Desika Sahasranama


Saccharita Raksha Namas

440. (PraNavam) RaamAnujeeya-siddhAntha sarvOthkrushtatthva- saadhakAya nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who established firmly 
that Bhagavath RaamAnuja SiddhAntham triumphs over all other
contending siddhAnthams !

Swamy Desikan's unique and towering contribution is 
the assembly of the tatthvams associated with Bahgavath
RaamAnuja SiddhAntham and defense of them with appropriate 
analysis of the deficencies of other siddhAnthams from 
the point of view of consistency with the VedAs and 
Brahma SoothrAs.

Why is RaamAnuja SiddhAntham "SarvOthkrushtam ?"
The philosophy of VisishtAdvaithA is recognized as having been
taught in ancient times to disciples of BodhAyana (viz)., 
Tanka , Dramida , GuhadEva ,Kapardi , BhAruchi and others .
For quite some time thereafter, these doctrines 
of VisishtAdvaitham rooted in Brahma SoothrAs remained
obscure and latent . With Swamy NammAzhwAr's anugraham ,
AchArya Naatha Muni brought this darsanam to light and handed 
it over to his grandson (ALavanthAr)through his disciple to 
nourish them further(9-10th Century C.E) ; these doctrines 
were protected thereafter by AchArya RaamAnujA . Swamy Desikan 
absorbed the intricate aspects of this glorious darsanam 
and its unique doctrines from AchAryAs belonging to 
RaamAnujA's lineage and made it available to us all through 
his own illustrious sishya paramparai and profound 
SrI Sookthis.Through these rich contributions ,
Swamy Desikan established clearly that SrI Bhagavath 
RaamAnuja Darsanam is unassailable in terms of its 
superiority over the other darsanams since it faithfully
adheres to the true purport of Sage BadarAyaNA's Brahma
soothrams . Using the triad of Prathyaksham , anumAnam 
and sabdham , SrI RaamAnuja Darsanam reveals the correctness of
the VisishtAdvathic doctrines without a shadow of doubt . 
SrI RaamAnuja darsanam banishes thus the darkness of nescience 
(ajn~Anam) and viparitha Jn~Anam. It helps us gain true Jn~Anam
and thus becomes SarvOthkrushtam .

Special Notes on the Triad as the main sources of 

The Three PramANAs of VisishtAdhvaitham
VisishtAdvaitham accepts Prathayksham (perception), 
anumAnam (inference based on perception ) and 
scriptural testimony ( Sabda /Sruthi/Vedic texts )
as THE three main authoritative sources of knowledge
(PramANAs).The nature and validity of these 
and other PramANAs such as UpamAna (Comparison ), 
arthApatti ( presumption ) and anupalabdhi 
( non-apprehension) has been rigorously examined by
Swamy Desikan . He accepts the three pramANAs ,
Prathyaksha, anumAna and Sabdha , and rejects the others .
Even among these three pramANAs , he examines their
nature and content in Tatthva Muktha Kalapa and
identifies the acceptable cannons of these three
pramANams from a VisishtAdhvathin point of view. 
We will come across these in the naamAs relating
to Satha dhUshaNi and Tatthva Muktha KalApam 
(NaamAs 101-439 )later. 

VisishtAdhvaithins also accepts the Smruthis ( Manu
Smruthi, MahA BharatA with its treaure of Bhagavath
GitA inside , VishNu PurANam and the two VaishNavite
AagamAs ( PaancharAthram and VaikhAnasam ) AS LONG AS

1. Prathyaksha: Our darsanam does not reject the validity
of sense perception (prathyaksha pramANam )like Advaithin ,
who senses the world , does business with it and yet dismisses
it as unreal . Their reasoning is that senses can not
always to be relied upon because of illusions and hallucinations
(Brama).Examples for such illusion(PrathibhAshika Bhrama)
are given as the mirage in the desert and the silver-hued shell , 
which is mistaken for the real silver.Another 
type of Bhrama cited by Adhvaitins is that of 
VyavahArika bhrama , where the world experienced
by our senses as unreal until Brahman is realized by
the Self. Such examples are used to dismiss the sensory 
perceptions as unreliable sources of primary knowledge 
(pramANAs).As a result, Advaithin holds the Vedic Texts 
as being superior to prathyaksha as valid pramAnAs. 

Vaikunta Vaasi Dr. V.N.Seshadri AchArya observes in
this context: " VisishtAdvaithin maintains that 
the sense-perception (prathyaksha) is as valid as 
the Sruthi itself so long as what is percieved 
is not sublated or shown to be false by a later 
perception. Further ,VisishtAdvaithin states that 
if in any context , the text of Sruthi seems to contradict 
what is percieved by Prathyaksha , the Sruthi text 
has to be intrepreted in a way that will not be in
conflict with what is actually perceived by the senses.
This is one of the cardinal points of difference between
the Advaithin and VisishtAdvaithin ".

Of the three pramANAs , Prathyaksha is accepted as 
the most important and basic source of knowledge since 
the other two (anumAnam and Sabdha ) are dependent on

2. AnumAna PramANam: VisishtAdhvaithins follow the simplicity
(laagavam) of anumAna pramANam. NyAya-VisEshikA system of
philosophy prefers anumAna over sabdha (vedam). This system 
however attempts to prove the existence of God as the Creator of 
the world by inference . VisishtAdvaithin rejects such views , 
which create elaborate structures like a mansion of cards
through the tortured extensions of anumAnam (e.g: Guruthvam as 
a GuNam and Visesham as a padhArtham) .VisishtAdhvathin rejects
these as superflous . VisishtAdhvaithins stay away from 
unnecsaary loops and labrinths and use anumAnam for 
only matters that need to be clarified .

3. Veda PramANam: VisishtAdhvaithins accept Sabdha
as pramANam and so do others.This is the third and most 
significant source of knowledge. It is subdivided into
(a) empirical (laukika) and non-empirical (aloukika). 
The aloukika sabdha includes VedAs, Upanishads and
the two Aagamas. Swamy Desikan discards the Buddhists view 
that Sabdha is not a separate pramANa and proves in
a rational manner the authority of VedAs as
aloukika sabdha.

In summary, Pratayaksha , anumAna and Sabdha are the only
three pramANAs for VisishtAdvaithins ; the additional 
ones accepted by the other schools of philosophy are 
considered as the subsets of the above three.

441. (PraNavam) Saccharithra-thrANa-samyak thrAtha sanmArga santatayE nama:

Salutations to that merciful AchAryan , who protected
the sadAchAram and anushtAnam through his Saccharithra-
RakshA grantham.

Swamy Desikan blessed us with five SrI Sookthis(Pentad) 
known as "RakshA Panchakam ".These are : (1) GeethArtha 
Sangaraha raksha(2)Saccharithra rakshA (3) NikshEpa rakshA 
(4)Rahasya rakshA and (5)PaancharAthra RakshA .

The GeethArthasangraha rakshA has been covered under
the 180th sahasra naamam by Thirukkudanthai Desikan .
The subject matter of the inner meanings of Bhagavath
GeethA have also been covered further under the title of
Taathparya Chandiraka(Desika Sahasra Naamams 187-192).

