . KaNAthAs also reject
Tatthvams approved by the VedAs such as Prakruthi , MahAn et al.
They accept Iswara tatthvam but reject Vedam as apourushEyam .
They do not  recoignize Iswaran as revealed by the eternal
VedAs and accept Him as being revealed by the pramAnam
of anumAnam (inference) alone.  KaNAthAs are like thorn in the flesh
and we (Swamy  Desikan ) removed that thorn from the Vaidhika
SiddhAnthams .

184) The strange doctrine of KaNAtham to explain Iswaran & Moksham
aagamatthai anumAnam yenkayAlum 
    azhiyAtha maRai azhikka ninaitthathAlum
bhOgam aRRu ohr upalam pOl kidakkai tAnE
    puNNiyarkku veedenRu puNartthalAlum
maakam ottha MaNivaNNan padiyai mARRi
    maRRu avanukku ohru padiyai vahutthathAlum 
kAkam ottha KaaNAtan kaNNai vAngik-
    kAkkaikku aar yenRu alaRRak-kaattinOmE 

(Meaning): The KaNAthAs do not accept Sabdham as 
separate (independent) PramANam and bury  it inside 
the pramANam of anumAnam . They treat the eternal ,
Nithya PramANam , Vedam as apourushEyam and 
make it short lived . They state that the state of Moksham
enjoyed by the Jeevan is the state when it exists without 
any anubhavam like  a stone without possessing any
Jn~Anam or aanandham .They say that Iswaran is nimittha
kAraNam ( like potter for a clay pot ) and not upAdhAna
kAraNam ( like the clay ). They declare Iswaran , who is
without any admixture with Prakruthi as one without SarIram
(Suddha Satthva maya sarIram) and  deny Him as possessing
limitless bliss (aanandha mayan ).The KaNAthAs are like 
the crow , which committed huge apachAram to SithA PirAtti
and lost its eye to the BrahmAsthram sent after it by Lord
Raamachandran . We (Swamy  Desikan ) have pulled out 
the eye (the doctrine ) of KaNAthan and made him cry
with desperation about not having any place to resort to in
this adhikAram through our refutation of his doctrines .

15. to assess Gouthama(NyAya ) Matham.

He criticizes it  for bending over backwards to reconcile 
its inconsistencies with some aspects of KaNAtha Matham .

Swamy Desikan criticizes Gouthama matham for having 
some Soothrams that are inconsistent with the path shown by
Brahma Soothrams . Swamy Desikan's rejection of 
the KaNAtha matham  concepts were covered  earlier .
His objections on KaNAtha Matham were (1) nonacceptance of 
Sabdham as a valid PramANam (32) Treatement of Vedam as
PourushEyam (composed by a mortal instead of being created
by the eternal Lord ) and (3) Status of Jeevan in Moksham 
devoid of  Jn~Anam and other guNams . 

Swamy  Desikan accepts that NyAya matham as a Vaidhika Matham
except for the above cited deficencies.He says that those defects
could be removed and NyAya Matham can be made acceptable.
He likens the effort to straighten out NyAya Matham to that of
surgically removing the hunch from the hunchback with some effort .  
He says that an entirely new NyAya Saasthram can be created by
accepting the portions consistent with VisishtAdhvaithic intrepretation 
of Brahma Soothrams and rejecting the objectionable portions .
Swamy  Desikan went ahead and created a SrI sookthi revered as 
NyAya Parisuddhi (Cleansification of Gouthama Matham ) on 
a three pronged approach to bring it back in to the fold of VedAntha
Saasthrams .In summary , Swamy  Desikan accepts NyAya Matham
as an anukoola Matham and rejects KaNAtha Matham as 
a Prathikoola Matham.Swamy  Desikan's position with respect to
NyAya-VaisEshikA matham as well as any other Matham is that
of a VisihtAdhvaithin upholding the Supreme authority of Sruthi
(Vedam as unassailable PramANam) and taking positions that 
are not Veda Viruddham ( inconsistent with apourushEya 
Veda PramANams).

Dr.V.Varadachary Swamy's summing up of the criticism of
the NyAya theory is as follows: " The concepts of Parts and 
whole based on AarambhavAdha is untenable (baseless). 
Swamy  Desikan elaborates on the theory developed by 
VisishtAdhvaithins ( SathkAryavAdha) to defeat the NyAya
developed theory on matter and its parts. Swamy  Desikan also
rejects the NyAya-VaisEshika views on the nature and function 
of sense organs and their views on the status of the soul in
Moksham .  

185) Criticism of Gouthama Matham
gOthama noolakLai kuRRam illA vahai koottalamumAm
    kOthu kazhitthoru kooRRil guNangaLaik-koLLavumAm
yaathum ihanthu oru neethiyai yAmE vahukkavum 
    vEdiyar nannaya vittharam yenpathu meyuLLatE 

(Meaning): It is possible to consider the doctrines of
Gouthama Matham as not being totally inconsistent with Vedam
(Veda VirOdham) with some corrections . It is also possible 
to remove those sections , which are Veda VirOdham 
and accept the rest . We can also reject the whole NyAya 
Matham and construct a new one , which is totally compatible 
with the Vedam  .We can do that . Respecting the insight of 
Maharishis like Manu, who clearly understood the true meanings 
of VedAntham and gave support for the inclusion of NyAya 
Vistaram as one of the 14 VidhyA sthAnams ,  we accept 
the Gouthama matham ( elaboration of nyAya Vistharam ) 
as sathyam. We (Swamy Desikan ) have however straightened out 
the areas of  inconsistencies with Veda PramANams , accepted 
the areas that are backed up by Veda PramANams and replaced
the others with new NyAya soothrams , where they contradict 
Brahma Soothrams .

186) Three ways to make nyAya matham acceptable
nAnn maRaykkut-thuNayAha nallOr yeNNUm
   naaliraNDil onRAna naya nool tannil
koon maRaithtal kOthu uLathu kazhitthan maRROr
  kONAtha kOthil vazhi vahuthalanRi
Oon maRaitha uyir oLi pOl otthathu ovvAthu
  uyirillAk-kANatham uraittha yellAm
vAnn maRaikka madi kOlum vaNNam yenROM 
  maRRu ithaRkku maRu mARRam pEsuvArE 

(Meaning ): NyAya vistharam is accepted as one of 
the 14 vidhyA sthAnams used to intrepret the meaning of 
the four Vedams.The rest of the ten are  the six angAs of
the Vedams ( SikshA , VyAkaraNam , chandas, niruktham ,
jyOthisham and Kalpam ) ,  MeemAmsai, nyAya vistharam ,
PurANam and dharma sAsthram . Among these ten, PurANams
and Dharma Saasthrams give the meanings of Vedams in a way 
and therefore are not strictly considered as direct helps to determine 
the  meaning of the Vedams.Therefore the VidhyA SthAnams 
needed for the determination of the precise meanings of
the VedAs are reduced to 8 from 10 .

