R.

R
R (är). R, the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a semivowel, and a liquid. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 178, 179, and 250-254.R is the dog's letter and hurreth in the sound.” B. Jonson.
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In words derived from the Greek language the letter h is generally written after r to represent the aspirated sound of the Greek "r, but does not affect the pronunciation of the English word, as rhapsody, rhetoric.
[1913 Webster] The English letter derives its form from the Greek through the Latin, the Greek letter being derived from the Phœnician, which, it is believed, is ultimately of Egyptian origin. Etymologically, R is most closely related to l, s, and n; as in bandore, mandole; purple, L. purpura; E. chapter, F. chapitre, L. capitulum; E. was, were; hare, G. hase; E. order, F. ordre, L. ordo, ordinis; E. coffer, coffin.

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The three Rs, a jocose expression for reading, (w)riting, and (a)rithmetic, -- the fundamentals of an education.
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R&D
R&D (är"ăn*dē"), n. [research and development.] Research and development; used mostly to refer to the division of a corporation responsible for performing research and developing new products, or the activitie performed by that division; -- a commonly used abbreviation.
Syn. -- R and D, research and development. [PJC]

Ra
Ra (rä), n. A roe; a deer. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Ra-
Ra-. A prefix, from the Latin re and ad combined, coming to us through the French and Italian. See Re-, and Ad-.
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Raash
Raash (räsh), n. [Cf. Ar. ra'ash trembling, tremor.] (Zool.) The electric catfish. [Written also raasch.]
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Rab
Rab (răb), n. A rod or stick used by masons in mixing hair with mortar.
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Rabat
Rab"at (răb"ăt), n. [See Rabot.] A polishing material made of potter's clay that has failed in baking.
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Rabat
Ra`bat" (r&adot_;*bāt"), n. [F. Cf. Rabato.] (Eccl.) (a) A clerical linen collar. (b) A kind of clerical scarf fitted to a collar; as, a black silk rabat.
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Rabate
Ra*bate" (r&adot_;*bāt"), v. t. [F. rabattre to beat down; pref. re- + abattre. See Abate, and cf. Rebate, v.] (Falconry) To recover to the fist, as a hawk. [Obs.]
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Rabatine
Rab"a*tine (răb"&adot_;*t&ibreve_;n), n. [See Rabato.] A collar or cape. [Obs.] Sir W. Scott.
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Rabato
Ra*ba"to (r&adot_;*bā"t&ouptack_;), n. [F. rabat, fr. rabattre. See Rabate.] A kind of ruff for the neck; a turned-down collar; a rebato. [Obs.] Shak.
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Rabbate
Rab*bate" (răb*bāt"), v. t. [See Rabate.] To abate or diminish. [Obs.] -- n. Abatement. [Obs.]
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Rabbet
Rab"bet (răb"b&ebreve_;t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rabbeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rabbeting.] [F. raboter to plane, plane down,rabot a plane; pref. re- re- + OF. abouter, aboter. See Abut, and cf. Rebut.] 1. To cut a rabbet in; to furnish with a rabbet.
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2. To unite the edges of, as boards, etc., in a rabbet joint.
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Rabbet
Rab"bet, n. [See Rabbet, v., and cf. Rebate, n.]
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1. (Carp.) A longitudinal channel, groove, or recess cut out of the edge or face of any body; especially, one intended to receive another member, so as to break or cover the joint, or more easily to hold the members in place; thus, the groove cut for a panel, for a pane of glass, or for a door, is a rabbet, or rebate.
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2. Same as Rabbet joint, below.
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Rabbet joint (Carp.), a joint formed by fitting together rabbeted boards or timbers; -- called also rabbet. -- Rabbet plane, a joiner's plane for cutting a rabbet. Moxon.
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Rabbi
Rab"bi (răr"bī or răr"b&ibreve_;; 277), n.; pl. Rabbis (răr"bīz or răr"b&ibreve_;z) or Rabbies. [L., fr. Gr. "rabbi`, Heb. rabī my master, from rab master, lord, teacher, akin to Ar. rabb.] Master; lord; teacher; -- a Jewish title of respect or honor for a teacher or doctor of the law. “The gravest rabbies.” Milton.
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Be not ye called Rabbi, for one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren. Matt. xxiii. 8.
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Rabbin
Rab"bin (răb"b&ibreve_;n), n. [F.] Same as Rabbi.
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Rabbinical
Rabbinic
{ Rab*bin"ic (răb*b&ibreve_;n"&ibreve_;k), Rab*bin"ic*al (răb*b&ibreve_;n"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), } a. [Cf. F. rabbinique.] Of or pertaining to the rabbins or rabbis, or pertaining to the opinions, learning, or language of the rabbins. “Comments staler than rabbinic.” Lowell.
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We will not buy your rabbinical fumes. Milton.
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Rabbinic
Rab*bin"ic (răb*b&ibreve_;n"&ibreve_;k), n. The language or dialect of the rabbins; the later Hebrew.
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Rabbinically
Rab*bin"ic*al*ly, adv. In a rabbinical manner; after the manner of the rabbins.
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Rabbinism
Rab"bin*ism (răb"b&ibreve_;n*&ibreve_;z'm), n. [Cf. F. rabbinisme.] 1. A rabbinic expression or phraseology; a peculiarity of the language of the rabbins.
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2. The teachings and traditions of the rabbins.
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Rabbinist
Rab"bin*ist (răb"b&ibreve_;n*&ibreve_;st), n. [Cf. F. rabbiniste.] One among the Jews who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the rabbins, in opposition to the Karaites, who rejected the traditions.
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Rabbinite
Rab"bin*ite (răb"b&ibreve_;n*īt), n. Same as Rabbinist.
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Rabbit
Rab"bit (răb"b&ibreve_;t), n. [OE. rabet, akin to OD. robbe, robbeken.] (Zool.) Any of the smaller species of the genus Lepus, especially the common European species (Lepus cuniculus), which is often kept as a pet, and has been introduced into many countries. It is remarkably prolific, and has become a pest in some parts of Australia and New Zealand.
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&hand_; The common American rabbit (Lepus sylvatica) is similar but smaller. See Cottontail, and Jack rabbit, under 2d Jack. The larger species of Lepus are commonly called hares. See Hare.
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Angora rabbit (Zool.), a variety of the domestic rabbit having long, soft fur. -- Rabbit burrow, a hole in the earth made by rabbits for shelter and habitation. -- Rabbit fish. (Zool.) (a) The northern chimaera (Chimaera monstrosa). (b) Any one of several species of plectognath fishes, as the bur fish, and puffer. The term is also locally applied to other fishes. -- Rabbits' ears. (Bot.) See Cyclamen. -- Rabbit warren, a piece of ground appropriated to the breeding and preservation of rabbits. Wright. -- Rock rabbit. (a) (Zool.) See Daman, and Klipdas. (b) the pika. -- Welsh rabbit, a dish of which the chief constituents are melted cheese over toasted bread, flavored in various ways, as with ale, beer, milk, or spices. The name is popularly said to be a corruption of Welsh rare bit, but it is probably merely a humorous designation; -- also called Welsh rarebit.
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rabbit
rabbit v. i. To hunt rabbits.
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Rabbiting
Rab"bit*ing, n. The hunting of rabbits. T. Hughes.
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Rabbitry
Rab"bit*ry (răb"b&ibreve_;t*r&ybreve_;), n. A place where rabbits are kept; especially, a collection of hutches for tame rabbits.
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Rabble
Rab"ble (răb"b'l), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Iron Manuf.) An iron bar, with the end bent, used in stirring or skimming molten iron in the process of puddling.
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Rabble
Rab"ble, v. t. To stir or skim with a rabble, as molten iron.
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Rabble
Rab"ble, v. i. [Akin to D. rabbelen, Prov. G. rabbeln, to prattle, to chatter: cf. L. rabula a brawling advocate, a pettifogger, fr. rabere to rave. Cf. Rage.] To speak in a confused manner. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
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Rabble
Rab"ble, n. [Probably named from the noise made by it (see Rabble, v. i.) cf. D. rapalje rabble, OF. & Prov. F. rapaille.] 1. A tumultuous crowd of vulgar, noisy people; a mob; a confused, disorderly throng.
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I saw, I say, come out of London, even unto the presence of the prince, a great rabble of mean and light persons. Ascham.
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Jupiter, Mercury, Bacchus, Venus, Mars, and the whole rabble of licentious deities. Bp. Warburton.
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2. A confused, incoherent discourse; a medley of voices; a chatter.
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The rabble, the lowest class of people, without reference to an assembly; the dregs of the people.The rabble call him ‘lord.'” Shak.
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Rabble
Rab"ble, a. Of or pertaining to a rabble; like, or suited to, a rabble; disorderly; vulgar. [R.] Dryden.
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Rabble
Rab"ble, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rabbled (răb"b'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rabbling (răb"bl&ibreve_;ng).] 1. To insult, or assault, by a mob; to mob; as, to rabble a curate. Macaulay.
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The bishops' carriages were stopped and the prelates themselves rabbled on their way to the house. J. R. Green.
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2. To utter glibly and incoherently; to mouth without intelligence. [Obs. or Scot.] Foxe.
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3. To rumple; to crumple. [Scot.]
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Rabblement
Rab"ble*ment (răb"b'l*m&eitalic_;nt), n. A tumultuous crowd of low people; a rabble. “Rude rablement.” Spenser.
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And still, as he refused it, the rabblement hooted. Shak.
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Rabbler
Rab"bler (răb"bl&etilde_;r), n. [See 2d Rabble.] (Mech.) A scraping tool for smoothing metal.
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Rabble-rout
Rab"ble-rout` (răb"b'l-rout`), n. A tumultuous crowd; a rabble; a noisy throng.
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Rabdoidal
Rab*doid"al (răb*doid"&aitalic_;l), a. [Gr. "ra`bdos a rod + -oid + -al.] (Anat.) See Sagittal. [Written also rhabdoidal.]
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Rabdology
Rab*dol"o*gy (răb*d&obreve_;l"&ouptack_;*j&ybreve_;), n. [Gr. "ra`bdos rod, stick + -logy: cf. F. rabdologie.] The method or art of performing arithmetical operations by means of Napier's bones. See Napier's bones. [Written also rhabdology.]
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Rabdomancy
Rab"do*man`cy (răb"d&ouptack_;*măn`s&ybreve_;), n. [Gr. "ra`bdos rod + -mancy.] Divination by means of rods or wands. [Written also rhabdomancy.] Sir T. Browne.
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Rabid
Rab"id (răb"&ibreve_;d), a. [L. rabidus, from rabere to rave. See Rage, n.] 1. Furious; raging; extremely violent.
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The rabid flight
Of winds that ruin ships.
Chapman.
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2. Extreme, unreasonable, or fanatical in opinion; excessively zealous; as, a rabid socialist.
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3. Affected with the distemper called rabies; mad; as, a rabid dog or fox.
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4. (Med.) Of or pertaining to rabies, or hydrophobia; as, rabid virus.
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Rabidity
Ra*bid"i*ty (r&adot_;*b&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. Rabidness; furiousness.
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Rabidly
Rab"id*ly (răb"&ibreve_;d*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a rabid manner; with extreme violence.
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Rabidness
Rab"id*ness, n. The quality or state of being rabid.
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Rabies
Ra"bi*es (rā"b&ibreve_;*ēz), n. [L. See Rage, n.] Same as Hydrophobia (b); canine madness.
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Rabinet
Rab"i*net (răb"&ibreve_;*n&ebreve_;t), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Mil.) A kind of small ordnance formerly in use. [Written also rabanet.] Ainsworth.
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Rabious
Ra"bi*ous (rā"b&ibreve_;*ŭs), a. Fierce. [Obs.] Daniel.
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Rabot
Ra"bot (rā"b&obreve_;t), n. [F.] A rubber of hard wood used in smoothing marble to be polished. Knight.
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Raca
Ra"ca (rā"k&adot_;), a. [Gr. "raka`, from Chaldee rēkā.] A term of reproach used by the Jews of our Savior's time, meaning “worthless.”
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Whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council. Matt. v. 22.
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Racahout
Ra`ca`hout" (r&adot_;`k&adot_;`&oomacr_;"), n. [F. racahout, probably fr. Ar. rāqaut.] A preparation from acorns used by the Arabs as a substitute for chocolate, and also as a beverage for invalids.
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Raccoon
Rac*coon" (răk*k&oomacr_;n"), n. [F. raton, prop., a little rat, fr. rat rat, perhaps of German origin. See Rat.] (Zool.) A North American nocturnal carnivore (Procyon lotor) allied to the bears, but much smaller, and having a long, full tail, banded with black and gray. Its body is gray, varied with black and white. Called also coon, and mapach.
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Raccoon dog (Zool.), the tanate. -- Raccoon fox (Zool.), the cacomixle.
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Race
Race (rās), v. t. To raze. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Race
Race (rās), n. [OF. raïz, L. radix, -icis. See Radix.] A root. “A race or two of ginger.” Shak.
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Race ginger, ginger in the root, or not pulverized.
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Race
Race, n. [F. race; cf. Pr. & Sp. raza, It. razza; all from OHG. reiza line, akin to E. write. See Write.]
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1. The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed or presumed to belong to the same stock; a lineage; a breed.
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The whole race of mankind. Shak.
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Whence the long race of Alban fathers come. Dryden.
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&hand_; Naturalists and ethnographers divide mankind into several distinct varieties, or races. Cuvier refers them all to three, Pritchard enumerates seven, Agassiz eight, Pickering describes eleven. One of the common classifications is that of Blumenbach, who makes five races: the Caucasian, or white race, to which belong the greater part of the European nations and those of Western Asia; the Mongolian, or yellow race, occupying Tartary, China, Japan, etc.; the Ethiopian, or negro race, occupying most of Africa (except the north), Australia, Papua, and other Pacific Islands; the American, or red race, comprising the Indians of North and South America; and the Malayan, or brown race, which occupies the islands of the Indian Archipelago, etc. Many recent writers classify the Malay and American races as branches of the Mongolian. See Illustration in Appendix.
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2. Company; herd; breed.
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For do but note a wild and wanton herd,
Or race of youthful and unhandled colts,
Fetching mad bounds.
Shak.
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3. (Bot.) A variety of such fixed character that it may be propagated by seed.
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4. Peculiar flavor, taste, or strength, as of wine; that quality, or assemblage of qualities, which indicates origin or kind, as in wine; hence, characteristic flavor; smack. “A race of heaven.” Shak.
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Is it [the wine] of the right race ? Massinger.
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5. Hence, characteristic quality or disposition. [Obs.]
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And now I give my sensual race the rein. Shak.
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Some . . . great race of fancy or judgment. Sir W. Temple.
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Syn. -- Lineage; line; family; house; breed; offspring; progeny; issue.
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Race
Race, n. [OE. ras, res, rees, AS. r&aemacr_;s a rush, running; akin to Icel. rās course, race. √118.] 1. A progress; a course; a movement or progression.
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2. Esp., swift progress; rapid course; a running.
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The flight of many birds is swifter than the race of any beasts. Bacon.
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3. Hence: The act or process of running in competition; a contest of speed in any way, as in running, riding, driving, skating, rowing, sailing; in the plural, usually, a meeting for contests in the running of horses; as, he attended the races.
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The race is not to the swift. Eccl. ix. 11.
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I wield the gauntlet, and I run the race. Pope.
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4. Competitive action of any kind, especially when prolonged; hence, career; course of life.
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My race of glory run, and race of shame. Milton.
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5. A strong or rapid current of water, or the channel or passage for such a current; a powerful current or heavy sea, sometimes produced by the meeting of two tides; as, the Portland Race; the Race of Alderney.
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6. The current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel in which it flows; a mill race.
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&hand_; The part of the channel above the wheel is sometimes called the headrace, the part below, the tailrace.
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7. (Mach.) A channel or guide along which a shuttle is driven back and forth, as in a loom, sewing machine, etc.
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Race cloth, a cloth worn by horses in racing, having pockets to hold the weights prescribed. -- Race course. (a) The path, generally circular or elliptical, over which a race is run. (b) Same as Race way, below. -- Race cup, a cup given as a prize to the victor in a race. -- Race glass, a kind of field glass. -- Race horse. (a) A horse that runs in competition; specifically, a horse bred or kept for running races. (b) A breed of horses remarkable for swiftness in running. (c) (Zool.) The steamer duck. (d) (Zool.) A mantis. -- Race knife, a cutting tool with a blade that is hooked at the point, for marking outlines, on boards or metals, as by a pattern, -- used in shipbuilding. -- Race saddle, a light saddle used in racing. -- Race track. Same as Race course (a), above. -- Race way, the canal for the current that drives a water wheel.
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Race
Race, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raced (rāst); p. pr. & vb. n. Racing (rā"s&ibreve_;ng).] 1. To run swiftly; to contend in a race; as, the animals raced over the ground; the ships raced from port to port.
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2. (Steam Mach.) To run too fast at times, as a marine engine or screw, when the screw is lifted out of water by the action of a heavy sea.
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Race
Race, v. t. 1. To cause to contend in a race; to drive at high speed; as, to race horses.
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2. To run a race with.
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Raceabout
Race"a*bout` (rās"&adot_;*bout`), n. (Naut.) A small sloop-rigged racing yacht carrying about six hundred square feet of sail, distinguished from a knockabout by having a short bowsprit.
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Racemate
Ra*ce"mate (r&adot_;*sē"m&auptack_;t), n. (Chem.) A salt of racemic acid.
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Racemation
Rac`e*ma"tion (răs`&euptack_;*mā"shŭn), n. [L. racematio a gleaning, fr. racemari to glean, racemus a cluster of grapes. See Raceme.] 1. A cluster or bunch, as of grapes. Sir T. Browne.
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2. Cultivation or gathering of clusters of grapes. [R.] Bp. Burnet.
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Raceme
Ra*ceme" (r&adot_;*sēm"; 277), n. [L. racemus a bunch of berries, a cluster of grapes. See Raisin.] (Bot.) A flower cluster with an elongated axis and many one-flowered lateral pedicels, as in the currant and chokecherry.
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Compound raceme, one having the lower pedicels developed into secondary racemes.
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Racemed
Ra*cemed" (r&adot_;*sēmd"), a. (Bot.) Arranged in a raceme, or in racemes.
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Racemic
Ra*ce"mic (r&adot_;*sē"m&ibreve_;k), a. [Cf. F. racémique. See Raceme.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in many kinds of grapes. It is also obtained from tartaric acid, with which it is isomeric, and from sugar, gum, etc., by oxidation. It is a sour white crystalline substance, consisting of a combination of dextrorotatory and levorotatory tartaric acids. Gregory.
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Racemiferous
Rac`e*mif"er*ous (răs`&euptack_;*m&ibreve_;f"&etilde_;r*ŭs), a. [L. racemifer bearing clusters; racemus cluster + ferre to bear: cf. F. racémifère.] (Bot.) Bearing racemes, as the currant.
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Racemiform
Ra*cem"i*form (r&adot_;*s&ebreve_;m"&ibreve_;*fôrm), a. Having the form of a raceme. Gray.
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Racemose
Rac"e*mose` (răs"&euptack_;*mōs`), a. [L. racemosus full of clusters.] Resembling a raceme; growing in the form of a raceme; as, (Bot.) racemose berries or flowers; (Anat.) the racemose glands, in which the ducts are branched and clustered like a raceme. Gray.
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Racemous
Rac"e*mous (răs"&euptack_;*mŭs or r&adot_;*sē"mŭs; 277), a. [Cf. F. racémeux.] See Racemose.
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Racemule
Rac"e*mule (răs"&euptack_;*mūl), n. (Bot.) A little raceme.
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Racemulose
Ra*cem"u*lose` (r&adot_;*s&ebreve_;m"&uuptack_;*lōs`), a. (Bot.) Growing in very small racemes.
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Racer
Ra"cer (rā"s&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who, or that which, races, or contends in a race; esp., a race horse.
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And bade the nimblest racer seize the prize. Pope.
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2. (Zool.) The common American black snake.
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3. (Mil.) One of the circular iron or steel rails on which the chassis of a heavy gun is turned.
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Race suicide
Race suicide. The voluntary failure of the members of a race or people to have a number of children sufficient to keep the birth rate equal to the death rate.
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Rache
Rach
{ Rach, Rache (răch) }, n. [AS. ræcc; akin to Icel. rakki.] (Zool.) A dog that pursued his prey by scent, as distinguished from the greyhound. [Obs.]
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Rachialgia
Ra`chi*al"gi*a (rā`k&ibreve_;*ăl"j&ibreve_;*&adot_;), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "ra`chis backbone + 'a`lgos pain.] (Med.) A painful affection of the spine; especially, Pott's disease; also, formerly, lead colic.
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Rachidian
Ra*chid"i*an (r&adot_;*k&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;n), a. [See Rachis.] (Anat. & Zool.) Of or pertaining to the rachis; spinal; vertebral. Same as Rhachidian.
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Rachilla
Ra*chil"la (r&adot_;*k&ibreve_;l"l&adot_;), n. [NL.] (Bot.) Same as Rhachilla.
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Rachiodont
Ra"chi*o*dont (rā"k&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*d&obreve_;nt), a. (Zool.) Same as Rhachiodont.
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Rachis
Ra"chis (rā"k&ibreve_;s), n.; pl. E. Rachises (rā"k&ibreve_;s*&ebreve_;z), L. Rachides (răk"&ibreve_;*dēz). [NL., fr. Gr. "ra`chis, -ios.] [Written also rhachis.] 1. (Anat.) The spine; the vertebral column.
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2. (Bot. & Zool.) Same as Rhachis.
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Rachitic
Ra*chit"ic (r&adot_;*k&ibreve_;t"&ibreve_;k), a. [Cf. F. rachitique. See Rachitis.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to rachitis; affected by rachitis; rickety.
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Rachitis
Ra*chi"tis (r&adot_;*kī"t&ibreve_;s), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "rachi^tis (sc. nosos), fr. "ra`chis, -ios, the spine.] [Written also rhachitis.] 1. (Med.) Literally, inflammation of the spine, but commonly applied to the rickets. See Rickets.
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2. (Bot.) A disease which produces abortion in the fruit or seeds. Henslow.
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Rachitome
Ra"chi*tome (rā"k&ibreve_;*tōm), n. [F., fr. Gr. "ra`chis, -ios, the spine + te`mnein to cut.] A dissecting instrument for opening the spinal canal. [Written also rachiotome.]
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Racial
Ra"cial (rā"sh&aitalic_;l), a. Of or pertaining to a race or family of men; as, the racial complexion.
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Racily
Ra"ci*ly (rā"s&ibreve_;*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a racy manner.
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Raciness
Ra"ci*ness (rā"s&ibreve_;*n&ebreve_;s), n. The quality of being racy; peculiar and piquant flavor.
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The general characteristics of his [Cobbett's] style were perspicuity, unequaled and inimitable; . . . a purity always simple, and raciness often elegant. London Times.
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Racing
Ra"cing (rā"s&ibreve_;ng), a. & n. from Race, v. t. & i.
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Racing crab (Zool.), an ocypodian.
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Rack
Rack (răk), n. Same as Arrack.
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Rack
Rack, n. [AS. hracca neck, hinder part of the head; cf. AS. hraca throat, G. rachen throat, E. retch.] The neck and spine of a fore quarter of veal or mutton.
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Rack
Rack, n. [See Wreck.] A wreck; destruction. [Obs., except in a few phrases.]
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Rack and ruin, destruction; utter ruin. [Colloq.] -- To go to rack, to perish; to be destroyed. [Colloq.] “All goes to rack.” Pepys.
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Rack
Rack, n. [Prob. fr. Icel. rek drift, motion, and akin to reka to drive, and E. wrack, wreck. √282.] Thin, flying, broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapor in the sky. Shak.
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The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above, which we call the rack, . . . pass without noise. Bacon.
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And the night rack came rolling up. C. Kingsley.
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Rack
Rack, v. i. To fly, as vapor or broken clouds.
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Rack
Rack, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Racked (răkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Racking.] [See Rack that which stretches, or Rock, v.] To amble fast, causing a rocking or swaying motion of the body; to pace; -- said of a horse. Fuller.
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Rack
Rack, n. A fast amble.
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Rack
Rack, v. t. [Cf. OF. vin raqué wine squeezed from the dregs of the grapes.] To draw off from the lees or sediment, as wine.
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It is in common practice to draw wine or beer from the lees (which we call racking), whereby it will clarify much the sooner. Bacon.
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Rack vintage, wine cleansed and drawn from the lees. Cowell.
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Rack
Rack, n. [Probably fr. D. rek, rekbank, a rack, rekken to stretch; akin to G. reck, reckbank, a rack, recken to stretch, Dan. række, Sw. räcka, Icel. rekja to spread out, Goth. refrakjan to stretch out; cf. L. porrigere, Gr. 'ore`gein. √115. Cf. Right, a., Ratch.] 1. An instrument or frame used for stretching, extending, retaining, or displaying, something. Specifically: (a) An engine of torture, consisting of a large frame, upon which the body was gradually stretched until, sometimes, the joints were dislocated; -- formerly used judicially for extorting confessions from criminals or suspected persons.
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During the troubles of the fifteenth century, a rack was introduced into the Tower, and was occasionally used under the plea of political necessity. Macaulay.
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(b) An instrument for bending a bow. (c) A grate on which bacon is laid. (d) A frame or device of various construction for holding, and preventing the waste of, hay, grain, etc., supplied to beasts. (e) A frame on which articles are deposited for keeping or arranged for display; as, a clothes rack; a bottle rack, etc. (f) (Naut.) A piece or frame of wood, having several sheaves, through which the running rigging passes; -- called also rack block. Also, a frame to hold shot. (g) (Mining) A frame or table on which ores are separated or washed. (h) A frame fitted to a wagon for carrying hay, straw, or grain on the stalk, or other bulky loads. (i) A distaff.
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2. (Mech.) A bar with teeth on its face, or edge, to work with those of a wheel, pinion, or worm, which is to drive it or be driven by it.
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3. That which is extorted; exaction. [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys.
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Mangle rack. (Mach.) See under Mangle. n. -- Rack block. (Naut.) See def. 1 (f), above. -- Rack lashing, a lashing or binding where the rope is tightened, and held tight by the use of a small stick of wood twisted around. -- Rack rail (Railroads), a toothed rack, laid as a rail, to afford a hold for teeth on the driving wheel of a locomotive for climbing steep gradients, as in ascending a mountain. -- Rack saw, a saw having wide teeth. -- Rack stick, the stick used in a rack lashing. -- To be on the rack, to suffer torture, physical or mental. -- To live at rack and manger, to live on the best at another's expense. [Colloq.] -- To put to the rack, to subject to torture; to torment.
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A fit of the stone puts a king to the rack, and makes him as miserable as it does the meanest subject. Sir W. Temple.
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Rack
Rack (răk), v. t. 1. To extend by the application of force; to stretch or strain; specifically, to stretch on the rack or wheel; to torture by an engine which strains the limbs and pulls the joints.
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He was racked and miserably tormented. Foxe.
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2. To torment; to torture; to affect with extreme pain or anguish.
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Vaunting aloud but racked with deep despair. Milton.
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3. To stretch or strain, in a figurative sense; hence, to harass, or oppress by extortion.
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The landlords there shamefully rack their tenants. Spenser.
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They [landlords] rack their rents an ace too high. Gascoigne.
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Grant that I may never rack a Scripture simile beyond the true intent thereof. Fuller.
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Try what my credit can in Venice do;
That shall be racked even to the uttermost.
Shak.
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4. (Mining) To wash on a rack, as metals or ore.
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5. (Naut.) To bind together, as two ropes, with cross turns of yarn, marline, etc.
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To rack one's brains or To rack one's brains out or To rack one's wits, to exert one's thinking processes to the utmost for the purpose of accomplishing something; as, I racked my brains out trying to find a way to solve the problem.
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Syn. -- To torture; torment; rend; tear.
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Rackabones
Rack"a*bones` (răk"&adot_;*bōnz`), n. A very lean animal, esp. a horse. [Colloq. U. S.]
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Rackarock
Rack"a*rock` (răk"&adot_;*r&obreve_;k`), n. [Rack to stretch, strain + a + rock.] A Sprengel explosive consisting of potassium chlorate and mono-nitrobenzene.
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Racker
Rack"er (răk"&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who racks.
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2. A horse that has a racking gait.
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Racket
Rack"et (răk"&ebreve_;t), n. [F. raquette; cf. Sp. raqueta, It. racchetta, which is perhaps for retichetta, and fr. L. rete a net (cf. Reticule); or perh. from the Arabic; cf. Ar. rāha the palm of the hand (used at first to strike the ball), and OF. rachette, rasquette, carpus, tarsus.] [Written also racquet.] 1. A thin strip of wood, having the ends brought together, forming a somewhat elliptical hoop, across which a network of catgut or cord is stretched. It is furnished with a handle, and is used for catching or striking a ball in tennis and similar games.
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Each one [of the Indians] has a bat curved like a crosier, and ending in a racket. Bancroft.
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2. A variety of the game of tennis played with peculiar long-handled rackets; -- chiefly in the plural. Chaucer.
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3. A snowshoe formed of cords stretched across a long and narrow frame of light wood. [Canada]
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4. A broad wooden shoe or patten for a man or horse, to enable him to step on marshy or soft ground.
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Racket court, a court for playing the game of rackets.
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Racket
Rack"et, v. t. To strike with, or as with, a racket.
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Poor man [is] racketed from one temptation to another. Hewyt.
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Racket
Rack"et, n. [Gael. racaid a noise, disturbance.] 1. confused, clattering noise; din; noisy talk or sport.
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2. A carouse; any reckless dissipation. [Slang]
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Racket
Rack"et, n. 1. A scheme, dodge, trick, or the like; something taking place considered as exciting, trying, unusual, or the like; also, such occurrence considered as an ordeal; as, to work a racket; to stand upon the racket. [Slang]
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2. an organized illegal activity, such as illegal gambling, bootlegging, or extortion.
[PJC]