The topic relating to Saccharithra rakshA is housed
under the sahasra nAmams 441-478; the NikshEpa rakshA 
is covered under the sahasra nAmAs 480-492; Rahasya
RakshA grantham is covered in thirty nAmAs (493-523)
and PaancharAthra RakshA is the topic of the nAmAs
from 524 to 680( 157 sahasra nAmams).

In the 441st Sahasra nAmam , Thirukkudanthai Desikan 
points out the importance of Sankha-chakra dhAraNam
(adorning of the marks of the Lord's disc and conch
on their shoulders ) and the wearing of the 12 Urdhva
PuNDrams on the upper torsos of Utthama VaishNavAs 
as an essential part of their nithyAnushtAnams
(daily religious observances).They will only 
partake of the food offered first to the Lord. 
Advaithins objected to these praticses and protested
that these observances are inconsistent with
PramANams. Swamy Desikan engaged the adhvaithins 
in debates and defeated their arguments and protected 
the auspicious way of daily observances for VaishNavAs 
through the creation of Saccharithra rakshA to serve as 
the guide for future generations of VaishNavAs 
in these matters .The guidances and rules for 
daily anushtAnam are followed even today thanks to
the compassionate intervention of Swamy Desikan.
SadAchAram stays firm ( sTirAm imAm Saccharithra RakshAm )
and has been well protected for times to come 
in Swamy Desikan's own words " Saccharithra RakshA- 
samyak thrAthA ". 

442. (PraNavam) KhilAdhyaksha-sruthi-sTApitha chakrAnkana-samskruthayE nama:

PraNAmams to that great AchAryan , who established 
the authenticity and ancient nature of initiation/ 
samskAram with disc and sankhA marks on the shoulders of
a VaishNavA with the help of the Kila Rks of the vedam !

With this naamam , the references are made to the topics
covered by Swamy Desikan in his SrI Sookthi, Saccharithra 
RakshA. This SrI Sookthi has three parts:(1) Sudarsana
Paanchajanya DhAraNa vidhis/rules (2)Urdhva PuNDra dhArana
vidhis (3) Bhagavan-nivEdhana upayOga Vidhis . 

The first part deals with the pramANams for wearing
the insignias of disc and conch of the Lord on the shoulders
of VaishNavAs. There were some ignorant and haughty
ones during Swamy Desikan's time, who objected to these 
rites based on their view that there are no Vedic pramANams
for following such a practise. Swamy Desikan pointed out
the appropriate Vedic PramANams in the Khila section of 
the scriptures and won over the arguments of the protestors. 
Khila Rks are those outside the regular maNDalams of the VedAs. 
The contestants objected that the Khila rks do not have 
the same sanctity/authority of the Veda PramANams . If this view 
were to prevail, we can not adorn the sacred thread using 
the manthrams for such rites that are found only in 
the khila section of the Vedam . We accept those Khila Rks 
and adorn the sacred thread with the recitation of such 
khila rks and conduct our Vaidika Kaaryams daily. 

In addition to Khila Rks, Swamy pointed out the direct 
Veda Vaakyams in support of these rites from Kata Saakhai
and other Veda Manthrams to defend the use of Chakra and
Sankha dhAraNam by VaishNavAs.Swamy Desikan also quoted from 
Smruthis , which serve to elaborate on the Sruthis (Vedam ,
Upanishads and PaancharAthra AagamAs ) in defense of 
the Chakra-Sankha dhAranam .

443. (PraNavam) Smruthi-IthihAsa nirNeetha taptha-chakrAdhi dhAraNAya nama:

Salutations to that astute AchAryan , who established
the correctness of wearing the heated disc and conch marks on 
the shoulders with the help of Smruthi and IthihAsam

The contestants pointed out that one does not come 
across any reference to Chakra-Sankha dhAraNam in Manu
smruthi or in Kalpa soothrams ; hence they argued that
such a procedure is unwarranted.

Swamy Desikan agreed that manu Smruthi does not have 
any references to these rites . He pointed out however
that other Smruthis like ChANDilya Smruthi, SrI VishNu
Tatthvam , IthihAsa Samucchayam , SrImath BhAgavatham , 
Bhavishyath PurANam , Maathsya PurANam , SrI VishNu
Dharmam ( Yama kinkara SamvAdham) and MahA BhAratham
(BhIshma parvam) have references to the Sankha-chakra
dhAraNam besides many passages in PaancharAthra Samhithai.
The Smruthis and IthihAsams as well as Saathvika PurANams 
are there for elaboration of the doctrines adumbrated
in the veda manthrams. Hence , Swamy Desikan argued 
that it is not correct to reject the references in
Smruthis as the protestors did.

Swamy Deikan also pointed out that Manu Smruthi 
was mostly focused on general VarNAsrama dharmams 
and the VaishNava VisEsha dharmams were handled by
smruthis other than Manu smruthi.

444.(PraNavam) Taptha-mudhrA-nishEdhAdhi vachO-nirvAha- kOvidhAya nama:

Salutations to that learned AchAryan , who had the skills 
to evaluate the objections of people , who were against
the adorning of ChakrAnkanam because of the damage caused 
by hot imprints on the body !

Smruthis state generally that one should not damage
one's limbs wilfully. They even recommend prAyascchittham 
(atonement rites) for such acts;hence , the protestors 
took the view that it is nishiddham (prohibited act)
to imprint the marks of hot discs and conch on one's limbs. 

Swamy Desikan pointed out that the rules about not
damaging one's limbs is a general rule (vidhi) and Sankha-
chakra dhAraNam for the VaishNavAs is a Visesha vidhi.
It is customary to use VisEsha Vidhi to explain 
the saamAnya vidhi(injunction).The explanation is
that one should not subject the body to be exposed to
heated objects except those commanded/permitted by
the Sruthis . Vedam can not criticize its own command. 
Further , Sruthis condemn the himsa done to the limbs 
out of desire (icchA). Swamy Desikan argues that no one
would like to hurt themselves by contact with heated
objects . They would not welcome possible discomfort.
ViashNavAs include this act as a samskAram because it is
recommended especailly by the Sruthis. 

Swamy Desikan thus silenced all the protestors about
the need for adorning Chakram and Sankham marks on
the shoulders of VaishNavAs with the proofs from Sruthis
and Smruthis and a variety of other accepted pramANams. 

445. (PraNavam) Prathyaksha-sruthiroopa-pramANa-bhOdhya UrdhvapuNDrakAya nama:

Salutations to that wise AchAryan , who established 
the necessity for adorning Urdhva PuNDrams based on
direct Veda Vaakyams in use today(Prathyaksha PramANams)!

Urdhva PuNDram is the TirumaNN Kaappu (protection 
afforded to one through the adornment of upward
shaped sacred white clay along with SrI ChoorNam 
in the middle ). VaishNavAs are required to wear 
the 12 Urdhva PuNDrams every day .They recite 
the 12 names from Kesavan to DaamOdharan and 
invoke those EmperumAns on the appropriate
sections of their upper torsos and salute them .
They are said to reside in those sections of 
the body in the form of PuNDrams .Sawmy Desikan 
composed a Tamil SrI Sookthi known as Panniru ThirunAmam
to recite while adorning these Thiru MaNN Kaappus.