Among the 8 vidhyA sthAnams , NyAya vistharam focuses on 
pramANams like prathyaksham and objects experienced 
by prathyaksham in  a brief manner. MeemAmsai dwells in
depth on these pramANams. They (NyAya Vistharam
and MeemAmsai ) fit thus in to an overall topic for 
examination of PramANams in brief and elaborate manner.

This VidhyA sthAnam of nyAya vistharam was taught by 
Gouthama Maharishi through his nyAya soothrams . PramANams
and the pramEyams explained by those pramANams form
the content of the nyAya soothrams (Gouthamma matham). 
Swamy  Desikan researched  them and straightened out
some areas , which were inconsistent with Vedam , Smruthi 
and Braham Soothram ,  removed some which could not be
fixed to fit in to VedAntha Saasthrams . The results of this
scholarly research took birth as Swamy  Desikan's SrI sookthi
revered as NyAya Parisuddhi .Swamy  Desikan pointed out
the mistakes made by Gouthama matham in its enthusiasm to
unify its doctrines with those of KaNAtha Matham and
deemphasis on the need to be aligned with the tenets of
VedAntha Saasthams .Swamy Desikan refutes this 
misplaced enthusiasm on the part of nyAya matham
of Gouthamar to bridge its doctrines to KaNAtha matham
that has totally unacceptable doctrines (Vedam is pourushEyam ,
Jeevan in the state of Moksham is like a stone or wood without
aanandha anubhavam et al) . 

Swamy  Desikan concludes that there is no one , who will 
disagree with his analysis of treating Gouthama matham
(after fixes ) as an anukoola matham and KaNAtha matham
as a vipareetha matham that is not at all acceptable.   
16. criticism of MeemAmsaka Matham 

187) Criticism of the MeemAmsa Matham
Isanum maRRa aNangum ilathuyenRu yezhilnAnmaRayil
    pesiya nall vinayAl perum paazhukkuneer iraykkum
neesarai neethikaLAl nigamAnthatthin nool vazhiyE
    mAsu il manam kodutthum maRu mARRangaL mARRuvamE

(Meaning): MeemAmsakAs do not  accept either the Lord or the other gods
like Indhran. They believe that the Yaagams and Yaj~nams done by humans
produce a vasthu known as apoorvam and that vasthu gives the phalans
for those karmAs .They accept sabdham as the DEvathai . This creates
a situaton in their matham , where the devathais have no sarIram ,
problem in acceptance of the havis by the dEvathai , enjoyment of that
by the accepting devathai, granting fruits for the karmA performed
and for the devathai to be at more than one place to particpate in
more than one  yaj~nam .

The MemAmsakAs do not accept the existence of Iswaran ,
who is worshipped by all types of KarmAs and who grants
the fruits for those kinds of worship . Instead , they create an
insentient vasthu named apoorvam (PuNyams and Paapams),
perform karmAs enjoined by the VedAs  with pomp and expenditure of
a lot of money , undergo a lot of physical sufferings (SarIra Sramam) .
Their effort is like irrigating a desert region. It is futile and

We (Swamy  Desikan ) will refute their foolish ways with appropriate
Veda PramANams and help them understand their follies.

188)  Poorva and Utthara MeemAmsais are one Saasthram only
kanai kadal pOl oru neerAm sootthiratthai
    kavunthanayum irAhuvaium pOlak-kaNDu
ninaivudanE nilait-tarumam ihanthu niRkkum
   neesar nilai nikai nADA vaNNam yeNI
vinai paravu saiminiyAr vEda noolai
   vEdAntha nooludanE virahAl  kOttha
munai udaya muzhu mathi namm munivar sonna
   mozhi vazhiyE vazhi yenRu muyanRittOmE

(Meaning) : Our SiddhAntham is to accept Poorva MeemAmsai,
Utthara MeemAmsai as one vEdAntha Saasthram. Like the One ocean
is called lower and upper ocean , the MeemAmsai, which is one sAsthram
is nomenclatured as Poorva and Utthara MeemAmsais. Poorva MeemAmsai
covers the KarmAs dealing with Bhagavath AarAdhanam . The Iswaran ,
who is worshipped by those KarmAs is the subject matter of Utthara
MeemAmsai or Brahma KaaNDam . BhOdhAyanar , Swamy AaLavanthAr
and AchArya RaamAnujA established this unifying classification and
the two MeemAmsais as belonging to one Saasthram.  We follow this path
recommended by these great intellectuals .

The usage of the words in this Paasuram ( Kavanthanayum IrAhuvayum pOlE )
refers to the MeemAmsakAs calling Poorva MeemAmsam ( Karma KaaNDam)
that does not  accept  Iswaran and only KarmAs as trunk without head ;
Utthara MeemAmsam , which eschews KarmAs and talks only about Iswaran
(Brahman ) as head without trunk. Raahu has head but no trunk; Kabhandhan
of SrImath RaamAyaNam has no head but he has trunk only. Swamy Desikan
gives these apt comparisons to describe the position of   the MeemAmsakAs
and goes on to assert that the united Poorva and Utthara MemAmsams are
one Saasthram (body witha head) and that they can not be seperated .

Swamy Desikan rejects Nireeswara MeemAmsakas , who extoll
KarmAs over Iswaran with the rules of SaarIraka Saasthram .
Swamy Desikan accepts the PoorvOtthara MeemAmsa Kramam.
Swamy  Desikan blessed us with two SrI Sookthis (sEswara MeemAmsa
and MeemAmsa PaadhukA ) to establish the oneness of MeemAmsa
instead of rigid separation of hte one Saasthram in to two MeemAmsa

17. criticism  of Saankhya Matham .

The full title of this adhikAram (chapter)
is NirIswara Saankya NirAkaraNAdhikAram.

There are two Sankhya Mathams: sEswara Saankhya 
darsanam ( Theistic one) and nirIvara Saankhya Darsanam 
(atheistic one created by Sage Kapila). Saankhya KaarikA of 
Vaachaspathi Misra is a detailed statement on this atheistic
Saankhya Darsanam .There are significant differences between 
VisishtAdhvaitha  and SaankhyA darsanams.

189) Criticism of the Saankyaa Matham
mukkuNamAy ninRa moola prakruthikku azhiyA 
    akkuNamaRRa aru tuNai athaRkku Isan illai
ikkaNanaippadi Iyainthum yeNNil munn mutthi yennum
     pakkaNa veeNar pazham pahattaip-pazhuthAkkuvamE
The two key doctrines of Saankhya darsanam are:
(1) Prakruthi and (2) Jeevan.There is no Iswaran .Satthvam , 
Rajas and Tamas are not GuNams but dhravyams. When these 
three guNams are in exactly equal proportions , Prakruthi is 
called Moola Prakruthi (MP) ; it is eternal and is not destroyable .
MP is enjoyed by the Jeevan . MP is pervasive everywhere(Vibhu). 
MP will always undergo changes. This is the prime cause for all
other doctrines and transforms in to tatthvams like MahAn. 

