1. Abbreviations and Acronyms
  2. Exchange Rate
  3. Euro Coin Variant Count
  4. Guidelines for Circulation Coin Design and Issuance
    1. The Commission of the European Communities Recommendation of 19 December 2008
      1. Article 2. Identification of the issuing Member State
      2. Article 3. Absence of the currency name and denomination
      3. Article 4. Design of the national sides
      4. Article 5. Changes to the national sides of regular euro coins intended for circulation
      5. Article 6. Issuance of commemorative euro coins intended for circulation
      6. Article 7. Information procedure and publication of future changes
      7. Article 8. Scope of the recommended practices
      8. Article 9. Repealing of previous recommendations
      9. Recommendation Review
  5. €2 Commemorative Coin Issues
  6. Volume of Coin Issuance in 2010
  7. Banknote Allocation Key

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Acronym definitions
Acronym Definition
EU European Union
EMU Economic Monetary Union
ECB European Central Bank
NCB National Central Bank
ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism
ECOFIN Economic and Financial Affairs Council of the European Union
ECU European Currency Unit
ESCB European System of Central Banks
EMI European Monetary Institute
EMS European Monetary System
Abbreviation and AcronymsBack to Top

Exchange Rate

Currency exchange rate table in real-time (to within 20 min.) from gocurrency.com:

Currency Converter

Currency abbreviations included in the chart above
EURUSDGBPJPYCADAUDBGNCZKHUFPLNSEKCHFISK
EuroUS dollarBritish poundJapanese yenCanadian dollarAustralian dollarBulgarian levCzech korunaHungarian forintPolish złotySwedish kronaSwiss francIcelandic krona

Yahoo! Finance has some excellent tools to aid in determining the present exchange rates against world currencies.

Exchange RateBack to Top

Euro Coin Variant Count

After so many requests for a full accounting of the variant designs issued since production of the Euro began in 1999, what follows is an answer to those requests.

This proof takes into account mintmark variation and changes in overall national design as well as amendments. This accounting does not consider the change in common side, nor changes in date stamp.

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 1999 is 37. Belgium only produced 5 of the 8 denominations (1 Euro, 50, 10, 5 and 1 Euro cent) with a date stamp of 1999.

BEL: 5; FIN: 8; FRA: 8; NED: 8; SPA: 8 = 37

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2000 is 11. Belgium produced 3 of the 8 denominations (2 Euro, 20 and 2 Euro cent) with a date stamp of 2000. The signature of the master of the mint for the Netherlands changed in 2000.

BEL: 3; NED: 8 = 11

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2001 is 24. Monaco's Euro coins did not appear before this and the French and Dutch mint master marks changed.

FRA: 8; MON: 8; NED: 8 = 24

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2002 is 120. The remaining EMU member states with an Issue Date stipulation, including the 5 complete sets of 8 denominated standard circulation Euro coins produced by the 5 German mint locations. The Dutch mint master mark changed. Greek Euro coins were produced at four locations within the EMU; 1 complete set of 8 denominated standard circulation Euro coins produced in Greece, 2 and 1 Euro coins produced in Finland with the mintmark 'S'; 50, 10, 5, 2 and 1 Euro cent coins produced in Spain with the mintmark 'E'; 20 Euro cent coin produced in France with the mintmark 'F'.

AUS: 8; GER: 40; GRE: 16; IRL: 8; ITL: 8; LUX: 8; NED: 8; POR: 8; SAN: 8; VAT: 8 = 120

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2003 is 29. The French and Dutch mint master marks changed. Monaco and Luxembourg carry the French and Dutch marks, respectively for this issue year and changed along with them, however, Monaco only produced 5 of the 8 denominated Euro coins.

FRA: 8; LUX: 8; MON: 5; NED: 8 = 29

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2004 is 16. The French mint master mark changed. Monaco carries the French marks and changed along with it.

FRA: 8; MON: 8 = 16

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2005 is 16. Luxembourg changed production facilities from the Netherlands to Finland. Vatican City issued a second standard series of Euro coins due to the passing of HH Pope John Paul II.