Racket
Rack"et, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Racketed; p. pr. & vb. n. Racketing.] 1. To make a confused noise or racket.
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2. To engage in noisy sport; to frolic. Sterne.
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3. To carouse or engage in dissipation. [Slang]
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Racketer
Rack"et*er (răk"&ebreve_;t*&etilde_;r), n. One who makes, or engages in, a racket.
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Rackett
Rack"ett (răk"&ebreve_;t), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Mus.) An old wind instrument of the double bassoon kind, having ventages but not keys.
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Racket-tail
Rack"et-tail (răk"&ebreve_;t-tāl), n. (Zool.) Any one of several species of humming birds of the genus Steganura, having two of the tail feathers very long and racket-shaped.
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Racket-tailed
Rack"et-tailed` (răk"&ebreve_;t-tāld`), a. (Zool.) Having long and spatulate, or racket-shaped, tail feathers.
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Rackety
Rack"et*y (răk"&ebreve_;t*&ybreve_;), a. Making a tumultuous noise.
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Racking
Rack"ing, n. (Naut.) Spun yarn used in racking ropes.
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Rack-rent
Rack"-rent` (răk"r&ebreve_;nt`), n. A rent of the full annual value of the tenement, or near it; an excessive or unreasonably high rent. Blackstone.
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Rack-rent
Rack"-rent`, v. t. To subject to rack-rent, as a farm or tenant.
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Rack-renter
Rack"-rent`er (răk"r&ebreve_;nt`&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who is subjected to paying rack-rent.
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2. One who exacts rack-rent.
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Racktail
Rack"tail` (răk"tāl`), n. (Horol.) An arm attached to a swinging notched arc or rack, to let off the striking mechanism of a repeating clock.
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Rackwork
Rack"work` (răk"wûrk`), n. Any mechanism having a rack, as a rack and pinion.
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Racle
Ra"cle (rä"k'l), a. See Rakel. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Racleness
Ra"cle*ness, n. See Rakelness. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Raconteur
Ra`con`teur" (r&adot_;`kôN`t&etilde_;r"), n. [F.] A relater; a storyteller.
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Racoonda
Ra*coon"da (r&adot_;*k&oomacr_;n"d&adot_;), n. [From a native name.] (Zool.) The coypu.
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Racovian
Ra*co"vi*an (r&adot_;*kō"v&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;n), n. [From Racow.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of Socinians or Unitarians in Poland.
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Racquet
Rac"quet (răk"k&ebreve_;t), n. See Racket.
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Racy
Ra"cy (rā"s&ybreve_;), a. [Compar. Racier (rā"s&ibreve_;*&etilde_;r); superl. Raciest.] [From Race a tribe, family.] 1. Having a strong flavor indicating origin; of distinct characteristic taste; tasting of the soil; hence, fresh; rich.
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The racy wine,
Late from the mellowing cask restored to light.
Pope.
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2. Hence: Exciting to the mental taste by a strong or distinctive character of thought or language; peculiar and piquant; fresh and lively; vigorous; spirited.
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Our raciest, most idiomatic popular words. M. Arnold.
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Burns's English, though not so racy as his Scotch, is generally correct. H. Coleridge.
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The rich and racy humor of a natural converser fresh from the plow. Prof. Wilson.
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3. Somewhat suggestive of sexual themes; slightly improper; risqué.
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Syn. -- Spicy; spirited; lively; smart; piquant; risqué. -- Racy, Spicy. Racy refers primarily to that peculiar flavor which certain wines are supposed to derive from the soil in which the grapes were grown; and hence we call a style or production racy when it “smacks of the soil,” or has an uncommon degree of natural freshness and distinctiveness of thought and language. Spicy, when applied to style, has reference to a spirit and pungency added by art, seasoning the matter like a condiment. It does not, like racy, suggest native peculiarity. A spicy article in a magazine; a spicy retort. Racy in conversation; a racy remark.
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Rich, racy verses, in which we
The soil from which they come, taste, smell, and see.
Cowley.
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Rad
Rad (răd), n. [radiation absorbed dose.] A unit of measurement of the amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by an object, equal to an energy of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material (equal to 0.01 gray).
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Rad
Rad (răd), obs. imp. & p. p. of Read, Rede. Spenser.
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radar
ra"dar (rā"där), n. [acronym from RAdio Detection And Ranging.] 1. An electronic device designed to detect objects at a distance, and determine their distance from the device, by transmitting a pulse of radio waves and measuring the time required for the echo of the pulse to return to the emitting device; as, the radar showed a plane approaching rapidly. For more information of radar, see the article What is Radar?. [acronym]
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2. The method of detecting objects, finding their distance, or determining their speed, by use of a radar{1} device; as, modern radar can detect objects as small as raindrops.
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Radde
Rad"de (răd"d&eitalic_;), obs. imp. of Read, Rede. Chaucer.
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Raddle
Rad"dle (răd"d'l), n. [Cf. G. räder, rädel, sieve, or perhaps E. reed.] 1. A long, flexible stick, rod, or branch, which is interwoven with others, between upright posts or stakes, in making a kind of hedge or fence.
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2. A hedge or fence made with raddles; -- called also raddle hedge. Todd.
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3. An instrument consisting of a wooden bar, with a row of upright pegs set in it, used by domestic weavers to keep the warp of a proper width, and prevent tangling when it is wound upon the beam of the loom.
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Raddle
Rad"dle (răd"d'l), v. t. To interweave or twist together.
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Raddling or working it up like basket work. De Foe.
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Raddle
Rad"dle (răd"d'l), n. [Cf. Ruddle.] A red pigment used in marking sheep, and in some mechanical processes; ruddle. “A raddle of rouge.” Thackeray.
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Raddle
Rad"dle, v. t. To mark or paint with, or as with, raddle. “Whitened and raddled old women.” Thackeray.
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Raddock
Rad"dock (răd"dŭk), n. (Zool.) The ruddock. [Prov. Eng.]
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Rade
Rade (rād), n. A raid. [Scot.]
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Radeau
Ra`deau" (r&adot_;`dō"), n. [F.] A float; a raft.
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Three vessels under sail, and one at anchor, above Split Rock, and behind it the radeau Thunderer. W. Irving.
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Radial
Ra"di*al (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;l), a. [Cf. F. radial. See Radius.] Of or pertaining to a radius or ray; consisting of, or like, radii or rays; radiated; as, (Bot.) radial projections; (Zool.) radial vessels or canals; (Anat.) the radial artery.
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Radial symmetry. (Biol.) See under Symmetry.
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Radiale
Ra`di*a"le (rā`d&ibreve_;*ā"l&euptack_;), n.; pl. Radialia (rā`d&ibreve_;*ā"l&ibreve_;*&adot_;). [NL. See Radial.] 1. (Anat.) The bone or cartilage of the carpus which articulates with the radius and corresponds to the scaphoid bone in man.
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2. pl. (Zool.) Radial plates in the calyx of a crinoid.
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Radial engine
Radial engine. (Mach.) An engine, usually an internal-combustion engine of a certain type (the radial type) having several cylinders arranged radially like the spokes of a complete wheel. The semiradial engine has radiating cylinders on only one side of the crank shaft.
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Radially
Ra"di*al*ly (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;l*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a radial manner.
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Radial tire
Radial tire. (Automobiles) a motor vehicle tire in which the cords run at right angles to the plane of the tire (considered as a disk).
[PJC]

Radian
Ra"di*an (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;n), n. [From Radius.] (Math.) An arc of a circle which is equal to the radius, or the angle measured by such an arc.
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Radiancy
Radiance
{ Ra"di*ance (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;ns), Ra"di*an*cy (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), } n. The quality of being radiant; brilliancy; effulgence; vivid brightness; as, the radiance of the sun.
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Girt with omnipotence, with radiance crowned. Milton.
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What radiancy of glory,
What light beyond compare !
Neale.
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Syn. -- Luster; brilliancy; splendor; glare; glitter.
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Radiant
Ra"di*ant (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;nt), a. [L. radians, -antis, p. pr. of radiare to emit rays or beams, fr. radius ray: cf. F. radiant. See Radius, Ray a divergent line.] 1. Emitting or proceeding as from a center; resembling rays; radiating; radiate.
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2. Especially, emitting or darting rays of light or heat; issuing in beams or rays; beaming with brightness; emitting a vivid light or splendor; as, the radiant sun.
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Mark what radiant state she spreads. Milton.
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3. Beaming with vivacity and happiness; as, a radiant face.
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4. (Her.) Giving off rays; -- said of a bearing; as, the sun radiant; a crown radiant.
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5. (Bot.) Having a raylike appearance, as the large marginal flowers of certain umbelliferous plants; -- said also of the cluster which has such marginal flowers.
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6. (Physics) Emitted or transmitted by radiation; as, a radiant energy; radiant heat.
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Radiant energy (Physics), energy given out or transmitted by radiation, as in the case of light and radiant heat. -- Radiant heat, heat proceeding in right lines, or directly from the heated body, after the manner of light, in distinction from heat conducted or carried by intervening media. -- Radiant point. (Astron.) See Radiant, n., 3.
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Radiant
Ra"di*ant, n. 1. (Opt.) The luminous point or object from which light emanates; also, a body radiating light brightly.
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2. (Geom.) A straight line proceeding from a given point, or fixed pole, about which it is conceived to revolve.
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3. (Astron.) The point in the heavens at which the apparent paths of shooting stars meet, when traced backward, or whence they appear to radiate.
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Radiant engine
Radiant engine. (Mach.) A semiradial engine. See Radial engine, above.
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Radiantly
Ra"di*ant*ly (rā"d&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;nt*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a radiant manner; with glittering splendor.
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Radiary
Ra"di*a*ry (rā"d&ibreve_;*&auptack_;*r&ybreve_;), n. [Cf. F. radiaire.] (Zool.) A radiate. [Obs.]
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Radiata
Ra`di*a"ta (rā"d&ibreve_;*ā"t&adot_;), n. pl. [NL., fr. radiatus, p. p. See Radiate.] (Zool.) An extensive artificial group of invertebrates, having all the parts arranged radially around the vertical axis of the body, and the various organs repeated symmetrically in each ray or spheromere.
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&hand_; It includes the cœlenterates and the echinoderms. Formerly, the group was supposed to be a natural one, and was considered one of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom.
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Radiate
Ra"di*ate (rā"d&ibreve_;*āt), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Radiated (rā"d&ibreve_;*ā`t&ebreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Radiating.] [L. radiatus, p. p. of radiare to furnish with spokes or rays, to radiate, fr. radius ray. See Radius, Ray a divergent line.] 1. To emit rays; to be radiant; to shine.
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Virtues shine more clear
In them [kings], and radiate like the sun at noon.
Howell.
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2. To proceed in direct lines from a point or surface; to issue in rays, as light or heat.
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Light radiates from luminous bodies directly to our eyes. Locke.
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Radiate
Ra"di*ate, v. t. 1. To emit or send out in direct lines from a point or points; as, to radiate heat.
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2. To enlighten; to illuminate; to shed light or brightness on; to irradiate. [R.]
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Radiate
Ra"di*ate (rā"d&ibreve_;*&auptack_;t), a. [L. radiatus, p. p.] 1. Having rays or parts diverging from a center; radiated; as, a radiate crystal.
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2. (Bot.) Having in a capitulum large ray florets which are unlike the disk florets, as in the aster, daisy, etc.
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3. (Zool.) Belonging to the Radiata.
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Radiate
Ra"di*ate, n. (Zool.) One of the Radiata.
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Radiated
Ra"di*a`ted (rā"d&ibreve_;*ā`t&ebreve_;d), a. 1. Emitted, or sent forth, in rays or direct lines; as, radiated heat.
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2. Formed of, or arranged like, rays or radii; having parts or markings diverging, like radii, from a common center or axis; as, a radiated structure; a radiated group of crystals.
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3. (Zool.) Belonging to the Radiata.
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Radiately
Ra"di*ate*ly (rā"d&ibreve_;*&auptack_;t*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a radiate manner; with radiation or divergence from a center.
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Radiate-veined
Ra"di*ate-veined` (rā"d&ibreve_;*&auptack_;t-vānd`), a. (Bot.) Having the principal veins radiating, or diverging, from the apex of the petiole; -- said of such leaves as those of the grapevine, most maples, and the castor-oil plant.
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Radiatiform
Ra`di*at"i*form (rā`d&ibreve_;*ăt"&ibreve_;*fôrm), a. (Bot.) Having the marginal florets enlarged and radiating but not ligulate, as in the capitula or heads of the cornflower. Gray.
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Radiation
Ra`di*a"tion (rā`d&ibreve_;*ā"shŭn), n. [L. radiatio: cf. F. radiation.] 1. The act of radiating, or the state of being radiated; emission and diffusion of rays of light; beamy brightness.
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2. The shooting forth of anything from a point or surface, like the diverging rays of light; as, the radiation of heat.
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Radiative
Ra"di*a*tive (rā"d&ibreve_;*&auptack_;*t&ibreve_;v), a. Capable of radiating; acting by radiation. Tyndall.
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Radiator
Ra"di*a`tor (rā"d&ibreve_;*ā`t&etilde_;r), n. 1. That which radiates or emits rays, whether of light or heat; especially, that part of a heating apparatus from which the heat is radiated or diffused; as, a steam radiator.
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2. Any of various devices for cooling an internal substance by radiation, as a system of rings on a gun barrel for cooling it, or a nest of tubes with large radiating surface for cooling circulating water, as in an automobile.
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3. (Wireless Teleg.) An oscillator.
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Radical
Rad"i*cal (răd"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), a. [F., fr. L. radicalis having roots, fr. radix, -icis, a root. See Radix.] 1. Of or pertaining to the root; proceeding directly from the root.
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2. Hence: Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to the center, to the foundation, to the ultimate sources, to the principles, or the like; original; fundamental; thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, radical evils; radical reform; a radical party.
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The most determined exertions of that authority, against them, only showed their radical independence. Burke.
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3. (Bot.) (a) Belonging to, or proceeding from, the root of a plant; as, radical tubers or hairs. (b) Proceeding from a rootlike stem, or one which does not rise above the ground; as, the radical leaves of the dandelion and the sidesaddle flower.
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4. (Philol.) Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate source of derivation; as, a radical verbal form.
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5. (Math.) Of or pertaining to a radix or root; as, a radical quantity; a radical sign. See below.
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Radical axis of two circles. (Geom.) See under Axis. -- Radical pitch, the pitch or tone with which the utterance of a syllable begins. Rush. -- Radical quantity (Alg.), a quantity to which the radical sign is prefixed; specifically, a quantity which is not a perfect power of the degree indicated by the radical sign; a surd. -- Radical sign (Math.), the sign √ (originally the letter r, the initial of radix, root), placed before any quantity, denoting that its root is to be extracted; thus, √a, or √(a + b). To indicate any other than the square root, a corresponding figure is placed over the sign; thus, &cuberoot_;a, indicates the third or cube root of a. -- Radical stress (Elocution), force of utterance falling on the initial part of a syllable or sound. -- Radical vessels (Anat.), minute vessels which originate in the substance of the tissues.
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Syn. -- Primitive; original; natural; underived; fundamental; entire. -- Radical, Entire. These words are frequently employed as interchangeable in describing some marked alteration in the condition of things. There is, however, an obvious difference between them. A radical cure, reform, etc., is one which goes to the root of the thing in question; and it is entire, in the sense that, by affecting the root, it affects in an appropriate degree the entire body nourished by the root; but it may not be entire in the sense of making a change complete in its nature, as well as in its extent. Hence, we speak of a radical change; a radical improvement; radical differences of opinion; while an entire change, an entire improvement, an entire difference of opinion, might indicate more than was actually intended. A certain change may be both radical and entire, in every sense.
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Radical
Rad"i*cal (răd"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), n. 1. (Philol.) (a) A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon. (b) A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the radix.
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The words we at present make use of, and understand only by common agreement, assume a new air and life in the understanding, when you trace them to their radicals, where you find every word strongly stamped with nature; full of energy, meaning, character, painting, and poetry. Cleland.
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2. (Politics) One who advocates radical changes in government or social institutions, especially such changes as are intended to level class inequalities; -- opposed to conservative.
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In politics they [the Independents] were, to use the phrase of their own time, “Root-and-Branch men,” or, to use the kindred phrase of our own, Radicals. Macaulay.
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3. (Chem.) (a) A characteristic, essential, and fundamental constituent of any compound; hence, sometimes, an atom.
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As a general rule, the metallic atoms are basic radicals, while the nonmetallic atoms are acid radicals. J. P. Cooke.
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(b) Specifically, a group of two or more atoms, not completely saturated, which are so linked that their union implies certain properties, and are conveniently regarded as playing the part of a single atom; a residue; -- called also a compound radical. Cf. Residue.
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4. (Alg.) A radical quantity. See under Radical, a.
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An indicated root of a perfect power of the degree indicated is not a radical but a rational quantity under a radical form. Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.)
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5. (Anat.) A radical vessel. See under Radical, a.
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Radicalism
Rad"i*cal*ism (răd"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;z'm), n. [Cf. F. radicalisme.] The quality or state of being radical; specifically, the doctrines or principles of radicals in politics or social reform.
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Radicalism means root work; the uprooting of all falsehoods and abuses. F. W. Robertson.
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Radicality
Rad`i*cal"i*ty (răd`&ibreve_;*kăl"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. 1. Germinal principle; source; origination. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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2. Radicalness; relation to a root in essential nature or principle.
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Radically
Rad"i*cal*ly (răd"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l*l&ybreve_;), adv. 1. In a radical manner; at, or from, the origin or root; fundamentally; as, a scheme or system radically wrong or defective.
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2. Without derivation; primitively; essentially. [R.]
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These great orbs thus radically bright. Prior.
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Radicalness
Rad"i*cal*ness, n. Quality or state of being radical.
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Radicant
Rad"i*cant (răd"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;nt), a. [L. radicans, p. pr.: cf. F. radicant. See Radicate, a.] (Bot.) Taking root on, or above, the ground; rooting from the stem, as the trumpet creeper and the ivy.
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Radicate
Rad"i*cate (răd"&ibreve_;*k&auptack_;t), a. [L. radicatus, p. p. of radicari to take root, fr. radix. See Radix.] Radicated.
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Radicate
Rad"i*cate (răd"&ibreve_;*kāt), v. i. To take root; to become rooted. Evelyn.
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Radicate
Rad"i*cate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Radicated (răd"&ibreve_;*kā`t&ebreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Radicating.] To cause to take root; to plant deeply and firmly; to root.
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Time should . . . rather confirm and radicate in us the remembrance of God's goodness. Barrow.
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Radicated
Rad"i*ca`ted (răd"&ibreve_;*kā`t&ebreve_;d), a. Rooted; specifically: (a) (Bot.) Having roots, or possessing a well-developed root. (b) (Zool.) Having rootlike organs for attachment.
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Radication
Rad`i*ca"tion (răd"&ibreve_;*kā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. radication.] 1. The process of taking root, or state of being rooted; as, the radication of habits.
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2. (Bot.) The disposition of the roots of a plant.
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Radicel
Rad"i*cel (răd"&ibreve_;*s&ebreve_;l), n. [Dim. of radix.] (Bot.) A small branch of a root; a rootlet.
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Radiciflorous
Ra*dic`i*flo"rous (r&adot_;*d&ibreve_;s`&ibreve_;*flō"rŭs), a. [L. radix, -icis, root + flos, floris, a flower.] (Bot.) Rhizanthous.
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Radiciform
Ra*dic"i*form (r&adot_;*d&ibreve_;s"&ibreve_;*fôm), a. (Bot.) Having the nature or appearance of a radix or root.
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Radicle
Rad"i*cle (răd"&ibreve_;*k'l), n. [L. radicula, dim. of radix, -icis, root: cf. F. radicule. See Radix.] (Bot.) (a) The rudimentary stem of a plant which supports the cotyledons in the seed, and from which the root is developed downward; the stem of the embryo; the caulicle. (b) A rootlet; a radicel.
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Radicular
Ra*dic"u*lar (r&adot_;*d&ibreve_;k"&uuptack_;*l&etilde_;r), a. Of or pertaining to roots, or the root of a plant.
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Radicule
Rad"i*cule (răd"&ibreve_;*kūl), n. (Bot.) A radicle.
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Radiculose
Ra*dic"u*lose` (r&adot_;*d&ibreve_;k"&uuptack_;*lōs`), a. (Bot.) Producing numerous radicles, or rootlets.
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Radii
Ra"di*i (rā"d&ibreve_;*ī), n., pl. of Radius.
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Radio-
Ra"di*o- (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;-), a. 1. Of or pertaining to, or employing, or operated by, radiant energy, specifically that of electromagnetic waves with frequencies between those of infrared radiation and X-rays; hence, pertaining to, or employed in, broadcast radio or television, microwaves, radiotelephones, etc.; as, radio waves.
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2. of or pertaining to broadcast radio; as, a radio program.
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Radio-
Ra"di*o- (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;-). A combining form indicating connection with, or relation to, a radius or ray; specifically (Anat.), with the radius of the forearm; as, radio-ulnar, radio-muscular, radio-carpal.
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radioactive
ra`di*o*ac"tive (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*ăk"t&ibreve_;v), a. [Radio- + active.] 1. (Physics) Capable of luminescence under the action of cathode rays, X rays, or any of the allied forms of radiation. [obsolete]
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2. (Physics) of, exhibiting, or caused by radioactivity.
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radioactivity
ra`di*o*ac*tiv"i*ty (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*ăk*t&ibreve_;v"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. (Physics) a form of instability which is a property of the atomic nuclei of certain isotopes, which causes a spontaneous change in the structure of the nucleus, accompanied by emission of energetic radiation. The radiation emitted is usually sufficient to cause ionization in matter through which it passes, and is therefore called ionizing radiation. The radiation emitted by most radioactive substances is one of three types: alpha rays, beta rays, or gamma rays. Some chemical elements have no stable isotopes, and these are referred to as radioactive elements, and the element itself is said to possess radioactivity. The changes in radioactive nuclei which cause radiation in most cases cause the chemical identity of the nucleus itself to change, as when tritium (an isotope of hydrogen) emits a beta ray and converts to helium. The radioactive decay process is a first-order reaction, and the rate of decay of a particular isotope can therefore be expressed as the half life of the isotope, which is the time it takes for one half of the remaining undecayed isotope to decay, and is a constant independent of the proportion of original material which has already decayed. The half life of tritium, for example, is 12.3 years.
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Radioconductor
Ra`di*o*con*duc"tor (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*k&obreve_;n*dŭk"t&etilde_;r), n. (Elec.) A substance or device that has its conductivity altered in some way by electric waves, as a coherer.
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Radio-flagellata
Ra`di*o-flag`el*la"ta (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*flăj`&ebreve_;l*lā"t&adot_;), n. pl. [NL. See Radiate, and Flagellata.] (Zool.) A group of Protozoa having both flagella and pseudopodia.
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radiograph
ra"di*o*graph (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*grăf), n. [Radio- + -graph.] 1. An instrument for measuring and recording solar radiation.
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2. An image or picture produced upon a sensitive surface, as of a photographic or fluorescent plate, by some form of penetrating radiation other than light, as X-rays, beta rays, etc.; esp., a picture of the internal structure of opaque objects traversed by the rays; a skiagraph. When the picture is produced upon photographic film by X-rays, the picture is usually called an X-ray photo or X-ray. When an image is produced on photographic film by a radioactive substance in close proximity to the film, in a manner so as to record the spatial distribution of the radioactive substance, the resulting image is called an autoradiograph or autoradiogram.
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radiograph
ra"di*o*graph (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*grăf), v. t. To make a radiograph of. -- ra`di*og"ra*pher (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;g"r&adot_;*f&etilde_;r), n.
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radiography
ra`di*og"ra*phy (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;g"r&adot_;*f&ybreve_;), n. Art or process of making radiographs, radiograms, or autoradiograms. -- ra`di*o*graph"ic (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*grăf"&ibreve_;k), ra`di*o*graph"ic*al (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*grăf"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), a. -- Ra`di*o*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.
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Radiolaria
Ra`di*o*la"ri*a (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*lā"r&ibreve_;*&adot_;), n. pl. [NL. See Radioli.] (Zool.) Order of rhizopods, usually having a siliceous skeleton, or shell, and sometimes radiating spicules. The pseudopodia project from the body like rays. It includes the polycystines. See Polycystina.
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Radiolarian
Ra`di*o*la"ri*an (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*lā"r&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;n), a. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Radiolaria. -- n. One of the Radiolaria.
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Radioli
Ra*di"o*li (r&adot_;*dī"&ouptack_;*lī), n. pl.; sing. Radiolus (r&adot_;*dī"&ouptack_;*lŭs). [NL., dim. of L. radius radius: cf. L. radiolus a feeble sunbeam.] (Zool.) The barbs of the radii of a feather; barbules.
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Radiolite
Ra"di*o*lite (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*līt), n. [L. radius ray + -lite: cf. F. radiolithe.] (Paleon.) A hippurite.
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Radiometer
Ra`di*om"e*ter (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;m"&euptack_;*t&etilde_;r), n. [L. radius radius + -meter: cf. F. radiomètre.] 1. (Naut.) A forestaff.
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2. (Physics) An instrument designed for measuring the mechanical effect of radiant energy.
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&hand_; It consists of a number of light disks, blackened on one side, placed at the ends of extended arms, supported on a pivot in an exhausted glass vessel. When exposed to rays of light or heat, the arms rotate.
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Radiometry
Ra`di*om"e*try (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;m"&euptack_;*tr&ybreve_;), n. (Physics) The use of the radiometer, or the measurement of radiation. -- Ra`di*o*met"ric (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*m&ebreve_;t"r&ibreve_;k), a.
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Radiomicrometer
Ra`di*o*mi*crom"e*ter (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*m&iuptack_;*kr&obreve_;m"&euptack_;*t&etilde_;r), n. [Radio- + micrometer.] (Physics) A very sensitive modification or application of the thermopile, used for indicating minute changes of radiant heat, or temperature.
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Radiophare
Ra"di*o*phare (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*fâr), n. [Radio- + phare.] A radiotelegraphic station serving solely for determining the position of ships. The radius of operation of such stations was restricted by the International Radiotelegraphic Convention (1912) to 30 nautical miles.
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Radiophone
Ra"di*o*phone (rā"d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*fōn), n. [Radio- + Gr. fwnh` sound.] 1. (Physics) An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of luminous or thermal rays. It is essentially the same as the photophone.
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2. a telephone using radio waves, rather than wires, to convey the voice signal.
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Radiophony
Ra`di*oph"o*ny (rā`d&ibreve_;*&ouptack_;*&obreve_;f"&ouptack_;*n&ybreve_;), n. (Physics) The art or practice of using the radiophone.
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Radiopticon
Ra`di*op"ti*con (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;p"t&ibreve_;*k&obreve_;n), n. [Radio- + stereopticon.] See Projector, above.
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Radioscopy
Ra`di*os"co*py (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;s"k&ouptack_;*p&ybreve_;), n. [Radio- + -scopy.] Direct observation of objects opaque to light by means of some other form of radiant energy, as x-rays. -- Ra`di*o*scop"ic (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*sk&obreve_;p"&ibreve_;k), Ra`di*o*scop"ic*al (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*sk&obreve_;p"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), a.
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Radiotelegram
Ra`di*o*tel"e*gram (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*t&ebreve_;l"&euptack_;*grăm), n. A message transmitted by radiotelegraph.
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Radiotelegraph
Ra`di*o*tel"e*graph (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*t&ebreve_;l"&euptack_;*grăf), n. [Radio- + telegraph.] A wireless telegraph.
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Radiotelegraphic
Ra`di*o*tel`e*graph"ic (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*t&ebreve_;l`&euptack_;*grăf"&ibreve_;k), a. Of or pertaining to radiotelegraphy; employing, or used or employed in, radiotelegraphy.
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Radiotelegraphy
Ra`di*o*te*leg"ra*phy (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*t&ebreve_;*l&ebreve_;g"r&adot_;*f&ybreve_;), n. [Radio- + telegraphy.] Telegraphy using the radiant energy of radio waves; wireless telegraphy; -- the term adopted for use by the Radiotelegraphic Convention of 1912.
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Radiotelephone
Ra`di*o*tel"e*phone (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*t&ebreve_;l"&euptack_;*fōn), n. A wireless telephone, in which the signal is conveyed by radio waves. -- Ra`di*o*te*leph"o*ny (#), n.
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Radiotherapy
Ra`di*o*ther"a*py (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*th&ebreve_;r"&adot_;*p&ybreve_;), n. [Radio- + therapy.] (Med.) Treatment of disease by means of x-rays or radioactivity. Radiotherapy of cancer is based on the fact that cancer cells are more sensitive to radiation than most other cells in the body.
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radiothorium
ra`di*o*tho"ri*um (rā`d&ibreve_;*&obreve_;*thôr"ē*ŭm), n. (Chem.) an earlier name for the thorium isotope thorium-228, given by its discoverer Otto Hahn. It is a radioactive substance formed as one of series of products in the chain of radioactive decay of thorium. Its immediate predecessor in the chain is Actinium-228, and it decays by alpha emission to radium-224 with a half-life of 1.91 years. The name radiothorium was given prior to the full understanding of the nature of isotopes of elements.
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radious
ra"di*ous (rā"d&ibreve_;*ŭs), a. [L. radiosus.] 1. Consisting of rays, as light. [R.] Berkeley.
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2. Radiating; radiant. [Obs.] G. Fletcher.
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Radish
Rad"ish (răd"&ibreve_;sh), n. [F. radis; cf. It. radice, Pr. raditz: all fr. L. radix, -icis, a root, an edible root, especially a radish, akin to E. wort. See Wort, and cf. Eradicate, Race a root, Radix.] (Bot.) The pungent fleshy root of a well-known cruciferous plant (Raphanus sativus); also, the whole plant.
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Radish fly (Zool.), a small two-winged fly (Anthomyia raphani) whose larvae burrow in radishes. It resembles the onion fly. -- Rat-tailed radish (Bot.), an herb (Raphanus caudatus) having a long, slender pod, which is sometimes eaten. -- Wild radish (Bot.), the jointed charlock.
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Radium
Ra`di*um (rā"d&ibreve_;*ŭm), n. [NL., fr. L. radius ray.] (Chem.) An intensely radioactive metallic element found (combined) in minute quantities in pitchblende, and various other uranium minerals. Symbol, Ra; atomic weight, 226.4. Radium was discovered by M. and Mme. Curie, of Paris, who in 1902 separated compounds of it by a tedious process from pitchblende. Its compounds color flames carmine and give a characteristic spectrum. It is divalent, resembling barium chemically. The main isotope of radium found in pitchblende, radium-226, has a half-life of 1620 years, decaying first by alpha emission to radon. Radium preparations are remarkable for maintaining themselves at a higher temperature than their surroundings, and for their radiations, which are of three kinds: alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays (see these terms). The beta and gamma rays seen in radium preparations are in fact due to disintegration of decay products of radium rather than the radium itself. By reason of these rays they ionize gases, affect photographic plates, cause sores on the skin, and produce many other striking effects. Their degree of activity depends on the proportion of radium present, but not on its state of chemical combination or on external conditions. The radioactivity of radium is therefore an atomic property, and is due to an inherent instability of the atomic nucleus which causes its decay in a process whose rate is first order. The disintegration of the radium nucleus is only the first in a series of nuclear disintegrations leading to production of a series of elements and isotopes. The chain has at least seven stages; the successive main products have been studied and are radon, a gaseous radioactive element belonging chemically to the inert noble gas series (originally called radium emanation or exradio, radium A, radium B, radium C, etc. The successive products are unstable isotopes of several different elements, each with an atomic weight a little lower than its predecessor. Lead is the stable end product. At the same time, the light gas helium is formed, being generated when the expelled alpha particles (positively charged helium nuclei) acquire electrons. Radium, in turn, is formed in the pitchblende ore by a slow disintegration of uranium. Natural radium and also an isotope (radium-228, also called mesothorium I) formed by the decay of thorium, were at one time used to make a luminous paint for watch dials, until the danger of the radioactivity became fully appreciated, and use of such material in watches was discontinued. See also mesothorium.
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Radius
Ra"di*us (rā"d&ibreve_;*ŭs), n.; pl. L. Radii (rā"d&ibreve_;*ī); E. Radiuses (rā"d&ibreve_;*ŭs*&ebreve_;z). [L., a staff, rod, spoke of a wheel, radius, ray. See Ray a divergent line.] 1. (Geom.) A right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery; the semidiameter of a circle or sphere.
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2. (Anat.) The preaxial bone of the forearm, or brachium, corresponding to the tibia of the hind limb. See Illust. of Artiodactyla.
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&hand_; The radius is on the same side of the limb as the thumb, or pollex, and in man it is so articulated that its lower end is capable of partial rotation about the ulna.
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3. (Bot.) A ray, or outer floret, of the capitulum of such plants as the sunflower and the daisy. See Ray, 2.
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4. pl. (Zool.) (a) The barbs of a perfect feather. (b) Radiating organs, or color-markings, of the radiates.
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5. The movable limb of a sextant or other angular instrument. Knight.
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Radius bar (Mach.), a bar pivoted at one end, about which it swings, and having its other end attached to a piece which it causes to move in a circular arc. -- Radius of curvature. See under Curvature.
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Radius vector
Ra"di*us vec"tor (v&ebreve_;k"t&obreve_;r). 1. (Math.) A straight line (or the length of such line) connecting any point, as of a curve, with a fixed point, or pole, round which the straight line turns, and to which it serves to refer the successive points of a curve, in a system of polar coordinates. See Coordinate, n.
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2. (Astron.) An ideal straight line joining the center of an attracting body with that of a body describing an orbit around it, as a line joining the sun and a planet or comet, or a planet and its satellite.
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Radix
Ra"dix (rā"d&ibreve_;ks), n.; pl. L. Radices (răd"&ibreve_;*sēz), E. Radixes (rā"d&ibreve_;ks*&ebreve_;z). [L. radix, -icis, root. See Radish.] 1. (Philol.) A primitive word, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.
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2. (Math.) (a) A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. Thus, 10 is the radix, or base, of the common system of logarithms, and also of the decimal system of numeration. (b) (Alg.) A finite expression, from which a series is derived. [R.] Hutton.
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3. (Bot.) The root of a plant.
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Radon
Ra"don (rā"d&obreve_;n), n. (Chem.) An intensely radioactive gaseous element produced by the radioactive decay of radium-226, which is the main isotope of radium found in pitchblende. Chemically it is an inert noble gas. Its atomic symbol is Rn. It has an atomic number of 86. The radon isotope produced by decay of radium has an atomic weight of 222.017, and this isotope decays by alpha emission with a half-life of 3.82 days. Numerous other isotopes have been observed, all radioactive and all having half-lives shorter than that of radon-222. Radon was discovered by M. and Mme. Curie, of Paris, in their studies of the radioactive substances in pitchblende. Radon was originally called radium emanation or exradio.
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Radula
Rad"u*la (răd"&uuptack_;*l&adot_;), n.; pl. Radulae (răd"&uuptack_;*lē). [L., a scraper, fr. radere to scrape.] (Zool.) The chitinous ribbon bearing the teeth of mollusks; -- called also lingual ribbon, and tongue. See Odontophore.
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Raduliform
Ra*du"li*form (r&adot_;*dū"l&ibreve_;*fôrm), a. [L. radula a scraper + -form.] Rasplike; as, raduliform teeth.
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Raff
Raff (r&adot_;f), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raffed (r&adot_;ft); p. pr. & vb. n. Raffing.] [OF. raffer, of German origin; cf. G. raffen; akin to E. rap to snatch. See Rap, and cf. Riffraff, Rip to tear.] To sweep, snatch, draw, or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep. [Obs.]
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Causes and effects which I thus raff up together. Carew.
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Raff
Raff, n. 1. A promiscuous heap; a jumble; a large quantity; lumber; refuse. “A raff of errors.” Barrow.
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2. The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob; -- chiefly used in the compound or duplicate, riffraff.
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3. A low fellow; a churl.
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Raff merchant, a dealer in lumber and odd refuse. [Prov. Eng.]
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Raffaelesque
Raf`fa*el*esque" (răf`f&adot_;*&ebreve_;l*&ebreve_;sk"), a. Raphaelesque.
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Raffia
Raf"fi*a (răf"f&ibreve_;*&adot_;), n. (Bot.) A fibrous material used for tying plants, said to come from the leaves of a palm tree of the genus Raphia. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).
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Raffia palm
Raf"fi*a palm (răf"f&ibreve_;*&adot_; päm`). (a) A pinnate-leaved palm (Raphia ruffia) native of Madagascar, and of considerable economic importance on account of the strong fiber (raffia) obtained from its leafstalks. (b) The jupati palm.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Raffinose
Raf"fi*nose` (răf"f&ibreve_;*nōs`), n. [F. raffiner to refine.] (Chem.) A colorless crystalline slightly sweet substance obtained from the molasses of the sugar beet.
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Raffish
Raff"ish (r&adot_;f"&ibreve_;sh), a. Resembling, or having the character of, raff, or a raff; worthless; low.
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A sad, raffish, disreputable character. Thackeray.
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2. Mildly disreputable; disregarding conventional morality; charmingly dissolute{3} or nonconformist.
[PJC]