Swamy Desikan pointed out the necessity for
VaishNavAs to adorn these 12 Urdhva PuNDrams
based on PramANams from MahOpanishad , KaDa 
Saakhai ( DhruthOrdhva PuNDram), Atharva Vedam
and other Veda manthrams , which make specific 
mention of the need to wear the 12 Urdhva PuNDrams.
linked with the names of Kesavan, NaarAyaNan , Maadhavan , 
GOvindhan,VishNu , Madhusoodanan , Thrivikraman , Vaamanan , 
SrIdharan , HrushIkEsan , PadhmanAnhan and DaamOdharan.

446. (PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDra pramANa-smruthi ithihAsa purANa vidhE nama:

Salutations to that Great AchAryan , who knew all
the pertinent PramANams related to the wearing of 
the Urdhva PuNDrams housed in Smruthi, IthihAsams 
and PurANams!

BrahmANDa PurANam , Vaamana PurANam , BhOdhAyana and 
Vruddha-JaabAli smruthi passages , SamhithA vachanams 
were picked by Swamy Desikan as PramANams for the need
to wear Urdhva PuNDrams.

(Example): In BrahmANDa PurANam , the Lord says:
" I am reachable readily in one life itself by
those , who wear Urdhva PuNDram during the times 
when SandhyA Vandhanam is performed; the one , who
wears Urdhva PuNDram throughout his life gains
Moksham without fail ".

447. (PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDrAnushtAna-nimitthAnarTa SaadhakAya nama:

Salutations to the wise AchAryan , who explained 
the inauspiciousness that would result from not 
wearing Urdhva PuNDrams !

Swamy Desikan has used many pramANams to explain 
the calamities that would ensue from not wearing
urdhva puNDrams , while doing vaidhika karmAs .

(Examples): People of all Jaathis should wear 
Urdhva PuNDram . This is my command.Those who
do not follow this command of Mine would not
recieve My anugraham"..BhagavAn in BrahmANDa PurANam

" The one who does not wear Urdhva puNDram (upward
shaped ThirumaNN ) but elects to wear the Thiryak puNDram 
( horizontal form )is not fit to worship me. He is 
a neechan".. BhagavAn in Brahma Raathram.

" Japam , Homam , DhyAnam done without wearing
urdhva puNDram will not yield any fruits"

" A person will not be considered clean without
Urdhva puNDram even if he has the sacred thread 
and sikhai."

It was Swamy Desikan's conviction based on pramANams
that any dharma karmA performed without Urdhva puNDram 
will be fruitful . 

448. (PraNavam) Sarva-vaidhika karmAngOrdhva puNDra dhruthi gOvidhAya nama:

Salutations to that far seeing AchAryan , who had 
the power of knowledge to instruct us that the wearing
of Urdhva puNDram is an angam for all vaidhika karmAs.

Some of the examples given by Swamy Desikan based on
his encyclpedaic knowledge are:

1. " The One who wears Urdhva PuNDram during morning 
and evening anushtAnams (Homam , AarAdhanam ) becomes
Suddhan"..BodhAyana Rishi

2. " The one who does not wear the Urdhva PuNDram is not
fit for performing any vaidhika karma "...ParAsarya SamhithA

3. " Yaj~nam , DhAnam , Tapas , Homam , BhOjanam ,
pithru tarpaNam all of them will not yeild the desired
fruits if the performer does not adorn Urdhva puNDram "
--BrahmANDa PurANam

4." BrahmachAri, Gruhasthan, Vaanaprasthan and SanyAsi--
all of them--must adorn Urdhva puNDram"..BrahmANDa PurANam

5. " That upward directed puNDram , which leads even sinners
to sadhgathi is known as Urdhva PuNDram"..SrI NaaradhIyam .

Swamy Desikan concludes that Urdhva puNDra dhAraNam is
the most important among the angams for all Vaidhika KarmAs .
Having just the sacred thread and tuft without urdhva puNDram
will not yield the sought after phalans. 

449. (PraNavam) bhasma SrIviashnavAsprusya bhAvasAdhana- dakshiNAya nama:

Salutations to that Great AchAryan , who established 
authoritatively that SrIvaishNavAs should not touch 
ashes (saambal/ neeRu))and that ThirumaNN (sacred clay)
is the preferred material for adornment on their bodies
during thier daily Vaidhika karmaanushtAnams !

SrI KrishNa manthra kalpam strictly prohibits the use of
ashes as Urdhva puNDram material. Varaha purANam has 
even stricter commands about the banning of saambal by
SrIvaishNavAs in particular and all brahmins in general.

The highlights of this controversy and the reasons for
preference of ThirumaNN adornment over ashes are summarized 
by Swamy Desikan in his SrI Sookthi, Saccharithra rakshA:

1) SaasthrAs recommend basma snAnam ( smearing the entire body
with ashes on special occasions). Why so ? This is intended 
for those , who can not for health reasons take bath in water . 
This type of SnAnam can only produce temporary suddhi . 
Hence , one should not consider that such basma snAnam 
for all occasions. 

2) Wearing AgnihOthra Saambhal on forehead: There are
those ,who say that it is appropriate to wear ashes from 
the rites of agnihOthram . The sages who wrote the klapa
soothrams for the performance of agnihOthram do not however
refer to this practise.Therefore , such observance is 
not essential for the performers of agnihOthram to follow. 
If there are others ( other than agnihOthris) who wish 
to use ashes , they might have been recommended 
to use atleast the ashes originating from agnhOthri's sacred
ritual fire. For SrI VaishNavAs , adornment of any kind of
ash is however forbidden.

3) PaancharAthra and VikhAnasa Samhithais: They state that
at the end of homam , the ashes from the agni kuntam should be
worn vertically (urdhvam) on the forehead. This does not 
extrapolate to wearing puNDrams with ash every time. 
The person performing the homam has to have ThirumaNN
Kaapu using the sacred clay in the first place to qualify
for the perormanc eof the homam. At the end of the agni kAryam 
(homam) , the yajamanan and the rthviks alone are 
enjoined to wear the ash from agni kuntam in the said 
manner on their forehead as a part of that homam. It is not for
every one witnessing the homam or others.Certainly,
this practise has no impact on the daily adornment of
Urdhva PuNDram with the sacred clay for anushtAnams 
of a VaishNavan.