LUX: 8; VAT: 8 = 16

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2006 is 16. Monaco issued a second standard series of Euro coins due to the passing of H.S.H., the Sovereign Prince Rainier III in April 2005. Vatican City issued a second series of Euro coins due to the election to the Papacy, HH Pope Benedict XVI.

MON: 8; VAT: 8 = 16

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2007 is 25. Finland amended their national design. Luxembourg changed production facilities from Finland to France and adopted the French marks into their design. Monaco issued a typical and a variant 1 Euro coin bearing no mint or mint master marks corresponding to the production location of France. Slovenia adopted the Euro as their currency and issued a complete set of standard issue circulation Euro coins.

FIN: 8; LUX: 8; MON: 1; SLE: 8 = 25

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2008 is 40. Belgium issued a new series of standard issue Euro coins. Finland amended their national design. Slovenia changed production facilities from Finland to the Netherlands and adopted the Dutch marks into their design. Cyprus and Malta adopted the Euro as their currency and issued a complete set of standard issue circulation Euro coins.

BEL: 8; CYP: 8; FIN: 8; SLE: 8; MAL: 8 = 40

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2009 is 16. Belgium revised their national design of standard issue Euro coins. Luxembourg changed production facilities from France to the Netherlands, but since it is a reversion to a previous facility whereby the same Dutch marks had been integrated, this change does not figure in the final total because it is not a unique variation. Slovakia adopted the Euro as their currency and issued a complete set of standard issue circulation Euro coins.

BEL: 8; SLA: 8 = 16

The number of Euro coin variations with a date stamp of 2010 is 8. Spain issued a new series of standard issue Euro coins.

SPA: 8 = 8

Therefore, the total number of variant Euro coins issued between 1999 and 2010 is as follows:

37+11+24+120+29+16+16+16+25+40+16+8 = 358

This number continues to be more than any other monetary body in the world. All 358 separate coins are legal tender anywhere in the Eurozone, in all 18 countries.

With regard to actual quantity, as of 30 September 2008, there are approximately 80,677,000,000 coins in circulation in the Eurozone.

Euro Coin Variant Count Back to Top

Guidelines for Circulation Coin Design and Issuance

For further discussion and additional information on this issue, please visit this topic in The Euro Information Website Forum.

The Commission of the European Communities Recommendation of 19 December 2008 on common guidelines for the national sides and the issuance of euro coins intended for circulation explains in 10 articles the new guidelines16 (only the relevant articles are included here):

Article 2. Identification of the issuing Member State:

"The national sides of all denominations of the euro coins intended for circulation should bear an indication of the issuing Member State by means of the Member State’s name or an abbreviation of it."

Finland was the first Member State to come into compliance with an earlier recommendation similar to this article with an amendment to all denominations of euro coins intended for circulation.1

According to the Bank of Finland:

"The national sides of Euro coins will be amended so that each issuing Member State will add its name or abbreviation (FI for Finland) on the coins. On Finnish coins the first letter of the Mint of Finland’s President and CEO (M for Raimo Makkonen) will also be replaced with the Mint’s logo. Amendments to the national sides affect all denominations of Euro coins.

"Each Euro area Member State will decide on the schedule for the introduction of their new coins. In Finland the new coins will be put into circulation in January 2007. The current coins will remain valid, and coins in stock will be put into circulation as necessary. This way coins with the new designs will mix with the current coins in circulation."

Belgium was the second Member State to come into compliance with an earlier recommendation similar to this article with an update to all denominations of euro coins intended for circulation.2

Austria, Germany and Greece do not bear an indication of the issuing Member State by any means as outlined in Article 2.3 4 5

Article 3. Absence of the currency name and denomination:

Section 1. "The national side of the euro coins intended for circulation should not repeat any indication of the denomination, or any parts thereof, of the coin, neither should it repeat the name of the single currency or of its subdivision, unless such indication stems from the use of a different alphabet."