Tales of his [Ted Kennedy's] drinking and raffish behavior have become part of his public persona, often lumped under a vaster damnation known as “the character issue”.
. . .
He appears to compartmentalize his off-duty conduct and his Senate responsibilities; during dozens of interviews for this article, with friends and foes, not one could cite an instance in which drinking appeared to impair him professionally. His adversaries grumble about it anyway; friends portray it as relatively harmless and charming.

Orrin Hatch, the conservative Utah Republican who is also a Mormon, tells this story with what he describes as “a tremendous brotherly affection.” Two days before the Senate adjourned in October 1988, Hatch took a call from Frank Madsen, a former aide who had moved to Boston to supervise 200 young Mormon missionaries. Would Hatch come speak to them? Would he bring Kennedy? Would he ask Kennedy to reserve Faneuil Hall for the event?

With some misgivings, Hatch agreed to try. Shortly before midnight, he found Kennedy and Chris Dodd in the Capitol. Neither was feeling any pain.

“Ted, I've got a favor to ask.”

Kennedy wrapped an arm around Hatch. “Done!”

Hatch held up a restraining hand. “No, hear me out. You remember my aide, Frank Madsen -- ”

“Great fellow! Great fellow!”

“He's now in Boston -- ”

“My home town! My home town!”

Hatch eventually made his request. Kennedy assented. Hatch returned to his office, typed out the agreement and sent it to Kennedy's office. The next day, Hatch spied Kennedy reading the memo. “Orrin,” Kennedy called in mock horror, “what else did I agree to?” Three months later, in January 1989, Hatch and Kennedy stood elbow-to-elbow in Faneuil Hall, addressing the Mormon missionaries.
Rick Atkinson, Washington Post, Sept. 29, 1990
[PJC]

3. Dissolute; rakish.
[PJC]

Of all such places, Santa Fe may well be the least raffish. At least in the off-season, it's a town that goes to bed early, showing all the prudent reserve of a city of bankers and claims adjusters. In the historic center, a visitor searches in vain for tawdry traces of the hard-drinking, wild-womanizing, heavy-gambling cowboy town this once must have been. Brad Leithauser (“Santa Fe”, in New York Times Magazine / May 13, 2001).
[PJC]

Over the years, it [Macau] has maintained a downright raffish atmosphere, complete with warring gangsters. Yvette Ziols.
[PJC]

4. Vulgarly gaudy; cheap and tawdry; as, a tendency toward gaudy jewelry, bright colors and generally raffish dress.
[PJC]

A lonely orphan, Lilli, lands a job with a raffish and run-down carnival. The wide-eyed and innocent orphan is mesmerized by its gritty, tawdry glamour. Anonymous review of the play Carnival (http://www.kt-online.org/plays/02-carnival-frame.html)
[PJC]

4. Appealing to or frequented by dissolute or disreputable people; as, a raffish night club.
[PJC]

Raffle
Raf"fle (răf"f'l), n. [F. rafle; faire rafle to sweep stakes, fr. rafler to carry or sweep away, rafler tout to sweep stakes; of German origin; cf. G. raffeln to snatch up, to rake. See Raff, v.] 1. A kind of lottery, in which several persons pay, in shares, the value of something put up as a stake, and then determine by chance (as by casting dice) which one of them shall become the sole possessor.
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2. A game of dice in which he who threw three alike won all the stakes. [Obs.] Cotgrave.
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Raffle
Raf"fle (răf"f'l), n. [See Raff, n. & v., and Raffle.] Refuse; rubbish; raff.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Raffle
Raf"fle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raffled (răf"f'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Raffling (răf"fl&ibreve_;ng).] To engage in a raffle; as, to raffle for a watch.
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Raffle
Raf"fle, v. t. To dispose of by means of a raffle; -- often followed by off; as, to raffle off a horse.
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Raffler
Raf"fler (răf"fl&etilde_;r), n. One who raffles.
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Rafflesia
Raf*fle"si*a (răf*flē"zh&ibreve_;*&adot_;), n. [NL. Named from its discoverer, Sir S. Raffles.] (Bot.) A genus of stemless, leafless plants, living parasitically upon the roots and stems of grapevines in Malaysia. The flowers have a carrionlike odor, and are very large, in one species (Rafflesia Arnoldi) having a diameter of two or three feet.
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Raft
Raft (r&adot_;ft), obs. imp. & p. p. of Reave. Spenser.
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Raft
Raft, n. [Originally, a rafter, spar, and fr. Icel. raptr a rafter; akin to Dan. raft, Prov. G. raff a rafter, spar; cf. OHG. rāfo, rāvo, a beam, rafter, Icel. rāf roof. Cf. Rafter, n.] 1. A collection of logs, boards, pieces of timber, or the like, fastened together, either for their own collective conveyance on the water, or to serve as a support in conveying other things; a float.
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2. A collection of logs, fallen trees, etc. (such as is formed in some Western rivers of the United States), which obstructs navigation. [U.S.]
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3. [Perhaps akin to raff a heap.] A large collection of people or things taken indiscriminately. [Slang, U. S.] “A whole raft of folks.” W. D. Howells.
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Raft bridge. (a) A bridge whose points of support are rafts. (b) A bridge that consists of floating timbers fastened together. -- Raft duck. [The name alludes to its swimming in dense flocks.] (Zool.) (a) The bluebill, or greater scaup duck; -- called also flock duck. See Scaup. (b) The redhead. -- Raft port (Naut.), a large, square port in a vessel's side for loading or unloading timber or other bulky articles; a timber or lumber port.
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Raft
Raft, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rafted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rafting.] To transport on a raft, or in the form of a raft; to make into a raft; as, to raft timber.
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Rafte
Raf"te (r&adot_;f"t&eitalic_;), obs. imp. of Reave. Chaucer.
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Rafter
Raft"er (r&adot_;ft"&etilde_;r), n. A raftsman.
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Rafter
Raft"er, n. [AS. ræfter; akin to E. raft, n. See Raft.] (Arch.) Originally, any rough and somewhat heavy piece of timber. Now, commonly, one of the timbers of a roof which are put on sloping, according to the inclination of the roof. See Illust. of Queen-post.
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[Courtesy] oft is sooner found in lowly sheds,
With smoky rafters, than in tapestry halls.
Milton.
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Rafter
Raft"er, v. t. 1. To make into rafters, as timber.
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2. To furnish with rafters, as a house.
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3. (Agric.) To plow so as to turn the grass side of each furrow upon an unplowed ridge; to ridge. [Eng.]
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Rafting
Raft"ing, n. The business of making or managing rafts.
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Raftsman
Rafts"man (r&adot_;fts"m&aitalic_;n), n.; pl. Raftsmen (r&adot_;fts"m&eitalic_;n). A man engaged in rafting.
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Rafty
Raf"ty (r&adot_;f"t&ybreve_;), a. [Perhaps akin to G. reif hoarfrost.] Damp; musty. [Prov. Eng.]
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Rag
Rag (răg), v. t. [Cf. Icel. rægja to calumniate, OHG. ruogen to accuse, G. rügen to censure, AS. wrēgan, Goth. wrōhjan to accuse.] To scold or rail at; to rate; to tease; to torment; to banter. [Prov. Eng.] Pegge.
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Rag
Rag, n. [OE. ragge, probably of Scand, origin; cf. Icel. rögg a tuft, shagginess, Sw. ragg rough hair. Cf. Rug, n.] 1. A piece of cloth torn off; a tattered piece of cloth; a shred; a tatter; a fragment.
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Cowls, hoods, and habits, with their wearers, tossed,
And fluttered into rags.
Milton.
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Not having otherwise any rag of legality to cover the shame of their cruelty. Fuller.
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2. pl. Hence, mean or tattered attire; worn-out dress.
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And virtue, though in rags, will keep me warm. Dryden.
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3. A shabby, beggarly fellow; a ragamuffin.
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The other zealous rag is the compositor. B. Jonson.
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Upon the proclamation, they all came in, both tag and rag. Spenser.
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4. (Geol.) A coarse kind of rock, somewhat cellular in texture.
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5. (Metal Working) A ragged edge.
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6. A sail, or any piece of canvas. [Nautical Slang]
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Our ship was a clipper with every rag set. Lowell.
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Rag bolt, an iron pin with barbs on its shank to retain it in place. -- Rag carpet, a carpet of which the weft consists of narrow strips of cloth sewed together, end to end. -- Rag dust, fine particles of ground-up rags, used in making papier-maché and wall papers. -- Rag wheel. (a) A chain wheel; a sprocket wheel. (b) A polishing wheel made of disks of cloth clamped together on a mandrel. -- Rag wool, wool obtained by tearing woolen rags into fine bits, shoddy.
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Rag
Rag (răg), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ragged (răgd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ragging (răg"g&ibreve_;ng).] To become tattered. [Obs.]
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Rag
Rag, v. t. 1. To break (ore) into lumps for sorting.
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2. To cut or dress roughly, as a grindstone.
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Rag
Rag, v. t. 1. (Music) To play or compose (a piece, melody, etc.) in syncopated time. [Colloq.]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. To dance to ragtime music, esp. in some manner considered indecorous. [Colloq. or Slang]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Ragabrash
Ragabash
{ Rag"a*bash` (răg"&adot_;*băsh`), Rag"a*brash` (răg"&adot_;*brăsh`), } n. An idle, ragged person. Nares. Grose.
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Ragamuffin
Rag`a*muf"fin (răg`&adot_;*mŭf"f&ibreve_;n), n. [Cf. Ragamofin, the name of a demon in some of the old mysteries.] 1. A paltry or disreputable fellow; a mean wretch. Dryden.
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2. A person who wears ragged clothing. [Colloq.]
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3. (Zool.) The long-tailed titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]
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Rage
Rage (rāj), n. [F., fr. L. rabies, fr. rabere to rave; cf. Skr. rabh to seize, rabhas violence. Cf. Rabid, Rabies, Rave.] 1. Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will. “In great rage of pain.” Bacon.
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He appeased the rage of hunger with some scraps of broken meat. Macaulay.
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Convulsed with a rage of grief. Hawthorne.
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2. Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury.
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torment, and loud lament, and furious rage. Milton.
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3. A violent or raging wind. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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4. The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the rage.
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Syn. -- Anger; vehemence; excitement; passion; fury. See Anger.
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Rage
Rage, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raged (rājd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raging (rā"j&ibreve_;ng).] [OF. ragier. See Rage, n.] 1. To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion. “Whereat he inly raged.” Milton.
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When one so great begins to rage, he is hunted
Even to falling.
Shak.
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Rage, rage against the dying of the light
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Dylan Thomas.
[PJC]

2. To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the raging sea or winds.
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Why do the heathen rage? Ps. ii. 1.
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The madding wheels
Of brazen chariots raged; dire was the noise.
Milton.
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3. To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with destruction or fatal effect; as, the plague raged in Cairo.
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4. To toy or act wantonly; to sport. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Syn. -- To storm; fret; chafe; fume.
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Rage
Rage, v. t. To enrage. [Obs.] Shak.
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Rageful
Rage"ful (rāj"f&usdot_;l), a. Full of rage; expressing rage. [Obs.]Rageful eyes.” Sir P. Sidney.
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Ragery
Ra"ger*y (rā"j&etilde_;r*&ybreve_;), n. Wantonness. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Ragged
Rag"ged (răg"g&ebreve_;d), a. [From Rag, n.] 1. Rent or worn into tatters, or till the texture is broken; as, a ragged coat; a ragged sail.
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2. Broken with rough edges; having jags; uneven; rough; jagged; as, ragged rocks.
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3. Hence, harsh and disagreeable to the ear; dissonant. [R.] “A ragged noise of mirth.” Herbert.
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4. Wearing tattered clothes; as, a ragged fellow.
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5. Rough; shaggy; rugged.
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What shepherd owns those ragged sheep? Dryden.
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Ragged lady (Bot.), the fennel flower (Nigella Damascena). -- Ragged robin (Bot.), a plant of the genus Lychnis (Lychnis Flos-cuculi), cultivated for its handsome flowers, which have the petals cut into narrow lobes. -- Ragged sailor (Bot.), prince's feather (Polygonum orientale). -- Ragged school, a free school for poor children, where they are taught and in part fed; -- a name given at first because they came in their common clothing. [Eng.]
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-- Rag"ged*ly, adv. -- Rag"ged*ness, n.
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Raggy
Raggie
{ Rag"gie (răg"g&ibreve_;), or Rag"gy }, a. Ragged; rough. [Obs.] “A stony and raggie hill.” Holland.
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Raghuvansa
Ragh`u*van"sa (rŭg`&usdot_;*vŭn"s&adot_;), n. [Skr. Raguva&msdot_;ça.] A celebrated Sanskrit poem having for its subject the Raghu dynasty.
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Raging
Ra"ging (rā"j&ibreve_;ng), a. & n. from Rage, v. i. -- Ra"ging*ly, adv.
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Ragious
Ra"gious (rā"jŭs), a. Raging; furious; rageful. [Obs.] -- Ra"gious*ness, n. [Obs.]
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Raglan
Rag"lan (răg"l&aitalic_;n), n. 1. A loose overcoat with large sleeves; -- named after Lord Raglan, an English general who was an aide-de-camp to Wellington at Waterlooo.
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2. An overcoat with raglan sleeves.
[PJC]

raglan sleeve
rag"lan sleeve` (răg"l&aitalic_;n slēv`), n. A sleeve joined to the body of a garment by a long slanting seam starting at the neck and continuing around the armhole. Contrasted to a set-in sleeve.
[PJC]

Ragman
Rag"man (răg"m&aitalic_;n), n.; pl. Ragmen (răg"m&eitalic_;n). A man who collects, or deals in, rags.
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Ragman
Rag"man, n. [See Ragman's roll.] A document having many names or numerous seals, as a papal bull. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.
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Ragman's roll
Rag"man's roll` (răg"m&aitalic_;nz rōl`). [For ragman roll a long list of names, the devil's roll or list; where ragman is of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. ragmenni a craven person, Sw. raggen the devil. Icel. ragmenni is fr. ragr cowardly (another form of argr, akin to AS. earg cowardly, vile, G. arg bad) + menni (in comp.) man, akin to E. man. See Roll, and cf. Rigmarole.] The rolls of deeds on parchment in which the Scottish nobility and gentry subscribed allegiance to Edward I. of England, A. D. 1296. [Also written ragman-roll.]
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Ragnarok
Ragnarok
{ Rag"na*rok" (r&adot_;"n&adot_;*r&obreve_;k"), ‖Rag"na*rök" (r&adot_;"n&adot_;*rûk") }, n. [Icel., fr. regin, rögn, gods + rök reason, origin, history; confused with ragna-rökr the twilight of the gods.] (Norse Myth.) The so-called “Twilight of the Gods” (called in German Götterdämmerung), the final destruction of the world in the great conflict between the Aesir (gods) on the one hand, and on the other, the giants and the powers of Hel under the leadership of Loki (who is escaped from bondage).
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Ragout
Ra*gout" (r&adot_;*g&oomacr_;"), n. [F. ragoût, fr. ragoûter to restore one's appetite, fr. L. pref. re- re- + ad to + gustare to taste, gustus taste. See Gust relish.] A dish made of pieces of meat, stewed, and highly seasoned; as, a ragout of mutton.
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Ragpicker
Rag"pick`er (răg"p&ibreve_;k`&etilde_;r), n. One who gets a living by picking up rags and refuse things in the streets.
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Ragtime
Rag"time`, n. (Mus.) a rhythm with a regular accompaniment in two-four time and a melody characterized by syncopation, first recognized in many negro melodies; also a style of American music in this rhythm.
[Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Ragguled
Raguled
{ Ra*guled" (r&adot_;*gūld"), Rag*guled" (răg*gūld"), } a. [Cf. F. raguer to chafe, fret, rub, or E. rag.] (Her.) Notched in regular diagonal breaks; -- said of a line, or a bearing having such an edge.
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Ragweed
Rag"weed` (răg"wēd`), n. (Bot.) A common American composite weed (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia) with finely divided leaves; hogweed.
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Great ragweed, a coarse American herb (Ambrosia trifida), with rough three-lobed opposite leaves.
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Ragwork
Rag"work` (răg"wûrk`), n. (Masonry) A kind of rubblework. In the United States, any rubblework of thin and small stones.
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Ragwort
Rag"wort` (răg"wûrt`), n. (Bot.) A name given to several species of the composite genus Senecio.
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&hand_; Senecio aureus is the golden ragwort of the United States; Senecio elegans is the purple ragwort of South Africa.
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Raia
Ra"ia (rā"y&adot_;), n. [L., a ray. Cf. Ray the fish.] (Zool.) A genus of rays which includes the skates. See Skate.
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Raiae
Ra"iae (rā"yē), n. pl. [NL. See Raia.] (Zool.) The order of elasmobranch fishes which includes the sawfishes, skates, and rays; -- called also Rajae, and Rajii.
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Raid
Raid (rād), n. [Icel. reið a riding, raid; akin to E. road. See Road a way.] 1. A hostile or predatory incursion; an inroad or incursion of mounted men; a sudden and rapid invasion by a cavalry force; a foray.
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Marauding chief! his sole delight
The moonlight raid, the morning fight.
Sir W. Scott.
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There are permanent conquests, temporary occupations, and occasional raids. H. Spenser.
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&hand_; A Scottish word which came into common use in the United States during the Civil War, and was soon extended in its application.
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2. An attack or invasion for the purpose of making arrests, seizing property, or plundering; as, a raid of the police upon a gambling house; a raid of contractors on the public treasury. [Colloq. U. S.]
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Raid
Raid, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raided; p. pr. & vb. n. Raiding.] To make a raid upon or into; as, two regiments raided the border counties.
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Raider
Raid"er (rād"&etilde_;r), n. One who engages in a raid. [U.S.]
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Raiffeisen
Raif"fei`sen (rīf"ī`z'n), a. (Economics) Designating, or pertaining to, a form of cooperative bank founded among the German agrarian population by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (1818-88); as, Raiffeisen banks, the Raiffeisen system, etc. The banks are unlimited-liability institutions making small loans at a low rate of interest, for a designated purpose, to worthy members only.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rail
Rail (rāl), n. [OE. reil, re&yogh_;el, AS. hrægel, hrægl, a garment; akin to OHG. hregil, OFries. hreil.] An outer cloak or covering; a neckerchief for women. Fairholt.
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Rail
Rail, v. i. [Etymol. uncertain.] To flow forth; to roll out; to course. [Obs.]
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Streams of tears from her fair eyes forth railing. Spenser.
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Rail
Rail, n. [Akin to LG. & Sw. regel bar, bolt, G. riegel a rail, bar, or bolt, OHG. rigil, rigel, bar, bolt, and possibly to E. row a line.] 1. A bar of timber or metal, usually horizontal or nearly so, extending from one post or support to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc.
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2. (Arch.) A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling. See Illust. of Style.
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3. (Railroad) A bar of steel or iron, forming part of the track on which the wheels roll. It is usually shaped with reference to vertical strength, and is held in place by chairs, splices, etc.
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4. (Naut.) (a) The stout, narrow plank that forms the top of the bulwarks. (b) The light, fencelike structures of wood or metal at the break of the deck, and elsewhere where such protection is needed.
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5. A railroad as a means of transportation; as, to go by rail; a place not accesible by rail.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

6. a railing.
[PJC]