4) ThiruvAimozhi passages and the reference to "NeeRU":
In ThiruvAimozhi 4.4.7 , Azhwar says in the role of 
ParAnkusa Naayaki: " neeRu sevvEidak-kANil , nedumAl
adiyAr yenROdum --" Some have suggested on the basis of
this passage that AzhwAr meant that neeRu (ashes) 
are the lakshaNams of the bahkthAs of ThirumAl 
( SrIman NaarAyaNan). This paasuram is about a maiden,
who is so infatuated with the Lord (prEmAdhisayam for
her Lord in a vipralmabha srungAram mood) that She connects
every thing with Bhagavath sambhandham. When she sees 
some one wearing even ash in a vertical manner , she 
is reminded of SrI VaishNavars , who are dear to her Lord.
She is ready to prostrate before such a person thinking
that they must be devotees of her Lord. PiLLAn in his
commentary on this passage of ThiruvAimozhi explains 
that the Naayaki becomes overcome with delusion out of
her intense feelings and sees even the vasthus 
not belonging to the Lord as connected to Him.
He hints that ashes are not for BhaagavathAs/ThoNdars
dear to the Lord. Further , it has been pointed out that 
the word "neeRu" has another meaning (viz)., dust 
or rENu ( ThoNdaradippodi) in addition to the traditional
meaning of "ashes". Swamy NammazhwAr himself uses
"neeRu " elsewhere to mean the dust of bhAgavathAs feet
( "Maayan tamar adi neeRu koNDu": ThiruvAimozhi 2474,
" Kariya-mEni-misai veLiya neeRu siRithE idum:
ThiruvAimozhi: 2463) ). Hence the earlier 
reference : " neeRu sevvEidak-kANil nedumAl adiyAr
yenROdum " can also be translated to mean that 
Parankusa Naayaki in the height of her intense 
longing for her Lord sees some one wearing urdhva 
PuNDrams and develops a great reverence for him 
as a Bhaagavthan dear to Her Lord and considers it her 
duty to prostrate before him and follow him . "neeRu "
in AzhwAr's paasurams can not therefore be linked 
to ashes (sambal) and justified for usage as material
for adornment on the forehead of VaishNavAs according to
Swamy Desikan . 

450. (PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDra dhruthi dhravya- visEshAvadhruthikshamAya nama:

Salutations to that great AchAryan , who established 
as to what are the acceptable materials (dhravyam)
for use in the adornment (dhAraNam) of UrdhvapuNDram!

Swamy Desikan codified the list of materials that could
be used for ThirumaNN kAppu for VaishNavAs. He came up with
this codification based on many pramANams.Briefly the rules
of acceptable practise are:

1) Urdhva PuNDram has to be worn using the white clay.

2) This white clay can come from the dhivya dEsams dear to
the Lord or the clay from the banks of GangA river or 
the soil under the KrishNa TuLasi ( dark leaved TuLasi)
plant . One should not use the sacred clay without links
to BhagavAn (Bhagavath sambhnadham).It is well known that
ThirunArAyaNa PerumAL of Yadhugiri revealed to AchArya RaamAnujA
in a dream , the site , where such sacred clay was available 
abduntantly in His dhivya dEsam.Even today , VaishNavAs use
the sacred clay from TirunArAyaNapuram and ThiruvahIndhrapuram.
The sandy clay from the PerumAL PushkaraNis at Thirumalai,
SrIrangam and SrImushNam are also appropriate to use.

3) White clay is the highly recommended dhravyam to use
although for specific purposes (prayOjana visEsham) ,
other colored clay can be used. Vaishnava ParamaikAnthis 
not interested in anything other than the Lord should
use only white clay.

4) Smruthis cite the usage of sandal wood paste and Panchagavyam 
for ThirumaNN kAppu. The white Clay is however the preferred
dhravyam as indicated by the sruthi passage extolling the virtue of
the white clay.Sandal wood paste is considered rAjasa dhravyam 
and panchagavyam tAmasic dhravyam in contrast to sacred clay,
which is recognized by smruthis as Saathvika dhravyam.

5) When the sacred clay is not at all available , then 
sandal wood paste (GOpi Chandanam ) can be used for Urdhva-
PuNDrams. Ash (Saambal) should never ever be used.For monks
(SanyAsis), usage of Chandanam is forbidden and hence they 
have to use the white sacred clay only.

All in all, the white sacred clay is the dhravyam of preference 
for every one according to Swamy Desikan . 

451. (PraNavam) acchidhra puNDra dhamanAya nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who condemned the use
of Urdhva PuNDram without gap (space interval )!

Swamy Desikan established with the help of many pramANams
that smearing of the PuNDram without any gap in between for
the SrI ChoorNam is not acceptable. It is because , the Lord has
revealed in BrahmANDa purANam that he lives happily with
His consort, SrI Devi, in the middle of the space formed by 
the two horns and paadham of white clay SrI Devi . 
When one does not leave a wide space between the PuNDrams, 
it is like squeezing the residential space of the Lord.
Smruthi states that a person observing this prohibited 
practise (nisshiddham) will end up in narakam. 

452. (PraNavam) Thiryak-puNDra nishEdhakAya nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who condemned 
the practise of wearing PuNDrams in a horizontal
(Thiryak) manner instead of vertical (Urdhvam) way!

Urdhva PuNDrams reaching upward takes us upward 
(towards the Lord's Parama Padham) . The wearing
of the PuNDram in a horizontal fashion across 
the forehead is condemned by the Smruthis. Examples 
from Smruthi Vaakyams condemning such a practise are:

1)Even playfully , one should not wear the three
PuNDrams cross wise.

2) During the time of HomAs and AarAdhanams , 
One is not considered clean unless he wears 
the PuNDram in the Urdhva manner.

3) The BrahmaNan , who wears the ThirumaNN in 
a horizontal fashion becomes a neechan (Lowly one).

4) SaasthrAs say that a BrahmaNan has to wear his
ThirumaNN in the urdhva manner , the Kshathrian 
in the form of half moon , Vaisyan in the form of 
a circle and the fourth varNikan in the form of Thiryak.
This is not for VaishNavAs anyway from anyone of 
the four VarNams. VaisNavAs belonging to any Jaathi 
should only wear Urdhva PuNDram and not any other shape. 

Thus the wearing of Thiryak PuNDram is condemned
in many pramANams.

453.(PraNavam) Bhagavath-paadha-sadhrusa Urdhva-puNDrakruthi- vEdhithrE nama:

Salutations to that AchArya Saarvabhouman , who fully
understood the details about the correct shape for the Urdhva-
PuNDrams !

AtharvaNa vEda has a passage named "HarE: PaadhAkruthi".
Swamy Desikan based his assessment about the shape of
the Urdhva-puNDram on this vachanam(i-e)., the shape 
of the Urdhva-puNDram should be like the Lord's Thiruvadi
(Sacred feet when He is lying down): bent at the edge , 
projecting upward and slightly broad (SaamudhrikA lakshaNam).

SamhithA SaasthrAs refer to other shapes like a bamboo shoot ,
dheepam , agni jwAlai, mathsyam/fish , koormam/tortoise,
lotus bud et al. Among all these descriptions of various 
possibiliites , the Bhagavath Paadha Aadharam(Shape) is
the most preferred because it reminds us of the Daasathva 
Jn~Anam ( that we are DaasAs of BhagavAn).Therefore ,
there is a special injunction to adorn the Urdhva-puNDram 
in the form of the Lord's Thiruvadi for VaishNava ekAnthis.
Shapes like the lotus bud, leave of a pupil tree, 
Mathsyam et al have some links to the Lord thru avathArams
or assoications .Therefore Saasthrams laud these shapes , but 
the Hari Paadha AakAram (shape) reminds us of the central 
doctrine of VaishNavam that we are the Daasans of the Lord.