Jeevan is eternal. It is also Vibhu since it is pervasively present
everywhere. Jeevan is without any guNam.He is the embodiment of
Jn~Anam.He ahs no activities. He stands apart from every SarIram.
Prakruthi undergoes transformation as a result of Jeevan standing 
as support .Like a blind person walks with the help of a lame person ,
Prakruthi performs its duties with the help of Jeevan , which is Jn~Ana
Svaroopan .Since the world's activities are accounted by Prakruthi and
Jeevan, Sankhya darsanam denies the need for the Tattvam of Isan .
Saankhya darsanam believes that one can earn mOksham , if one
understands the twenty five tattvams ( Moola Prakruthi , MahAn , 
ahankAram , five bhUthams , five tanmAthrams , five Jn~AnEndhriyams ,
five karmEndhriyams , manas and jeevan.

We (Swamy  Desikan ) condemn the futile assertions about its 
doctrines which are like the brainless prattle of hunters in a hunter 
collony   because of their lack of knowledge about Iswaran and 
DharmAdharmams .

190)  Contradictions  in Saankya Matham: Destruction is the Phalan
Isan ilan yepathanAl yenRum seevar 
   yengum uLar ilar uNarvai yenRavatthAl
pAsamenum prakruthitannAl yenRum
   palamum ilai veedum ilai yennum paNN pAl
kAsini neer mudhalaana kAriyangaL 
  kacchapatthin kAl kai pOl yennum katthAl 
nAm isayA Saankhiyatthai nAduvArkkE

(Meaning ): SaankhyAs deny  the existence of Iswaran,
who is celebrated by all the VedAs . They describe the Jeevan
as Vibhu and without Jn~Anam in opposition to the Vedic view 
that Jeevan is aNu (atomic in size) and filled with Jn~Anam.
First , they say that Jeevan's samsAric experineces and MOksham 
are directly linked to Prakruthi and next state some thing that is
totally contradictory :  Jeevan has no SamsAram and Moksham.
Prakruthi alone has SamsAram and Moksham.

SaankhyAs state that the dissolution of the universe 
and its being during PraLayam and the appearace of the Universe 
during Srushti Kaalam is like the shrinking and sntretching of
tortoises' head in to its shell .They link the shrinking and expansion
(sankuchitham and Vikasitham ) of  the Tatthvams to the dissolution
and creation of the Universe , which is not  acceptable on the grounds of
Veda PramANams. 

VisishtAdhvathins point out the need for Prakruthi being under 
the control of the Omniscient , Omnipotent Iswaran as controller 
of this insentient Prakruthi . Therefore they reject the NirIswara
Vaadham of the SaankhyAs. There are differences of opinions 
on the Kaala Tatthvam between the two darsanams. 

Therefore says Swamy Desikan that he rejects the strange prattlings of 
SaankhyAs as being inconsistent with Veda and other PramANams .

18. criticism  of Yoga Matham .

  191)     Refutation of Yoga Matham
  thAvib-bhuvnangaL thALiNai soottiya Tanthai unthip-
  poovinil piRakkinum bhUthangaL yellAm puNartthidinum
  naavil pirivinRi nAmangai vaazhinum nAnmaRayil
  bhAvithathu anRi uraippathu pARum padhartthiraLE

  (meaning): Yoga Matham was promulgated by Chathurmukha
  BrahmA, who is the first-born son of SrIman NaarAyaNan
  born in the Lotus arising from the navel of the Lord .  Even if
  Brahma were to be born as the son of SarvEswaran and given
  the boon of creating the world and being the husband of Saraswathi,
  his doctrines linked to Yoga Matham are fruitless husks without
  any substance.

  192) Yoga Matham: Variations in Tatthva-Hitha-PurushArTams
  KaaraNanAi ulahu aLikkum KaNNan tEsaik-
     kaNNAdi nizhal pOlak-kANNkayAlum
  DhAraNayin mudivAna samAthi tannait-
     tanakkERRum viLakkenRu tanikkaiyAlum
  kAraNamAm athu tanakku payanAm seevan
     kai valiya nilai yenRu kaNikkayAlum
  kOraNiyin kOlamenak-kuRikkalAhum
     kOkanahatthu  ayan kooRum samayak-kURRE

  (meaning): In Yoga Matham , the tatthva Thrayams of
  Prakruthi, Jeevan and Iswaran are accepted . This matham
  states that Iswaran's anantha kalyANa guNams established
  by the VedAs  are not natural . The image that one sees in
  the mirror is due to the real object standing across it . Similarly,
  in the mirror of Lord , the reason for the images of the GuNams
  to appear is because of their links to chethanams and achEthanams
  with true guNams. Yoga Matham unfortunately emphasizes Jeevan's
  SaakshAthkAram over BhagavAn's SaakshAthkAram. In other words ,
  Yoga Matham takes the position that Kaivalyam (Jeeva SaakshAthkAram )
  is the desirable end result of Bhakthi Yogam and not Bhagavathanubhavam
  in MOksha dasai. The enjoyment of Jeevan without admixture of achEthanam
  is the central doctrine of Yoga Matham and is totally the opposite
 position  of  VisishtAdhvaitha Darsanam . Thus Yoga Matham is
diametrically opposite in  Tatthvam , Hitham and PurushArTam from
the VisishtAdhvaitha Darsanam and is in conflict with Veda PramANams ,
while declaring to believe in Vedic doctrines. This matham is a crowd
and is like the dance of the buffon.

  Additional Notes: Swamy  Desikan condemns this Matham and describes
  his approach as ViruddhAviruddhaamsa VibhAgam .  Viruddham means
  conflict (VirOdham ) . Brahma Is the direct son of the Lord and
  the husband of the goddess of Learning , Saraswathi Devi . He knows
  the meanings of the four Vedams that he recites thanks to the anugraham
  of his Father. Inspite of all these pluses , he imagines things which
  not   embraced by the VedAs and creates the Yoga Matham with strange
  doctrines as though he (Brahma) is engaged in an amusing dance for

  Yoga Matham hints at Iswara Svaroopam , hides it and engages in
  the enjoyment of JeevAthma Svaroopam (JeevAthma Kaivalyam ) ,
  which is Veda Viruddham . Our Lord is Sarva Vidha KaaraNan
  ( reason for Creation , Sustenance and dissolution of the Universe).
  His Iswaryam is real and the Yoga Matham depicts that real
  Iswaryam like it is an image in the mirror.The author of Brahma
  Soothrams says for all these reasons that Yoga Matham has
  to be cast aside ( yEthEna yOga: prathyuktha: ) .He says that
  Yoga Matham has to be rejected like NirIswara Saankhya Matham.