Rail fence. See under Fence. -- Rail guard. (a) A device attached to the front of a locomotive on each side for clearing the rail of obstructions. (b) A guard rail. See under Guard. -- Rail joint (Railroad), a splice connecting the adjacent ends of rails, in distinction from a chair, which is merely a seat. The two devices are sometimes united. Among several hundred varieties, the fish joint is standard. See Fish joint, under Fish. -- Rail train (Iron & Steel Manuf.), a train of rolls in a rolling mill, for making rails for railroads from blooms or billets.
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Rail
Rail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Railed (rāld); p. pr. & vb. n. Railing.] 1. To inclose with rails or a railing.
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It ought to be fenced in and railed. Ayliffe.
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2. To range in a line. [Obs.]
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They were brought to London all railed in ropes, like a team of horses in a cart. Bacon.
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Rail
Rail, n. [F. râle, fr. râler to have a rattling in the throat; of German origin, and akin to E. rattle. See Rattle, v.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds of the family Rallidae, especially those of the genus Rallus, and of closely allied genera. They are prized as game birds.
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&hand_; The common European water rail (Rallus aquaticus) is called also bilcock, skitty coot, and brook runner. The best known American species are the clapper rail, or salt-marsh hen (Rallus longirostris, var. crepitans); the king, or red-breasted, rail (Rallus elegans) (called also fresh-water marshhen); the lesser clapper, or Virginia, rail (Rallus Virginianus); and the Carolina, or sora, rail (Porzana Carolina). See Sora.
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Land rail (Zool.), the corncrake.
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Rail
Rail, v. i. [F. railler; cf. Sp. rallar to grate, scrape, molest; perhaps fr. (assumed) LL. radiculare, fr. L. radere to scrape, grate. Cf. Rally to banter, Rase.] To use insolent and reproachful language; to utter reproaches; to scoff; -- followed by at or against, formerly by on. Shak.
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And rail at arts he did not understand. Dryden.
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Lesbia forever on me rails. Swift.
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Rail
Rail (rāl), v. t. 1. To rail at. [Obs.] Feltham.
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2. To move or influence by railing. [R.]
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Rail the seal from off my bond. Shak.
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Railer
Rail"er (rāl"&etilde_;r), n. One who rails; one who scoffs, insults, censures, or reproaches with opprobrious language.
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Railing
Rail"ing, a. Expressing reproach; insulting.
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Angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them. 2 Pet. ii. 11.
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Railing
Rail"ing, n. 1. A barrier made of a rail or of rails, together with vertical supports. The typical railing in the interior of structures or on porches has a horizontal rail near waist height, and multiple vertical supports. Its function is usually to provide a safety barrier at the edge of a verticle drop to prevent falls.
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2. Rails in general; also, material for making rails.
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Railingly
Rail"ing*ly, adv. With scoffing or insulting language.
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Raillery
Rail"ler*y (răl"l&etilde_;r*&ybreve_; or rāl"-; 277), n. [F. raillerie, fr. railler. See Rail to scoff.] Pleasantry or slight satire; banter; jesting language; satirical merriment.
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Let raillery be without malice or heat. B. Jonson.
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Studies employed on low objects; the very naming of them is sufficient to turn them into raillery. Addison.
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Railleur
Rail`leur" (r&adot_;`ly&etilde_;r" or r&adot_;`y&etilde_;r"), n. [F.] A banterer; a jester; a mocker. [R.] Wycherley.
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Railway
Railroad
{ Rail"road` (rāl"rōd`), Rail"way` (rāl"wā`), } n. 1. A road or way consisting of one or more parallel series of iron or steel rails, patterned and adjusted to be tracks for the wheels of vehicles, and suitably supported on a bed or substructure.
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&hand_; The modern railroad is a development and adaptation of the older tramway.
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2. The road, track, etc., with all the lands, buildings, rolling stock, franchises, etc., pertaining to them and constituting one property; as, a certain railroad has been put into the hands of a receiver.
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&hand_; Railway is the commoner word in England; railroad the commoner word in the United States.
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&hand_; In the following and similar phrases railroad and railway are used interchangeably: --
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Atmospheric railway, Elevated railway, etc. See under Atmospheric, Elevated, etc. -- Cable railway. See Cable road, under Cable. -- Ferry railway, a submerged track on which an elevated platform runs, for carrying a train of cars across a water course. -- Gravity railway, a railway, in a hilly country, on which the cars run by gravity down gentle slopes for long distances after having been hauled up steep inclines to an elevated point by stationary engines. -- Railway brake, a brake used in stopping railway cars or locomotives. -- Railway car, a large, heavy vehicle with flanged wheels fitted for running on a railway. [U.S.] -- Railway carriage, a railway passenger car. [Eng.] -- Railway scale, a platform scale bearing a track which forms part of the line of a railway, for weighing loaded cars. -- Railway slide. See Transfer table, under Transfer. -- Railway spine (Med.), an abnormal condition due to severe concussion of the spinal cord, such as occurs in railroad accidents. It is characterized by ataxia and other disturbances of muscular function, sensory disorders, pain in the back, impairment of general health, and cerebral disturbance, -- the symptoms often not developing till some months after the injury. -- Underground railroad Underground railway. (a) A railroad or railway running through a tunnel, as beneath the streets of a city. (b) Formerly, a system of cooperation among certain active antislavery people in the United States prior to 1866, by which fugitive slaves were secretly helped to reach Canada. [In the latter sense railroad, and not railway, was usually used.] “Their house was a principal entrepôt of the underground railroad.” W. D. Howells.
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Railroad
Rail"road`, v. t. To carry or send by railroad; usually fig., to send or put through at high speed or in great haste; to hurry or rush unduly; as, to railroad a bill through Condress. [Colloq., U. S.]
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Railroading
Rail"road`ing, n. The construction of a railroad; the business of managing or operating a railroad. [Colloq. U. S.]
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Raiment
Rai"ment (rā"m&eitalic_;nt), n. [Abbrev. fr. arraiment. See Array.] 1. Clothing in general; vesture; garments; -- usually singular in form, with a collective sense.
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Living, both food and raiment she supplies. Dryden.
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2. An article of dress. [R. or Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.
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Rain
Rain (rān), n. & v. Reign. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Rain
Rain (rān), n. [OE. rein, AS. regen; akin to OFries. rein, D. & G. regen, OS. & OHG. regan, Icel., Dan., & Sw. regn, Goth. rign, and prob. to L. rigare to water, to wet; cf. Gr. bre`chein to wet, to rain.] Water falling in drops from the clouds; the descent of water from the clouds in drops.
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Rain is water by the heat of the sun divided into very small parts ascending in the air, till, encountering the cold, it be condensed into clouds, and descends in drops. Ray.
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Fair days have oft contracted wind and rain. Milton.
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&hand_; Rain is distinguished from mist by the size of the drops, which are distinctly visible. When water falls in very small drops or particles, it is called mist; and fog is composed of particles so fine as to be not only individually indistinguishable, but to float or be suspended in the air. See Fog, and Mist.
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Rain band (Meteorol.), a dark band in the yellow portion of the solar spectrum near the sodium line, caused by the presence of watery vapor in the atmosphere, and hence sometimes used in weather predictions. -- Rain bird (Zool.), the yaffle, or green woodpecker. [Prov. Eng.] The name is also applied to various other birds, as to Saurothera vetula of the West Indies. -- Rain fowl (Zool.), the channel-bill cuckoo (Scythrops Novae-Hollandiae) of Australia. -- Rain gauge, an instrument of various forms for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at any given place in a given time; a pluviometer; an ombrometer. -- Rain goose (Zool.), the red-throated diver, or loon. [Prov. Eng.] -- Rain prints (Geol.), markings on the surfaces of stratified rocks, presenting an appearance similar to those made by rain on mud and sand, and believed to have been so produced. -- Rain quail. (Zool.) See Quail, n., 1. -- Rain water, water that has fallen from the clouds in rain.
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Rain
Rain, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rained (rānd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raining.] [AS. regnian, akin to G. regnen, Goth. rignjan. See Rain, n.] 1. To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; -- used mostly with it for a nominative; as, it rains.
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The rain it raineth every day. Shak.
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2. To fall or drop like water from the clouds; as, tears rained from their eyes.
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Rain
Rain (rān), v. t. 1. To pour or shower down from above, like rain from the clouds.
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Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you. Ex. xvi. 4.
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2. To bestow in a profuse or abundant manner; as, to rain favors upon a person.
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Rainbow
Rain"bow` (rān"bō`), n. [AS. regenboga, akin to G. regenbogen. See Rain, and Bow anything bent.] A bow or arch exhibiting, in concentric bands, the several colors of the spectrum, and formed in the part of the hemisphere opposite to the sun by the refraction and reflection of the sun's rays in drops of falling rain.
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&hand_; Besides the ordinary bow, called also primary rainbow, which is formed by two refractions and one reflection, there is also another often seen exterior to it, called the secondary rainbow, concentric with the first, and separated from it by a small interval. It is formed by two refractions and two reflections, is much fainter than the primary bow, and has its colors arranged in the reverse order from those of the latter.
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Lunar rainbow, a fainter arch or rainbow, formed by the moon. -- Marine rainbow, Sea bow, a similar bow seen in the spray of waves at sea. -- Rainbow trout (Zool.), a bright-colored trout (Salmo irideus), native of the mountains of California, but now extensively introduced into the Eastern States, Japan, and other countries; -- called also brook trout, mountain trout, and golden trout. -- Rainbow wrasse. (Zool.) See under Wrasse. -- Supernumerary rainbow, a smaller bow, usually of red and green colors only, sometimes seen within the primary or without the secondary rainbow, and in contact with them.
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Rainbowed
Rain"bowed` (rān"bōd`), a. Formed with or like a rainbow.
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Raindeer
Rain"deer` (rān"dēr`), n. (Zool.) See Reindeer. [Obs.]
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Raindrop
Rain"drop` (rān"dr&obreve_;p`), n. A drop of rain.
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Rainfall
Rain"fall` (rān"f&asuml_;l`), n. A fall or descent of rain; the water, or amount of water, that falls in rain; as, the average annual rainfall of a region.
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Supplied by the rainfall of the outer ranges of Sinchul and Singaleleh. Hooker.
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Raininess
Rain"i*ness (rān"&ibreve_;*n&ebreve_;s), n. The state of being rainy.
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Rainless
Rain"less (rān"l&ebreve_;s), a. Destitute of rain; as, a rainless region.
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Rain-tight
Rain"-tight` (rān"tīt`), a. So tight as to exclude rain; as, a rain-tight roof.
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Rainy
Rain"y (rān"&ybreve_;), a. [AS. regenig.] Abounding with rain; wet; showery; as, rainy weather; a rainy day or season.
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Raip
Raip (rāp), n. [Cf. Icel. reip rope. Cf. Rope.] A rope; also, a measure equal to a rod. [Scot.]
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Rais
Rais (rīs), n. Same as 2d Reis.
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Raisable
Rais"a*ble (rāz"&adot_;*b'l), a. Capable of being raised.
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Raise
Raise (rāz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raised (rāzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raising.] [OE. reisen, Icel. reisa, causative of rīsa to rise. See Rise, and cf. Rear to raise.]
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1. To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place; to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to raise a stone or weight. Hence, figuratively: --
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(a) To bring to a higher condition or situation; to elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to advance; to enhance; as, to raise from a low estate; to raise to office; to raise the price, and the like.
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This gentleman came to be raised to great titles. Clarendon.
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The plate pieces of eight were raised three pence in the piece. Sir W. Temple.
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(b) To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as, to raise the pulse; to raise the voice; to raise the spirits or the courage; to raise the heat of a furnace.
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(c) To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to raise the pitch of the voice; to raise the temperature of a room.
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2. To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to raise a mast or flagstaff. Hence: --
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(a) To cause to spring up from a recumbent position, from a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse.
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They shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep. Job xiv. 12.
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(b) To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult, struggle, or war; to excite.
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He commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind. Ps. cvii. 25.
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Aeneas . . . employs his pains,
In parts remote, to raise the Tuscan swains.
Dryden.
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(c) To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from death; to give life to.
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Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ? Acts xxvi. 8.
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3. To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to appear; to give rise to; to originate, produce, cause, effect, or the like. Hence, specifically: --
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(a) To form by the accumulation of materials or constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to raise a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones.
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I will raise forts against thee. Isa. xxix. 3.
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(b) To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise money, troops, and the like. “To raise up a rent.” Chaucer.
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(c) To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or propagated; to grow; as, to raise corn, barley, hops, etc.; toraise cattle. “He raised sheep.” “He raised wheat where none grew before.” Johnson's Dict.
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&hand_; In some parts of the United States, notably in the Southern States, raise is also commonly applied to the rearing or bringing up of children.
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I was raised, as they say in Virginia, among the mountains of the North. Paulding.
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(d) To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise, come forth, or appear; -- often with up.
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I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee. Deut. xviii. 18.
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God vouchsafes to raise another world
From him [Noah], and all his anger to forget.
Milton.
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(e) To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start; to originate; as, to raise a smile or a blush.
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Thou shalt not raise a false report. Ex. xxiii. 1.
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(f) To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up.
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Soon as the prince appears, they raise a cry. Dryden.
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(g) To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as, to raise a point of order; to raise an objection.
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4. To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread.
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Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and raise paste. Spectator.
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5. (Naut.) (a) To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher by drawing nearer to it; as, to raise Sandy Hook light. (b) To let go; as in the command, Raise tacks and sheets, i. e., Let go tacks and sheets.
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6. (Law) To create or constitute; as, to raise a use, that is, to create it. Burrill.
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To raise a blockade (Mil.), to remove or break up a blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or forces employed in enforcing it, or by driving them away or dispersing them. -- To raise a check, note, bill of exchange, etc., to increase fraudulently its nominal value by changing the writing, figures, or printing in which the sum payable is specified. -- To raise a siege, to relinquish an attempt to take a place by besieging it, or to cause the attempt to be relinquished. -- To raise steam, to produce steam of a required pressure. -- To raise the wind, to procure ready money by some temporary expedient. [Colloq.] -- To raise Cain, or To raise the devil, to cause a great disturbance; to make great trouble. [Slang]
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Syn. -- To lift; exalt; elevate; erect; originate; cause; produce; grow; heighten; aggravate; excite.
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Raised
Raised (rāzd), a. 1. Lifted up; showing above the surroundings; as, raised or embossed metal work.
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2. Leavened; made with leaven, or yeast; -- used of bread, cake, etc., as distinguished from that made with cream of tartar, soda, etc. See Raise, v. t., 4.
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Raised beach. See under Beach, n.
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Raiser
Rais"er (rāz"&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, raises (in various senses of the verb).
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Raisin
Rai"sin (rā"z'n), n. [F. raisin grape, raisin, L. racemus cluster of grapes or berries; cf. Gr. "ra`x, "rago`s, berry, grape. Cf. Raceme.] 1. A grape, or a bunch of grapes. [Obs.] Cotgrave.
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2. A grape dried in the sun or by artificial heat.
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Raisin tree (Bot.), the common red currant bush, whose fruit resembles the small raisins of Corinth called currants. [Eng.] Dr. Prior.
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Raising
Rais"ing (rāz"&ibreve_;ng), n. 1. The act of lifting, setting up, elevating, exalting, producing, or restoring to life.
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2. Specifically, the operation or work of setting up the frame of a building; as, to help at a raising. [U.S.]
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3. The operation of embossing sheet metal, or of forming it into cup-shaped or hollow articles, by hammering, stamping, or spinning.
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Raising bee, a bee for raising the frame of a building. See Bee, n., 2. [U.S.] W. Irving. -- Raising hammer, a hammer with a rounded face, used in raising sheet metal. -- Raising plate (Carp.), the plate, or longitudinal timber, on which a roof is raised and rests.
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Raisonne
Rai`son`né" (r&auptack_;`z&ouptack_;`n&auptack_;"), a. [F. raisonné, p. p. of raisonner to reason.] Arranged systematically, or according to classes or subjects; as, a catalogue raisonné. See under Catalogue.
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Raivel
Rai"vel (rā"v&eitalic_;l), n. (Weaving) A separator. [Scot.]
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Raj
Raj (räj), n. [See Rajah.] Reign; rule. [India]
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Raja
Ra"ja (rä"jä or rā"j&adot_;), n. Same as Rajah.
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Rajah
Ra"jah (rä"jä or rā"j&adot_;), n. [Hind. rājā, Skr. rājan, akin to L. rex, regis. See Regal, a.] A native prince or king; also, a landholder or person of importance in the agricultural districts. [India]
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Rajahship
Ra"jah*ship, n. The office or dignity of a rajah.
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Rajput
Rajpoot
{ ‖Raj`poot", ‖Raj`put" } (räj`p&oomacr_;t"), n. [Hind. rāj-pūt, Skr. rāja-putra king's son.] A Hindoo of the second, or royal and military, caste; a Kshatriya; especially, an inhabitant of the country of Rajpootana, in northern central India.
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Rake
Rake (rāk), n. [AS. race; akin to OD. rake, D. reek, OHG. rehho, G. rechen, Icel. reka a shovel, and to Goth. rikan to heap up, collect, and perhaps to Gr. 'ore`gein to stretch out, and E. rack to stretch. Cf. Reckon.] 1. An implement consisting of a headpiece having teeth, and a long handle at right angles to it, -- used for collecting hay, or other light things which are spread over a large surface, or for breaking and smoothing the earth.
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2. A toothed machine drawn by a horse, -- used for collecting hay or grain; a horserake.
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3. [Perhaps a different word.] (Mining) A fissure or mineral vein traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so; -- called also rake-vein.
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Gill rakes. (Anat.) See under 1st Gill.
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Rake
Rake, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raked (rākt); p. pr. & vb. n. Raking.] [AS. racian. See 1st Rake.] 1. To collect with a rake; as, to rake hay; -- often with up; as, he raked up the fallen leaves.
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2. Hence: To collect or draw together with laborious industry; to gather from a wide space; to scrape together; as, to rake together wealth; to rake together slanderous tales; to rake together the rabble of a town.
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3. To pass a rake over; to scrape or scratch with a rake for the purpose of collecting and clearing off something, or for stirring up the soil; as, to rake a lawn; to rake a flower bed.
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4. To search through; to scour; to ransack.
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The statesman rakes the town to find a plot. Swift.
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5. To scrape or scratch across; to pass over quickly and lightly, as a rake does.
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Like clouds that rake the mountain summits. Wordsworth.
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6. (Mil.) To enfilade; to fire in a direction with the length of; in naval engagements, to cannonade, as a ship, on the stern or head so that the balls range the whole length of the deck.
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To rake up. (a) To collect together, as the fire (live coals), and cover with ashes. (b) To bring up; to search out and bring to notice again; as, to rake up old scandals.
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Rake
Rake (rāk), v. i. 1. To use a rake, as for searching or for collecting; to scrape; to search minutely.
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One is for raking in Chaucer for antiquated words. Dryden.
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2. To pass with violence or rapidity; to scrape along.
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Pas could not stay, but over him did rake. Sir P. Sidney.
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Rake
Rake, n. [Cf. dial. Sw. raka to reach, and E. reach.] The inclination of anything from a perpendicular direction; as, the rake of a roof, a staircase, etc.; especially (Naut.), the inclination of a mast or funnel, or, in general, of any part of a vessel not perpendicular to the keel.
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Rake
Rake, v. i. To incline from a perpendicular direction; as, a mast rakes aft.
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Raking course (Bricklaying), a course of bricks laid diagonally between the face courses in a thick wall, to strengthen it.
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Rake
Rake, n. [OE. rakel rash; cf. Icel. reikall wandering, unsettled, reika to wander.] A loose, disorderly, vicious man; a person addicted to lewdness and other scandalous vices; a debauchee; a roué.
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An illiterate and frivolous old rake. Macaulay.
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Rake
Rake, v. i. 1. [Icel. reika. Cf. Rake a debauchee.] To walk about; to gad or ramble idly. [Prov. Eng.]
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2. [See Rake a debauchee.] To act the rake; to lead a dissolute, debauched life. Shenstone.
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To rake out (Falconry), to fly too far and wide from its master while hovering above waiting till the game is sprung; -- said of the hawk. Encyc. Brit.
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Rakehell
Rake"hell` (rāk"h&ebreve_;l`), n. [See Rakel.] A lewd, dissolute fellow; a debauchee; a rake.
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It seldom doth happen, in any way of life, that a sluggard and a rakehell do not go together. Barrow.
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Rakehelly
Rakehell
{ Rake"hell`, Rake"hell`y (rāk"h&ebreve_;l`&ybreve_;), } a. Dissolute; wild; lewd; rakish. [Obs.] Spenser. B. Jonson.
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Rakel
Ra"kel (rä"k&ebreve_;l), a. [OE. See Rake a debauchee.] Hasty; reckless; rash. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Ra"kel*ness, n. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Raker
Rak"er (rāk"&etilde_;r), n. [See 1st Rake.] 1. One who, or that which, rakes; as: (a) A person who uses a rake. (b) A machine for raking grain or hay by horse or other power. (c) A gun so placed as to rake an enemy's ship.
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2. (Zool.) See Gill rakers, under 1st Gill.
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Rakery
Rak"er*y (rāk"&etilde_;r*&ybreve_;), n. Debauchery; lewdness.
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The rakery and intrigues of the lewd town. R. North.
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Rakeshame
Rake"shame` (rāk"shām`), n. [Cf. Rakehell, Ragabash.] A vile, dissolute wretch. [Obs.] Milton.
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Rakestale
Rake"stale` (rāk"stāl`), n. [Rake the instrument + stale a handle.] The handle of a rake.
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That tale is not worth a rakestele. Chaucer.
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Rake-vein
Rake"-vein` (rāk"vān`), n. See Rake, a mineral vein.
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Rakee
Raki
{ ‖Ra`ki", ‖Ra`kee" } (r&adot_;`kē"; răk"&euptack_;), n. [Turk. rāqī arrack.] A kind of ardent spirits used in southern Europe and the East, distilled from grape juice, grain, etc.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Raking
Rak"ing (rāk"&ibreve_;ng), n. 1. The act or process of using a rake; the going over a space with a rake.
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2. A space gone over with a rake; also, the work done, or the quantity of hay, grain, etc., collected, by going once over a space with a rake.
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Rakish
Rak"ish (rāk"&ibreve_;sh), a. Dissolute; lewd; debauched.
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The arduous task of converting a rakish lover. Macaulay.
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Rakish
Rak"ish (rāk"&ibreve_;sh), a. (Naut.) Having a saucy appearance indicative of speed and dash. Ham. Nav. Encyc.
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Rakishly
Rak"ish*ly (rāk"&ibreve_;sh*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a rakish manner.
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Rakishness
Rak"ish*ness, n. The quality or state of being rakish.
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Raku ware
Ra"ku ware` (rä"k&oomacr_; wâr`). A kind of earthenware made in Japan, resembling Satsuma ware, but having a paler color.
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Rale
Râle (räl), n. [F. râle. Cf. Rail the bird.] (Med.) An adventitious sound, usually of morbid origin, accompanying the normal respiratory sounds. See Rhonchus.
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&hand_; Various kinds are distinguished by pathologists; differing in intensity, as loud and small; in quality, as moist, dry, clicking, whistling, and sonorous; and in origin, as tracheal, pulmonary, and pleural.
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Rallentando
Ral`len*tan"do (räl`l&ebreve_;n*tän"d&ouptack_;), a. [It.] (Mus.) Slackening; -- a direction to perform a passage with a gradual decrease in time and force; ritardando.
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Ralliance
Ral"li*ance (răl"l&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;ns), n. [Cf. OF. raliance. See Rally to reunite.] The act of rallying.
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Rallier
Ral"li*er (răl"l&ibreve_;*&etilde_;r), n. One who rallies.
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Rallies
Ral"liés" (r&adot_;l`yā"), n. pl. [F., p. p. pl. See Rally, v. t.] A French political group, also known as the Constitutional Right from its position in the Chambers, mainly monarchists who rallied to the support of the Republic in obedience to the encyclical put forth by Pope Leo XIII. in Feb., 1892.
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Ralline
Ral"line (răl"līn), a. (Zool.) Pertaining to the rails.
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Rally
Ral"ly (răl"l&ybreve_;), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rallied (răl"l&ibreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Rallying.] [OF. ralier, F. rallier, fr. L. pref. re- + ad + ligare to bind. See Ra-, and 1st Ally.] To collect, and reduce to order, as troops dispersed or thrown into confusion; to gather again; to reunite.
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Rally
Ral"ly, v. i. 1. To come into orderly arrangement; to renew order, or united effort, as troops scattered or put to flight; to assemble; to unite.
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The Grecians rally, and their powers unite. Dryden.
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Innumerable parts of matter chanced just then to rally together, and to form themselves into this new world. Tillotson.
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2. To collect one's vital powers or forces; to regain health or consciousness; to recuperate.
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3. To recover strength after a decline in prices; -- said of the market, stocks, etc.
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Rally
Ral"ly, n.; pl. Rallies (răl"l&ibreve_;z). 1. The act or process of rallying (in any of the senses of that word).
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2. A political mass meeting. [Colloq. U. S.]
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Rally
Ral"ly, v. t. [F. railler. See Rail to scoff.] To attack with raillery, either in good humor and pleasantry, or with slight contempt or satire.
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Honeycomb . . . rallies me upon a country life. Addison.
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Strephon had long confessed his amorous pain,
Which gay Corinna rallied with disdain.
Gay.
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Syn. -- To banter; ridicule; satirize; deride; mock.
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Rally
Ral"ly (răl"l&ybreve_;), v. i. To use pleasantry, or satirical merriment.
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Rally
Ral"ly, n. Good-humored raillery.
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Ralph
Ralph (rălf), n. A name sometimes given to the raven.
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Ralstonite
Ral"ston*ite (r&asuml_;l"stŭn*īt), n. [So named after J. G. Ralston of Norristown, Penn.] (Min.) A fluoride of alumina and soda occurring with the Greenland cryolite in octahedral crystals.
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Ram
Ram (răm), n. [AS. ramm, ram; akin to OHG. & D. ram, Prov. G. ramm, and perh. to Icel. ramr strong.] 1. The male of the sheep and allied animals. In some parts of England a ram is called a tup.
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2. (Astron.) (a) Aries, the sign of the zodiac which the sun enters about the 21st of March. (b) The constellation Aries, which does not now, as formerly, occupy the sign of the same name.
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3. An engine of war used for butting or battering. Specifically: (a) In ancient warfare, a long beam suspended by slings in a framework, and used for battering the walls of cities; a battering-ram. (b) A heavy steel or iron beak attached to the prow of a steam war vessel for piercing or cutting down the vessel of an enemy; also, a vessel carrying such a beak.
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4. A hydraulic ram. See under Hydraulic.
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5. The weight which strikes the blow, in a pile driver, steam hammer, stamp mill, or the like.
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6. The plunger of a hydraulic press.
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Ram's horn. (a) (Fort.) A low semicircular work situated in and commanding a ditch. [Written also ramshorn.] Farrow. (b) (Paleon.) An ammonite.
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Ram
Ram, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rammed (rămd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ramming.] 1. To butt or strike against; to drive a ram against or through; to thrust or drive with violence; to force in; to drive together; to cram; as, to ram an enemy's vessel; to ram piles, cartridges, etc.
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[They] rammed me in with foul shirts, and smocks, socks, foul stockings, greasy napkins. Shak.
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2. To fill or compact by pounding or driving.
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A ditch . . . was filled with some sound materials, and rammed to make the foundation solid. Arbuthnot.
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Ramadan
Ram`a*dan" (răm`&adot_;*dăn"), n. [Ar. rama&dsdot_;ān, or ramazān, properly, the hot month.] [Written also Ramadhan, Ramadzan, and Rhamadan.] 1. The ninth Mohammedan month.
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2. The great annual fast of the Mohammedans, kept during daylight through the ninth month.
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Ramage
Ram"age (răm"&auptack_;j; 48), n. [F., fr. L. ramus a branch.] 1. Boughs or branches. [Obs.] Crabb.
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2. Warbling of birds in trees. [Obs.] Drummond.
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Ramage
Ra*mage" (r&adot_;*māj"), a. Wild; untamed. [Obs.]
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Ramagious
Ra*ma"gi*ous (r&adot_;*mā"j&ibreve_;*ŭs), a. Wild; not tame. [Obs.]
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Now is he tame that was so ramagious. Remedy of Love.
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Ramal
Ra"mal (rā"m&aitalic_;l), a. [L. ramus branch.] Of or pertaining to a ramus, or branch; rameal.
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Ramayana
Ra*ma"ya*na (rä*mä"y&adot_;*n&adot_;), n. [Skr. Rāmāya&nsdot_;a.] The more ancient of the two great epic poems in Sanskrit. The hero and heroine are Rama and his wife Sita.
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Ramberge
Ram"berge (răm"b&etilde_;rj), n. [F., fr. rame oar + barge barge.] Formerly, a kind of large war galley.
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Ramble
Ram"ble (răm"b'l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rambled (răm"b'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rambling (răm"bl&ibreve_;ng).] [For rammle, fr. Prov. E. rame to roam. Cf. Roam.] 1. To walk, ride, or sail, from place to place, without any determinate object in view; to roam carelessly or irregularly; to rove; to wander; as, to ramble about the city; to ramble over the world.
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He that is at liberty to ramble in perfect darkness, what is his liberty better than if driven up and down as a bubble by the wind? Locke.
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2. To talk or write in a discursive, aimless way.
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3. To extend or grow at random. Thomson.
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Syn. -- To rove; roam; wander; range; stroll.
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Ramble
Ram"ble, n. 1. A going or moving from place to place without any determinate business or object; an excursion or stroll merely for recreation.
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Coming home, after a short Christmas ramble. Swift.
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2. [Cf. Rammel.] (Coal Mining) A bed of shale over the seam. Raymond.
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3. A section of woods suitable for leisurely walking.
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4. a type of dance; as, the Muskrat ramble.
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Rambler
Ram"bler (răm"bl&etilde_;r), n. One who rambles; a rover; a wanderer.
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Rambling
Ram"bling (răm"bl&ibreve_;ng), a. Roving; wandering; discursive; as, a rambling fellow, talk, or building.
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Ramblingly
Ram"bling*ly (răm"bl&ibreve_;ng*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a rambling manner.
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Rambooze
Ram"booze (răm"b&oomacr_;z), n. A beverage made of wine, ale (or milk), sugar, etc. [Obs.] Blount.
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Rambutan
Ram*bu"tan (răm*b&oomacr_;"tăn), n. [Malay rambūtan, fr. rambut hair of the head.] (Bot.) A Malayan fruit produced by the tree Nephelium lappaceum, and closely related to the litchi nut. It is bright red, oval in shape, covered with coarse hairs (whence the name), and contains a pleasant acid pulp. Called also ramboostan.
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Rameal
Ra"me*al (rā"m&euptack_;*&aitalic_;l), a. Same as Ramal. Gray.
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Ramean
Ra"me*an (rā"m&euptack_;*&aitalic_;n), n. A Ramist. Shipley.
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Ramed
Ramed (rămd), a. Having the frames, stem, and sternpost adjusted; -- said of a ship on the stocks.
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Ramee
Ram"ee (răm"&euptack_;), n. (Bot.) See Ramie.
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Ramekin
Ram"e*kin (răm"&euptack_;*k&ibreve_;n), n. same as Ramequin.
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Rament
Ram"ent (răm"&eitalic_;nt), n. [L. ramenta, pl.] 1. A scraping; a shaving. [Obs.]
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2. pl. (Bot.) Ramenta.