Greece and Cyprus are both permitted to repeat the denomination and the name of the single currency and its subdivisions, since both Member States use a different alphabet. Greece is the only Member State that practices this allowance.

All Austrian standard euro coin denominations intended for circulation repeat the denomination and name of the single currency/subdivision.3

Section 2. "The edge lettering of the 2-euro coin could bear an indication of the denomination, provided that only the figure '2' or the term 'euro' or both are used."

Article 4. Design of the national sides:

"The national side of the euro coins intended for circulation should bear the 12 European stars that should fully surround the national design, including the year mark and the indication of the issuing Member State's name. The European stars should be depicted as on the European flag."

Dutch €0.50, €0.20, €0.10, €0.05, €0.02 and €0.01 standard euro coin denominations intended for circulation place the indication of the Member's name and the year mark outside of the 12 European stars.6

Dutch €2.00 and €1.00 standard euro coin denominations intended for circulation do not depict the 12 European stars as they appear on the European flag.6

Luxembourgish €0.50, €0.20, €0.10, €0.05, €0.02 and €0.01 standard euro coin denominations intended for circulation do not depict the 12 European stars as they appear on the European flag.7

In 2010, Spain issued a redesign, which moved the year mark from among the ring of stars to the inside for the €2.00 and €1.00 denominations and removed a design element which set some of the stars apart from the others for the other denominations.17

Article 5. Changes to the national sides of regular euro coins intended for circulation:

"Without prejudice to Article 6, the designs used for the national sides of the euro coins intended for circulation denominated in euro or in cent should not be modified, except in cases where the Head of State referred to on a coin changes. Issuing Member States should, however, be allowed to update the design of euro coins depicting the Head of State every fifteen years in order to take account of a change in the appearance of the Head of State. Issuing Member States should also be allowed to update their national sides of euro coins in order to fully comply with this Recommendation. A temporary vacancy or the provisional occupation of the function of Head of State should not give the right to change the national sides of the regular euro coins intended for circulation."

In 2005, upon the death of HH Pope John Paul II, Vatican City issued a second series of standard euro circulation coins which indicated a temporary vacancy of the Head of State and depicted the coat of arms of the Cardinal Camerlengo. This series is commonly referred to as the 'Sede Vacante' series. Upon the issuance of this second series, Vatican City became the first member within the euro area to issue a second series of standard euro circulation coins.8

There have been two cases where the death of a Head of State prompted the exercise of this exception.

Vatican City issued a third series of standard circulation Euro coins, depicting a new Head of State, in 2006. HH Pope Benedict XVI was elected Head of State seventeen days after the death of his predecessor in April, 2005. In 2006, Vatican City issued a third series of standard circulation Euro coins, depicting the new Head of State. Vatican City became the first member within the euro area to issue a third series of standard euro circulation coins.9

Four days after the death of HH Pope John Paul II, in April of 2005, HSH Rainier III, Sovereign Prince of Monaco died. His son, Prince Albert II succeeded as Head of State of Monaco. In 2006, Monaco issued a second series of standard circulation Euro coins depicting the new Sovereign Prince of Monaco.10

In 2008, Belgium issued a second series of standard circulation euro coins. The design includes an updated depiction of the Head of State, King Albert II. In 2009, the design was amended to replace the new portrait with the original portrait.2

Article 6. Issuance of commemorative euro coins intended for circulation:

Section 1. "Issues of commemorative euro coins intended for circulation showing a different national design from that of the regular euro coins intended for circulation should only commemorate subjects of major national or European relevance. Commemorative euro coins intended for circulation collectively issued by all participating Member States should only commemorate subjects of the highest European relevance and their issuance should be endorsed by the Council."

There have been two collectively issued commemorative circulation euro coins- Treaty of Rome 50th Anniversary11 and 10 Years EMU12.

Section 2. "The issuance of commemorative euro coins intended for circulation should comply with the following rules:

Subsection (a). "the number of issues should be limited to one per issuing Member State per year, except in cases where:

paragraph (i). "commemorative euro coins intended for circulation are collectively issued by all participating Member States;

paragraph (ii). "a possible commemorative euro coin intended for circulation is issued at the occasion of a temporary vacancy or a provisional occupation of the function of Head of State.