In the archAvathArams at the dhivya dEsams , we see
the Tilakam adorning the Lord's forehead. We do not
follow that because it is not possible for us to do
every thing that the Lord does.This is for alankAram
and beautification for the Lord.There is no saasthra 
sammadham(consent) for us to wear Tilakam . Hari pAdha 
aakaram alone is sanctioned by the VedAs.

Latter day practises of having a lotus with its stalk
holding the two paadhams has not been sanctioned
by any sAsthrams either.

454. (PraNavam) PuNDra sacchidhratA vEthrE nama:

Salutations to that AchArya Saarvabhouman , who instructed us
that the Urdhva PuNDram has to have the required space 
between the two paadhams !

AtharvaNa vEdam prescribes this rule. Sage MarichI 
states that for a 4 inch tall PuNDram , the gap between
the two legs should be 2 inches . BhagavAn states that
a person , who provides that interspace is dear to Him.
It is at that space that the Lord resides with SrI Devi.

455. (PraNavam) PuNDra-sankhyA vichArakAya nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who researched in to
the number of Urdhva PuNDrams to be worn by a VaishNavan!

1) according to one determination , there are 12 places
in the upper torso that one has to wear Urdhva puNDram.
KesavAdhi Naamams should be invoked during the adornments.
Swamy Desikan has covered these details in his SrI Sookthi,
Panniru ThirunAmam.

2) another view (paksham) is that there should be a 13th one 
to be adorned on the head with appropriate manthram.

3) There are other views that state that 4, 6 , 8 PuNDrams 
are sufficent .People with VaishNava Aagama dhIkshai wear four.

Swamy Desikan determined based on Saasthra pramANams 
that the 12 ThirumaNN Kaapus ( or even 13) is the most
recommended number. For performing specific karmAs or 
for rituals with some expectations/fruits (prayOjanams),
lesser numbers are allowed. Otherise , 12is the norm.

When there is a paucity of ThirumaNN materail ,then
fewer ThirumaNNs become necessary.When one is not able to 
wear 12 ThirumaNNs due to incapacity resulting from
illness or when the body is unclean , then adornemnt of
fewer than 12 ThirumaNNs are permitted by SaasthrAs.

Ahnika granthams state that even the unclean person
has to wear Urdhav PuNDram associated with Kesavan on 
the forehead and DaamOdharan on the back of the neck. 

456.(PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDra dhruthi-prOktha prakAra-vivruthi-kshamAya nama:

Salutations to that AchArya Saarvabhouman , Who knew clearly
the ways (prakArams) of adorning Urdhva PuNDrams !

Urdhva puNDrams should be beautiful to look at (in shape),
and free from any unplesant smells (dhurgandham). First ,
it should start with the head with a slight impression.
Next, it should start from the region between the brows
and should be continued upward.One should not use the left
hand or use the nails to adorn the PuNDrams.Whatever is left
over in the palm should not be washed away. It should be worn 
on the head. Swamy Desikan blesses us with procedures 
and practises for sTAna Kramams ( locations and their order
for the 12 Urdhva PuNDrams ), the relevant manthrams ,
the proportions ( length and breadth of each of them)
in great detail.

These details have to be learnt from one's AchAryan ,
who knows the sampradhAyam and Saasthram. Ahnika granthams
are also archiving these informations.

457. (PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDranEka manthra vyavasthAkaraNa priyAya nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who is an authority on
the manthrams used to generate the Sacred clay paste used in
the adornment of the Urdhva PuNDrams!

The left palm(hand) has to be cleansed(sanctified) and
and the Sacred clay has to be wetted with the manthram 
that begins with "GandhadhvArAm --". Asthra Manthram is used 
to protect the paste to be formed and the Taaraka manthram 
is used to form the paste . Empowering (abhimanthraNam ) 
is done with Moola manthram and SrI Nrusimha BhIjAksharam 
is wrtten over the sacred clay paste. Suddha Jalam is used next 
to dilute the paste to the right consistency with SathadhAra 
manthram.That is followed by recitation of additional manthrams
( VishNOrnukam--, PanchOpanishad manthram, Moola Manthram ,
7 VaishNava Manthrams ). DhvadasAkshara manthram is recited
next. Now , one is ready to wear the Urdhva PuNDram on 
the top of the head with Taara Manthram.This is followed by 
placement of the Urdhva PuNDram on the different portions
of the torso with the relevant manthrams.Even here , there are
many variations. For adorning just six Urdhva PuNDrams, 
VishNu ShaDAkshara manthram is used, for 8 Urdhva PuNDrams , 
one uses the AshtAkshara manthram.Some purANAs state that 
one should use PraNavam for adorning on the forehead.
Some connect it to the situation , where only one 
Urdhva PuNDram is worn .Every one is recommended 
to follow their own AchArya SampradhAyams and KulAchArams.

458. (PraNavam) VarNAsramAdhi niyatha Urdhva puNDRAnguli- vEdithrE nama: 

Salutations to that AchArya Saarvabhouman , who performed 
upadEsams for us about the appropriate fingers of the hand 
to be used in adorning the Urdhva PuNDrams based on 
the four VarNAsrama dharmams !

There are some rules prescribed for the correct digit
(finger) to be used in applying the Urdhva PuNDrams.
A BrAhmaNan has to use anAmikai ( Ring finger); Kshathriyan
should use his thumb;Vaisyan has to use his pointing
finger (aaLL kAtti VirRal) and others their 
middle finger. 

BrahmachAri has to use his thumb ,Gruhasthan his
ring finger, Vaanaprasthan his middle finger and
a SanyAsi has to use his pointing finger.

There is another point of view that one can use 
the ring finger independet of their VarNAs and AasramAs.

Those who are seeking some prayOjanams as a part
of a Vaidhika KarmA has to use the recomemnded fingers
for that karmA.

459. (PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDra-sTana-vEthrE nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who knew precisely 
the correct places in the body to adorn the 6 , 8 or 12
ThirumaNN Kaapus and gives us the pramANams from 
BrahmANDa PurANam and PaaramEshtya Samhithai. 

The sequence is: first on the head with the recitation
of PraNavam and this should be followed by adornments in
the forehead , centre of the stomach , center of the chest ,
the front center of the neck , right portion of the stomach, 
right upper arm , right side of the neck , left side of
the stomach ,left upper arm , left side of the neck ,
lower backside and the rear of the neck. 

460. (PraNavam) UrdhvapuNDra-dhEyaya-dEva-vidhE nama:

Salutations to that VisEsha AchAryan , who instructed us 
on the right DevathAs (Upa VyUha Moorthys )to be invoked
during the adornment of the 12 Urdhva PuNDrams.