Ramenta
Ra*men"ta (r&adot_;*m&ebreve_;n"t&adot_;), n. pl. [L., scrapings.] (Bot.) Thin brownish chaffy scales upon the leaves or young shoots of some plants, especially upon the petioles and leaves of ferns. Gray.
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Ramentaceous
Ram`en*ta"ceous (răm`&ebreve_;n*tā"shŭs), a. (Bot.) Covered with ramenta.
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Rameous
Ra"me*ous (rā"m&euptack_;*ŭs), a. [L. rameus, from ramus branch, bough.] (Bot.) Ramal.
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Ramequin
Ram"e*quin (răm"&euptack_;*k&ibreve_;n), n. [F.] 1. (Cookery) A mixture of cheese, eggs, etc., formed in a mold, or served on bread. [Written also ramekin.]
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2. The porcelian or earthen mold in which ramequins are baked and served, by extension, any dish so used.
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Ramie
Ram"ie (răm"&euptack_;), n. [From Malay.] (Bot.) The grasscloth plant (Bœhmeria nivea); also, its fiber, which is very fine and exceedingly strong; -- called also China grass, and rhea. See Grass-cloth plant, under Grass.
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Ramification
Ram`i*fi*ca"tion (răm`&ibreve_;*f&ibreve_;*kā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. ramification. See Ramify.] 1. The process of branching, or the development of branches or offshoots from a stem; also, the mode of their arrangement.
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2. A small branch or offshoot proceeding from a main stock or channel; as, the ramifications of an artery, vein, or nerve.
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3. A division into principal and subordinate classes, heads, or departments; also, one of the subordinate parts; as, the ramifications of a subject or scheme.
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4. The production of branchlike figures. Crabb.
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Ramiflorous
Ram`i*flo"rous (răm`&ibreve_;*flō"rŭs), a. [L. ramus branch + flos, floris, flower.] (Bot.) Flowering on the branches.
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Ramiform
Ram"i*form (răm"&ibreve_;*fôrm), a. [L. ramus branch + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form of a branch.
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Ramify
Ram"i*fy (răm"&ibreve_;*fī), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ramified (-fīd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ramifying (?).] [F. ramifier, LL. ramificare, fr. L. ramus a branch + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See -fy.] To divide into branches or subdivisions; as, to ramify an art, subject, scheme.
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Ramify
Ram"i*fy, v. i. 1. To shoot, or divide, into branches or subdivisions, as the stem of a plant.
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When they [asparagus plants] . . . begin to ramify. Arbuthnot.
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2. To be divided or subdivided, as a main subject.
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Ramigerous
Ra*mig"er*ous (r&adot_;*m&ibreve_;j"&etilde_;r*ŭs), a. [L. ramus a branch + -gerous.] (Bot.) Bearing branches; branched.
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Ramiparous
Ra*mip"a*rous (r&adot_;*m&ibreve_;p"&adot_;*rŭs), a. [L. ramus + parere to bear.] (Bot.) Producing branches; ramigerous.
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Ramist
Ra"mist (rā"m&ibreve_;st), n. A follower of Pierre Ramé, better known as Ramus, a celebrated French scholar, who was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris in the reign of Henry II., and opposed the Aristotelians.
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Ramline
Ram"line (răm"l&ibreve_;n), n. A line used to get a straight middle line, as on a spar, or from stem to stern in building a vessel.
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Rammel
Ram"mel (răm"m&ebreve_;l), n. Refuse matter. [Obs.]
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Filled with any rubbish, rammel and broken stones. Holland.
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Rammer
Ram"mer (răm"m&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, rams or drives. Specifically: (a) An instrument for driving anything with force; as, a rammer for driving stones or piles, or for beating the earth to more solidity. (b) A rod for forcing down the charge of a gun; a ramrod. (c) (Founding) An implement for pounding the sand of a mold to render it compact.
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Rammish
Ram"mish (răm"m&ibreve_;sh), a. Like a ram; hence, rank; lascivious. “Their savor is so rammish.” Chaucer.
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Rammishness
Ram"mish*ness, n. The quality of being rammish.
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Rammy
Ram"my (răm"m&ybreve_;), a. Like a ram; rammish. Burton.
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Ramollescence
Ram`ol*les"cence (răm`&obreve_;l*l&ebreve_;s"s&eitalic_;ns), n. [F. ramollir to make soft, to soften; pref. re- re- + amollir to soften; a (L. ad) + mollir to soften, L. mollire, fr. mollis soft.] A softening or mollifying. [R.]
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Ramoon
Ra*moon" (r&adot_;*m&oomacr_;n"), n. (Bot.) A small West Indian tree (Trophis Americana) of the Mulberry family, whose leaves and twigs are used as fodder for cattle.
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Ramose
Ra*mose" (r&adot_;*mōs"), a. [L. ramosus, from ramus a branch.] Branched, as the stem or root of a plant; having lateral divisions; consisting of, or having, branches; full of branches; ramifying; branching; branchy.
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Ramous
Ra"mous (rā"mŭs), a. Ramose.
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Ramp
Ramp (rămp), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ramped (rămt; 215); p. pr. & vb. n. Ramping.] [F. ramper to creep, OF., to climb; of German origin; cf. G. raffen to snatch, LG. & D. rapen. See Rap to snatch, and cf. Romp.]
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1. To spring; to leap; to bound; to rear; to prance; to become rampant; hence, to frolic; to romp.
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2. To move by leaps, or as by leaps; hence, to move swiftly or with violence.
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Their bridles they would champ,
And trampling the fine element would fiercely ramp.
Spenser.
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3. To climb, as a plant; to creep up.
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With claspers and tendrils, they [plants] catch hold, . . . and so ramping upon trees, they mount up to a great height. Ray.
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Ramp
Ramp, n. 1. A leap; a spring; a hostile advance.
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The bold Ascalonite
Fled from his lion ramp.
Milton.
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2. A highwayman; a robber. [Prov. Eng.]
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3. A romping woman; a prostitute. [Obs.] Lyly.
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4. [F. rampe.] (Arch.) (a) Any sloping member, other than a purely constructional one, such as a continuous parapet to a staircase. (b) A short bend, slope, or curve, where a hand rail or cap changes its direction.
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5. [F. rampe.] (Fort.) An inclined plane serving as a communication between different interior levels.
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Rampacious
Ram*pa"cious (răm*pā"shŭs), a. High-spirited; rampageous. [Slang] Dickens.
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Rampage
Ramp"age (rămp"&auptack_;j; 48), n. [See Ramp, v.] Violent or riotous behavior; a state of excitement, passion, or debauchery; as, to be on the rampage. [Prov. or Low] Dickens.
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Rampage
Ramp"age, v. i. To leap or prance about, as an animal; to be violent; to rage. [Prov. or Low]
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Rampageous
Ram*pa"geous (răm*pā"jŭs), a. Characterized by violence and passion; unruly; rampant. [Prov. or Low]
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In the primitive ages of a rampageous antiquity. Galt.
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Rampallian
Ram*pal"lian (răm*păl"y&aitalic_;n), n. [Cf. ramp a prostitute, or rabble.] A mean wretch. [Obs.] Shak.
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Rampancy
Ramp"an*cy (rămp"&aitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), n. The quality or state of being rampant; excessive action or development; exuberance; extravagance. “They are come to this height and rampancy of vice.” South.
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Rampant
Ramp"ant (rămp"&aitalic_;nt), a. [F., p. pr. of ramper to creep. See Ramp, v.] 1. Ramping; leaping; springing; rearing upon the hind legs; hence, raging; furious.
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The fierce lion in his kind
Which goeth rampant after his prey.
Gower.
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[The] lion . . . rampant shakes his brinded mane. Milton.
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2. Ascending; climbing; rank in growth; exuberant.
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The rampant stalk is of unusual altitude. I. Taylor.
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3. (Her.) Rising with fore paws in the air as if attacking; -- said of a beast of prey, especially a lion. The right fore leg and right hind leg should be raised higher than the left.
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Rampant arch. (a) An arch which has one abutment higher than the other. (b) Same as Rampant vault, below. -- Rampant gardant (Her.), rampant, but with the face turned to the front. -- Rampant regardant, rampant, but looking backward. -- Rampant vault (Arch.), a continuous wagon vault, or cradle vault, whose two abutments are located on an inclined plane, such as the vault supporting a stairway, or forming the ceiling of a stairway.
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Rampantly
Ramp"ant*ly, adv. In a rampant manner.
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Rampart
Ram"part (răm"pärt), n. [F. rempart, OF. rempar, fr. remparer to fortify, se remparer to fence or intrench one's self; pref. re- re- + pref. en- (L. in) + parer to defend, parry, prepare, L. parare to prepare. See Pare.]
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1. That which fortifies and defends from assault; that which secures safety; a defense or bulwark.
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2. (Fort.) A broad embankment of earth round a place, upon which the parapet is raised. It forms the substratum of every permanent fortification. Mahan.
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Syn. -- Bulwark; fence; security; guard. -- Rampart, Bulwark. These words were formerly interchanged; but in modern usage a distinction has sprung up between them. The rampart of a fortified place is the enceinte or entire main embankment or wall which surrounds it. The term bulwark is now applied to peculiarly strong outworks which project for the defense of the rampart, or main work. A single bastion is a bulwark. In using these words figuratively, rampart is properly applied to that which protects by walling out; bulwark to that which stands in the forefront of danger, to meet and repel it. Hence, we speak of a distinguished individual as the bulwark, not the rampart, of the state. This distinction, however, is often disregarded.
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Rampart
Ram"part, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ramparted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ramparting.] To surround or protect with, or as with, a rampart or ramparts.
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Those grassy hills, those glittering dells,
Proudly ramparted with rocks.
Coleridge.
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Rampart gun (Fort.), a cannon or large gun for use on a rampart and not as a fieldpiece.
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Rampe
Rampe (rămp), n. [In allusion to its supposed aphrodisiac qualities. See Ramp.] (Bot.) The cuckoopint.
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Rampier
Ram"pier (răm"pēr), n. See Rampart. [Obs.]
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Rampion
Ram"pi*on (răm"p&ibreve_;*ŭn), n. [Cf. F. raiponce, Sp. ruiponce, reponche, L. raperonzo, NL. rapuntium, fr. L. rapum, rapa, a turnip, rape. Cf. Rape a plant.] (Bot.) A plant (Campanula Rapunculus) of the Bellflower family, with a tuberous esculent root; -- also called ramps.
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&hand_; The name is sometimes given to plants of the genus Phyteuma, herbs of the Bellflower family, and to the American evening primrose (Œnothera biennis), which has run wild in some parts of Europe.
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Rampire
Ram"pire (răm"pīr), n. A rampart. [Archaic]
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The Trojans round the place a rampire cast. Dryden.
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Rampire
Ram"pire, v. t. To fortify with a rampire; to form into a rampire. [Archaic] Chapman.Rampired walls of gold.” R. Browning.
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Rampler
Ram"pler (răm"pl&etilde_;r), n. A rambler.
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Rampler
Ram"pler, a. Roving; rambling. [Scot.]
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Ramrod
Ram"rod` (răm"r&obreve_;d`), n. The rod used in ramming home the charge in a muzzle-loading firearm.
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Ramshackle
Ram"shac*kle (răm"shăk*k'l), a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Loose; disjointed; falling to pieces; out of repair.
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There came . . . my lord the cardinal, in his ramshackle coach. Thackeray.
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Ramshackle
Ram"shac*kle, v. t. To search or ransack; to rummage. [Prov. Eng.]
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Ramson
Ram"son (răm"z'n), n. [AS. hramsan, pl., akin to G. rams, Sw. rams, ramslök; cf. Gr. kro`myon onion.] (Bot.) A broad-leaved species of garlic (Allium ursinum), common in European gardens; -- called also buckram.
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Ramsted
Ram"sted (răm"st&ebreve_;d), n. (Bot.) A yellow-flowered weed; -- so named from a Mr. Ramsted who introduced it into Pennsylvania. See Toad flax. Called also Ramsted weed.
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Ramtil
Ram"til (răm"t&ibreve_;l), n. [Bengali ram-til.] A tropical African asteraceous shrub (Guizotia abyssinica) cultivated for its seeds (called ramtil seeds or niger seeds) which yield a valuable oil used for food and as an illuminant.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Ramulose
Ram"u*lose` (răm"&uuptack_;*lōs`), a. [L. ramulosus, fr. ramulus, dim. of ramus a branch.] (Nat. Hist.) Having many small branches, or ramuli.
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Ramulous
Ram"u*lous (răm"&uuptack_;*lŭs), a. (Nat. Hist.) Ramulose.
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Ramulus
Ram"u*lus (răm"&uuptack_;*lŭs), n.; pl. Ramuli (răm"&uuptack_;*lī). (Zool.) A small branch, or branchlet, of corals, hydroids, and similar organisms.
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Ramus
Ra"mus (rā"mŭs), n.; pl. Rami (rā"mī). (Nat. Hist.) A branch; a projecting part or prominent process; a ramification.
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Ramuscule
Ra*mus"cule (r&adot_;*mŭs"k&uuptack_;l), n. [L. ramusculus.] (Nat. Hist.) A small ramus, or branch.
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Ran
Ran (răn), imp. of Run.
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Ran
Ran, n. [AS. rān.] Open robbery. [Obs.] Lambarde.
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Ran
Ran, n. (Naut.) Yarns coiled on a spun-yarn winch.
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Rana
Ra"na (rā"n&adot_;), n. [L., a frog.] (Zool.) A genus of anurous batrachians, including the common frogs.
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Ranal
Ra"nal (rā"n&aitalic_;l), a. (Bot.) Having a general affinity to ranunculaceous plants.
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Ranal alliance (Bot.), a name proposed by Lindley for a group of natural orders, including Ranunculaceae, Magnoliaceae, Papaveraceae, and others related to them.
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Rance
Rance (răns), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] 1. A prop or shore. [Scot.]
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2. A round between the legs of a chair; also called a spreader.
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Rancescent
Ran*ces"cent (răn*s&ebreve_;s"s&eitalic_;nt), a. [L. rancescens, p. pr. of rancescere, v. incho. from rancere to be rancid.] Becoming rancid or sour.
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Ranch
Ranch (rănch), v. t. [Written also raunch.] [Cf. Wrench.] To wrench; to tear; to sprain; to injure by violent straining or contortion. [R.] Dryden. “Hasting to raunch the arrow out.” Spenser.
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Ranch
Ranch, n. [See Rancho.] A tract of land used for grazing and the rearing of horses, cattle, or sheep. See Rancho, 2. [Western U. S.]
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Rancheria
Ran`che*ri"a (r&adot_;n`ch&auptack_;"rē"&adot_;), n. [Sp. rancheria.] 1. A dwelling place of a ranchero.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. A small settlement or collection of ranchos, or rude huts, esp. for Indians. [Sp. Amer. & Southwestern U. S.]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

3. Formerly, in the Philippines, a political division of the pagan tribes.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Ranchero
Ran*che"ro (răn*chā"r&ouptack_;), n.; pl. Rancheros (răn*chā"rōz). [Sp.] [Mexico & Western U. S.] 1. A herdsman; a peasant employed on a ranch or rancho.
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2. The owner and occupant of a ranch or rancho.
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Ranchman
Ranch"man (rănch"m&aitalic_;n), n.; pl. Ranchmen (rănch"m&eitalic_;n). An owner or occupant of, or laborer on, a ranch; a herdsman. [Western U. S.]
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Rancho
Ran"cho (răn"ch&ouptack_;), n.; pl. Ranchos (răn"chōz). [Sp., properly, a mess, mess room. Cf. 2d Ranch.] 1. A rude hut, as of posts, covered with branches or thatch, where herdsmen or farm laborers may live or lodge at night.
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2. A large grazing farm where horses and cattle are raised; -- distinguished from hacienda, a cultivated farm or plantation. [Mexico & California] Bartlett.
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Rancid
Ran"cid (răn"s&ibreve_;d), a. [L. rancidus, fr. rancere to be rancid or rank.] Having a rank smell or taste, from chemical change or decomposition; musty; as, rancid oil or butter.
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Rancidity
Ran*cid"i*ty (răn*s&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [Cf. F. rancidité.] The quality or state of being rancid; a rancid scent or flavor, as of old oil. Ure.
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Rancidly
Ran"cid*ly (răn"s&ibreve_;d*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a rancid manner.
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Rancidness
Ran"cid*ness, n. The quality of being rancid.
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Rancor
Ran"cor (ră&nsmacr_;"k&etilde_;r), n. [Written also rancour.] [OE. rancour, OF. rancor, rancur, F. rancune, fr. L. rancor rancidity, rankness; tropically, an old grudge, rancor, fr. rancere to be rank or rancid.] The deepest malignity or spite; deep-seated enmity or malice; inveterate hatred. “To stint rancour and dissencioun.” Chaucer.
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It would not be easy to conceive the passion, rancor, and malice of their tongues and hearts. Burke.
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Syn. -- Enmity; hatred; ill will; malice; spite; grudge; animosity; malignity. -- Rancor, Enmity. Enmity and rancor both describe hostile feelings; but enmity may be generous and open, while rancor implies personal malice of the worst and most enduring nature, and is the strongest word in our language to express hostile feelings.
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Rancor will out; proud prelate, in thy face
I see thy fury.
Shak.
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Rancor is that degree of malice which preys upon the possessor. Cogan.
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Rancorous
Ran"cor*ous (ră&nsmacr_;"k&etilde_;r*ŭs), a. [OF. rancuros.] Full of rancor; evincing, or caused by, rancor; deeply malignant; implacably spiteful or malicious; intensely virulent.
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So flamed his eyes with rage and rancorous ire. Spenser.
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Rancorously
Ran"cor*ous*ly, adv. In a rancorous manner.
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Rand
Rand (rănd), n. [AS. rand, rond; akin to D., Dan., Sw., & G. rand, Icel. rönd, and probably to E. rind.] 1. A border; edge; margin. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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2. A long, fleshy piece, as of beef, cut from the flank or leg; a sort of steak. Beau. & Fl.
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3. A thin inner sole for a shoe; also, a leveling slip of leather applied to the sole before attaching the heel.
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Rand
Rand (rănd), n. [D.] (D. pron. r&adot_;nt) Rim; edge; border. [South Africa]

2. The monetary unit of the Union of South Africa.
[PJC]

The Rand, a rocky gold-bearing ridge in South Africa, about thirty miles long, on which Johannesburg is situated; also, the gold-mining district including this ridge.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rand
Rand, v. i. [See Rant.] To rant; to storm. [Obs.]
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I wept, . . . and raved, and randed, and railed. J. Webster.
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R and D
R and D (är`ăn*dē"), n. [research and development.] research and development; -- used mostly to refer to the division of a corporation responsible for performing research and developing new products; -- a commonly used abbreviation.
Syn. -- R&D. [PJC]

Randall grass
Ran"dall grass` (răn"d&aitalic_;l gr&adot_;s`). (Bot.) The meadow fescue (Festuca elatior). See under Grass.
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Randan
Ran"dan (răn"dăn), n. The product of a second sifting of meal; the finest part of the bran. [Prov. Eng.]
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Randan
Ran"dan, n. A boat propelled by three rowers with four oars, the middle rower pulling two.
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Randing
Rand"ing (rănd"&ibreve_;ng), n. 1. (Shoemaking) The act or process of making and applying rands for shoes.
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2. (Mil.) A kind of basket work used in gabions.
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Random
Ran"dom (răn"dŭm), n. [OE. randon, OF. randon force, violence, rapidity, à randon, de randon, violently, suddenly, rapidly, prob. of German origin; cf. G. rand edge, border, OHG. rant shield, edge of a shield, akin to E. rand, n. See Rand, n.] 1. Force; violence. [Obs.]
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For courageously the two kings newly fought with great random and force. E. Hall.
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2. A roving motion; course without definite direction; want of direction, rule, or method; hazard; chance; -- commonly used in the phrase at random, that is, without a settled point of direction; at hazard.
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Counsels, when they fly
At random, sometimes hit most happily.
Herrick.
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O, many a shaft, at random sent,
Finds mark the archer little meant!
Sir W. Scott.
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3. Distance to which a missile is cast; range; reach; as, the random of a rifle ball. Sir K. Digby.
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4. (Mining) The direction of a rake-vein. Raymond.
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Random
Ran"dom, a. 1. Going at random or by chance; done or made at hazard, or without settled direction, aim, or purpose; hazarded without previous calculation; left to chance; haphazard; as, a random guess.
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Some random truths he can impart. Wordsworth.
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So sharp a spur to the lazy, and so strong a bridle to the random. H. Spencer.
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2. (Statistics) Of, pertaining to, or resulting from a process of selection from a starting set of items, in which the probability of selecting any one object in the starting set is equal to the probability of selecting any other.
[PJC]

3. (Construction) of unequal size or shape; made from components of unequal size or shape.
[PJC]

at random in a manner so that all possible results have an equal probability of occurrence; for processes, each possible result is counted separately although the same type of result may occur more than once . -- Random courses (Masonry), courses of stone of unequal thickness. -- Random shot, a shot not directed or aimed toward any particular object, or a shot with the muzzle of the gun much elevated. -- Random work (Masonry), stonework consisting of stones of unequal sizes fitted together, but not in courses nor always with flat beds.
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Randomize
Ran"dom*ize, v. t. To arrange or rearrange so that there is no predetermined order; to make random; to select by a random process; to assign (members of a group) into subgroups by a random process.
Syn. -- make random.
[PJC]

Randomly
Ran"dom*ly (răn"dŭm*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a random manner.
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Randon
Ran"don (răn"dŭn), n. Random. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Randon
Ran"don, v. i. To go or stray at random. [Obs.]
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Ranedeer
Rane"deer` (rān"dēr`), n. See Reindeer. [Obs.]
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Ranee
Ra"nee (rä"nē), n. Same as Rani.
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Ranforce
Ran"force` (răn"fōrs`), n. [Cf. F. renforcer.] See Reënforce. [Obs.] Bailey.
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Rang
Rang (răng), imp. of Ring, v. t. & i.
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Range
Range (rānj), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ranged (rānjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ranging (rān"j&ibreve_;ng).] [OE. rengen, OF. rengier, F. ranger, OF. renc row, rank, F. rang; of German origin. See Rank, n.] 1. To set in a row, or in rows; to place in a regular line or lines, or in ranks; to dispose in the proper order; to rank; as, to range soldiers in line.
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Maccabeus ranged his army by bands. 2 Macc. xii. 20.
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2. To place (as a single individual) among others in a line, row, or order, as in the ranks of an army; -- usually, reflexively and figuratively, (in the sense) to espouse a cause, to join a party, etc.
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It would be absurd in me to range myself on the side of the Duke of Bedford and the corresponding society. Burke.
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3. To separate into parts; to sift. [Obs.] Holland.
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4. To dispose in a classified or in systematic order; to arrange regularly; as, to range plants and animals in genera and species.
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5. To rove over or through; as, to range the fields.
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Teach him to range the ditch, and force the brake. Gay.
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6. To sail or pass in a direction parallel to or near; as, to range the coast.
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&hand_; Compare the last two senses (5 and 6) with the French ranger une côte.
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7. (Biol.) To be native to, or to live in; to frequent.
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Range
Range, v. i. 1. To rove at large; to wander without restraint or direction; to roam.
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Like a ranging spaniel that barks at every bird he sees. Burton.
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2. To have range; to change or differ within limits; to be capable of projecting, or to admit of being projected, especially as to horizontal distance; as, the temperature ranged through seventy degrees Fahrenheit; the gun ranges three miles; the shot ranged four miles.
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3. To be placed in order; to be ranked; to admit of arrangement or classification; to rank.
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And range with humble livers in content. Shak.
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4. To have a certain direction; to correspond in direction; to be or keep in a corresponding line; to trend or run; -- often followed by with; as, the front of a house ranges with the street; to range along the coast.
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Which way the forests range. Dryden.
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5. (Biol.) To be native to, or live in, a certain district or region; as, the peba ranges from Texas to Paraguay.
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Syn. -- To rove; roam; ramble; wander; stroll.
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Range
Range, n. [From Range, v.: cf. F. rangée.] 1. A series of things in a line; a row; a rank; as, a range of buildings; a range of mountains.
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2. An aggregate of individuals in one rank or degree; an order; a class.
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The next range of beings above him are the immaterial intelligences. Sir M. Hale.
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3. The step of a ladder; a rung. Clarendon.
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4. A kitchen grate. [Obs.]
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He was bid at his first coming to take off the range, and let down the cinders. L'Estrange.
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5. An extended cooking apparatus of cast iron, set in brickwork, and affording conveniences for various ways of cooking; also, a kind of cooking stove.
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6. A bolting sieve to sift meal. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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7. A wandering or roving; a going to and fro; an excursion; a ramble; an expedition.
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He may take a range all the world over. South.
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8. That which may be ranged over; place or room for excursion; especially, a region of country in which cattle or sheep may wander and pasture.
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9. Extent or space taken in by anything excursive; compass or extent of excursion; reach; scope; discursive power; as, the range of one's voice, or authority.
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Far as creation's ample range extends. Pope.
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The range and compass of Hammond's knowledge filled the whole circle of the arts. Bp. Fell.
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A man has not enough range of thought. Addison.
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10. (Biol.) The region within which a plant or animal naturally lives.
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11. (Gun.) (a) The horizontal distance to which a shot or other projectile is carried. (b) Sometimes, less properly, the trajectory of a shot or projectile. (c) A place where shooting, as with cannons or rifles, is practiced.
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12. In the public land system of the United States, a row or line of townships lying between two successive meridian lines six miles apart.
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&hand_; The meridians included in each great survey are numbered in order east and west from the “principal meridian” of that survey, and the townships in the range are numbered north and south from the “base line,” which runs east and west; as, township No. 6, N., range 7, W., from the fifth principal meridian.
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13. (Naut.) See Range of cable, below.
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Range of accommodation (Optics), the distance between the near point and the far point of distinct vision, -- usually measured and designated by the strength of the lens which if added to the refracting media of the eye would cause the rays from the near point to appear as if they came from the far point. -- Range finder (Gunnery), an instrument, or apparatus, variously constructed, for ascertaining the distance of an inaccessible object, -- used to determine what elevation must be given to a gun in order to hit the object; a position finder. -- Range of cable (Naut.), a certain length of slack cable ranged along the deck preparatory to letting go the anchor. -- Range work (Masonry), masonry of squared stones laid in courses each of which is of even height throughout the length of the wall; -- distinguished from broken range work, which consists of squared stones laid in courses not continuously of even height. -- To get the range of (an object) (Gun.), to find the angle at which the piece must be raised to reach (the object) without carrying beyond.
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Rangement
Range"ment (rānj"m&eitalic_;nt), n. [Cf. F. rangement.] Arrangement. [Obs.] Waterland.
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Ranger
Ran"ger (rān"j&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who ranges; a rover; sometimes, one who ranges for plunder; a roving robber.
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2. That which separates or arranges; specifically, a sieve. [Obs.] “The tamis ranger.” Holland.
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3. A dog that beats the ground in search of game.
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4. One of a body of mounted troops, formerly armed with short muskets, who range over the country, and often fight on foot.
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5. The keeper of a public park or forest; formerly, a sworn officer of a forest, appointed by the king's letters patent, whose business was to walk through the forest, recover beasts that had strayed beyond its limits, watch the deer, present trespasses to the next court held for the forest, etc. [Eng.] Rangers in U.S. national parks and national monuments perform a similar function.
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Rangership
Ran"ger*ship, n. The office of the keeper of a forest or park. [Eng.]
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Rangle
Ran"gle (răn"g'l), v. i. To range about in an irregular manner. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.
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Rangy
Ran"gy (rān"j&ybreve_;), a. [From Range, v. i.] Inclined or able to range, or rove about, for considerable distances; apt or suited for much roving, -- chiefly used of cattle.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rani
Ra"ni (rä"nē), n. [Hind. rānī, Skr. rājnī. See Rajah.] A queen or princess; the wife of a rajah. [Written also ranee.] [India]
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Ranine
Ra"nine (rā"nīn), a. [L. rana a frog.] 1. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the frogs and toads.
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2. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or designating, a swelling under the tongue; also, pertaining to the region where the swelling occurs; -- applied especially to branches of the lingual artery and lingual vein.
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Rank
Rank (ră&nsmacr_;k), a. [Compar. Ranker (ră&nsmacr_;k"&etilde_;r); superl. Rankest.] [AS. ranc strong, proud; cf. D. rank slender, Dan. rank upright, erect, Prov. G. rank slender, Icel. rakkr slender, bold. The meaning seems to have been influenced by L. rancidus, E. rancid.] 1. Luxuriant in growth; of vigorous growth; exuberant; grown to immoderate height; as, rank grass; rank weeds.
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And, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good. Gen. xli. 5.
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2. Raised to a high degree; violent; extreme; gross; utter; as, rank heresy.Rank nonsense.” Hare. “I do forgive thy rankest fault.” Shak.
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3. Causing vigorous growth; producing luxuriantly; very rich and fertile; as, rank land. Mortimer.
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4. Strong-scented; rancid; musty; as, oil of a rank smell; rank-smelling rue. Spenser.
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5. Strong to the taste. “Divers sea fowls taste rank of the fish on which they feed.” Boyle.
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6. Inflamed with venereal appetite. [Obs.] Shak.
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Rank modus (Law), an excessive and unreasonable modus. See Modus, 3. -- To set (the iron of a plane, etc.) rank, to set so as to take off a thick shaving. Moxon.
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Rank
Rank, adv. Rankly; stoutly; violently. [Obs.]
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That rides so rank and bends his lance so fell. Fairfax.
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Rank
Rank, n. [OE. renk, reng, OF. renc, F. rang, fr. OHG. hring a circle, a circular row, G. ring. See Ring, and cf. Range, n. & v.] 1. A row or line; a range; an order; a tier; as, a rank of osiers.
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Many a mountain nigh
Rising in lofty ranks, and loftier still.
Byron.
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2. (Mil.) A line of soldiers ranged side by side; -- opposed to file. See 1st File, 1 (a).
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Fierce, fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,
In ranks and squadrons and right form of war.
Shak.
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3. Grade of official standing, as in the army, navy, or nobility; as, the rank of general; the rank of admiral.
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4. An aggregate of individuals classed together; a permanent social class; an order; a division; as, ranks and orders of men; the highest and the lowest ranks of men, or of other intelligent beings.
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5. Degree of dignity, eminence, or excellence; position in civil or social life; station; degree; grade; as, a writer of the first rank; a lawyer of high rank.
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These all are virtues of a meaner rank. Addison.
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6. Elevated grade or standing; high degree; high social position; distinction; eminence; as, a man of rank.
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Rank and file. (a) (Mil.) The whole body of common soldiers, including also corporals. In a more extended sense, it includes sergeants also, excepting the noncommissioned staff. (b) See under 1st File. -- The ranks, the order or grade of common soldiers; as, to reduce a noncommissioned officer to the ranks. -- To fill the ranks, to supply the whole number, or a competent number. -- To take rank of, to have precedence over, or to have the right of taking a higher place than.
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Rank
Rank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ranked (ră&nsmacr_;kt); p. pr. & vb. n. Ranking.] 1. To place abreast, or in a line.
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2. To range in a particular class, order, or division; to class; also, to dispose methodically; to place in suitable classes or order; to classify.
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Ranking all things under general and special heads. I. Watts.
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Poets were ranked in the class of philosophers. Broome.
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Heresy is ranked with idolatry and witchcraft. Dr. H. More.
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3. To take rank of; to outrank. [U.S.]
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Rank
Rank, v. i. 1. To be ranged; to be set or disposed, as in a particular degree, class, order, or division.
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Let that one article rank with the rest. Shak.
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2. To have a certain grade or degree of elevation in the orders of civil or military life; to have a certain degree of esteem or consideration; as, he ranks with the first class of poets; he ranks high in public estimation.
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Ranker
Rank"er (ră&nsmacr_;k"&etilde_;r), n. One who ranks, or disposes in ranks; one who arranges.
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Rankle
Ran"kle (ră&nsmacr_;"k'l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rankled (-k'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rankling (-kl&ibreve_;ng).] [From Rank, a.] 1. To become, or be, rank; to grow rank or strong; to be inflamed; to fester; -- used literally and figuratively.
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A malady that burns and rankles inward. Rowe.
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This would have left a rankling wound in the hearts of the people. Burke.
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2. To produce a festering or inflamed effect; to cause a sore; -- used literally and figuratively; as, a splinter rankles in the flesh; the words rankled in his bosom.
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Rankle
Ran"kle (ră&nsmacr_;"k'l), v. t. To cause to fester; to make sore; to inflame. [R.] Beau. & Fl.
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Rankly
Rank"ly (ră&nsmacr_;k"l&ybreve_;), adv. With rank or vigorous growth; luxuriantly; hence, coarsely; grossly; as, weeds grow rankly.
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Rankness
Rank"ness, n. [AS. rancness pride.] The condition or quality of being rank.
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Rannel
Ran"nel (răn"n&ebreve_;l), n. A prostitute. [Obs.]
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Ranny
Ran"ny (răn"n&ybreve_;), n. [L. araneus mus, a kind of small mouse.] (Zool.) The erd shrew. [Scot.]
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Ransack
Ran"sack (răn"săk), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ransacked (-săkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Ransacking.] [OE. ransaken, Icel. rannsaka to explore, examine; rann a house (akin to Goth. razn house, AS. ræsn plank, beam) + the root of sækja to seek, akin to E. seek. See Seek, and cf. Rest repose.] 1. To search thoroughly; to search every place or part of; as, to ransack a house.
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To ransack every corner of their . . . hearts. South.
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2. To plunder; to pillage completely.
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Their vow is made
To ransack Troy.
Shak.
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3. To violate; to ravish; to defiour. [Obs.]
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Rich spoil of ransacked chastity. Spenser.
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Ransack
Ran"sack, v. i. To make a thorough search.
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To ransack in the tas [heap] of bodies dead. Chaucer.
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Ransack
Ran"sack, n. The act of ransacking, or state of being ransacked; pillage. [R.]
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Even your father's house
Shall not be free from ransack.
J. Webster.
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Ransom
Ran"som (răn"sŭm), n. [OE. raunson, raunsoun, OF. rançon, raençon, raançon, F. rançon, fr. L. redemptio, fr. redimere to redeem. See Redeem, and cf. Redemption.] 1. The release of a captive, or of captured property, by payment of a consideration; redemption; as, prisoners hopeless of ransom. Dryden.
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2. The money or price paid for the redemption of a prisoner, or for goods captured by an enemy; payment for freedom from restraint, penalty, or forfeit.
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Thy ransom paid, which man from death redeems. Milton.
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His captivity in Austria, and the heavy ransom he paid for his liberty. Sir J. Davies.
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3. (O. Eng. Law) A sum paid for the pardon of some great offense and the discharge of the offender; also, a fine paid in lieu of corporal punishment. Blackstone.
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Ransom bill (Law), a war contract, valid by the law of nations, for the ransom of property captured at sea and its safe conduct into port. Kent.
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Ransom
Ran"som, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ransomed (-sŭmd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ransoming.] [Cf. F. rançonner. See Ransom, n.] 1. To redeem from captivity, servitude, punishment, or forfeit, by paying a price; to buy out of servitude or penalty; to rescue; to deliver; as, to ransom prisoners from an enemy.
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2. To exact a ransom for, or a payment on. [R.]
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Such lands as he had rule of he ransomed them so grievously, and would tax the men two or three times in a year. Berners.
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Ransomable
Ran"som*a*ble (-&adot_;*b'l), a. Such as can be ransomed.
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Ransomer
Ran"som*er (-&etilde_;r), n. One who ransoms or redeems.
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Ransomless
Ran"som*less, a. Incapable of being ransomed; without ransom. Shak.
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Rant
Rant (rănt), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ranted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ranting.] [OD. ranten, randen, to dote, to be enraged.] To rave in violent, high-sounding, or extravagant language, without dignity of thought; to be noisy, boisterous, and bombastic in talk or declamation; as, a ranting preacher.
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Look where my ranting host of the Garter comes! Shak.
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Rant
Rant, n. High-sounding language, without importance or dignity of thought; boisterous, empty declamation; bombast; as, the rant of fanatics.
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This is a stoical rant, without any foundation in the nature of man or reason of things. Atterbury.
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Ranter
Rant"er (rănt"&etilde_;r), n. 1. A noisy talker; a raving declaimer.
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2. (Eccl. Hist.) (a) One of a religious sect which sprung up in 1645; -- called also Seekers. See Seeker. (b) One of the Primitive Methodists, who seceded from the Wesleyan Methodists on the ground of their deficiency in fervor and zeal; -- so called in contempt.
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Ranterism
Rant"er*ism (rănt"&etilde_;r*&ibreve_;z'm), n. (Eccl. Hist.) The practice or tenets of the Ranters.
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Rantingly
Rant"ing*ly, adv. In a ranting manner.
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Rantipole
Rant"i*pole (rănt"&ibreve_;*pōl), n. [Ranty + pole, poll, head.] A wild, romping young person. [Low] Marryat.
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Rantipole
Rant"i*pole, a. Wild; roving; rakish. [Low]
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Rantipole
Rant"i*pole, v. i. To act like a rantipole. [Low]
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She used to rantipole about the house. Arbuthnot.
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Rantism
Rant"ism (rănt"&ibreve_;z'm), n. (Eccl. Hist.) Ranterism.
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Ranty
Rant"y (rănt"&ybreve_;), a. Wild; noisy; boisterous.
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Ranula
Ran"u*la (răn"&uuptack_;*l&adot_;), n. [L., a little frog, a little swelling on the tongue of cattle, dim. of rana a frog.] (Med.) A cyst formed under the tongue by obstruction of the duct of the submaxillary gland.
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Ranunculaceous
Ra*nun`cu*la"ceous (r&adot_;*nŭ&nsmacr_;`k&uuptack_;*lā"shŭs), a. [See Ranunculus.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Ranunculaceae), of which the buttercup is the type, and which includes also the virgin's bower, the monkshood, larkspur, anemone, meadow rue, and peony.
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Ranunculus
Ra*nun"cu*lus (r&adot_;*nŭ&nsmacr_;"k&uuptack_;*lŭs), n.; pl. E. Ranunculuses (r&adot_;*nŭ&nsmacr_;"k&uuptack_;*lŭs*&ebreve_;z), L. Ranunculi (-lī). [L., a little frog, a medicinal plant, perhaps crowfoot, dim. of rana a frog; cf. raccare to roar.] (Bot.) A genus of herbs, mostly with yellow flowers, including crowfoot, buttercups, and the cultivated ranunculi (Ranunculus Asiaticus, Ranunculus aconitifolius, etc.) in which the flowers are double and of various colors.
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Ranz des vaches
Ranz" des` vaches" (räNs" d&auptack_;` v&adot_;sh"). [F., the ranks or rows of cows, the name being given from the fact that the cattle, when answering the musical call of their keeper, move towards him in a row, preceded by those wearing bells.] The name for numerous simple, but very irregular, melodies of the Swiss mountaineers, blown on a long tube called the Alpine horn, and sometimes sung.
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Rap
Rap (răp), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A lay or skein containing 120 yards of yarn. Knight.
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Rap
Rap, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rapped (răpt); p. pr. & vb. n. Rapping.] [Akin to Sw. rappa to strike, rapp stroke, Dan. rap, perhaps of imitative origin.] To strike with a quick, sharp blow; to knock; as, to rap on the door.
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Rap
Rap, v. t. 1. To strike with a quick blow; to knock on.
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With one great peal they rap the door. Prior.
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2. (Founding) To free (a pattern) in a mold by light blows on the pattern, so as to facilitate its removal.
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Rap
Rap, n. A quick, smart blow; a knock.
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Rap
Rap, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rapped (răpt), usually written Rapt; p. pr. & vb. n. Rapping.] [OE. rapen; akin to LG. & D. rapen to snatch, G. raffen, Sw. rappa; cf. Dan. rappe sig to make haste, and Icel. hrapa to fall, to rush, hurry. The word has been confused with L. rapere to seize. Cf. Rape robbery, Rapture, Raff, v., Ramp, v.] 1. To snatch away; to seize and hurry off.
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And through the Greeks and Ilians they rapt
The whirring chariot.
Chapman.
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From Oxford I was rapt by my nephew, Sir Edmund Bacon, to Redgrove. Sir H. Wotton.
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2. To hasten. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.
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3. To seize and bear away, as the mind or thoughts; to transport out of one's self; to affect with ecstasy or rapture; as, rapt into admiration.
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I'm rapt with joy to see my Marcia's tears. Addison.
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Rapt into future times, the bard begun. Pope.
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4. To exchange; to truck. [Obs. & Low]
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5. To engage in a discussion, converse.
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6. (ca. 1985) to perform a type of rhythmic talking, often with accompanying rhythm instruments. It is considered by some as a type of music; see rap music.
[PJC]