Subsection (b). "the 2-euro coin should be the sole denomination used for such issues;

Subsection (c). "the total number of coins put into circulation for each individual issue should not exceed the higher of the following two ceilings:

paragraph (i). "0,1% of the total number of 2-euro coins brought into circulation by all participating Member States up to the beginning of the year preceding the year of issuance of the commemorative coin; this ceiling may be raised to 2,0% of the total circulation of 2-euro coins of all participating Member States if a global and highly symbolic subject is commemorated, in which case the issuing Member State should refrain from launching another commemorative circulation coin issue using the raised ceiling during the subsequent four years and should set out the reasons for choosing the raised ceiling when providing information as provided for in Article 7;

paragraph (ii). "5,0% of the total number of 2-euro coins brought into circulation by the issuing Member State concerned up to the beginning of the year preceding the year of issuance of the commemorative coin.

Subsection (d). "the edge lettering on commemorative euro coins intended for circulation should be the same as on regular euro coins intended for circulation."

Finland has issued three commemorative euro coins intended for circulation whose edge lettering was not the same as on regular euro coins intended for circulation.13

Article 7. Information procedure and publication of future changes:

"Member States should inform each other on the draft designs of new national sides of euro coins, including the edge letterings, and of the volume of issuance before they formally approve these designs. To this effect, new draft designs of euro coins should be forwarded by the issuing Member State to the Commission, as a rule, at least six months before the planned issue date. The Commission should verify compliance with the guidelines of this Recommendation and inform the other Member States without delay via the Economic and Financial Committee’s relevant subcommittee. If and when the Commission considers that the guidelines of the present Recommendation are not respected, the relevant subcommittee of the Economic and Financial Committee should decide whether to approve the design.

"The relevant subcommittee of the Economic and Financial Committee should approve the designs of commemorative euro coins intended for circulation collectively issued by all participating Member States.

"All relevant information on new national euro coin designs will be published in the Official Journal of the European Union."

Article 8. Scope of the recommended practices:

"This Recommendation should apply to national sides and edge letterings of both regular and commemorative euro coins intended for circulation. It should not apply to the national sides and edge letterings of both regular and commemorative euro coins intended for circulation which have been first issued or approved according to the agreed information procedure prior to the adoption of this Recommendation."

Austrian euro coin designs fall outside Article 2 and Article 3 of this recommendation. German and Greek euro coin designs fall outside Article 2 of this recommendation. Dutch and Luxembourgish euro coin designs fall outside Article 4 of this recommendation. All five of these national euro coin designs fall within Article 8 of this recommendation because they were all issued or approved according to the agreed information procedure prior to the adoption of this recommendation.

However, Article 5 of this recommendation allows for an update to these national euro coin designs in order to fully comply with this Recommendation, but does not require an update or re-design to these national euro coin designs.

Article 9. Repealing of previous recommendations:

"Recommendations 2003/734/EC and 2005/491/EC are hereby repealed."

The following stipulations previously cited in this FAQ have been superseded, in whole or in part, by this Recommendation:

"No changes should be made to the standard' national side of the Euro circulation coins until the end of 2008, except if the Head of State who is depicted on a coin changes..."

"...a change to the standard national side is possible if the Head of State depicted on a coin changes, while the moratorium for changes to the national sides on other grounds could be reconsidered by the end of 2008."

Recommendation Review

In paragraph 16 of the Recommendation's preamble, a review of this Recommendation will be prepared by the end of 2015, "...in order to determine whether the guidelines need to be modified."