The Lord presides over at the 12 sTAnams of the UrdhavPuNDrams
starting with Kesavan , NaarAyaNan etal. We have to reflect on
them at their appropriate sites.At the end , one has to
meditate on Lord VaasudEvan and whatever sacred clay 
is left has to be worn on the head. At the end of these rites , 
one should touch each of the sTAnams with the right hand
and recite the KesavAdhi manthrams for Bhagavadh dhyAnam.
Swamy Desikan has blessed us with a SrI sookthi named
Panniru ThirunAmam in Tamil to instruct us on the dhyAna 
slOkams and other details (direction , color and weapons
of the 12 Upa-vyuha Moorthys) represented by these 
12 Upa-vyUha Moorthys.

Special Notes by V.Sadagopan :

1.ThiumaNN Kaapu adornment rules are different for
the different sampradhAyins and it is only correct 
to seek this information from one's sadAchAryans 
and SishtAnushtAthAs and practise them. otherwise ,
one will be embroiled in unneeded controversy , which
has to be avoided always.

2. Thirukkudanthai Desikan's Ahnika grantham ,
SrImath Azhagiya Singar's Ahnika Grantham ,
Saccharithra SudhA nidhi are referred to for additional 
details on the Urdhva PuNDra DhAraNam rules. They follow 
Swamy Desikan's Saccharithra Raksha . 

3. The seven VaishNava Manthrams referred to in
this posting are from Rg Vedam and begin with:

a.Tadhasya priyamapi pATO asyAm--Rg vedam I.154.5

b.prathavishNustavatE veeryAya--

c.parO mAthrayA tanuvA vrudhAna --

d.vichakramE praTivImEsha yEthAm--

e.ThrirdEva prathivImEsha yEthAm--

f.athO dEvA avanthu nO yathO vishNurvichakramE--

g.thrINi padhA vi chakramE VishNOrgOpA adhAbhya: Rg Vedam-I.22.18

adiyEn will write about the meaning of these Veda 
manthrAs separately on a future occasion.

4. One should wear ThirumaNN kAppu, while sitting.
One should not stand and wear them.

5. Regarding the thickness of the Urdhva PuNDrams , 
the skin should not be seen due to the thinness of 
the PuNDrams.

6.One should not wear pavithram , while wearing 
the Urdhav PuNDrams.

7. The order of wearing the 12 PuNDrams has to be
accompanied by salutations to the 12 VyUha Moorthys:
Kesavan, NaarAyanan, Maadhavan, Govindhan, VishNu ,
Madhusoodhanan, Thrivikraman, Vaamanan, SrIdharan ,
HrishIkEsan , PadhmanAbhan and DhAmOdharan.

8. The SrIchoorNam has to have undergone Prathishtai
(Samskrutham) . The SrI chUrNam that has not undergone
Prathishtai should not at all be used . LakshmI aavAhanam
is completed in the SrIchUrNam that has undergone praTishtai.
SrI VishNu dharmOttharam describes the need for the PraTishtai. 

9. Only during the Theettu kAlam , the ThirumaNN is used
without SrIchUrNam ( "SrIchUrNa rahitham PuNDram "
will cause anarTam).

10. There are two points of view on the color of
SrIchUrNam to be worn: Yellow or red. The Red is formed by
the admixture of dried Turmeric pwder with burnt lime
(SuNNAmpu). Ahnika granthams refer to "HaaridhrA" or
Yellow SrIchUrnam (Haaridhram LakshmIroopam anutthamam)as 
the one to be worn. Again follow your own SampradhAya rules
instead of getting into controversies to establish 
the superiority of one over the other for argument's
sake .SrI Matam sampadhAyins and a few others use yellow 
SrIchUrnam .

11.After wearing the Urdhva PuNDrams and consecrating them with
the four fingers (minus the thumb ) with KesavAdhi Manthrams 
Chathuscchakram namasyAmi Kesavam Kanaka Prabham et al),
the abhimanthranam for the SrI Devi takes place at the twelve

a. Sriyai nama: , b. AmruthOdhbhavAyai nama:
c. KamalAyai nama: d. Chandra sOdharyai nama:
e. VishNu pathnyai nama: f.VaishNavyai nama:
g. VarArOhAyai nama: h. HarivallabhAyai nama:
i. SaarngiNyai nama: j.DevadEvikAyai nama:
k. Surasundaryai nama; l. MahA Lakshmyai nama:
m. SarvAbhIshta Phala pradhAyai nama:

12. When wearing only one Urdhva PuNDram, use of
" UddhdhrutAsi VarAhENa KrishNEna sathabaaunA "
is recommended.PraNavam can also be recited instead
of UddhdhruthAsi manthram.

13. The salutations to AchArya paramparai is then made
from the present AchAryan to the Lord . For Vadakalai
SampradhAyin , this section of prayer concludes with
the famous Desika PrabhaNdham paasuram extolling AchAryAs:

yennuyir tanthaLitthavarai saraNam pukki
yAnadaivE avar gurukkaL nirai vaNangi
pinn aruLAl PerumbhUthUr vantha vaLLal
Periya Nampi AaLavanthAr ManakkAl nambi
nanneRiyai avarkkuraittha UyyakkoNDAr 
NaaTa Muni SaThakOpan SEnai NaaTan
innamudha ThirumahaL yenRivarai munnittu
EmperumAn ThiruvadigaL adaihinrEnE

14. Finally , one gets ready for PrAtha SandhyA
Vandhanam after wearing TuLasi Kaashta MaalA 
( TuLasi stem mAlai), PadhmAksha Maalai ( Lotus
MaNi Maalai) and Pavithra Maalai used in the PavithrOthsavams
of the Lord at dhivya desams and abhimAna KshEthrams.
Pavithram is then worn on the ring finger to start 
the morning sandhyA Vandhanam. 

The Next topic of Postings:
During the course of the next 17 Desika SahasranAmAms ,
Thirukkudanthai Desikan pays tribute to Swamy Desikan's
deep knowledge about the procedures for NaivEdhyam
presentation to the Lord and the use of Bhagavadh PrasAdham 
thereafter by the One who has performed the daily 

461.(PraNavam) Sruthi-smruthyAdhi nirNeetha VishNu-naivEdhya bhOjanAya nama: 

Salutations to that AchArya Saarvabhouman , who 
established that one can consume the food presented 
to Lord VishNu with Vedic and Smruthi pramANams!

Few object that we should not consume the food offered to 
the Lord ( Bhagath nivEdhana annam ) . Swamy Desikan 
discarded their objections and established that we 
should consume as Bhagavth prasAdham , the food presented 
to the Lord. He established this principle firmly with the help 
of pramANams from MahOpanishad , RahasyAmnAyam (Vedic text),
PaaramEsvara Samhithai and IthihAsams ( where Lord Raamachandran
performed AarAdhanam for Lord RanganAthA in AyOddhi following 
Poushkara Samhithai and partook the NaivEdhanam prsented
at the AarAdhanam ).

The essence of Poorva Paksham rjecting use of nivEdhanam:
That which has been offered to the dEvathAs is called
as NirmAlyam.PramANams say that nirmAlyam can not be 
consumed by us.Manu also states that annam presented to
the dEvAs should not be eaten by us. Besides SaasthrAs 
say that one should consume the food used in Vaisva dEvam
and after performing prANAhoothi. We are forbidden from
using bhagavath prasAdham for Vaisva dEvam and PrANAhoothi. 
Therefore the protestors conclude that the Bahgavavth prasAdham 
( Food from nivEdhanam)is not appropriate for our consumption.