To rap and ren, To rap and rend. [Perhaps fr. Icel. hrapa to hurry and ræna plunder, fr. rān plunder, E. ran.] To seize and plunder; to snatch by violence. Dryden. “[Ye] waste all that ye may rape and renne.” Chaucer.
[1913 Webster] All they could rap and rend and pilfer. Hudibras.
[1913 Webster] -- To rap out, to utter with sudden violence, as an oath.
[1913 Webster] A judge who rapped out a great oath. Addison.

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Rap
Rap, n. [Perhaps contr. fr. raparee.] A popular name for any of the tokens that passed current for a half-penny in Ireland in the early part of the eighteenth century; any coin of trifling value.
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Many counterfeits passed about under the name of raps. Swift.
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Tie it [her money] up so tight that you can't touch a rap, save with her consent. Mrs. Alexander.
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Not to care a rap, to care nothing. -- Not worth a rap, worth nothing.
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Rap
Rap, n. 1. conversation; also, rapping.
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2. (ca. 1985) a type of rhythmic talking, often with accompanying rhythm instruments; rap music.
[PJC]

Rapaces
Ra*pa"ces (r&adot_;*pā"sēz), n. pl. [NL. See Rapacious.] (Zool.) Same as Accipitres.
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Rapacious
Ra*pa"cious (r&adot_;*pā"shŭs), a. [L. rapax, -acis, from rapere to seize and carry off, to snatch away. See Rapid.]
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1. Given to plunder; disposed or accustomed to seize by violence; seizing by force. “ The downfall of the rapacious and licentious Knights Templar.” Motley.
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2. Accustomed to seize food; subsisting on prey, or animals seized by violence; as, a tiger is a rapacious animal; a rapacious bird.
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3. Avaricious; grasping; extortionate; also, greedy; ravenous; voracious; as, rapacious usurers; a rapacious appetite.
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[Thy Lord] redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious claim Milton.
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Syn. -- Greedy; grasping; ravenous; voracious.
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-- Ra*pa"cious*ly, adv. -- Ra*pa"cious*ness, n.
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Rapacity
Ra*pac"i*ty (r&adot_;*păs"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [L. rapacitas: cf. F. rapacité. See Rapacious.] 1. The quality of being rapacious; rapaciousness; ravenousness; as, the rapacity of pirates; the rapacity of wolves.
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2. The act or practice of extorting or exacting by oppressive injustice; exorbitant greediness of gain. “The rapacity of some ages.” Sprat.
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Raparee
Rap`a*ree" (răp`&adot_;*rē"), n. See Rapparee.
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Rape
Rape (rāp), n. [F. râpe a grape stalk.] 1. Fruit, as grapes, plucked from the cluster. Ray.
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2. The refuse stems and skins of grapes or raisins from which the must has been expressed in wine making.
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3. A filter containing the above refuse, used in clarifying and perfecting malt, vinegar, etc.
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Rape wine, a poor, thin wine made from the last dregs of pressed grapes.
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Rape
Rape, n. [Akin to rap to snatch, but confused with L. rapere. See Rap to snatch.] 1. The act of seizing and carrying away by force; violent seizure; robbery.
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And ruined orphans of thy rapes complain. Sandys.
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2. (Law) Sexual connection with a woman without her consent. See Age of consent, under Consent, n.
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3. That which is snatched away. [Obs.]
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Where now are all my hopes? O, never more
Shall they revive! nor death her rapes restore.
Sandys.
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4. Movement, as in snatching; haste; hurry. [Obs.]
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5. (Fig., Colloq.) An action causing results harmful to a person or thing; as, the rape of the land by mining companies.
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Rape
Rape, v. t. 1. To commit rape upon; to ravish.
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2. (Fig., Colloq.) To perform an action causing results harmful or very unpleasant to a person or thing; as, women raped first by their assailants, and then by the Justice system. Corresponds to 2nd rape, n. 5.
[PJC]

To rape and ren. See under Rap, v. t., to snatch.
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Rape
Rape, v. i. To rob; to pillage. [Obs.] Heywood.
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Rape
Rape, n. [Icel. hreppr village, district; cf. Icel. hreppa to catch, obtain, AS. hrepian, hreppan, to touch.] One of six divisions of the county of Sussex, England, intermediate between a hundred and a shire.
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Rape
Rape, n. [L. rapa, rapum, akin to Gr. "ra`pys, "ra`fys, G. rübe.] (Bot.) A name given to a variety or to varieties of a plant of the turnip kind, grown for seeds and herbage. The seeds are used for the production of rape oil, and to a limited extent for the food of cage birds.
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&hand_; These plants, with the edible turnip, have been variously named, but are all now believed to be derived from the Brassica campestris of Europe, which by some is not considered distinct from the wild stock (Brassica oleracea) of the cabbage. See Cole.
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Broom rape. (Bot.) See Broom rape, in the Vocabulary. -- Rape cake, the refuse remaining after the oil has been expressed from the rape seed. -- Rape root. Same as Rape. -- Summer rape. (Bot.) See Colza.
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Rapeful
Rape"ful (rāp"f&usdot_;l), a. 1. Violent. [Obs.]
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2. Given to the commission of rape. Byron.
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Rapfully
Rap"ful*ly (răp"f&usdot_;l*l&ybreve_;), adv. Violently. [Obs.]
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Raphaelesque
Raph`a*el*esque" (răf`&adot_;*&ebreve_;l*&ebreve_;sk"), a. Like Raphael's works; in Raphael's manner of painting.
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Raphaelism
Raph"a*el*ism (răf"&adot_;*&ebreve_;l*&ibreve_;z'm), n. The principles of painting introduced by Raphael, the Italian painter.
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Raphaelite
Raph"a*el*ite (răf"&adot_;*&ebreve_;l*īt), n. One who advocates or adopts the principles of Raphaelism.
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Raphany
Raph"a*ny (răf"&adot_;*n&ybreve_;), n. [Cf. F. raphanie.] (Med.) A convulsive disease, attended with ravenous hunger, not uncommon in Sweden and Germany. It was so called because supposed to be caused by eating corn with which seeds of jointed charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum) had been mixed, but the condition is now known to be a form of ergotism.
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Raphe
Ra"phe (rā"f&euptack_;), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "rafh` a seam or suture, fr. "ra`ptein to sew or stitch together.] 1. (Anat.) A line, ridge, furrow, or band of fibers, especially in the median line; as, the raphe of the tongue.
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2. (Bot.) Same as Rhaphe.
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Raphides
Raph"i*des (răf"&ibreve_;*dēz), n. pl. [F. raphide.] (Bot.) See Rhaphides.
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Rapid
Rap"id (răp"&ibreve_;d), a. [L. rapidus, fr. rapere to seize and carry off, to snatch or hurry away; perhaps akin to Gr. 'arpa`zein: cf. F. rapide. Cf. Harpy, Ravish.]
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1. Very swift or quick; moving with celerity; fast; as, a rapid stream; a rapid flight; a rapid motion.
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Ascend my chariot; guide the rapid wheels. Milton.
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2. Advancing with haste or speed; speedy in progression; in quick sequence; as, rapid growth; rapid improvement; rapid recurrence; rapid succession.
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3. Quick in execution; as, a rapid penman.
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Rapids
Rapid
Rap"id, Rap"ids (răp"&ibreve_;dz) , n. [Cf. F. rapide. See Rapid, a.] The part of a river where the current moves with great swiftness, but without actual waterfall or cascade; sometimes called whitewater; -- usually used in the plural; as, the Lachine rapids in the St. Lawrence. For boaters on the river, it is a place that can be hazardous, with danger of capsizing or crashing into large rocks.
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Row, brothers, row, the stream runs fast,
The rapids are near, and the daylight's past.
Moore.
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Rapid-firing
Rapid-fire
{ Rap"id-fire`, Rap"id-fir`ing }, a. (a) (Gun.) Firing shots in rapid succession. (b) (Ordnance) Capable of being fired rapidly; -- applied to single-barreled guns of greater caliber than small arms, mounted so as to be quickly trained and elevated, with a quick-acting breech mechanism operated by a single motion of a crank or lever (abbr. R. F.); specif.: (1) In the United States navy, designating such a gun using fixed ammunition or metallic cartridge cases; -- distinguished from breech-loading (abbr. B. L.), applied to all guns loading with the charge in bags, and formerly from quick-fire. Rapid-fire guns in the navy also sometimes include automatic or semiautomatic rapid-fire guns; the former being automatic guns of not less than one inch caliber, firing a shell of not less than one pound weight, the explosion of each cartridge operating the mechanism for ejecting the empty shell, loading, and firing the next shot, the latter being guns that require one operation of the hand at each discharge, to load the gun. (2) In the United States army, designating such a gun, whether using fixed or separate ammunition, designed chiefly for use in coast batteries against torpedo vessels and the lightly armored batteries or other war vessels and for the protection of defensive mine fields; -- not distinguished from quick-fire. (3) In Great Britain and Europe used, rarely, as synonymous with quick-fire.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rapid-fire
Rap"id-fire`, a. Occurring in rapid succession like the shots fired from a machine gun. See also machine-gun.
[PJC]

Rapid-fire mount
Rapid-fire mount. (Ordnance) A mount permitting easy and quick elevation or depression and training of the gun, and fitted with a device for taking up the recoil.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rapidity
Ra*pid"i*ty (r&adot_;*p&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [L. rapiditas: cf. F. rapidité.] The quality or state of being rapid; swiftness; celerity; velocity; as, the rapidity of a current; rapidity of speech; rapidity of growth or improvement.
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Syn. -- Rapidness; haste; speed; celerity; velocity; swiftness; fleetness; quickness; agility.
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Rapidly
Rap"id*ly (răp"&ibreve_;d*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a rapid manner.
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Rapidness
Rap"id*ness, n. Quality of being rapid; rapidity.
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Rapier
Ra"pi*er (rā"p&ibreve_;*&etilde_;r), n. [F. rapière, perhaps for raspière, and ultimately of German origin, akin to E. rasp, v.] A straight sword, with a narrow and finely pointed blade, used only for thrusting.
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Rapier fish (Zool.), the swordfish. [Obs.] Grew.
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Rapiered
Ra"pi*ered (-&etilde_;rd), a. Wearing a rapier. “Scarletcoated, rapiered figures.” Lowell.
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Rapilli
Ra*pil"li (r&adot_;*p&ibreve_;l"l&euptack_;), n. pl. [It.] (Min.) Lapilli.
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Rapine
Rap"ine (răp"&ibreve_;n), n. [F. rapine; cf. Pr. & It. rapina; all fr. L. rapina, fr. rapere to seize and carry off by force. See Rapid, and cf. Raven rapine.] 1. The act of plundering; the seizing and carrying away of things by force; spoliation; pillage; plunder.
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Men who were impelled to war quite as much by the desire of rapine as by the desire of glory. Macaulay.
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2. Ravishment; rape. [Obs.] Shak.
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Rapine
Rap"ine, v. t. To plunder. Sir G. Buck.
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Rapinous
Rap"i*nous (răp"&ibreve_;*nŭs), a. Given to rapine. [Obs.]
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rap music
rap` mu"sic (răp` mū"z&ibreve_;k), n. (ca. 1985) a type of rhythmic talking, often with accompanying rhythm instruments; same as 7th rap, n..
[PJC]

Rappage
Rap"page (răp"p&auptack_;j; 48), n. (Founding) The enlargement of a mold caused by rapping the pattern.
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Rapparee
Rap`pa*ree" (-p&adot_;*rē"), n. A wild Irish plunderer, esp. one of the 17th century; -- so called from his carrying a half-pike, called a rapary. [Written also raparee.]
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Rapped
Rapped (răpt), imp. & p. p. of Rap, to strike.
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Rapped
Rapped, imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away.
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Rappee
Rap*pee" (răp*pē"), n. [F. râpé, fr. râper to grate, to rasp. See Rasp, v.] A pungent kind of snuff made from the darker and ranker kinds of tobacco leaves.
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Rappel
Rap"pel (răp"p&ebreve_;l or răp*p&ebreve_;l"), n. [F. Cf. Repeal.] (Mil.) The beat of the drum to call soldiers to arms.
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Rapper
Rap"per (răp"p&etilde_;r), n. [From Rap.] 1. One who, or that which, raps or knocks; specifically, the knocker of a door. Sterne.
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2. A forcible oath or lie. [Slang] Bp. Parker.
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3. A musician specializing in rap music.
[PJC]

Rapport
Rap*port" (răp*pōrt"; F. r&adot_;`pôr"), n. [F., fr. rapporter to bring again or back, to refer; pref. re- re- + apporter to bring, L. apportare. Cf. Report.] Relation; proportion; conformity; correspondence; accord.
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'T is obvious what rapport there is between the conceptions and languages in every country. Sir W. Temple.
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En` rap`port" (äN` r&adot_;`pôr") [F.], in accord, harmony, or sympathy; having a mutual, especially a private, understanding; in hypnotism, in that relation of sympathy which permits influence or communication.
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Rapprochement
Rap`proche`ment" (?), n. [F., fr. rapprocher to cause to approach again. See Re-; Approach.] Act or fact of coming or being drawn near or together; establishment or state of cordial relations.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

He had witnessed the gradual rapprochement between the papacy and Austria. Wilfrid Ward.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rapscallion
Rap*scal"lion (răp*skăl"yŭn), n. [See Rascallion.] A rascal; a good-for-nothing fellow. [Colloq.] Howitt.
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Rapt
Rapt (răpt), imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away.
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Rapt
Rapt, a. 1. Snatched away; hurried away or along.
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Waters rapt with whirling away. Spenser.
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2. Transported with love, admiration, delight, etc.; enraptured. “The rapt musician.” Longfellow.
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3. Wholly absorbed or engrossed, as in work or meditation.Rapt in secret studies.” Shak.
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Rapt
Rapt, n. [From F. rapt abduction, rape, L. raptus, fr. rapere to seize and carry off, to transport; or fr. E. rapt, a. See Rapt, a., and Rapid.] 1. An ecstasy; a trance. [Obs.] Bp. Morton.
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2. Rapidity. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Rapt
Rapt, v. t. 1. To transport or ravish. [Obs.] Drayton.
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2. To carry away by force. [Obs.] Daniel.
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Rapter
Rap"ter (răp"t&etilde_;r), n. A raptor. [Obs.] Drayton.
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Raptor
Rap"tor (răp"t&etilde_;r), n. [L. raptor, from rapere to ravish. See Rapid.] A ravisher; a plunderer. [Obs.]
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Raptores
Rap*to"res (răp*tō"rēz), n. pl. [NL. See Raptor.] (Zool.) An order of birds, same as Accipitres. Called also Raptatores.
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Raptorial
Rap*to"ri*al (răp*tō"r&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;l), a. (Zool.) (a) Rapacious; living upon prey; -- said especially of certain birds. (b) Adapted for seizing prey; -- said of the legs, claws, etc., of insects, birds, and other animals. (c) Of or pertaining to the Raptores. See Illust. (f) of Aves.
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Raptorious
Rap*to"ri*ous (răp*tō"r&ibreve_;*ŭs), a. [L. raptorius.] (Zool.) Raptorial.
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Rapture
Rap"ture (răp"t&uuptack_;r; 135), n. [L. rapere, raptum, to carry off by force. See Rapid.] 1. A seizing by violence; a hurrying along; rapidity with violence. [Obs.]
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That 'gainst a rock, or flat, her keel did dash
With headlong rapture.
Chapman.
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2. The state or condition of being rapt, or carried away from one's self by agreeable excitement; violence of a pleasing passion; extreme joy or pleasure; ecstasy.
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Music, when thus applied, raises in the mind of the hearer great conceptions; it strengthens devotion, and advances praise into rapture. Addison.
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You grow correct that once with rapture writ. Pope.
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3. A spasm; a fit; a syncope; delirium. [Obs.] Shak.
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Syn. -- Bliss; ecstasy; transport; delight; exultation.
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Rapture
Rap"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raptured (-t&uuptack_;rd; 135); p. pr. & vb. n. Rapturing.] To transport with excitement; to enrapture. [Poetic] Thomson.
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Rapturist
Rap"tur*ist, n. An enthusiast. [Obs.] J. Spencer.
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Rapturize
Rap"tur*ize (-īz), v. t. & i. To put, or be put, in a state of rapture. [R.]
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Rapturous
Rap"tur*ous (-ŭs), a. Ecstatic; transporting; ravishing; feeling, expressing, or manifesting rapture; as, rapturous joy, pleasure, or delight; rapturous applause.
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Rapturously
Rap"tur*ous*ly, adv. In a rapturous manner.
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Rare
Rare (râr), a. [Cf. Rather, Rath.] Early. [Obs.]
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Rude mechanicals that rare and late
Work in the market place.
Chapman.
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Rare
Rare, a. [Compar. Rarer (râr"&etilde_;r); superl. Rarest.] [Cf. AS. hrēr, or E. rare early. √18.] Nearly raw; partially cooked; not thoroughly cooked; underdone; as, rare beef or mutton.
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New-laid eggs, which Baucis' busy care
Turned by a gentle fire, and roasted rare.
Dryden.
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&hand_; This word is in common use in the United States, but in England its synonym underdone is preferred.
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Rare
Rare, a. [Compar. Rarer (râr"&etilde_;r); superl. Rarest.] [F., fr. L. rarus thin, rare.] 1. Not frequent; seldom met with or occurring; unusual; as, a rare event.
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2. Of an uncommon nature; unusually excellent; valuable to a degree seldom found.
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Rare work, all filled with terror and delight. Cowley.
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Above the rest I judge one beauty rare. Dryden.
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3. Thinly scattered; dispersed.
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Those rare and solitary, these in flocks. Milton.
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4. Characterized by wide separation of parts; of loose texture; not thick or dense; thin; as, a rare atmosphere at high elevations.
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Water is nineteen times lighter, and by consequence nineteen times rarer, than gold. Sir I. Newton.
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Syn. -- Scarce; infrequent; unusual; uncommon; singular; extraordinary; incomparable. -- Rare, Scarce. We call a thing rare when but few examples, specimens, or instances of it are ever to be met with; as, a rare plant. We speak of a thing as scarce, which, though usually abundant, is for the time being to be had only in diminished quantities; as, a bad harvest makes corn scarce.
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A perfect union of wit and judgment is one of the rarest things in the world. Burke.
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When any particular piece of money grew very scarce, it was often recoined by a succeeding emperor. Addison.
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Rarebit
Rare"bit (râr"b&ibreve_;t), n. A dainty morsel; a Welsh rabbit. See Welsh rabbit, under Rabbit.
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Raree-show
Rar"ee-show` (râr"&euptack_;-shō`), n. [Contr. fr. rarity-show.] A show carried about in a box; a peep show. Pope.
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Rarefaction
Rar`e*fac"tion (răr`&euptack_;*făk"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. raréfaction. See Rarefy.] The act or process of rarefying; the state of being rarefied; -- opposed to condensation; as, the rarefaction of air.
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Rarefiable
Rar"e*fi`a*ble (răr"&euptack_;*fī`&adot_;*b'l), a. [Cf. F. raréfiable.] Capable of being rarefied. Boyle.
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Rarefy
Rar"e*fy (răr"&euptack_;*fī; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rarefied (răr"&euptack_;*fīd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rarefying (răr"&euptack_;*fī`&ibreve_;ng).] [F. raréfier; L. rarus rare + -ficare (in comp.) to make; cf. L. rarefacere. See -fy.] To make rare, thin, porous, or less dense; to expand or enlarge without adding any new portion of matter to; -- opposed to condense.
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Rarefy
Rar"e*fy, v. i. To become less dense; to become thin and porous. “Earth rarefies to dew.” Dryden.
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Rarely
Rare"ly (râr"l&ybreve_;), adv. 1. In a rare manner or degree; seldom; not often; as, things rarely seen.
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2. Finely; excellently; with rare skill. See 3d Rare, 2.
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The person who played so rarely on the flageolet. Sir W. Scott.
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The rest of the apartments are rarely gilded. Evelyn.
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Rareness
Rare"ness, n. The state or quality of being rare.
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And let the rareness the small gift commend. Dryden.
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Rareripe
Rare"ripe` (-rīp`), a. [Rare early + ripe. Cf. Rathripe.] Early ripe; ripe before others, or before the usual season.
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Rareripe
Rare"ripe`, n. An early ripening fruit, especially a kind of freestone peach.
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Rarification
Rar`i*fi*ca"tion (răr`&ibreve_;*f&ibreve_;*kā"shŭn), n. See Rarefaction. [R.] Am. Chem. Journal.
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Rarity
Rar"i*ty (răr"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;; 277), n.; pl. Rarities (răr"&ibreve_;*t&ibreve_;z). [L. raritas: cf. F. rareté. See Rare.] 1. The quality or state of being rare; rareness; thinness; as, the rarity (contrasted with the density) of gases.
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2. That which is rare; an uncommon thing; a thing valued for its scarcity.
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I saw three rarities of different kinds, which pleased me more than any other shows in the place. Addison.
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Ras
Ras (räs), n. See 2d Reis.
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ras
ras (räs), n. [from rat sarcoma.] The name and genetic symbol for a mutant gene that has been identified as one of those associated with certains types of cancer; -- it is a form of oncogene. It was first observed in rats, but analogues have been found in humans and other animals.
[PJC]

During the 1960s and 1970s, a great deal of research was done on a class of viruses that affects rodents and birds and causes tumors in those species. The motivation for a lot of this research was the idea that similar viruses might cause tumors in humans, but in fact it's turned out that there are very few viruses that cause tumors in humans. Nevertheless, the study of these rodent viruses has been enormously fruitful in helping us to understand human cancer, and that's the basis of this story.

One of the viruses that was studied in those years had two peculiarities. One was that it had lost most of the genes that it needed to reproduce itself. It could only reproduce if a helper virus was present in the same cell to supply the missing functions. The second peculiarity was that in place of the genes that were required for reproduction of the virus was another gene that had actually been picked up at some point in the history of this virus when it went through rats, and it picked up a rat gene and incorporated it into its own genome.

At the same time that a lot of work was going on on these viruses, other scientists were studying other aspects of tumor formation, in particular, the action of carcinogenic agents, chemicals and X-rays and ultraviolet light. As you all know, human cells can turn into tumor cells under the influence of such agents. The tumor-like properties of those cells are inherited by all the daughter cells through many generations and, moreover, almost all chemicals that turn out to be carcinogens are also able to cause mutations.

Another observation was that in tumor cells, many of the chromosomes seemed to have altered structures. So, all of these observations and others certainly suggested that changes in DNA might be involved in the development of tumor cells. By about 1980, it became possible to test that hypothesis directly.

If you have human tumor cells produced in laboratory dishes or isolated from the tumor itself, then perhaps they have a gene or genes in them which is responsible for the fact that they're tumor cells. If you isolate the DNA from the cells and cut it up into more or less gene-sized pieces and then put it on top of mouse cells growing in a dish, the mouse cells can take up pieces of this DNA, and any mouse cell that picks up a piece of DNA that carries on it a gene that can cause a tumor will begin to grow like tumor cells, and its progeny will grow rapidly and form a tight little cluster on the cell.

Now it's possible to pick such cells off and isolate the DNA from them and also separate the human DNA sequence that might have caused the tumor-like property from the bulk of the mouse sequences and to clone that DNA. And when you do that and put that DNA, which is now pure sequence, back in mouse cells, many of the cells become tumor-like rather than just a rare few. And such a gene, such a DNA sequence, bears the name of an oncogene.

When such DNA segments are cloned, the DNA can also be used to probe, to find out whether matching DNA sequences occur only in tumor cells or whether there are similar DNA sequences in normal cells. And the answer has been for a whole group of oncogenes, that very similar DNA sequences are present in normal cells. To find out just how similar, the sequences of the normal genes were compared with those from the genes that were isolated from these tumor cells.

The first such oncogene isolated was from a human bladder tumor, and everyone was surprised by the results. First of all, the gene isolated from the bladder tumor was almost identical to the normal human gene and almost identical to the gene that was present in the tumor virus that infected rodents that I told you about before. This gene has become known as “ras”, because it was originally isolated from rats with sarcoma, and it caused sarcomas and it's called that, and it's protein is called that. And the only really significant difference between the normal human gene, the bladder tumor gene, and the rodent virus gene was a change in one codon, Codon XII, and therefore a change in amino acids.

So the normal human gene has a sequence GGC, encodes the amino acid glycine, and does not cause tumors. But the bladder tumor gene has GTC; it encodes valine. The rodent virus has AGA; it encodes arginine, and both of these cause tumors. In fact, any change that leads to a loss of the glycine at Codon XII can change this normal gene, ras, into a gene that would cause tumors. So there were two different ways in which the ras gene turned up. First, as a rat gene in a tumor virus and second of all as the gene that could account for the tumor-like properties of the bladder tumor.

Well by now, many of the questions that occurred to the scientists working on this have occurred to you. What is the ras protein normally (if anything), and what does the altered ras protein do that differently, and how can a change in one amino acid in a protein change cells from normal to tumor cells?

It turns out that the ras gene and the ras protein are important for a lot of things, but more particularly for regulating the growth of cells. Normal cells need to have a good ras gene in order to grow, in order to make new DNA, to time it all right so they don't grow out of control. Moreover, the ras gene occurs in virtually all living things. For example, yeast cells also have two ras genes. If either one of them is knocked out, the yeast cells can still grow very well and multiply. But if both ras genes are knocked out, the yeast cells cannot multiply, and they die. Astonishingly, if a human ras gene is applied to these yeast cells, it completely takes the place of the yeast's own ras genes. So we know from this that the ras gene is very important to all living cells and that it's probably been around for a couple billion years, ever since the very first cells were formed on the planet.

So ras does something important and the question is, what does it do? David Golde told you before about receptors that span cell membranes that bind molecules outside the cell and provide a signal inside the cell, and it turns out that what the ras protein does is to help convey that signal from the receptor at the surface down into the cell and into the gene where it results in a change in gene expression. The ras protein itself actually sits right under the cell membrane, very well positioned to do this.