  1. "Designs of Euro coins will be amended in 2007" (27 December 2006) Press release number 33Bank of Finland.
    SEE:
    The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Finland 2007 Amended Issue
    The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Finland 2008 Amended Issue
  2. "Update of the national faces of Euro coins intended for circulation" (14 December 2007) Notices From European Union Institutions and Bodies-Commission (2007/C 302/08). Official Journal of the European Union.
    SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Belgium Series 2
    SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Belgium 2009 Amended Issue
  3. SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Austria
  4. SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Germany
  5. SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Greece
  6. SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Netherlands
  7. SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Luxembourg
  8. "New national sides of euro coins intended for circulation" (12 June 2005) Notices From European Union Institutions and Bodies-Commission (2005/C 308/08). Official Journal of the European Union.
    SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Vatican Series 2
  9. "New national faces of euro coins intended for circulation" (9 August 2006) Notices From European Union Institutions and Bodies-Commission (2006/C 186/02). Official Journal of the European Union.
    SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Vatican Series 3
  10. "New national faces of euro coins intended for circulation" (22 December 2006) Notices From European Union Institutions and Bodies-Commission (2006/C 316/09). Official Journal of the European Union.
    SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Monaco Series 2
  11. SEE: The Euro- €2 Commemorative Design- Treaty of Rome 50th Anniversary
  12. SEE: The Euro- €2 Commemorative Design- 10 Years of EMU
  13. SEE: The Euro- €2 Edge Inscriptions
  14. "Commission Recommendation of 29 September 2003 on common practice for changes to the design of national obverse sides of euro circulation coins" (10 October 2003) 2003/734/EC (OJ 2003/C 247/5). Official Journal of the European Union.
  15. "Commission Recommendation of 3 June 2005 on common guidelines for the national sides of euro circulation coins" (3 June 2005) 2005/491/EC (OJ 2005/L 186/1). Official Journal of the European Union.
  16. "Commission Recommendation of 19 December 2008 on common guidelines for the national sides and the issuance of euro coins intended for circulation" (14 January 2009) 2009/23/EC (OJ 2009/L 9/1). Official Journal of the European Union.
  17. "Update of the national faces of Euro coins intended for circulation" (10 December 2009) Notices From European Union Institutions and Bodies-Commission (2009/C 300/02). Official Journal of the European Union.
    SEE: The Euro- National Euro Coin Design- Spain Series 2
Guidelines for Circulation Coin Design and Issuance Back to Top

€2 Commemorative Coin Issues

Not counting the common commemorative issues of 2007 (Treaty of Rome) and 2009 (10 Years of EMU), there have been  commemorative circulation coins issued.  Treaty of Rome commemorative circulation coins were issued in 2007,  10 Years of EMU commemorative circulation coins were issued in 2009. Of the 18 members of the EMU, only Cyprus, Ireland, Malta and The Netherlands have not independently issued a commemorative circulation coin.

Commemorative circulation coins issued to date by country
As of Dec 2009
Country Count Subject of commemoration See:
Austria 1 €2 2005- Austria
Belgium 4 €2 2005- Belgium
€2 2006- Belgium
€2 2008- Belgium
€2 2009- Belgium
Cyprus 0    
Finland 5 €2 2004- Finland
€2 2005- Finland
€2 2006- Finland
€2 2007- Finland
€2 2008- Finland
€2 2009- Finland
France 1 €2 2008- France
Germany 4 €2 2006- Germany
€2 2007- Germany
€2 2008- Germany
€2 2009- Germany
Greece 1 €2 2004- Greece
Ireland 0    
Italy 4 €2 2004- Italy
€2 2005- Italy
€2 2006- Italy
€2 2008- Italy
€2 2009- Italy
Luxembourg 6 €2 2004- Luxembourg
€2 2005- Luxembourg
€2 2006- Luxembourg
€2 2007- Luxembourg
€2 2008- Luxembourg
€2 2009- Luxembourg
Malta 0    
Monaco 1 €2 2007- Monaco
Netherlands 0    
Portugal 3 €2 2007- Portugal
€2 2008- Portugal
€2 2009- Portugal
San Marino 6 €2 2004- San Marino
€2 2005- San Marino
€2 2006- San Marino
€2 2007- San Marino
€2 2008- San Marino
€2 2009- San Marino
Slovakia 1 €2 2008- Slovakia
Slovenia 1 €2 2008- Slovenia
Spain 1 €2 2005- Spain
Vatican City 5 €2 2004- Vatican
€2 2005- Vatican
€2 2006- Vatican
€2 2007- Vatican
€2 2008- Vatican
€2 2009- Vatican
Commemorative circulation coins issued to date by year
As of 31 December 2009
Year Count See:
2004 €2 2004
2005 €2 2005
2006 €2 2006
2007 €2 2007
2008 €2 2008
2009 €2 2009
2010 €2 2010
Total Independent Issues:  
2007
Treaty of Rome
€2 Treaty of Rome 50th Anniversary
2009
10 Years of EMU
€2 10 Years of EMU
Total Common Issues:  
Grand Total Issues:  