19. refute the Paasupatha Matham.
 193) Paasupatha Matha BahishkAra AdhikAram
saathu sanangaLelAm schacchai yennum salam puNartthAr
     gOdhama sApam onRAl kodum kOlangaL koNDu ulahil
 BhUthapathikku adiyAr yena ninRu avan poyyurayAl
     vEdam ahaRRi niRpAr vikaRpangaL vilakkuvamE
 (Meaning): The Paasupatha SaivAs adorn frightening 
 attires due to the curse of Sage Gouthama. They accepted 
 as PramANams the Paasupatha doctrines given to them
by Siva that are full of falsehood. Following these upadEsams
of SivA , they pushed away Vedams as PramANams.  
 We (Swamy  Desikan) refute these Paasupatha Matham 
 doctrines as invalid from a Saasthram point of view.
194) The Paasupatha Matham founded by Sivan yields alpa phalans
MaadhvanE Paran yenRu vyaam kANa 
     mazhu yEnthi mayar theerkka-valla Devan
 kaitavam onRu uhanthavaraik-kadiya sApam 
     kathuviyathAl athan phalatthaik-karuthip-paNDai
 vEda neRi aNuhAthu vilangu thAvi
    vERAha viiritthu uraittha vikaRppam yellAm
 odhuvathu kutthiratthukku yenRu uraitthAn
    OdhAthE Odhuvikkum oruvam yenRAnE
 (Meaning): PurANams state that Sivan held the hot
 axe (Mazhu) in hi hand and swore that SrIman NaarAyaNan
 is the Supreme dhaivam and removed the ignorance of
 the people. Such a Sivan wanted to make true the curse
 given by Sage GouthamA and hence created a  new matham
 that went against the Veda PramANams and taught them to 
  the disciples of Sage GouthamA . Our Lord , who can 
 instruct all without any upadEsam from others pointed out
 that the following of the Paasupatha Matham doctrines is
 only  tom eke out insignificant phalans.(Varaha PurANam
 describes the curse of Sage Gouthama and Sivan's creatuon
 of Paasupatha Matham to make that curse become true). 
 195) Teaching of the redeeming way for the PaasupathAs
  gandha malar mahaL minnum kArAr mEnik-
     karuNai muhil kaNDa kaNN mayilAi aalum
  antham il pER inbatthil adiyarODE 
     adimai yenum pEramutham arunthi vAzhat-
  tantha mathi izhanthu AranAr samayam pukkut-
    tazhal vazhi pOyt-tadumArit-taLarnthu veezhntheer
  chanda neRi nEr aRivAr saraNam sErnthu
    sankEthatthut-tava muniveer tavirmineerE
  (Meaning): SrI Vaikuntam is the sacred abode of
  the Lord , where the eyes of the MukthAs and 
  Nithya Sooris dance with joy at the sight of 
  the Lord with the hue of the rainy season cloud
  housing the golden hued lightning of SrI Devi
  on  His chest.This sjoyous situation is similar to 
  the peacocks dancing at he sight of dark cluds of
  the rainy season.The PaasupAthAs have equal 
  opportunity to be guided by SadAchAryAs to enter 
  Parama Padham and dance joyously with MukthAs
  and Nithya Sooris at the sight of SrIman NaarAyaNan.
  We pray that they will gain their senses , abandon
  Paasupatha matham , which can only grant insignificant
  boons and save themselves by performing SaraNAgathy
 at SrI VaikuntanAthan's sacred feet.
  Additional Notes on Paasupatha Matham
  Sage Gouthama Saapam (Curse ) was the offending 
  Brahmins , who accused him falsely to become 
  avaishNava Paashandis (non-vaishNavite deluded ones). 
  They followed the upadEsam of Sivan  , who wanted to
  make Sage GouthamAs' curse become true and abandoned
  Veda PramANams dealing with Tatthvams and AchArams.
  Paasupatha Matham breaks up in to four categoties:
  Saivam , Paasupatham , kaapAlam and KaalAmukham .
  In their doctrine, Pasu , Pathi and Paasam are the triads.
  Pathi is Siva Tatthvam. Pasus are the atomic sixed Jeevans.
  Paasam divides in to a pentad: Malam , Karmam , Maayai, 
  the world and ThirOdhAnam (hiding things).Among these ,
  Maayai, Sivan and Pasu are present during PraLayam.
  Siva Tatthvam is split in to another pentad of Sudha 
  Tatthvams : Siva Tatthvam, Sakthi Tatthvam , SadhAsiva 
  Tathtvam , Iswara Tatthvam and VidhyA Tathtvam.
  Asuddha Tatthvams are: avyaktham , three GuNa Tatthvams 
  (Satthvam, Rajas and Tamas ) , Bhuddhi, ahankAram ,  Manas,
  five Jn~AnEndhriyams , Five KarmEndhriyams , Five TanmAthrais 
  and Pancha BhUthams.They have absorbed the SaankhyA doctrines
  and added their own to come up with 36 Tatthvams in total.
  Swamy  Desikan has proven the incorrectness of dividing 
  Suddha Satthvam in NyAya SiddhAnjanam.There Swamy 
  Desikan points out the fallacies of PaasupathA doctrines and
  refutes it on many levels.

20. that answers those who criticize the Bhagaavth Saasthram of SrI
PaancharAthram .

(196) Explanation of SrI PaancharAthram

Yaathum ilAtha anRim yevarkkum nanRi yeNNiya namm
     MaadhavanAr vadhanatthu amudhu uNNum valampuri pOl
 vAdhuhaLAl azhiyA maRai mouLiyin vAnn poruLE
      Odhiya PancharAtthiram uhavArai ozhukkuvamE

(Meaning): SrI PaancharAthram was blessed to us directly
by BhagavAn Himself. It houses VedAntha Saaram that is not 
defeated by the other mathams . We (Swamy Desikan ) will
defeat the other darsanams that do not accept SrI PaancharAthram
and correct their strange doctrines so that they can come in to
the fold of SrI PaancharAthram .

SrI PaancharAthram is equated in this Paasuram to Paanchajanyam
which is blessed to drink the nectar of the eternal Lord's coral- hued
lips .

(197) SrI PaancharAthram has direct links to BhagavAn
Poo alarum Thiruvunthip-punithan vyaam 
    ponn adiyAl aLanthu iruvar pORRa ninRa 
nAvalarum kalaikaL yellAm Tannai naada 
   nAdAtha nall nidhiyA naNuhu NaaTan
KovalanAi nirayaLittha niRai pOl Vedam
   kOvAhak-kOmAn athan paalsErtthuk-
kArtha yuhak-kathi kaNDOm karai kaNDOmE

(Meaning): When our Lord transformed from being
a short statured Brahmin (Vaamanan) in to the gigantic
sized Thrivikraman , His sacred foot extended up to 
Sathya lOkam and  measured  all that  was in between. 
Brahma Devan performed Thirumnajanam for that sacred  
foot . The water that flowed from that feet of the Lord 
was recieved by Lord Siva on His matted locks. Both
Brahma and Sivan eulogized  the glories of their Lord  ,
Thrivikraman. All the VedAs and SaasthrAs are fatigued
from their efforts to describe precisely the svaroopam 
(essential nature ) and guNams (limitless auspicious 
attributes ) of BhagavAn.Meanwhile ,The Lord Himself 
stays as an easily approachable treasure within ready reach of
His dear BhakthAs.Like He protected the cows before ,
He now stays as the cowherd and milks the cows (VedAs) 
to generate the nectar of milk ( PaancharAthra Saasthram)
for our benefit.He decalred that the PaancharAthram is
the best protection for the sentients. We benefitted from 
this Saasthram , which clearly instructs us on the Krutha 
Yuga dharmam and have found the release from drowning
in the ocean of SamsAram.