The Essence of Swamy Desikan's rejection of these arguments
Veda manthrams instruct us to consume the food offered to
VishNu.We have to establish the practises based on them.
What Vedam says is that one can not consume food offered to
other dEvathais such as Rudran. Their own sAsthrams accepts
the non-consumption of such nirmAlyam .Even the devotees of 
Rudra do not consume such food ,

SaashtrAs instruct us to consume the VishNu naivEdhyams.
They talk about the methods to distribute that naivEdhyam.
Hence , one can not see the basis for rejection of VishNu
naivEdhyam. The food presented to the Lord is never called
nirmAlyam. Isvara samhithA states that describtion of
naivEdhyam to VishNu-SrIman NaarAyaNan as nirmAlyam 
will result in the accumulation of sins.

Manu smruthi passage is about annam presented to
ithara dEvathAs . VishNu can not be included in these
ithara dEvathA list.Therefore , all these pramANams 
reject the view that one should not consume food 
offered to VishNu.

Special Notes by V.Sadagopan 
1)The nivEdhanam from matapaLLI to the Sannidhi of
the Lord for naivEdhyam should be carried on the head of
Sannadhi parichArakar .He should have the nivEdhanam 
covered fully from the view of others and he should also 
cover his nose and lower face with a cloth .

2)One can not reject the Bhagavath prasAdham , if it 
is offred to one inside a temple even on days of
UpavAsams .This needs to be commented upon by 
those , who are fmiliar with the anushtAnam here. 
On an EkAdasi day , at Oppiliappan Temple , adiyEn
was offered a small amout of curd rice and a bhAgavathA
instructed me that adiyEn should not reject it
since it is Bhagavath prasAdham. 

462. (PraNavam) VishNuvarTAnnA bhaktha-chakshur- darsanOthsAraNa priyAya nama:

Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who was for rejecting
the non-bhakthAs of VishNu (dEvathAnthara worshippers)
from casting their glances on the food prepared for
the Lord before and after naivEdhyam to the Lord !

The prasAdham waiting for presentation to SrIman NaarAyaNa
is kown as naivEdhyam.Before nivEdhanam (offering ),
that naivEdhyam should not be seen by the people,
who are not VishNu bhakthAs. If they see it, 
the naivEdhyam is considered impure and unfit
for consumption by the Lord. Same rules apply for
keeping the nivEdhanam away from the eyes of people ,
who are not VishNu bhakthAs after presenting the food
to the Lord. RahasyAmnAyam text states that the one
who sees the nivEdhanam offered to the Lord , while not 
being a VishNu bhaktha as well as the VishNu bhakthan , 
who shows the naivEdhyam to the latter will incur sins.
We have to consecrate the naivEdhyam with prOkshaNam 
if that food offered to the Lord is seen by the one
who is not a VishNu bhakthan.This is the ruling of
SrI Saatthvatha samhithai.That food is also for 
antharyAmi Yaj~nam and hence these restrictions.

463.(praNavam) Bhagavad bhuktha sEshAnna abhaktha dhAna nishEdhakAya nama:

Salutations to that great AchAryan , who instructed us 
not to give residual prasAdhAm of the Lord to the people ,
who are naasthikAs or those , who have no bhakthi bhAvam
for the Lord. The prAyascchittham for overcoming the sins
accrued from performing such a prohibited act is to recite
Moola Manthram 108 times.

One should not throw away the Bhagavadh nivEdhana annam 
or bury it in ground or playfully discard it in water
according to RahasyAmnAyanam.It should not be given to
one with out karma yOgyathai. All of these acts are
equivalent to destroying that sacred offering .

464.( PraNavam) anya dEva nivEdhyAdhi bhOjyathvaAbhAva sAdhakAya nama: 

Salutations to that srEshtAchAryan who declared that 
the the food offered to anya dEvathais is not fit for
the consumption of a VishNu bhaktha!

SaasthrAs state that the clothing (vasthram)or the food
presented to the anya dEvathAs or the garland used by
them are not recommended for use by a VishNu bhakthan.
The nivEdhyam ( one prepared for offering ),nivEdhitham
( one offered for use) and nirmAlyam ( the food offered
outside the sannidhi of the anya dEvathA for the sub-dEvathAs
as Bali should not be consumed according to their own
aagamAs.Those who consume it have to observe SaandhrAyana
vratham ( a PrAyascchittham ).

465) (PraNavam)

466) (PraNavam)

467) (PraNavam)

468) (PraNavam) Vibhaktha VishNu naivEdhya 
chaathurvidhyOpayOga vidhE nama:

(meaning): Salutations to that great AchAryan , who
knew the four kinds of divisons of VishNu naivEdhyam
and their uses.

Additional Comments: This subject covered in ParamEswara 
Samhithai and is referred to by Swamy Desikan here in 
Saccharithra Raksha. The first portion of the Bhagavad
PrasAdham is for VishvaksEnar , the second portion is for 
Kitchen staff ( ThirumadaipaLLi kaimkaryaparAL) ,
the third portion for one's AchAryAs or qualified 
SrI VaishnavAs and the fourth portion is for personal

SrI VangIswara Kaarikai suggests that Bhagavad prasAdham
can be split in to either 4 or 6 parts.SrI UtthamUr Swamy
pointed out the importance of assigning a portion for 
VishvaksEnar and then use the rest as per need and occasion. 

469) ( PraNavam) HaripUjOpayuktha sTAyipUjAnthara- yOgavidhE nama:

(Meaning): Salutations to the sadAchAryan , who knew 
that the "sTira dhravyam " can be used again .

Additional Comments: This topic has reference to Poushkara 
Samhithai. There are two kinds of material used in 
Bhagavad AarAdhanam . One is sTira dhravyam . Garlands ,
pavithram are examples of sTira dhravyam. Madhubargam ,
annam (prasAdham) are asTira dhravyams. Swamy Desikan 
instructed us that sTira dhravyams can be used again 
in the subsequent days of AarAdhanam , whereas asTira
dhravyams can not be used again.If the flowers in 
the garlands do not fade, they can be used up to 
three days again . 

470) (PraNavam) VishNunaivEdhyaika saadhya ViasvadEva- vidhi priyAya nama: 

Salutations to that MahAchAryan , who knew that VaisvadEvam
has to be performed only with naivEdhyam presented earlier
to BhagavAn VishNu.Vaisvadevam involves dEvathAnthara
poojanam (yaj~nam). Bhagvad NaivEdhya prasAdham can alone
be used in VaisvadEvam . It can only be performed by
a grahasthan , who is not a widow. 

471) (praNavam) VishNu naivEdhyaika saadhya pithru srArdhakkriyAdhikAya nama:

(Meaning): Salutations to the SadAchAryan , who
ruled that Pithru srArddham can be done only with
VishNu naivEdhyam .