SEE: €2 Commemorative Issues
SEE: €2 Commemorative Design- Treaty of Rome 50th Anniversary
SEE: €2 Commemorative Design- 10 Years of EMU

  1. These have not been officially released.
€2 Commemorative Coin Issues Back to Top

Volume of Coin Issuance in 2010

As of 1 January 2010, the volume of coin issuance was changed to allow for requests for increases.

Volume of Coin Issuance
in 2010
(€ mil)
Member State Issuance of circulation
and collector coins
in 2010
Previous (2009)
Coin Issuance
Departure
Austria   € 306.00 € 216.00 +42%
Belgium   € 105.20 € 105.40 -
Cyprus   €   18.10 €   22.50 -20%
Finland   €   60.00 €   60.00 -
France   € 290.00 € 252.50 +15%
Germany   € 668.00 € 632.00 +6%
Greece   €   55.00 €   85.70 -36%
Ireland   €   43.00 €   65.50 -34%
Italy   € 283.00 € 234.30 +21%
Luxembourg   €   40.00 €   42.00 -5%
Malta   €   10.50 €   15.40 -32%
Netherlands   €   54.00 €   68.50 -21%
Portugal   €   50.00 €   50.00 -
Slovakia   €   62.00 € 131.00 -53%
Slovenia   €   30.00 €   27.00 +11%
Spain   € 210.00 € 390.00 -46%
TOTAL:  € 2,284.80  € 2,397.80 -5%
Volume of Coin Issuance in 2010Back to Top

Banknote Allocation Key

As of 1 January 2009, the banknote allocation key was changed to allow for the new member of the EMU, Slovakia, a percentage of the total Banknote production.

Banknote Allocation Key
as of 1 January 2009
National Bank of Origin Banknote Allocation Previous (2008)
Banknote Allocation
Departure
European Central Bank 08.0000 % 08.0000 % -
Nationale Bank van Belgiλ/Banque Nationale de Belgique 03.1975 % 03.2615 % -00.0640 %
Deutsche Bundesbank 24.9630 % 27.0880 % -02.1250 %
Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland 01.4640 % 01.1730 % -00.2910 %
Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος (Bank of Greece) 02.5900 % 02.3980 % +00.1920 %
Banco de Espaρa 10.9465 % 09.9660 % +00.9805 %
Banque de France 18.7465 % 18.9915 % -00.2450 %
Banca d’Italia 16.4730 % 16.5395 % -00.0665 %
Central Bank of Cyprus 00.1805 % 00.1650 % +00.0155 %
Banque centrale du Luxembourg 00.2305 % 00.2080 % +00.0225 %
Bank Centrali ta' Malta 00.0835 % 00.0825 % +00.0010 %
De Nederlandsche Bank 05.2575 % 05.1395 % +00.1180 %
Φsterreichische Nationalbank 02.5595 % 02.6610 % -00.1015 %
Banco de Portugal 02.3075 % 02.2620 % +00.0455 %
Banka Slovenije 00.4335 % 00.4215 % +00.0120 %
Nαrodnα banka Slovenska 00.9140% - +00.9140 %
Suomen Pankki 01.6530 % 01.6430 % +00.0100 %
TOTAL: 100.0000 % 100.0000 % -

For further details on banknote production, please see The Euro- Banknotes- Production.

Banknote Allocation Key Back to Top