The key passage in this Paasuram is: " Kaaval ithu 
nall uyrikkenRu kAttum Kaarttha Yugak-kathi kaNDOM 
karai KaNDOmE ". Nall Kaaval refers to auspicious 
protection.This protection is for " uyirkku" ( for the chEthanams).
PaancharAthra Saasthram is the essence of Krutha Yuga
dharmams for the benefit of the chEthanams of Kali Yugam.
Knowledge and practise of PaancharAthra Saasthram 
gets us across the dangerous ocean of SamsAram . It is
the gathi (auspicious means) and helps us to get to the other
shore ( Karai KaNDOm ) of the ocean of SamsAram .  

elaborating on  the 2 paasurams of Paramatha Bhangam
in which Swamy Desikan defends the Bhagavath Saasthram of
SrI PaancharAthram against the criticism of  Para Matha VaadhikaLs..

Swamy  Desikan's arguments are in the 21st Chapter of
the 24 chaptered SrI Sookthi of Paramatha Bhangam
that came in to being at Thiruvaheendhrapuram suburbs
in front of Lord DevanAthan .We will follow closely
the magnificent commentary ( AnapAya PrabhA) of
Vaikunta Vaasi UtthamUr Abhinava Desikar on
Swamy  Desikan's Para Matha Bhangam .

Swamy Desikan 's PaancharAthra RakshA will be born
later as a part of the Five RakshA granthams . We will include
excerpts from the Thirukkudanthai Desikan's Sahasra Naamas
on the section related to PaancharAthra RakshA at the end of
this posting .

Swamy Desikan follows the Aagama PrAmANyam of
Swamy  ALavanthAr and bases His arguments on
the BrahmasoothrAdhikaraNams( UthpathyasambhavAdhikaraNam ).

Here Swamy  Desikan discards the arguments of those that lump
PaancharAthram (Bhagavath Saasthram) with Viruddha VyAmisrams
( unacceptable and inconsistent Mathams like Saankhyam and Yogam).
In Prabhandha Paasuram  196 , Swamy points out that  PaancharAthram
arose from the lips of BhagavAn Himself like the Paanchajanya dhvani
that arose from the lips of BhagavAn  ( MaadhavanAr vadhaanatthu amudhu
uNNum   valampuri pOl). He says that PaancharAthram deals with
eternal and imperishable Veda-VedAnthic doctrines just like the ghOsham
of the divine conch of the Lord ( Paanchajanyam) , which seeks
the hitham of the pancha janams( Five kinds of people: Four VarNams
and SankeerNa Jaathi members).

Swamy  Desikan examines the basis for the criticisms stating that
PaancharAthram is aprAmANikam ( without the support of PramANams)
and dismisses those criticisms as unsustainable and flimsy .
These objections can be classed under the categories of
(1) PourushEyam / created by mere mortals and therefore
containing the normal dhOshams associated with such people
(2) Inconsistency with the  VedAs (Veda Viruddham) ,
(3) Tatthva viruddham (4) AchAra Viruddham.

Regarding the objections that it is PourushEyam and hence has vakthru
dhOsham ( defects arising from association with speaker , who is a mere
mortal) ;
these defects of human creations are: Ajn~Anam , ViparItha Jn~Anam ,
powerlessness to create the text (vachana asakthi) and  Vanjanai (deciet)
This PaancharAthra Saasthram is authored by the Sarvaj~nan , BhagavAn
Himself and therefore is free of Vakthru dhOsham .Hence , there is no
basis for ajn~Anam , Viparitha Jn~Amnam and the like. It has no Vanchanais
( misleading decietful upadEsam like others done for MohanArTam or
causing delusions like Bhoudhdam ). It arose out of compassion for
devotees (Bhathaanukampaa). It was taught by BhagavAn to Sanathkumaarar,
Saandilyar and Naaradha Rishis , who are the propagators of SamhithAs
(SamhithA PrachArakars).Therefore , there is no basis for Vanjanai/deciet.

PaancharAthram is intended for archA mUrthy aarAdhanam. In addition ,
it deals with the upAyams for Moksham.There is therefore no varaitions
or departures from Veda Maargam .It is for Veda Maarga PrathishtApanam.
There are no insignificant and nonlasting objectives (Kshudhra Phalams)
are sought in PaancharAthram.

PaancharAthram covers the very same trinity of Tatthvams ( ChEthanam,
achEthanam and Iswaran) taught by Vedams and VedAnthams (Upanishads).
Hence , there is no Veda VirOdham (Conflict with Vedam or Upanishads).
As Tarkika Simham ( Lion among logicians) , Swamy Desikan uses Tarkam
brilliantly to lay to rest the objections of critics brelonging to
PrakAsa-Saankara-BhAskara darsanams and Saivam about Tatthva
VirOdham arguments.

Next , Swamy  Desikan takes up the criticisms about AachAra-AnushtAna
viruddhams (KriyA, CharyA visEshams being in conflict with pramANams) .
PaancharAthram goes in to great lengths about Aalaya nirmANam (
of the temple for BhagavAn) , Moorthy nirmANma ( Construction of images of
the Lord for consecration) . AarAdhana -NithyOthsava- MaasOthsava-kriyAs).
Swamy  Desikan points out that these are consistent with Veda PramANams.
The Veda Moolam (Basis inthe VedAs) of such kriyAs based on the anushtAna
kramam ( the procedures established by Kalpa Soothrams as angAs of
the Vedams) is pointed out.

PaancharAthram divides the day in to five units fit for BhagavadhArAdhanam
and NithyAnushtAnams : Abhigamanam , IjyA , SvAdhyAya Yoga Kaalams .
Here Swamy  Desikan quotes the defense of Sage SounakA for such VishNu
AarAdhanam based on the Rg Veda Manthram dealing with VishNu aarAdhanam.
Sages VyAsa and Yaaj~navalkhyA elaborate similarly on Hari Archanam
and the methods of doing it in a manner consistent with Vedams , which
is akin to PaancharAthram.Bhagavath archanam precedes Bhakthi Yogam
and hence the necessity of PaancharAthram for gaining the fruits of
yOgam (Moksham ) is stressed .

The KarmAs of PaanchrAthram are divided in to Three kinds:
Vaidhikam (2) Kevala Taanthrikam and (3) Vaidhika Taantrikam .
The Vaidhikam for Brahmins; Vaidhika Taantrikam is for
KshathriyAs ; Kevala Taantrikam  is for VaisuyAs and SoodhrAs.
This PaancharAtram covers the needs of all four VarNams.