Additional comments: There are some who say that 
VishNu naivEdhyAnnam should not be used for SrArddham ,
which are for Pithrus (manes). Using the pramAnams from 
Samhithais , Swamy Desikan established that only annam
used as VishNu naivEdhyam can be used in SrArddha kAryams.
It is suggested that pithrus will be immensely pleased 
with the offerings of VishNu naivEdhyams to them . As in
the case of VaisvadEvam , Pancha MahA Yaj~nam , sTAlipAkam 
and other yaj~nams involving offering to dEvathAntharams
should be done with NaivEdhyam offered earlier to VishNu. 

472) (PraNavam) VishNu naivEdhEyaka saadhya prANAgni- havana priyAyakriyAya nama:

(meaning): Salutations to the great AchAryan , who was in favor of
performing prANAgnihOthram with VishNu naivEdhyam alone.

Additional Comments:PrANAgnihOthram is done at the start of 
bhOjanam (eating) with the recitation of PrANa , apAna and the three
other manthrams and partaking (aahUthi) small morsel of
suddhAnnam . Swamy Desikan held the view that VishNu
naivEdhya prasAdham alone should be used for this 

1) Since all dEvathAs have preethi for the VishNu naivEdhya 
prasAdham , it is clear that Devathais like prANan would
also prefer such a naivEdhyam for their agnihOthram.

2) AaLavanthAr has also held this view according to
Swamy Desikan .

3) SrIman NaarAyaNan is the aadhram for PrANAhUthi.
SaasthrAs state that the Lord partakes the aahUthis 
as another form of AarAdhanam.

4) MahA Bhaaratham and Veda samhithais also hold
this view.There are no pramANams to use any thing other 
than annam presented earlier (naivEdhyam) to the Lord.

5)Swamy Desikan proved elaborately that one can not 
consume any annam that has not been presented to the Lord.
Therefore for PrANAgnihOthram , VishNu naivEdhyam could
alone be used. 

PrANaAgnihOthram is presentation of naivEdhyam 
to the Lord residing inside us.

473) ( PraNavam) VaisvadEvEjyOpayuktha bhOjyathA vAkya sOthakAya nama:

(Meaning): Salutations to that ParamAchAryan , who examined 
critically the subject of consuming annam used in VaisvadEvam
and ijyai.

Additional Comments: There are two views about consumption of
PrasAdham. according to one view ,we can only partake 
the prasAdham used in VaisvadEvam. The other view opines 
that only the naivEdhyam presented to BhagavAn alone
can be consumed. Swamy examined both points of view 
and accepted the view established (the anushtAnam ) 
by our PoorvAchAryALs.

ParamEswara Samhithai explains that it is not necessary to
cook especailly for VaisvadEvam and then consume the left over
for PrANAgnihOthram. Only the naivEdhyam from Bhagavath
AarAdhanam should be used in VaisvadEvam and the left over has 
to be used for prANAgnihOthram. The reason is that BhagavAn 
in the form of ArchA Moorthy accepts the nivEdhanam; next ,
He consumes that annam as the antharyAmi (indweller )inside us. 

474) (PraNavam) VishNu naivEdhya hArdhA-nivEdhyAsana nishEdhakAya nama:

(meaning): Salutations to that grat AchAryan, who condemned 
the practise of eating without naivEdhyam for VihNu first during
aarAdhanam and naivEdhyam thereafter to antharyAmi residing 
in our heart cavity. 

Additional thoughts: There has been some questions about 
offering aahUthis for the antharyAmi , the same food that had
been offered before to the Lord ( NivEdhitha nivEdhanam).
There was concern that it may be unacceptable and has therefore
to be avoided.Swamy Desikan quoted from MahA BhAratham 
( Hrudhi dhyAthvA Harim Tasmai vivEdhyAnnam samAhitha: )
and used that as PramANam to establish that there is no
dhOsham in using the BhagavannivEdhitha annam for 
PrANAgnihOthram. It is the same as the use of sTira Vasthus 
(garlands) more than once for the Lord 's decoration. 

475) (praNavam) archA-HardhAdhirUpAsya haviramsa- visEshavidhE nama:

(meaning): Salutations to that great AchAryan , 
who understood clearly the distinctions between 
the annam accepted by the aarAdhana ArchA Moorthy and
the Lord residing in the heart cavity(hArddha Moorhty).

Additional comments: During the ijyai, the Lord in the form of
ArchA Moorthy accepts the subtle essence of (not visible to the eye)
the Havis (TaLikai). Later , when that BhagavannivEdhitha annam 
is offered to HrudhayAntharyAmi , He consumes the sthUla annam ,
which is visible to the eye. In Bhagavad GitA , the Lord 
Himself points out that He digests the presented annam 
in the form of VaisvAnArAgni roopan (JaaDarAgni SarIrakan ). 

476) (PraNavam) anyaprayukthOpajeevi prANAgni havana- kriyAya nama:

(meaning): Salutations to that SadAchAryan, who accepted 
the other way (PaancharAthrA way) of performing PrANAgnihOthram.

Additional Comments:The experts in PaancharAthram present
annam to antharyAmi with Manthrams associated with VaasudEavan,
sankarshaNan et al. In our sampradhAyam , we use PraNApAnAdhi
manthrams for the 5 aahUthis. ParamEswara Samhithai accepts 
both the prayOgams.Using smruthi vachanams as PramANams ,
Swamy Desikan honored both the ways as Vadhikam. He pointed out
that the method followed by PaancharAthrA experts is only
for them and not for all , who have not been initiated in
the PaancharAthra rites .

477)(PraNavam) SaThakOpAdhi-naivEdhya sArTa- prANAgni-hOthrakAya nama:

(meaning):Salutations to that SadAchAryan , who accepted
the view that PrANAgnihOthram can be done with annam offered
earlier to Swamy NammAzhwAr and AchAryAs . 

Additional Thoughts: The anushtAnam of MahAns is that we can
perform prANAgnihOthram with the annam presented to AzhwArs
and AchAryAs.There is a reason to refer specailly to Swamy
NammAzhwAr in this Sahasra Naamam. In Satha dhUshaNi, Swamy Desikan
has categorically rejected the view of the adhviathis that Swamy
NammAzhwAr belonged to anya jAthi and as such prathishtai
(consecration) and AarAdhanam can not be performed for Him. 
In our sampradhAyam , Swamy NammAzhwar as Mukthar
is equivalent to the Lord in many aspects . Same for AchAryAs,
who are amsams of nithyasooris. Hence , the use of naivEdhyam
presented to AzhwAr and AchAryas for PrANAgnihOthram is
perfectly acceptable.

With this 477th Desika SahasranAmam, the Coverage of
the SrI Sookthi of Saccharithra RakshA is completed. 
Thirukkudanthai Desikan moves now on to NyAsa Vimsathi,
NikshEpa PakshA , Rahasya RakshA and PaancharAthra Raksha
granthams ( SahasranAmAs 478 to 680). 

VAzhi vyAkhyAmuddirak kai !!!
VedAnthasUri charaNau sharaNam prapadye !!!
SrI LakshmI HayagrIva ParabrahmaNE nama:
Daasan , Oppiliappan Koil VaradAchAri SaThakOpan