Mintmarks on Euro coins by country
Explanation of German Mintmarks

Mintmarks take the form of either letters abbreviating the country's mint/mints or symbols which represent the country's mint. Mintmarks used on Euro coins are similar to those used on the old currencies of each country, prior to Euro adoption. Austria and Ireland are the only members of the EMU which do not include a mintmark of any kind on their coins.

Mintmarks on Euro coins by country
Country Mintmark Description City of Mint
Belgium1 Head of St. Michael, patron saint of Brussels. Brussels
Finland (2007-2009) Rahapaja Oy mint logo (until 2009) Helsinki-Vantaa
Finland (2010-present) Rahapaja Oy mint logo (since 2010) Helsinki-Vantaa
France Cornucopia Pessac
Germany Letter Berlin
Letter Munich
Letter Stuttgart
Letter Karlsruhe
Letter Hamburg
Coins dated 2002 only2
Letter (in star)
(E = España)
Letter (in star)
(F = France)
Letter (in star)
(S = Suomi)
Greece2 A stylized acanthus leaf Athens
Italy Letter Rome
Lithuania8 Lietuvos monetų kalykla (LMK) logo Vilnius
Coins dated
2002-2004 and
Mercury's wand Utrecht
Coins dated 2005-20063
(S = Suomi)
Rahapaja Oy mint logo
Coins dated 2007-20083
Letter (in star)
(F = France)
Malta4 Letter (in star)
(F = France)
Monaco5 Cornucopia Pessac
Netherlands Mercury's wand Utrecht
Portugal INCM (Imprensa National-Casa de Moeda) Lisbon
San Marino6 Letter Rome
Slovakia Mincovňa Kremnica (MK) logo Kremnica
Coins dated 20079
(Fi = Finland)
Coins dated 2008-present9
Mercury's wand Utrecht
Spain Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre logo Madrid
Vatican7 Letter Rome

Explanation of German Mintmarks

Several questions have been submitted to the website regarding the issue of German mintmarks. The questions are addressed here and in the forum.

In terms of German Euro coins, there are five mint marks; A, D, F, G and J. Many of the questions surrounding this arrangement has centered on the seemingly arbitrary letters which are used. They certainly serve no purpose in identifying the mint city by way of abbreviation since Berlin has no 'A' in its name or alphabetically since the mint mark 'G' is used for Karlsruhe and 'J' is used for Hamburg. So why are such random letters assigned to represent the German mints?

Prior to the establishment of the German Empire in 1871, 8 of the 26 constituent administrative regions, which were eventually incorporated to form the German Empire, had their own mint houses. These states consisted of 4 kingdoms, 6 grand duchies, 5 duchies, 7 principalities, 3 free cities and 1 imperial territory and were placed into the constitution in this order.

The eight states had a combined total of ten mint houses (one was established after 1871) and were each assigned a letter corresponding to the order in which their region was listed in the new constitution.

The first to be listed was the Kingdom of Prussia. This territory had three mint houses which were previously assigned letters corresponding to the chronological establishment of the facilities. Berlin was given the designation of 'A'; Hannover, 'B'; Frankfurt, 'C'.

The second was the Kingdom of Bavaria whose mint house, assigned the letter 'D', was located in Munich. The third was the Kingdom of Saxony whose mint house, assigned the letter 'E', was located in Dresden until 1887 when damage caused by the May Uprising (nearly 50 years earlier) led to a fire and irreparable damage to the facility. Production was moved to the city of Muldenhütten, which retained the 'E' designation. The fourth was the Kingdom of Württemberg whose mint house, assigned the letter 'F', was located in Stuttgart.

The fifth to be listed was the Grand Duchy of Baden whose mint house was located in Karlsruhe and assigned the letter 'G'. The fifth to be listed was the Grand Duchy of Hesse whose mint house was located in Darmstadt and assigned the letter 'H'.

There is no 'I' designation because it could have been easily confused with the letter 'J'.

No other mint houses were in any of the next eighteen states. The twenty-fourth to be listed in the 1871 constitution of the German Empire was the Free City of Hamburg whose mint house was assigned the letter 'J'.

The remaining mint house was located in the Imperial Territory Elsaß-Lothringen (Alsace-Lorraine), listed twenty-sixth and last. The mint house in this state was located in Strassburg (Strasbourg) and given the designation 'K'.

No coin production took place at the Strassburg facility under the auspices of the German Empire. According to a local official in present day Strasbourg, the facility was staffed by French nationals who were forced under a German director to repair damage to the facility, resulting from Prussian bombing during the Franco-Prussian war in the previous year, which eventually led to German annexation. The French employees, in protest of German control, artificially inflated the actual damage to the facility and insisted at times that reparations were impossible or would take years to complete. In fact, several employees took to sabotage in order to further delay production. The onset of World War I delayed the repairs even more and by the time France eventually re-took administration of the region in 1918 via the Treaty of Versailles, the facility was far from a working mint house.

The facility went into a brief period of French coin production before the 1940 Nazi invasion again shut the facility down. Nazi Germany had little interest in the facility as a mint house and it did not produce coins during World War II either.

The Hannover mint house (B) was closed in 1878, but the designation 'B' was given to the Vienna mint house during the Nazi German occupation of Austria from 1938-1945.

In summary, the following is a list of German mint houses that have been or still are in use today along with their corresponding designation and years of operation:

A Berlin (1871- present)
B Hannover (1872-1878)
B Wien (Vienna) (1938-1945)
C Frankfurt (1872-1879)
D München (Munich) (1872- present)
E Dresden (1872-1887)
E Muldenhütten (1887-1953)
F Stuttgart (1872- present)
G Karlsruhe (1872- present)
H Darmstadt (1872-1882)
J Hamburg (1875- present)
K Strassburg (never produced German coins)

  1. The Belgian mint mark had only been used on the 2 euro commemorative issues, prior to 2008.
  2. Greek euro coins with the date of 2002, for the initial supply, were minted at three locations around the Eurozone. The letters representing those locations can be found in one of the EU stars on these coins.
    SEE: Greece
  3. Luxembourg has no domestic mint. Luxembourgish euro coins have been minted in three locations around the Eurozone. The mintmarks, mintmaster's marks and national identification letters can be found near the date (for those produced in Netherlands, Finland and France) or in one of the EU stars on these coins (for those produced in France).
    SEE: Luxembourg
  4. Malta has no domestic mint. Maltese euro coins are produced in France. The national identifier can be found in the 6 o'clock star.
    SEE: Malta
  5. Monegasque euro coins are minted in Pessac, France and bear the mintmark and mintmaster's marks of France.
  6. Sammarinese euro coins are minted in Rome, Italy and bear the mintmark 'R' for Rome.
  7. Vatican euro coins are minted in Rome, Italy and bear the mintmark 'R' for Rome.
  8. Lithuania is not yet a member of the EMU and does not produce euro coins. When they adopt the euro as their currency, this is the mintmark which will be used.
  9. Slovenia has no domestic mint. Slovenian euro coins have been minted in two locations in the Eurozone. The national identifying mintmark (for those produced in Finland), mintmark and mintmaster's mark (for those produced in Netherlands) can be found near one of the EU stars on these coins.
    SEE: Slovenia