The above approach is consistent with Dharma Saasthrams.Each
VarNam has rites customized for them as in Sroudha SoothrAs
blessed by Sage AapasthambhA and others. For instance ,during
the samarpaNam of Havis , Brahmin is invited with the term ,
"YEhi " ; Kshathrian with invocation , "AagAhi ";, Vaisyan with
"Aadhrava " and Soodhran with the invitation , "AadhAva ". No one
is left out .Similarly , the time for dhIkshAs for AarAdhanam
are set at different seasons  (Vasantha Ruthu for Brahmin , Ghreeshma
Ruthu for Kshathriyan , Sarad  ruthu for Vaisyan and Hemantha
ruthu for Soodhran). This is for PaancharAthra DheekshA for
Bhagavath AarAdhanam.This is Vaidhikam .Thus PaancharAthram
defends the VarNAsrama Dharmams and is consistent with BhagavAn's
apourushEya VedAs . PaancharAthra DheekshA prohibits the worship of
DevathAntharams for ParamaikAnthis .PaanchrAthram has PoorNa
PrAmANyam (Complete consistency with Veda PramANams).
It is based on SarvAntharyAmithvam of BhagavAn SrIman NaarAyaNan.
There is no asArAmsam ( insignificant admixture ) in PaancharAthram.
It is like the nectar churned from the Milky ocean since it is created by
SrIman NaarAyaNan . Sages Manu, SukrAcchAr ( Asura Guru) and
Bruhaspathi (Deva Guru) practise PaancharAthram and its four
divisions/siddhAnthams (Aagamam , Manthram , Tanthram and

Thirukkudanthai Desikan's salutations
The founder of Munithraya SampradhAyam ,
Thirukkudanthai Desikan composed a beautiful
Sahasra Naamam for Swamy  Desikan .Here ,
the great AchAryan salutes Swamy  Desikan as
the defender of Paancha Raathram ( PaancharAthra
RakshAkruth ). and as "PaancharAthra PramANa vith" .
Swamy  Desikan points out that PaancharAthram
is based on the Veda BhAgam of yEkAyana Sruthi
and therefore has Veda PramANam.

Swamy  Desikan is saluted by Thirukkudanthai Desikan
as " SrI PaancharAthra SarvOpajeevyathva ukthi vichakshaNa:"
( the competent AchAryan , who could point out that
SrI PaancharAthram as being  fit for observance by all the four

Swamy  Desikan is saluted once again for his comprehensive
knowledge about the ThiruvArAdhanam (ijyai) for the Lord
and its 8 divisions , which is the heart of SrI PaancharAthram :

" dEvEjyA -ashtAngathA-uthkarsha-varNanaikia-vichakshaNa:"

Ijyai is peformed with its 8 parts for gaining  Moksham by
ParamaikAnthis . These eight parts are :

(1) Abhigamanam: from Hrudh thyAgam  /Maanasa AarAdhanam
      to Aathma SamarpaNam .This is not the same as the abhigamanam
      linked to PanchakAla Prakiyai.

2)  BhOgam ( external upachArams like presenting argyam ,
     flowers et al).

3)  Madhuparga dhAnam

4) Anna nivEdhanam

5) SampradhAnam ( distribution of Bhagavth PrasAdham).

6) Vahni SandharpaNam ( separate hOmam associated
     with Ijyai ; not in practise now).

7) Pithru Yaagam ( Yaj~nam done with VaasudEva nAmams).

8) anuyAgam: Partaking of Bhagavan nivEdhitha annam
    ( PrANAgnihothram /antharyAmi nivEdhanam).

The greatness of PaancharAthram as Bhagavath Saasthram
is thus upheld by Swamy  Desikan brilliantly.

21.  refutations of the ineffective UpAyams for Moksham recommended  by
the other Mathams 

and  the celebration of 
the Svaroopam (essential nature ) and the glory of the UpAyam 
according to VisishtAdhvaitha Darsanam as the most effective
and never failing among all of the UpAyams advanced by
the other Mathams..

(198) Our Lord showing His sacred feet as the UpAyam 
NamakkAr ThuNai yena Naam yenRu aruL tarum NaaraNAr 
umakku aaRu ivai yenRu adiyiNai kAtta uNarnthu adayum 
yeamkku Ohr baram ini illAthu  iruvinai mARRuthalil
TamakkE baram yenRu ThAmm muyalaum taram sARRuvamE 

(Meaning ): The suffering chEthanams got tossed about wildly 
in the horrors of SamsAram and searched out for some one
to save them .They got worried about who is going to come to
their help .SrIman NaarAyaNa responded and assured them 
that He is there to save them and therefore they do not need to 
worry anymore. The Lord pointed out His sacred feet as
the means for the protection of the chEthanams . After we 
(chEthanams) surrendered at those redeeming feet of the Lord , 
He accepted the total responsibility to destroy all the karmAs of 
us , the ChEthanms , and stood in the place of other upAyams 
(means for Moksham) and blessed us with the fruits of Moksham . 
In this adhikAram , We (Swamy Desikan) will salute the glories of 
the Lord , who peforms this MahOpakAram for the PrapannAs.

 (199) The sacred feet of the Lord ALONE  is UpAyam
palatthil oru thuvakku aRRa padhavi kAttip-
  pall uyirum tadumARap-paNNuhinRa 
kalitthiraLin kadum kazhuthaik-katthu mARRik-
  kaNNudayAr kaNDuraittha kathiyac-chonnOm
valatthu ilahum maRu onRAl maRu onRillA
  MaamaNiaayAy malar mAthar oLIyAm anann-
nalatthil Ohr niharillA NaaTan paadha
  nalvazhiyAm alvazhakku aar nadutthuvArE ?

(Meaning ): Those who advocate the doctrines of  Para Mathams 
are like the harm-causing Kali PurushAs.They preach to the gullible 
people of the world the svaroopam of UpAyam for Moksham in
a distorted fashion to  make sure that the followers will not
gain the Phalan from adopting these means (upAyam ) . Their
debates are as horrible to listen to like the awful bleating of an ass.
We (Swamy  Desikan ) revealed in this chapter the upadEsams of 
our AchAryAs gifted with the eye of true knowledge about 
the true and fulfilling upAyams for Moksham. The upadEsams 
of our AchAryAs , who refuted the viparItha upAyams of 
Para Matha Vaadhins is about the truly effective upAyam
for gaining Moksham .That UpAyam is the sacred feet of 
our Lord ; He is steeped in bliss and is characterized by 
the mole of SrIvathsam adorning His chest and is united always
with His Piraatti residing on this very same broad chest .
On this matter of the Lord being the surest upAyam (means)
for Moksham , there is no debate .  
(200) The comfort and the Glories of  of Prapatthi 
yellArkkum yeLithAna yERRatthAlum
   ini  uraikkai  mihayAna irakkatthAlum
soll aarkkum aLavAlum amaithalAlum 
  thuNivu arithAyt-thuNai thuRakkum sukaratthAlum
kallArkkum kaRRAr soll kavarthalAlum 
  KaNNan urai mudi soodi muditthalAlum
nallArkkum theeyArkkum ithuvE nanRA
  NaaraNaRkkE adaikkalamAi naNUhuveerE 