Well, how can it do that? To tell you about that I need to tell you a couple of things about the ras protein and what it does. First of all, ras combines two small molecules called GDP and GTP, and they differ only in the presence of one more phosphate, three in GTP and two in GDP. This G is related; it's in fact the same kind of molecule as the G that occurs in DNA. Moreover, ras protein can catalyze the removal of one phosphate, so you go from ras GTP to ras GDP and a phosphate is lost. Furthermore, the ras GDP can lose the GDP and pick up the GTP, and there are extra proteins in the cell that foster either this exchange, back to GTP or this loss of the phosphate to GDP. And the whole trick is the ratio of the GTP to the GDP. So if you have ras GTP, it's active and it stimulates growth, but if you have ras GDP, then it's inactive and you don't stimulate growth.

In fact, the change in Codon XII from a glycine results in a change in the amount of ras GTP, so that there's more ras GTP collecting in the cell than the ras GDP, and therefore the cell is constantly under pressure to make DNA and grow and divide. And this is the critical reason for this change, this oncogenic change in those versions of ras that cause tumors or are related to tumor formation as opposed to the natural protein.

How can that happen, a small change like that? You've heard a little bit about the importance of shapes of proteins. If one looks closely at the atoms in the proteins then you see that the whole shape of the protein changes as you go from GTP to GDP.

Now one ras gene and protein all by itself would be interesting, but it turns out that there's a whole family of ras genes and ras proteins. Two of them are specially similar to the type that I've been describing, and mutations in those genes are associated with a whole variety of human tumors including some that are believed to be the result of the reaction to environmental agents.

A mutant in one of those two related genes, which was also first discovered in a tumor virus, is very frequently associated with human tumors of the colon and rectum. And again, it's Codon XII in that similar gene that is altered in the oncogenic form of this kind of ras. Tumors of the colon and rectum are the third most common human malignancy worldwide, and surgical removal of the tumors can actually cure the disease in many cases, but only if the tumor is detected very, very early. Recent work has shown that you can, in fact, detect the change in the gene even by looking at the DNA in the stool of people who are suspected of having the colon tumor.

Even though the mutant DNA only occurs in a very small percentage of the cells in the stool, namely the cells that come from the tumor, not from all the normal cells or all the bacterial cells that are there, it is possible to amplify the amount of a possible abnormal ras gene and test directly for it. So, for example in this test, DNA from the stool of patient #1 matched a probe for the normal ras gene, but DNA isolated from the stool of patient #2 matched a probe not only from a normal ras gene but also from a ras gene with a mutation at Codon XII, thereby permitting a very early diagnosis of a colon tumor and thereby providing real hope that such tumors can be detected early, when the tumor is small enough to be removed surgically with a successful cure.
Maxine Singer (http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/BA/Ras_Gene_and_Cancer.html)
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Rasante
Ra`sante" (r&adot_;`zäNt"), a. [F., p. pr. of raser to graze.] (Fort.) Sweeping; grazing; -- applied to a style of fortification in which the command of the works over each other, and over the country, is kept very low, in order that the shot may more effectually sweep or graze the ground before them. H. L. Scott.
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Rascal
Ras"cal (răs"k&aitalic_;l), n. [OE. rascaille rabble, probably from an OF. racaille, F. racaille the rabble, rubbish, probably akin to F. racler to scrape, (assumed) LL. rasiculare, rasicare, fr. L. radere, rasum. See Rase, v.]
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1. One of the rabble; a low, common sort of person or creature; collectively, the rabble; the common herd; also, a lean, ill-conditioned beast, esp. a deer. [Obs.]
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He smote of the people seventy men, and fifty thousand of the rascal. Wyclif (1 Kings [1 Samuel] vi. 19).
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Poor men alone? No, no; the noblest deer hath them [horns] as huge as the rascal. Shak.
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2. A mean, trickish fellow; a base, dishonest person; a rogue; a scoundrel; a trickster.
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For I have sense to serve my turn in store,
And he's a rascal who pretends to more.
Dryden.
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Rascal
Ras"cal, a. Of or pertaining to the common herd or common people; low; mean; base. “The rascal many.” Spencer. “The rascal people.” Shak.
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While she called me rascal fiddler. Shak.
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Rascaldom
Ras"cal*dom (-dŭm), n. State of being a rascal; rascality; domain of rascals; rascals, collectively. Emerson.
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Rascaless
Ras"cal*ess, n. A female rascal. [Humorous]
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Rascality
Ras*cal"i*ty (răs*kăl"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n.; pl. Rascalities (răs*kăl"&ibreve_;*t&ibreve_;z)
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1. The quality or state of being rascally, or a rascal; mean trickishness or dishonesty; base fraud.
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2. The poorer and lower classes of people. [Obs.]
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The chief heads of their clans with their several rascalities T. Jackson.
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Rascallion
Ras*cal"lion (răs*kăl"yŭn), n. [From Rascal] A low, mean wretch; a rogue; same as rascal, n.. 2; now disused, replaced by rapscalion. [archaic] [Written also rascalion.]
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Rascally
Ras"cal*ly (răs"k&aitalic_;l*l&ybreve_;), a. Like a rascal; trickish or dishonest; base; worthless; -- often in humorous disparagement, without implication of dishonesty.
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Our rascally porter is fallen fast asleep. Swift.
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Rase
Rase (rāz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rased (rāzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rasing.] [F. raser, LL. rasare to scrape often, v. freq. fr. L. radere, rasum, to scrape, shave; cf. Skr. rad to scratch, gnaw, L. rodere to gnaw. Cf. Raze, Razee, Razor, Rodent.] 1. To rub along the surface of; to graze. [Obsoles.]
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Was he not in the . . . neighborhood to death? and might not the bullet which rased his cheek have gone into his head? South.
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Sometimes his feet rased the surface of the water, and at others the skylight almost flattened his nose. Beckford.
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2. To rub or scratch out; to erase. [Obsoles.]
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Except we rase the faculty of memory, root and branch, out of our mind. Fuller.
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3. To level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to raze. [In this sense raze is generally used.]
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Till Troy were by their brave hands rased,
They would not turn home.
Chapman.
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&hand_; This word, rase, may be considered as nearly obsolete; graze, erase, and raze, having superseded it.
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Rasing iron, a tool for removing old oakum and pitch from the seams of a vessel.
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Syn. -- To erase; efface; obliterate; expunge; cancel; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; demolish; ruin.
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Rase
Rase, v. i. To be leveled with the ground; to fall; to suffer overthrow. [Obs.]
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Rase
Rase, n. 1. A scratching out, or erasure. [Obs.]
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2. A slight wound; a scratch. [Obs.] Hooker.
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3. (O. Eng. Law) A way of measuring in which the commodity measured was made even with the top of the measuring vessel by rasing, or striking off, all that was above it. Burrill.
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Rash
Rash (răsh), v. t. [For arace.] 1. To pull off or pluck violently. [Obs.]
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2. To slash; to hack; to cut; to slice. [Obs.]
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Rashing off helms and riving plates asunder. Spenser.
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Rash
Rash, n. [OF. rasche an eruption, scurf, F. rache; fr. (assumed) LL. rasicare to scratch, fr. L. radere, rasum, to scrape, scratch, shave. See Rase, and cf. Rascal.] (Med.) A fine eruption or efflorescence on the body, with little or no elevation.
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Canker rash. See in the Vocabulary. -- Nettle rash. See Urticaria. -- Rose rash. See Roseola. -- Tooth rash. See Red-gum.
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Rash
Rash, n. [Cf. F. ras short-nap cloth, It. & Sp. raso satin (cf. Rase); or cf. It. rascia serge, G. rasch, probably fr. Arras in France (cf. Arras).] An inferior kind of silk, or mixture of silk and worsted. [Obs.] Donne.
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Rash
Rash, a. [Compar. Rasher (-&etilde_;r); superl. Rashest.] [Probably of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. & Sw. rask quick, brisk, rash, Icel. röskr vigorous, brave, akin to D. & G. rasch quick, of uncertain origin.] 1. Sudden in action; quick; hasty. [Obs.] “Strong as aconitum or rash gunpowder.” Shak.
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2. Requiring sudden action; pressing; urgent. [Obs.]
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I scarce have leisure to salute you,
My matter is so rash.
Shak.
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3. Esp., overhasty in counsel or action; precipitate; resolving or entering on a project or measure without due deliberation and caution; opposed to prudent; said of persons; as, a rash statesman or commander.
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4. Uttered or undertaken with too much haste or too little reflection; as, rash words; rash measures.
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5. So dry as to fall out of the ear with handling, as corn. [Prov. Eng.] Grose.
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Syn. -- Precipitate; headlong; headstrong; foolhardy; hasty; indiscreet; heedless; thoughtless; incautious; careless; inconsiderate; unwary. -- Rash, Adventurous, Foolhardy. A man is adventurous who incurs risk or hazard from a love of the arduous and the bold. A man is rash who does it from the mere impulse of his feelings, without counting the cost. A man is foolhardy who throws himself into danger in disregard or defiance of the consequences.
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Was never known a more adventurous knight. Dryden.
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Her rash hand in evil hour
Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat.
Milton.
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If any yet be so foolhardy
To expose themselves to vain jeopardy;
If they come wounded off, and lame,
No honor's got by such a maim.
Hudibras.
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Rash
Rash (răsh), v. t. To prepare with haste. [Obs.] Foxe.
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Rasher
Rash"er (răsh"&etilde_;r), n. [In sense 1, probably fr. rash, a., as being hastily cooked.] 1. A thin slice of bacon.
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2. (Zool.) A California rockfish (Sebastichthys miniatus).
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Rashful
Rash"ful (răsh"f&usdot_;l), a. Rash; hasty; precipitate. [Obs.]
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Rashling
Rash"ling (răsh"l&ibreve_;ng), n. A rash person. [Obs.]
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Rashly
Rash"ly, adv. In a rash manner; with precipitation.
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He that doth anything rashly, must do it willingly; for he was free to deliberate or not. L'Estrange.
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Rashness
Rash"ness, n. The quality or state of being rash.
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We offend . . . by rashness, which is an affirming or denying, before we have sufficiently informed ourselves. South.
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Syn. -- Temerity; foolhardiness; precipitancy; precipitation; hastiness; indiscretion; heedlessness; inconsideration; carelessness. See Temerity.
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Raskolnik
Ras*kol"nik (răs*k&obreve_;l"n&ibreve_;k), n.; pl. Raskolniki (răs*k&obreve_;l"n&ibreve_;k*ē) or Raskolniks (#). [Russ. raskol'nik dissenter, fr. raskol dissent.] The name applied by the Russian government to any subject of the Greek faith who dissents from the established church. The Raskolniki embrace many sects, whose common characteristic is a clinging to antique traditions, habits, and customs. The schism originated in 1667 in an ecclesiastical dispute as to the correctness of the translation of the religious books. The dissenters, who have been continually persecuted, are believed to number about 20,000,000, although the Holy Synod officially puts the number at about 2,000,000. They are officially divided into three groups according to the degree of their variance from orthodox beliefs and observances, as follows: I. “Most obnoxious.” the Judaizers; the Molokane, who refuse to recognize civil authority or to take oaths; the Dukhobortsy, or Dukhobors, who are communistic, marry without ceremony, and believe that Christ was human, but that his soul reappears at intervals in living men; the Khlysty, who countenance anthropolatory, are ascetics, practice continual self-flagellation, and reject marriage; the Skoptsy, who practice castration; and a section of the Bezpopovtsy, or priestless sect, which disbelieve in prayers for the Czar and in marriage. II. “Obnoxious:” the Bezpopovtsy, who pray for the Czar and recognize marriage. III. “Least obnoxious:” the Popovtsy, who dissent from the orthodox church in minor points only. [Written also rascolnik.]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rasores
Ra*so"res (r&adot_;*zō"rēz), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. radere, rasum, to scratch. See Rase, v. t.] (Zool.) An order of birds; the Gallinae.
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&hand_; Formerly, the word Rasores was used in a wider sense, so as to include other birds now widely separated in classification.
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Rasorial
Ra*so"ri*al (r&adot_;*zō"r&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;l; 277), a. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Rasores, or gallinaceous birds, as the peacock, domestic fowl, partridge, quail, and the like.
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Rasour
Ra"sour (rä"s&oomacr_;r), n. Razor. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Rasp
Rasp (r&adot_;sp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rasped (r&adot_;spt); p. pr. & vb. n. Rasping.] [OF. rasper, F. râper, to scrape, grate, rasp, fr. OHG. raspōn to scrape together, to collect, probably akin to E. rap. Cf. Rap to snatch.]
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1. To rub or file with a rasp; to rub or grate with a rough file; as, to rasp wood to make it smooth; to rasp bones to powder.
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2. Hence, figuratively: To grate harshly upon; to offend by coarse or rough treatment or language; as, some sounds rasp the ear; his insults rasped my temper.
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Rasp
Rasp, n. [OE. raspe, OF. raspe, F. râpe. See Rasp, v.]
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1. A coarse file, on which the cutting prominences are distinct points raised by the oblique stroke of a sharp punch, instead of lines raised by a chisel, as on the true file.
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2. The raspberry. [Obs.] “Set sorrel amongst rasps, and the rasps will be the smaller.” Bacon.
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Rasp palm (Bot.), a Brazilian palm tree (Iriartea exorhiza) which has strong aerial roots like a screw pine. The roots have a hard, rough surface, and are used by the natives for graters and rasps, whence the common name.
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Raspatorium
Ras`pa*to"ri*um (răs`p&adot_;*tō"r&ibreve_;*ŭm), n. [LL.] See Raspatory.
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Raspatory
Rasp"a*to*ry (r&adot_;sp"&adot_;*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), n. [LL. raspatorium: cf. F. raspatoir. See Rasp, v.] A surgeon's rasp. Wiseman.
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Raspberry
Rasp"ber*ry (răz"b&ebreve_;r*r&ybreve_;; 277), n. [From E. rasp, in allusion to the apparent roughness of the fruit.] (Bot.) (a) The thimble-shaped fruit of the Rubus Idaeus and other similar brambles; as, the black, the red, and the white raspberry. (b) The shrub bearing this fruit.
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&hand_; Technically, raspberries are those brambles in which the fruit separates readily from the core or receptacle, in this differing from the blackberries, in which the fruit is firmly attached to the receptacle.
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Rasper
Rasp"er (r&adot_;sp"&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, rasps; a scraper.
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Raspis
Ras"pis (răs"p&ibreve_;s), n. The raspberry. [Obs.] Langham.
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Raspy
Rasp"y (r&adot_;sp"&ybreve_;), a. Like a rasp, or the sound made by a rasp; grating. R. D. Blackmore.
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Rasse
Rasse (răs), n. [Cf. Malay rāsa taste, sensation.] (Zool.) A carnivore (Viverricula Mallaccensis) allied to the civet but smaller, native of China and the East Indies. It furnishes a perfume resembling that of the civet, which is highly prized by the Javanese. Called also Malacca weasel, and lesser civet.
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Rasure
Ra"sure (rā"zh&uuptack_;r; 135), n. [L. rasura, fr. radere, rasum, to scrape, to shave. See Rase, v.] 1. The act of rasing, scraping, or erasing; erasure; obliteration.
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2. A mark by which a letter, word, or any part of a writing or print, is erased, effaced, or obliterated; an erasure. Ayliffe.
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Rat
Rat (răt), n. [AS. ræt; akin to D. rat, OHG. rato, ratta, G. ratte, ratze, OLG. ratta, LG. & Dan. rotte, Sw. råtta, F. rat, Ir. & Gael radan, Armor. raz, of unknown origin. Cf. Raccoon.] 1. (Zool.) One of several species of small rodents of the genus Rattus (formerly included in Mus) and allied genera, of the family Muridae, distinguished from mice primarily by being larger. They infest houses, stores, and ships, especially the Norway rat, also called brown rat, (Rattus norvegicus formerly Mus decumanus), the black rat (Rattus rattus formerly Mus rattus), and the roof rat (formerly Mus Alexandrinus, now included in Rattus rattus). These were introduced into America from the Old World. The white rat used most commonly in laboratories is primarily a strain derived from Rattus rattus.
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2. A round and tapering mass of hair, or similar material, used by women to support the puffs and rolls of their natural hair. [Local, U.S.]
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3. One who deserts his party or associates; hence, in the trades, one who works for lower wages than those prescribed by a trades union. [Cant]
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&hand_; “It so chanced that, not long after the accession of the house of Hanover, some of the brown, that is the German or Norway, rats, were first brought over to this country (in some timber as is said); and being much stronger than the black, or, till then, the common, rats, they in many places quite extirpated the latter. The word (both the noun and the verb to rat) was first, as we have seen, leveled at the converts to the government of George the First, but has by degrees obtained a wider meaning, and come to be applied to any sudden and mercenary change in politics.” Lord Mahon.
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Bamboo rat (Zool.), any Indian rodent of the genus Rhizomys. -- Beaver rat, Coast rat. (Zool.) See under Beaver and Coast. -- Blind rat (Zool.), the mole rat. -- Cotton rat (Zool.), a long-haired rat (Sigmodon hispidus), native of the Southern United States and Mexico. It makes its nest of cotton and is often injurious to the crop. -- Ground rat. See Ground Pig, under Ground. -- Hedgehog rat. See under Hedgehog. -- Kangaroo rat (Zool.), the potoroo. -- Norway rat (Zool.), the common brown rat. See Rat. -- Pouched rat. (Zool.) (a) See Pocket Gopher, under Pocket. (b) Any African rodent of the genus Cricetomys. Rat Indians (Ethnol.), a tribe of Indians dwelling near Fort Ukon, Alaska. They belong to the Athabascan stock. -- Rat mole. (Zool.) See Mole rat, under Mole. -- Rat pit, an inclosed space into which rats are put to be killed by a dog for sport. -- Rat snake (Zool.), a large colubrine snake (Ptyas mucosus) very common in India and Ceylon. It enters dwellings, and destroys rats, chickens, etc. -- Spiny rat (Zool.), any South American rodent of the genus Echinomys. -- To smell a rat. See under Smell. -- Wood rat (Zool.), any American rat of the genus Neotoma, especially Neotoma Floridana, common in the Southern United States. Its feet and belly are white.
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Rat
Rat, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ratted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ratting.] 1. In English politics, to desert one's party from interested motives; to forsake one's associates for one's own advantage; in the trades, to work for less wages, or on other conditions, than those established by a trades union.
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Coleridge . . . incurred the reproach of having ratted, solely by his inability to follow the friends of his early days. De Quincey.
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2. To catch or kill rats.
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2. To be an informer (against an associate); to inform (on an associate); to squeal; -- used commonly in the phrase to rat on.
[PJC]

Rata
Ra"ta (rä"t&adot_;), n. [Maori.] (Bot.) A New Zealand forest tree (Metrosideros robusta), also, its hard dark red wood, used by the Maoris for paddles and war clubs.
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Ratability
Rat`a*bil"i*ty (rāt`&adot_;*b&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. The quality or state of being ratable.
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Ratable
Rat"a*ble (rāt"&adot_;*b'l), a. 1. Capable of being rated, or set at a certain value.
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Twenty orae were ratable to [at] two marks of silver. Camden.
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2. Liable to, or subjected by law to, taxation; as, ratable estate.
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3. Made at a proportionate rate; as, ratable payments. -- Rat"a*ble*ness, n. -- Rat"a*bly, adv.
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ratable
rat"a*ble (rāt"&adot_;*b'l), n. a structure which may be rated, or set at a certain value, for the purpose of taxation, usually based on the value; as, with the deterioration of the center cities, the loss of ratables worsened the situation by removing valuable sources of tax revenue.
[PJC]

Ratafia
Rat`a*fi"a (răt`&adot_;*fē"&adot_;), n. [F., fr. Malay arak arrack + tāfīa a spirit distilled from molasses.] A spirituous liquor flavored with the kernels of cherries, apricots, peaches, or other fruit, spiced, and sweetened with sugar; -- a term applied to the liqueurs called noyau, curaçao, etc. [Written also ratifia and ratafee.]
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Ratan
Ra*tan" (r&adot_;*tăn"), n. See Rattan.
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Ratany
Rat"a*ny (răt"&adot_;*n&ybreve_;), n. (Bot.) Same as Rhatany.
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Rataplan
Ra`ta`plan" (r&adot_;`t&adot_;`pläN"), n. [F.] The iterative sound of beating a drum, or of a galloping horse.
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Ratch
Ratch (răch), n. (Zool.) Same as Rotche.
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Ratch
Ratch (răch), n. [See Rack the instrument, Ratchet.] A ratchet wheel, or notched bar, with which a pawl or click works.
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Ratchel
Ratch"el (-&ebreve_;l), n. Gravelly stone. [Prov. Eng.]
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Ratchet
Ratch"et (-&ebreve_;t), n. [Properly a diminutive from the same word as rack: cf. F. rochet. See 2d Ratch, Rack the instrument.] 1. A pawl, click, or detent, for holding or propelling a ratchet wheel, or ratch, etc.
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2. A mechanism composed of a ratchet wheel, or ratch, and pawl. See Ratchet wheel, below, and 2d Ratch.
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Ratchet brace (Mech.), a boring brace, having a ratchet wheel and pawl for rotating the tool by back and forth movements of the brace handle. -- Ratchet drill, a portable machine for working a drill by hand, consisting of a hand lever carrying at one end a drill holder which is revolved by means of a ratchet wheel and pawl, by swinging the lever back and forth. -- Ratchet wheel (Mach.), a circular wheel having teeth, usually angular, with which a reciprocating pawl engages to turn the wheel forward, or a stationary pawl to hold it from turning backward.
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&hand_; In the cut, the moving pawl c slides over the teeth in one direction, but in returning, draws the wheel with it, while the pawl d prevents it from turning in the contrary direction.
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Rate
Rate (rāt), v. t. & i. [Perh. fr. E. rate, v. t., to value at a certain rate, to estimate, but more prob. fr. Sw. rata to find fault, to blame, to despise, to hold cheap; cf. Icel. hrat refuse, hrati rubbish.] To chide with vehemence; to scold; to censure violently; to berate. Spenser.
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Go, rate thy minions, proud, insulting boy! Shak.
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Conscience is a check to beginners in sin, reclaiming them from it, and rating them for it. Barrow.
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Rate
Rate (?), n. [OF., fr. L. rata (sc. pars), fr. ratus reckoned, fixed by calculation, p. p. of reri to reckon, to calculate. Cf. Reason.] 1. Established portion or measure; fixed allowance.
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The one right feeble through the evil rate
Of food which in her duress she had found.
Spenser.
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2. That which is established as a measure or criterion; degree; standard; rank; proportion; ratio; as, a slow rate of movement; rate of interest is the ratio of the interest to the principal, per annum.
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Heretofore the rate and standard of wit was different from what it is nowadays. South.
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In this did his holiness and godliness appear above the rate and pitch of other men's, in that he was so . . . merciful. Calamy.
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Many of the horse could not march at that rate, nor come up soon enough. Clarendon.
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3. Valuation; price fixed with relation to a standard; cost; charge; as, high or low rates of transportation.
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They come at dear rates from Japan. Locke.
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4. A tax or sum assessed by authority on property for public use, according to its income or value; esp., in England, a local tax; as, parish rates; town rates.
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5. Order; arrangement. [Obs.]
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Thus sat they all around in seemly rate. Spenser.
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6. Ratification; approval. [R.] Chapman.
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7. (Horol.) The gain or loss of a timepiece in a unit of time; as, daily rate; hourly rate; etc.
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8. (Naut.) (a) The order or class to which a war vessel belongs, determined according to its size, armament, etc.; as, first rate, second rate, etc. (b) The class of a merchant vessel for marine insurance, determined by its relative safety as a risk, as A1, A2, etc.
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Rate
Rate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rated; p. pr. & vb. n. Rating.] 1. To set a certain estimate on; to value at a certain price or degree.
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To rate a man by the nature of his companions is a rule frequent indeed, but not infallible. South.
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You seem not high enough your joys to rate. Dryden.
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2. To assess for the payment of a rate or tax.
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3. To settle the relative scale, rank, position, amount, value, or quality of; as, to rate a ship; to rate a seaman; to rate a pension.
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4. To ratify. [Obs.] “To rate the truce.” Chapman.
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To rate a chronometer, to ascertain the exact rate of its gain or loss as compared with true time, so as to make an allowance or computation dependent thereon.
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Syn. -- To value; appraise; estimate; reckon.
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Rate
Rate, v. i. 1. To be set or considered in a class; to have rank; as, the ship rates as a ship of the line.
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2. To make an estimate.
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Rateable
Rate"a*ble (-&adot_;*b'l), a. See Ratable.
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Ratel
Ra"tel (rā"t&ebreve_;l), n. [F.] (Zool.) Any carnivore of the genus Mellivora, allied to the weasels and the skunks; -- called also honey badger.
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&hand_; Several species are known in Africa and India. The Cape ratel (Mellivora Capensis) and the Indian ratel (Mellivora Indica) are the best known. The back is gray; the lower parts, face, and tail are black. They are fond of honey, and rob the nests of wild bees.
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Ratepayer
Rate"pay`er (-pā`&etilde_;r), n. One who pays rates or taxes.
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Rater
Rat"er (rāt"&etilde_;r), n. One who rates or estimates.
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Rater
Rat"er, n. One who rates or scolds.
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Ratfish
Rat"fish` (răt"f&ibreve_;sh`), n. (Zool.) Same as Rat-tail.
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Rath
Rath (răth), n. [Ir. rath.] 1. A hill or mound. [Ireland] Spenser.
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2. A kind of ancient fortification found in Ireland.
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Rathe
Rath
{ Rath, Rathe } (răth), a. [AS. hræð, hræd, quick, akin to OHG. hrad, Icel. hraðr.] Coming before others, or before the usual time; early. [Obs. or Poetic]
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Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies. Milton.
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Rathe
Rath
{ Rath, Rathe, } adv. Early; soon; betimes. [Obs. or Poetic]
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Why rise ye up so rathe? Chaucer.
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Too rathe cut off by practice criminal. Spenser.
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Rather
Rath"er (ră&thlig_;"&etilde_;r), a. [Compar. of Rath, a.] Prior; earlier; former. [Obs.]
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Now no man dwelleth at the rather town. Sir J. Mandeville.
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Rather
Rath"er (ră&thlig_;"&etilde_;r; 277), adv. [AS. hraðor, compar. of hraðe, hræðe, quickly, immediately. See Rath, a.]
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1. Earlier; sooner; before. [Obs.]
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Thou shalt, quod he, be rather false than I. Chaucer.
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A good mean to come the rather to grace. Foxe.
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2. More readily or willingly; preferably.
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My soul chooseth . . . death rather than my life. Job vii. 15.
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3. On the other hand; to the contrary of what was said or suggested; instead.
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Was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse. Mark v. 26.
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4. Of two alternatives conceived of, this by preference to, or as more likely than, the other; somewhat.
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He sought throughout the world, but sought in vain,
And nowhere finding, rather feared her slain.
Dryden.
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5. More properly; more correctly speaking.
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This is an art
Which does mend nature, change it rather, but
The art itself is nature.
Shak.
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6. In some degree; somewhat; as, the day is rather warm; the house is rather damp.
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The rather, the more so; especially; for better reason; for particular cause.
[1913 Webster] You are come to me in happy time,
The rather for I have some sport in hand.
Shak.
[1913 Webster] -- Had rather, or Would rather, prefer to; prefers to; as, he had rather, or would rather go than stay. “I had rather speak five words with my understanding than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue.” 1 Cor. xiv. 19. See Had rather, under Had.

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Rathripe
Rath"ripe` (răth"rīp`), a. Rareripe, or early ripe. -- n. A rareripe. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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Such who delight in rathripe fruits. Fuller.
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Rathskeller
Raths"kel`ler (räts"k&ebreve_;l*l&etilde_;r), n. [G., also ratskeller, prop., town-hall cellar.] Orig., in Germany, the cellar or basement of the city hall, usually rented for use as a restaurant where beer is sold; hence, a beer saloon of the German type below the street level, where, usually, drinks are served only at tables and simple food may also be had; -- sometimes loosely used, in English, of what are essentially basement restaurants where liquors are served.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Ratification
Rat`i*fi*ca"tion (răt`&ibreve_;*f&ibreve_;*kā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. ratification.] The act of ratifying; the state of being ratified; confirmation; sanction; as, the ratification of a treaty.
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Ratifier
Rat"i*fi`er (răt"&ibreve_;*fī`&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, ratifies; a confirmer. Shak.
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Ratify
Rat"i*fy (răt"&ibreve_;*fī), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ratified (răt"&ibreve_;*fīd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ratifying (răt"&ibreve_;*fī`&ibreve_;ng).] [F. ratifier, fr. L. ratus fixed by calculation, firm, valid + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Rate, n., and -fy.] To approve and sanction; to make valid; to confirm; to establish; to settle; especially, to give sanction to, as something done by an agent or servant; as, to ratify an agreement, treaty, or contract; to ratify a nomination.
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It is impossible for the divine power to set a seal to a lie by ratifying an imposture with such a miracle. South.
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Ratihabition
Rat`i*ha*bi"tion (-h&adot_;*b&ibreve_;sh"ŭn), n. [L. ratihabitio; ratus fixed, valid + habere to hold.] Confirmation or approbation, as of an act or contract. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.
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Ratio
Ra"ti*o (rā"sh&ibreve_;*&ouptack_; or rā"sh&ouptack_;), n. [L., fr. reri, ratus, to reckon, believe, think, judge. See Reason.] 1. (Math.) The relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind. It is expressed by the quotient of the division of the first by the second; thus, the ratio of 3 to 6 is expressed by 3/6 or 1/2; of a to b by a/b; or (less commonly) the second term is made the dividend; as, a:b = b/a.
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&hand_; Some writers consider ratio as the quotient itself, making ratio equivalent to a number.
[1913 Webster] The term ratio is also sometimes applied to the difference of two quantities as well as to their quotient, in which case the former is called arithmetical ratio, the latter, geometrical ratio. The name ratio is sometimes given to the rule of three in arithmetic. See under Rule.