(Meaning): Prapatthi is easy to perform by all chEthanams.
Just like BrahmAsthram can  not co-exist with other inferior 
asthrams , Prapatthi can not co-exist with other upAyams 
intended for gaining MOksha Siddhi. Lord's mercy makes
sure that one does not need to perform Prapatthi more than
once to gain Moksham. Even if one does not have a clear
understanding of the different angams of Prapatthi , the simple
repetition of the Prapatthi Vaakyams of one's AchAryan 
yields the Phalans of Moksham. Even if it is difficult to
realize the MahA VisvAsam ( an important angam of 
Prapatthi) , Prapatthi  is not comparable in difficulties to 
Bhakthi Yogam that requires the mastery of Karam and 
Jn~Ana Yogams . Even for those without any special
Jn~Anam , the Prapatthi performed by AchAryAs for them 
is sufficent to gain the fruits of Moksham. Further , in the charama
slOkam of SrImad GithA  , Prapatthi alone is extolled as 
the surest and simplest yOgam for any one , be they sinners or 
virtuous ones. May You all know the supermacy of Prapatthi 
over Bhakthi Yogam and perform SaraNAgathy at the sacred
feet of the Lord and gain Moksha Siddhi !  

22. ParOktha PrayOjanams (Phalans cited by the other 15 Mathams ) as
wothless .

the 23rd Chapter of Para Matha Bhangam : ParOktha PrayOjana BhangAdhikAram
.  In the previous chapter , ParOktha UpAya BhangAdhikAram , Swamy Desikan
rejected the UpAyams recommended by the 15 Para Mathams and celebrated the
glories of Prapatthi as elaborated by GithAchAryan in His Charama SlOkam.
After dismissing ParOktha UpAyams , Swamy  Desikan covers in the 23rd
chapter the topic of ParOktha PrayOjanams (Phalans cited by the other 15
Mathams ) as wothless .Swamy  Desikan points out the supermacy of our
SiddhAntham and elaborates on the true phalan worthy of pursuit resulting
from the following of our Darsanam. 

(201) Refutation of the Svaroopam of the Phalan stated by Para Mathams
PaNDai MaRaikku pahai yena ninRa para mathnagaL
   koNDavar koLLUm payan onRu ilathu yenum koormathiyAl
vaNN Thuvaraikku arasAna namm Maayanai vAnuluhiR-
   kaNDu kaLippathu yenum kAthal onRai karuthuvamE

(Meaning ): The followers of Para Mathams are opponents of
the timeless Vedam. We know that they are wasting their time 
with no thought about the Phalans in this life or the one thereafter.
In contrast , we are deeply desirous of enjoying ParipoorNa 
BrahmAnandham at SrI Vaikuntam as Parama PurushArTam.

(202) The Svaroopam of  the Phalan as per our SiddhAntham
kalanthu ihazhum bhOgangaL kaNDu veLhik-
   kaariyamum kAraNamum kadanthu nAmm pOyk-
kulam thihazhum gurukkaL adi soodi mannum
   kuRRavEl adiyavar tamm kuzhAngaL kooDi
valam thihazhum ThirumahaLum maRRidatthE
   manniya MaNN mahaLArum NeeLayArum 
nalam thihazha veeRRiruntha NaaTan paadham
   namakkithuvE mudiyenna naNNinOmE 

(meaning): Rejecting the transient sukhams of this world , 
performing the UpAyam of Prapatthi, we get release from 
this SamsAram. We reach SrI Vaikuntam and prostrate there 
before the sacred feet of the AchAryAs and mingle with the ghOshti of
BhaagavathAs (MukthAs) . There , we place on our head the sacred
feet of SrIman NaarAyaNan , who is the embodiment of bliss and has
SrI Devi on the right and SrI BhUmi and NeeLA Devis on His left side.  

23. the 24th Summary Chapter: Nigamana AdhikAram .

(203) Mathams that are not rooted in VedAs can not teach Dharmam
MaanangaL inRi vahutthu uraikkinRa mathangaL yelAm
     dhanangaL anRu dharuma neRikkenRu sARRiya pinn
Vaanam kavarnthu maRai mudi soodiya maa tavatthOr
      Jn~AnangaL onRa nadakkinRa nall vazhi nAduvamE

(meaning ): Our PoorvAchAryAs have established that
any Matham that does not accept Vedam as PramANam 
can not instruct us on Dharma mArgam. Our PoorvAchAryAs
have unified the SaasthrAs without conflict to each other .
May we follow the way travelled by our PoorvAchAryAs!   

(204) Following the Foot steps of PoorvAchAryAs
Tann-adik-keezh ulahu yEzhayum vaittha Tanit-ThirumAl
    ponn-adikku-yERkkinRa PuNNIyar kENmin puhalaRivAr
munnadi pArthu muyuluthalaal Avar chayaai yenap-
   pinnadi pArtthu nadanthu perum padham yERuvOmE 

(Meaning): Oh Virtuous Ones ! Our Lord rules the world
positioned under His sacred  feet . All are equally qualiifed 
to worship and enjoy those holy feet without interruption. We will
state one thing that is beneficial to all . Please listen ! Our AchAryAs
followed scrupulously the path travelled by their AchAryAs. 
May we also travel along the path of our AchAryAs and 
reach SrI Vaikuntam !     

(205) The Path shown by VyAsa Bhagavan is the Right way
vyamellAm iruL neekkum maNi ViLakkAY
    manniya nAnn-maRai   mouLi mathiyE koNDu
mey alathu viLampAtha ViyAsan kAttum 
    vilakillA nall-vazhiyE virainthu selveer
Iyaam-aRa aRusaamaya kuRumpu aRutthOm
    aNi arangar adiyavarkkE adimai seythOm
mayya kadal vaDDatthuL maRRum thORRum 
   Vaadhiyar tamm vAy-pahattai mARRinOmE 

(meaning ): We have now completed the refutation of
Para Matha PrathivAdhis and have removed doubts 
about the inappropriateness of their doctrines . Our VisishtAdhvaitha
VedAntham stands like a gem-studded dheepam 
to banish the darkness of nescience in this world. 
BhagavAn VyAsa , who utters nothing  but truth
swam over the ocean of VedAntham , reached the other 
shore  and compiled Brahma Soothrams as the essence of
Upanishads (VedAntham). The most auspicious way is the One
shown by Sage VYAsa to gain Parama PurushArTam. 
We travelled on that path and are blessed with the boon of
performing Kaimkaryam to the true servants of Lord
RanganAtha .

In the 23 chapters of Para Matha  Bhangam , Swamy Desikan
elaborately critiqued the deficencies of Para Mathams and pointed
out that Para Mathams will never become Dharma Maarga SthAnams 
and that the VedAntha Maargam of SaraNAgathy will alone help us
gain Moksha SthAnam without failure . Swamy  Desikan proved 
that Sruthi, Smruthi, IthihAsams and PurANams declare this 
with a single voice ( nyAsamEshAm tapasAm athirikthamAhu: ). 

Swamy  Desikan has refuted on rigorous basis of logic and PramANams
the doctrines of SaarvAkan ( Only Prathyaksham as PramANam ) ,
Maadhyamikan ( Sonya Vaadham) , YogAchAra Bhouddhan ,
SouthrAnthikan , VaibhAshikan , Pracchana BhouddhAs , 
JainAs , Bhaskara matham ( Brahma  PariNAmam is Prakrtuhi ), 
Yadhava PrakAsa matham , VaisEshika Matham (ardha vainAsikar
compared to PoorNa VainAsikars, who are BhoudhAs), PrabhAkara
Vedaantham and  SaankhyA Matham and established the blemishlessness 
of Sva-matham firmly  rooted in Tarkam and sound PramANams .
He established that there is no   Phala PrApthi by following 
other defective mathams in Para Matha Bhangam . 

This SrI Sookthi of Swamy  Desikan is all about SiddhAntha
Tatthva Thraya niroopaNam and Veda BhAhya, Kudhrushti Matha 
Nirasanam .
 (206) Para Matha Bhanga Poorthy
kOthu avam onRu illAtha tahavE koNDa 
   koNdalena vanthu ulahil iyvarkku onROr 
thUthuvanAi oru kODi maRaikaL yellAm
   thodarnthu Oda t-taniyODit-thuyaram theerttha
MaadhavanAr Vada Kongil vaani aaRRin 
   vaNNihai nannaDam kaNDu mahizhnthu vaazhum 
pOthivai nAmm Ponniyanthai naharin munnAL
   puNarAtha Paramathap-pOr pooritthOmE 

(meaning): Lord is the dark-hued rain season cloud 
(KaaLamEgham ) , who pours out the blemishless and 
most merciful anugraham on the people of this world .
He incarnated as KrishNa BhagavAn for that purpose.
The crores of VedAs are powerless to see this Lord.
They chase after Him and run behind Him with their 
eulogies. He escapes them and runs to DuryOdhanA's 
court as their ambassador and finally through His gIthOpadEsam
to ArjunA banished the sorrows of the world by blessing
us with His redeeming Charama SlOkam .  
We(Swamy  Desikan ) had His darsana SoubhAgyam
and feasted on His dhivya soundharyam , when He incarnated
as KrishNa at the dhivya dEsam of Thiruvaheendhrapuram ,
where the Garuda Nathi flows northward (Uthara Vaahini).
There , He delights over tthe sight of the dancing waves 
racing with each other to offer salutations at His Thiruvadi.
During that time , we composed the SrI Sookthi of Para Matha  
Bhangam to refutate the imperfect and fallacious doctrines of
Para Mathams that have not been included in SrI BhAshyam
of Achaarya RaamAnujA and gained Para Matha Bhanga 
Poorthy (Completeion of the Kaimkaryam of the refutation of
Para Mathams ).

(207) The Glories of the Sacred hands of SudarsanAzhwAn
In this glorious Prabhandha Paasuram saluting Sudarsana BhagavAn
( The Sankalpa Sakthi of SrIman NaarAyaNa ) , Swamy Desikan 
thanks Lord Sudarshanan at the end of this Prabhandham as he did
at the commencement of Paramatha Bhangam .

Thihari Mazhu uyar Kuntham TaNDu ankusam poRi
   sithaRu sathamuka angi VaaL  vEl amarnthathum
thezhi paNila silaikkaNNi Seeranga sevvidi 
   sezhiya Gathai musalunthi Soolam thihazhnthathu

akhila uluhahaL kaNDayAyi Ohr alangalil
   adaya aday vill ilanga aasu inRi ninRathum
adiyum arukaruNayum aravu yenna ninRaDi
   adayum adiyArai anpinAl anjal yenpathum 

mahizhum amarar gaNangaL vAnam kavarnthiDa 
   maliyum asurar puNarttha mAyam thuranthathum
vaLarum aNi maNi minna vAnn anthi koNDida 
   maRai muRai muRai vaNanga mARinRi venRathum

siki Iravi madhiyam umizh dEsu untha yeNN Disait-
   thiNi maruL seha uhanthu sEmangaL seythathum
Thihazh aravu aNai Arangar tEsu yenna manniya 
  Thiri Sudarisanar seyya Eeer yeNN bhuyangaLE 

This sixteen lined ( PathinARu Seer chantha Viruttham) 
has such dynamic gait that matches the speed of the rotating 
Sudarsanam on the hand of Lord RanganAtha (PrayOga 
Chakram) engaged in Para Matha  Bhangam  . 

At the begining of this Prabhandham , Swamy  Desikan
saluted Sudarsana BhagavAn as Ashta Bhuja Moorthy 
adorning Eight weapons. Here , Swamy  Desikan  salutes
Lord Sudarsana as ShOdasAyudha Moorthy to destroy 
utterly the Para Matha Vaadhams and to accomplish
Sva-Matha NirUpaNam .

The kramam ( order) of the salutations to the weapons 
are in the same order as in ShOdasAyudha SthOthram 
in Sanskrit. Here , Swamy  Desikan salutes the 8 weapons 
in one side ( Chakram , Axe , Spear , Stick , Goad ,
hundred edged weapon spitting agni , Sword and Sakthi aayudham. 

On the other side , Sudarshanar holds eight more weapons
( the Conch , Bow , Noose , Plough , VajrAyudham , Pestle,
Gathai and Trident ). 

Swamy  Desikan visualizes Sudarsanar with rows and rows of
garlands and rathna hArams and giving abhaya pradhAanam to
devotees like AadhisEshan and DevAs ,while destroying 
the asurAs . Swamy  Desikan enjoys the Sarva TejOmaya
Sudarshanar saluted by the VedAs  shining as the radiance
of   the Lord of SrIrangam Himself . In the seven of the sixteen
lines (Paadhams) of   this Paasuram , Swamy  Desikan sums up 
the seven kinds of  anugraha kAryams   of Sudarshana BhagavAn.

Swamy  Desikan started this Prabhandham and concluded it at
Thiruvheendhrapuram .Yet , He refers to Lord RanganAtha 
( Thihazh AravaNai Arangar tEsu). It is Swamy  Desikan's prayer 
that in future that the Lord of SrIrangam should protect His BhagavathAs
with Dhaiva Sampath and destroy Bhagavath Kaimkarya VirOdhis
(asurAs) just like he refuted the Para Mathams through the creation of 
the SrI Sookthi of Paramatha  Bhangam with the blessings of Lord
DevanAthan of Thiruvaheendhrapuram .

Paramatha Bhangam SampoorNam .

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