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2. Hence, fixed relation of number, quantity, or degree; rate; proportion; as, the ratio of representation in Congress.
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Compound ratio, Duplicate ratio, Inverse ratio, etc. See under Compound, Duplicate, etc. -- Ratio of a geometrical progression, the constant quantity by which each term is multiplied to produce the succeeding one.
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Ratiocinate
Ra`ti*oc"i*nate (răsh`&ibreve_;*&obreve_;s"&ibreve_;*nāt), v. i. [L. ratiocinatus, p. p. of ratiocinari, fr. ratio reason. See Ratio.] To reason, esp. deductively; to offer reason or argument.
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Ratiocination
Ra`ti*oc`i*na"tion (răsh`&ibreve_;*&obreve_;s"&ibreve_;*nā"shŭn), n. [L. ratiocinatio: cf. F. ratiocination.] The process of reasoning, or deducing conclusions from premises; deductive reasoning.
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Ratiocinative
Ra`ti*oc"i*na*tive (răsh`&ibreve_;*&obreve_;s"&ibreve_;*n&auptack_;*t&ibreve_;v), a. [L. ratiocinativus.] Characterized by, or addicted to, ratiocination; consisting in the comparison of propositions or facts, and the deduction of inferences from the comparison; argumentative; as, a ratiocinative process.
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The ratiocinative meditativeness of his character. Coleridge.
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Ratiocinatory
Ra`ti*oc"i*na*to*ry (răsh`&ibreve_;*&obreve_;s"&ibreve_;*n&adot_;*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. Ratiocinative. [R.]
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Ration
Ra"tion (rā"shŭn or răsh"ŭn), n. [F., fr. L. ratio a reckoning, calculation, relation, reference, LL. ratio ration. See Ratio.] 1. A fixed daily allowance of provisions assigned to a soldier in the army, or a sailor in the navy, for his subsistence.
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&hand_; Officers have several rations, the number varying according to their rank or the number of their attendants.
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2. Hence, a certain portion or fixed amount dealt out; an allowance; an allotment.
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Ration
Ra"tion, v. t. To supply with rations, as a regiment.
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Rational
Ra"tion*al (răsh"ŭn*&aitalic_;l), a. [L. rationalis: cf. F. rationnel. See Ratio, Reason, and cf. Rationale.] 1. Relating to the reason; not physical; mental.
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Moral philosophy was his chiefest end; for the rational, the natural, and mathematics . . . were but simple pastimes in comparison of the other. Sir T. North.
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2. Having reason, or the faculty of reasoning; endowed with reason or understanding; reasoning.
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It is our glory and happiness to have a rational nature. Law.
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3. Agreeable to reason; not absurd, preposterous, extravagant, foolish, fanciful, or the like; wise; judicious; as, rational conduct; a rational man.
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4. (Chem.) Expressing the type, structure, relations, and reactions of a compound; graphic; -- said of formulae. See under Formula.
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Rational horizon. (Astron.) See Horizon, 2 (b). -- Rational quantity (Alg.), one that can be expressed without the use of a radical sign, or in exact parts of unity; -- opposed to irrational or radical quantity. -- Rational symptom (Med.), one elicited by the statements of the patient himself and not as the result of a physical examination.
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Syn. -- Sane; sound; intelligent; reasonable; sensible; wise; discreet; judicious. -- Rational, reasonable. Rational has reference to reason as a faculty of the mind, and is opposed to irrational; as, a rational being, a rational state of mind, rational views, etc. In these cases the speculative reason is more particularly, referred to. Reasonable has reference to the exercise of this faculty for practical purposes, and means, governed or directed by reason; as, reasonable desires or plans; a reasonable charge; a reasonable prospect of success.
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What higher in her society thou find'st
Attractive, human, rational, love still.
Milton.
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A law may be reasonable in itself, although a man does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgivers. Swift.
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Rational
Ra"tion*al, n. A rational being. Young.
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Rationale
Ra`tion*a"le (răsh`ŭ*năl" or răsh`ŭn*ā"l&euptack_;), n. [L. rationalis, neut. rationale. See Rational, a.] An explanation or exposition of the principles of some opinion, action, hypothesis, phenomenon, or the like; also, the principles themselves.
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Rationalism
Ra"tion*al*ism (răsh"ŭn*&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;z'm), n. [Cf. F. rationalisme.] 1. (Theol.) The doctrine or system of those who deduce their religious opinions from reason or the understanding, as distinct from, or opposed to, revelation.
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2. (Philos.) The system that makes rational power the ultimate test of truth; -- opposed to sensualism, or sensationalism, and empiricism. Fleming.
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Rationalist
Ra"tion*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. rationaliste.] One who accepts rationalism as a theory or system; also, disparagingly, a false reasoner. See Citation under Reasonist.
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Rationalistical
Rationalistic
{ Ra`tion*al*is"tic (răsh"ŭn*&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;s"t&ibreve_;k), Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al (-t&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), } a. Belonging to, or in accordance with, the principles of rationalism. -- Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al*ly, adv.
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Rationality
Ra`tion*al"i*ty (răsh"ŭn*ăl"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;; 277), n.; pl. -ties (-t&ibreve_;z). [F. rationalité, or L. rationalitas.] The quality or state of being rational; agreement with reason; possession of reason; due exercise of reason; reasonableness.
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When God has made rationality the common portion of mankind, how came it to be thy inclosure? Gov. of Tongue.
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Well-directed intentions, whose rationalities will never bear a rigid examination. Sir T. Browne.
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Rationalization
Ra`tion*al*i*za"tion (răsh`ŭn*&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n. The act or process of rationalizing.
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Rationalize
Ra"tion*al*ize (răsh"ŭn*&aitalic_;l*īz), v. t. 1. To make rational; also, to convert to rationalism.
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2. To interpret in the manner of a rationalist.
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3. To form a rational conception of.
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4. (Alg.) To render rational; to free from radical signs or quantities.
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Rationalize
Ra"tion*al*ize, v. i. To use, and rely on, reason in forming a theory, belief, etc., especially in matters of religion: to accord with the principles of rationalism.
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Theodore . . . is justly considered the chief rationalizing doctor of antiquity. J. H. Newman.
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Rationally
Ra"tion*al*ly, adv. In a rational manner.
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Rationalness
Ra"tion*al*ness, n. The quality or state of being rational; rationality.
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Ratitae
Ra*ti"tae (r&adot_;*tī"t&euptack_;), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. ratis a raft; cf. L. ratitus marked with the figure of a raft.] (Zool.) An order of birds in which the wings are small, rudimentary, or absent, and the breastbone is destitute of a keel. The ostrich, emu, moa, and apteryx are examples.
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Ratitate
Rat"i*tate (răt"&ibreve_;*t&auptack_;t), a. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Ratitae.
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Ratite
Rat"ite (răt"īt), a. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Ratitae. -- n. One of the Ratitae.
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Ratlins
Ratlines
{ Rat"lines, Rat"lins } (răt"l&ibreve_;nz), n. pl. [Of uncertain origin.] (Naut.) The small transverse ropes attached to the shrouds and forming the steps of a rope ladder. [Written also ratlings, and rattlings.] Totten.
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Raton
Rat"on (răt"&obreve_;n), n. [Cf. Raccoon.] A small rat. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.
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Ratoon
Ra*toon" (r&adot_;*t&oomacr_;n"), n. 1. Same as Rattoon, n.
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2. A rattan cane. [Obs.] Pepys.
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Ratoon
Ra*toon", v. i. Same as Rattoon, v. i.
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Ratsbane
Rats"bane` (răts"bān`), n. [Rat + bane.] Rat poison; white arsenic.
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Ratsbaned
Rats"baned` (răts"bānd`), a. Poisoned by ratsbane.
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Rat-tail
Rat"-tail` (răt"tāl`), a. Like a rat's tail in form; as, a rat-tail file, which is round, slender, and tapering. See Illust. of File.
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Rat-tail
Rat"-tail`, n. 1. (Far.) pl. An excrescence growing from the pastern to the middle of the shank of a horse.
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2. (Zool.) (a) The California chimaera. See Chimaera. (b) Any fish of the genus Macrurus. See Grenadier, 2.
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Rat-tailed
Rat"-tailed` (răt"tāld`), a. (Zool.) Having a long, tapering tail like that of a rat.
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Rat-tailed larva (Zool.), the larva of a fly of the genus Eristalis. See Eristalis. -- Rat-tailed serpent (Zool.), the fer-de-lance. -- Rat-tailed shrew (Zool.), the musk shrew.
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Rattan
Rat*tan" (răt*tăn"), n. [Malay rōtan.] [Written also ratan.] (Bot.) One of the long slender flexible stems of several species of palms of the genus Calamus, mostly East Indian, though some are African and Australian. They are exceedingly tough, and are used for walking sticks, wickerwork, chairs and seats of chairs, cords and cordage, and many other purposes.
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Ratteen
Rat*teen" (răt*tēn"), n. [F. ratine.] A thick woolen stuff quilled or twilled.
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Ratten
Rat"ten (răt"t'n), v. t. [Prov. E. ratten a rat, hence the verb literally means, to do mischief like a rat.] To deprive feloniously of the tools used in one's employment (as by breaking or stealing them), for the purpose of annoying; as, to ratten a mechanic who works during a strike. [Trades-union Cant] J. McCarthy.
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Ratter
Rat"ter (răt"t&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who, or that which, rats, as one who deserts his party.
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2. Anything which catches rats; esp., a dog trained to catch rats; a rat terrier. See Terrier.
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Rattinet
Rat`ti*net" (-t&ibreve_;*n&ebreve_;t"), n. A woolen stuff thinner than ratteen.
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Ratting
Rat"ting (răt"t&ibreve_;ng), n. 1. The conduct or practices of one who rats. See Rat, v. i., 1. Sydney Smith.
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2. The low sport of setting a dog upon rats confined in a pit to see how many he will kill in a given time.
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Rattle
Rat"tle (răt"t'l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rattled (-t'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rattling (-tl&ibreve_;ng).] [Akin to D. ratelen, G. rasseln, AS. hrætele a rattle, in hrætelwyrt rattlewort; cf. Gr. kradai`nein to swing, wave. Cf. Rail a bird.] 1. To make a quick succession of sharp, inharmonious noises, as by the collision of hard and not very sonorous bodies shaken together; to clatter.
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And the rude hail in rattling tempest forms. Addison.
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'T was but the wind,
Or the car rattling o'er the stony street.
Byron.
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2. To drive or ride briskly, so as to make a clattering; as, we rattled along for a couple of miles. [Colloq.]
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3. To make a clatter with the voice; to talk rapidly and idly; to clatter; -- with on or away; as, she rattled on for an hour. [Colloq.]
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Rattle
Rat"tle (răt"t'l), v. t. 1. To cause to make a rattling or clattering sound; as, to rattle a chain.
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2. To assail, annoy, or stun with a rattling noise.
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Sound but another [drum], and another shall
As loud as thine rattle the welkin's ear.
Shak.
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3. Hence, to disconcert; to confuse; as, to rattle one's judgment; to rattle a player in a game. [Colloq.]
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4. To scold; to rail at. L'Estrange.
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To rattle off. (a) To tell glibly or noisily; as, to rattle off a story. (b) To rail at; to scold. “She would sometimes rattle off her servants sharply.” Arbuthnot.
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Rattle
Rat"tle, n. 1. A rapid succession of sharp, clattering sounds; as, the rattle of a drum. Prior.
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2. Noisy, rapid talk.
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All this ado about the golden age is but an empty rattle and frivolous conceit. Hakewill.
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3. An instrument with which a rattling sound is made; especially, a child's toy that rattles when shaken.
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The rattles of Isis and the cymbals of Brasilea nearly enough resemble each other. Sir W. Raleigh.
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Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw. Pope.
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4. A noisy, senseless talker; a jabberer.
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It may seem strange that a man who wrote with so much perspicuity, vivacity, and grace, should have been, whenever he took a part in conversation, an empty, noisy, blundering rattle. Macaulay.
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5. A scolding; a sharp rebuke. [Obs.] Heylin.
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6. (Zool.) Any organ of an animal having a structure adapted to produce a rattling sound.
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&hand_; The rattle of a rattlesnake is composed of the hardened terminal scales, loosened in succession, but not cast off, and so modified in form as to make a series of loose, hollow joints.
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7. The noise in the throat produced by the air in passing through mucus which the lungs are unable to expel; -- chiefly observable at the approach of death, when it is called the death rattle. See Râle.
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To spring a rattle, to cause it to sound. -- Yellow rattle (Bot.), a yellow-flowered herb (Rhinanthus Crista-galli), the ripe seeds of which rattle in the inflated calyx.
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Rattlebox
Rat"tle*box` (răt"t'l*b&obreve_;ks`), n. 1. A toy that makes a rattling sound; a rattle.
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2. (Bot.) (a) An American herb (Crotalaria sagittalis), the seeds of which, when ripe, rattle in the inflated pod. (b) Any species of Crotalaria, a genus of yellow-flowered herbs, with inflated, many-seeded pods.
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Rattle-brained
Rat"tle-brained` (răt"t'l*brānd`), a. Giddy; rattle-headed.
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Rattlehead
Rat"tle*head` (răt"t'l*h&ebreve_;d`), n. An empty, noisy talker.
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Rattle-headed
Rat"tle-head`ed, a. Noisy; giddy; unsteady.
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Rattlemouse
Rat"tle*mouse` (răt"t'l*mous`), n. A bat. [Obs.] Puttenham.
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Rattlepate
Rat"tle*pate` (răt"t'l*pāt`), n. A rattlehead. C. Kingsley.
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Rattle-pated
Rat"tle-pat`ed, a. Rattle-headed. “A noisy, rattle-pated fellow.” W. Irving.
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Rattler
Rat"tler (răt"tl&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, rattles.
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Rattlesnake
Rat"tle*snake` (răt"t'l*snāk`), n. (Zool.) Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera Crotalus and Caudisona, or Sistrurus; sometimes also called rattler. They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp rattling sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States (Crotalus horridus), and the diamondback rattlesnake (also called diamondback rattler, and diamondback) of the South and East (Crotalus adamanteus) and West (Crotalus atrox), are the best known. See Illust. of Fang.
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Ground rattlesnake (Zool.), a small rattlesnake (Caudisona miliaria or Sistrurus miliaria) of the Southern United States, having a small rattle. It has nine large scales on its head. -- Rattlesnake fern (Bot.), a common American fern (Botrychium Virginianum) having a triangular decompound frond and a long-stalked panicle of spore cases rising from the middle of the frond. -- Rattlesnake grass (Bot.), a handsome American grass (Glyceria Canadensis) with an ample panicle of rather large ovate spikelets, each one composed of imbricated parts and slightly resembling the rattle of the rattlesnake. Sometimes called quaking grass. -- Rattlesnake plantain (Bot.), See under Plantain. -- Rattlesnake root (Bot.), a name given to certain American species of the composite genus Prenanthes (Prenanthes alba and Prenanthes serpentaria), formerly asserted to cure the bite of the rattlesnake. Called also lion's foot, gall of the earth, and white lettuce. -- Rattlesnake's master (Bot.) (a) A species of Agave (Agave Virginica) growing in the Southern United States. (b) An umbelliferous plant (Eryngium yuccaefolium) with large bristly-fringed linear leaves. (c) A composite plant, the blazing star (Liatris squarrosa). -- Rattlesnake weed (Bot.), a plant of the composite genus Hieracium (Hieracium venosum); -- probably so named from its spotted leaves. See also Snakeroot.
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Rattletrap
Rat"tle*trap` (-trăp`), n. Any machine or vehicle that does not run smoothly. [Colloq.] A. Trollope.
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Rattleweed
Rat"tle*weed` (-wēd`), n. (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Astragalus. See Milk vetch.
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Rattlewings
Rat"tle*wings` (-w&ibreve_;ngz`), n. (Zool.) The golden-eye.
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Rattlewort
Rat"tle*wort` (-wûrt`), n. [AS. hrætelwyrt.] (Bot.) Same as Rattlebox.
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Rattlings
Rat"tlings (răt"tl&ibreve_;ngz), n. pl. (Naut.) Ratlines.
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Rattoon
Rat*toon" (răt*t&oomacr_;n"), n. [Sp. retoño.] One of the stems or shoots of sugar cane of the second year's growth from the root, or later. See Plant-cane.
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Rattoon
Rat*toon", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rattooned (-t&oomacr_;nd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rattooning.] [Cf. Sp. retoñar.] To sprout or spring up from the root, as sugar cane from the root of the previous year's planting.
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Raucid
Rau"cid (r&asuml_;"s&ibreve_;d), a. [L. raucus hoarse; cf. LL. raucidus.] Hoarse; raucous. [R.] Lamb.
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Raucity
Rau"ci*ty (r&asuml_;"s&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [L. raucitas, from raucus hoarse: cf. F. raucité.] Harshness of sound; rough utterance; hoarseness; as, the raucity of a trumpet, or of the human voice.
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Raucous
Rau"cous (r&asuml_;"kŭs), a. [L. raucus.] Hoarse; harsh; rough; as, a raucous, thick tone. “His voice slightly raucous.” Aytoun. -- Rau"cous*ly, adv.
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Raught
Raught (r&asuml_;t), obs. imp. & p. p. of Reach. Shak.
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Raught
Raught, obs. imp. & p. p. of Reck. Chaucer.
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Raunch
Raunch (r&asuml_;nch), v. t. See Ranch. Spenser.
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Raunsoun
Raun*soun" (r&asuml_;n*s&oomacr_;n"), n. Ransom. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Ravage
Rav"age (răv"&auptack_;j; 48), n. [F., fr. (assumed) L. rapagium, rapaticum, fr. rapere to carry off by force, to ravish. See Rapacious, Ravish.] Desolation by violence; violent ruin or destruction; devastation; havoc; waste; as, the ravage of a lion; the ravages of fire or tempest; the ravages of an army, or of time.
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Would one think 't were possible for love
To make such ravage in a noble soul?
Addison.
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Syn. -- Despoilment; devastation; desolation; pillage; plunder; spoil; waste; ruin.
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Ravage
Rav"age, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ravaged (răv"&auptack_;jd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ravaging (răv"&auptack_;*j&ibreve_;ng).] [F. ravager. See Ravage, n.] To lay waste by force; to desolate by violence; to commit havoc or devastation upon; to spoil; to plunder; to consume.
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Already Caesar
Has ravaged more than half the globe.
Addison.
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His lands were daily ravaged, his cattle driven away. Macaulay.
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Syn. -- To despoil; pillage; plunder; sack; spoil; devastate; desolate; destroy; waste; ruin.
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Ravager
Rav"a*ger (-&auptack_;*j&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, ravages or lays waste; spoiler.
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Rave
Rave (rāv), obs. imp. of Rive.
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Rave
Rave, n. [Prov. E. raves, or rathes, a frame laid on a wagon, for carrying hay, etc.] One of the upper side pieces of the frame of a wagon body or a sleigh.
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Rave
Rave (rāv), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Raved (rāvd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raving.] [F. rêver to rave, to be delirious, to dream; perhaps fr. L. rabere to rave, rage, be mad or furious. Cf. Rage, Reverie.] 1. To wander in mind or intellect; to be delirious; to talk or act irrationally; to be wild, furious, or raging, as a madman.
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In our madness evermore we rave. Chaucer.
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Have I not cause to rave and beat my breast? Addison.
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The mingled torrent of redcoats and tartans went raving down the valley to the gorge of Killiecrankie. Macaulay.
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2. To rush wildly or furiously. Spenser.
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3. To talk with unreasonable enthusiasm or excessive passion or excitement; -- followed by about, of, or on; as, he raved about her beauty.
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The hallowed scene
Which others rave of, though they know it not.
Byron.
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Rave
Rave, v. t. To utter in madness or frenzy; to say wildly; as, to rave nonsense. Young.
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Rave
Rave, n. 1. An instance of raving.
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2. A highly flattering or enthusiastic review of a play, book, etc.
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3. A clamorous dance party, especially one featuring a band or disc jockey playing loud modern rock music oriented toward young people, held in a large room such as a warehouse, often organized by an informal or ad hoc sponsor. [originally British slang]
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Ravehook
Rave"hook (rāv"h&oobreve_;k), n. (Shipbuilding) A tool, hooked at the end, for enlarging or clearing seams for the reception of oakum.
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Ravel
Rav"el (răv"'l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raveled (-'ld) or Ravelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Raveling or Ravelling.] [OD. ravelen, D. rafelen, akin to LG. rebeln, rebbeln, reffeln.] 1. To separate or undo the texture of; to unravel; to take apart; to untwist; to unweave or unknit; -- often followed by out; as, to ravel a twist; to ravel out a stocking.
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Sleep, that knits up the raveled sleave of care. Shak.
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2. To undo the intricacies of; to disentangle.
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3. To pull apart, as the threads of a texture, and let them fall into a tangled mass; hence, to entangle; to make intricate; to involve.
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What glory's due to him that could divide
Such raveled interests? has the knot untied?
Waller.
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The faith of very many men seems a duty so weak and indifferent, is so often untwisted by violence, or raveled and entangled in weak discourses! Jer. Taylor.
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Ravel
Rav"el, v. i. 1. To become untwisted or unwoven; to be disentangled; to be relieved of intricacy.
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2. To fall into perplexity and confusion. [Obs.]
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Till, by their own perplexities involved,
They ravel more, still less resolved.
Milton.
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3. To make investigation or search, as by picking out the threads of a woven pattern. [Obs.]
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The humor of raveling into all these mystical or entangled matters. Sir W. Temple.
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Raveler
Rav"el*er (-&etilde_;r), n. [Also raveller.] One who ravels.
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Ravelin
Rave"lin (răv"l&ibreve_;n; 277), n. [F.; cf. Sp. rebellin, It. revellino, rivellino; perhaps fr. L. re- again + vallum wall.] (Fort.) A detached work with two embankments which make a salient angle. It is raised before the curtain on the counterscarp of the place. Formerly called demilune and half-moon.
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Raveling
Rav"el*ing (răv"'l*&ibreve_;ng), n. [Also ravelling.] 1. The act of untwisting or of disentangling.
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2. That which is raveled out; esp., a thread detached from a texture.
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Raven
Ra"ven (rā"v'n), n. [AS. hræfn; akin to D. raaf, G. rabe, OHG. hraban, Icel. hrafn, Dan. ravn, and perhaps to L. corvus, Gr. ko`rax. √19.] (Zool.) A large black passerine bird (Corvus corax), similar to the crow, but larger, and has a harsh, loud call. It is native of the northern parts of Europe, Asia and America, and is noted for its sagacity.
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Sea raven (Zool.), the cormorant.
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Raven
Ra"ven, a. Of the color of the raven; jet black; as, raven curls; raven darkness.
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Raven
Rav"en (răv"'n), n. [OF. ravine impetuosity, violence, F. ravine ravine. See Ravine, Rapine.] [Written also ravin, and ravine.] 1. Rapine; rapacity. Ray.
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2. Prey; plunder; food obtained by violence.
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Raven
Rav"en, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ravened (răv"'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Ravening.] [Written also ravin, and ravine.]
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1. To obtain or seize by violence. Hakewill.
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2. To devour with great eagerness.
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Like rats that ravin down their proper bane. Shak.
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Raven
Rav"en, v. i. To prey with rapacity; to be greedy; to show rapacity. [Written also ravin, and ravine.]
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Benjamin shall raven as a wolf. Gen. xlix. 27.
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Ravenala
Rav`e*na"la (răv`&euptack_;*nä"l&adot_;), n. [Malagasy.] (Bot.) A genus of plants related to the banana.
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&hand_; Ravenala Madagascariensis, the principal species, is an unbranched tree with immense oarlike leaves growing alternately from two sides of the stem. The sheathing bases of the leafstalks collect and retain rain water, which flows freely when they are pierced with a knife, whence the plant is called traveler's tree.
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Ravener
Rav"en*er (răv"'n*&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who, or that which, ravens or plunders. Gower.
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2. A bird of prey, as the owl or vulture. [Obs.] Holland.
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Ravening
Rav"en*ing, n. Eagerness for plunder; rapacity; extortion. Luke xi. 39.
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Ravening
Rav"en*ing, a. Greedily devouring; rapacious; as, ravening wolves. -- Rav"en*ing*ly, adv.
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Ravenous
Rav"en*ous (răv"'n*ŭs), a. [From 2d Raven.] 1. Devouring with rapacious eagerness; furiously voracious; hungry even to rage; as, a ravenous wolf or vulture.
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2. Eager for prey or gratification; as, a ravenous appetite or desire.
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-- Rav"en*ous*ly, adv. -- Rav"en*ous*ness, n.
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Raven's-duck
Ra"ven's-duck` (rā"v'nz-dŭk`), n. [Cf. G. ravenstuch.] A fine quality of sailcloth. Ham. Nav. Encyc.
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Raver
Rav"er (rāv"&etilde_;r), n. One who raves.
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Ravin
Rav"in (răv"'n), a. Ravenous. [Obs.] Shak.
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Ravine
Ravin
{ Rav"in, Rav"ine } (răv"'n), n. [See 2d Raven.] Food obtained by violence; plunder; prey; raven. “Fowls of ravyne.” Chaucer.
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Though Nature, red in tooth and claw
With ravine, shrieked against his creed.
Tennyson.
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Ravine
Ravin
{ Rav"in, Rav"ine, } v. t. & i. See Raven, v. t. & i.
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Ravine
Ra*vine" (r&adot_;*vēn"), n. [F., a place excavated by a torrent, a ravine, fr. ravir to snatch or tear away, L. rapere; cf. L. rapina rapine. See Ravish, and cf. Rapine, Raven prey.] 1. A torrent of water. [Obs.] Cotgrave.
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2. A deep and narrow hollow, usually worn by a stream or torrent of water; a gorge; a mountain cleft.
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Raving
Rav"ing (rāv"&ibreve_;ng), a. Talking irrationally and wildly; as, a raving lunatic. -- Rav"ing*ly, adv.
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Ravish
Rav"ish (răv"&ibreve_;sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ravished (-&ibreve_;sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Ravishing.] [OE. ravissen, F. ravir, fr. L. rapere to snatch or tear away, to ravish. See Rapacious, Rapid, and -ish.] 1. To seize and carry away by violence; to snatch by force.
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These hairs which thou dost ravish from my chin
Will quicken, and accuse thee.
Shak.
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This hand shall ravish thy pretended right. Dryden.
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2. To transport with joy or delight; to delight to ecstasy.Ravished . . . for the joy.” Chaucer.
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Thou hast ravished my heart. Cant. iv. 9.
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3. To have carnal knowledge of (a woman) by force, and against her consent; to rape. Shak.
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Syn. -- To transport; entrance; enrapture; delight; violate; deflower; force.
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Ravisher
Rav"ish*er (-&etilde_;r), n. One who ravishes (in any sense).
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Ravishing
Rav"ish*ing, a. Rapturous; transporting.
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Ravishingly
Rav"ish*ing*ly, adv. In a ravishing manner.
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Ravishment
Rav"ish*ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. [F. ravissement. See Ravish.]
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1. The act of carrying away by force or against consent; abduction; as, the ravishment of children from their parents, of a ward from his guardian, or of a wife from her husband. Blackstone.
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2. The state of being ravished; rapture; transport of delight; ecstasy. Spenser.
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In whose sight all things joy, with ravishment
Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze.
Milton.
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3. The act of ravishing a woman; rape.
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Ravissant
Rav"is*sant (răv"&ibreve_;s*sănt), a. [F.] (Her.) In a half-raised position, as if about to spring on prey.
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Raw
Raw (r&asuml_;), a. [Compar. Rawer (r&asuml_;"&etilde_;r); superl. Rawest.] [AS. hreáw; akin to D. raauw, LG. rau, G. roh, OHG. , Icel. hrār, Dan. raa, Sw. , L. crudus, Gr. kre`as flesh, Skr. kravis raw flesh. √18. Cf. Crude, Cruel.] 1. Not altered from its natural state; not prepared by the action of heat; as, raw sienna; specifically, not cooked; not changed by heat to a state suitable for eating; not done; as, raw meat.
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2. Hence: Unprepared for use or enjoyment; immature; unripe; unseasoned; inexperienced; unpracticed; untried; as, raw soldiers; a raw recruit.
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Approved himself to the raw judgment of the multitude. De Quincey.
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3. Not worked in due form; in the natural state; untouched by art; unwrought. Specifically: (a) Not distilled; as, raw water. [Obs.] Bacon. (b) Not spun or twisted; as, raw silk or cotton. (c) Not mixed or diluted; as, raw spirits. (d) Not tried; not melted and strained; as, raw tallow. (e) Not tanned; as, raw hides. (f) Not trimmed, covered, or folded under; as, the raw edge of a piece of metal or of cloth.
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4. Not covered; bare. Specifically: (a) Bald. [Obs.] “With skull all raw.” Spenser (b) Deprived of skin; galled; as, a raw sore. (c) Sore, as if by being galled.
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And all his sinews waxen weak and raw
Through long imprisonment.
Spenser.
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5. Disagreeably damp or cold; chilly; bleak; as, a raw wind. “A raw and gusty day.” Shak.
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Raw material, material that has not been subjected to a (specified) process of manufacture; as, ore is the raw material used in smelting; leather is the raw material of the shoe industry. -- Raw pig, cast iron as it comes from the smelting furnace.
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Raw
Raw, n. A raw, sore, or galled place; a sensitive spot; as, to touch one on the raw.
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Like savage hackney coachmen, they know where there is a raw. De Quincey.
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Rawbone
Raw"bone` (r&asuml_;"bōn`), a. Rawboned. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Rawboned
Raw"boned` (-bōnd`), a. Having little flesh on the bones; gaunt. Shak.
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Rawhead
Raw"head` (r&asuml_;"h&ebreve_;d`), n. A specter mentioned to frighten children; as, rawhead and bloodybones.
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Rawhide
Raw"hide` (r&asuml_;"hīd`), n. A cowhide, or coarse riding whip, made of untanned (or raw) hide twisted.
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Rawish
Raw"ish, a. Somewhat raw. [R.] Marston.
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Rawly
Raw"ly, adv. 1. In a raw manner; unskillfully; without experience.
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2. Without proper preparation or provision. Shak.
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Rawness
Raw"ness, n. The quality or state of being raw.
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Ray
Ray (rā), v. t. [An aphetic form of array; cf. Beray.] 1. To array. [Obs.] Sir T. More.
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2. To mark, stain, or soil; to streak; to defile. [Obs.] “The filth that did it ray.” Spenser.
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Ray
Ray, n. Array; order; arrangement; dress. [Obs.]
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And spoiling all her gears and goodly ray. Spenser.
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Ray
Ray, n. [OF. rai, F. rais, fr. L. radius a beam or ray, staff, rod, spoke of a wheel. Cf. Radius.] 1. One of a number of lines or parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six rays.
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2. (Bot.) A radiating part of a flower or plant; the marginal florets of a compound flower, as an aster or a sunflower; one of the pedicels of an umbel or other circular flower cluster; radius. See Radius.
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3. (Zool.) (a) One of the radiating spines, or cartilages, supporting the fins of fishes. (b) One of the spheromeres of a radiate, especially one of the arms of a starfish or an ophiuran.
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4. (Physics) (a) A line of light or heat proceeding from a radiant or reflecting point; a single element of light or heat propagated continuously; as, a solar ray; a polarized ray. (b) One of the component elements of the total radiation from a body; any definite or limited portion of the spectrum; as, the red ray; the violet ray. See Illust. under Light.
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5. Sight; perception; vision; -- from an old theory of vision, that sight was something which proceeded from the eye to the object seen.
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All eyes direct their rays
On him, and crowds turn coxcombs as they gaze.
Pope.
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6. (Geom.) One of a system of diverging lines passing through a point, and regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions. See Half-ray.
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Bundle of rays. (Geom.) See Pencil of rays, below. -- Extraordinary ray (Opt.), that one of two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which does not follow the ordinary law of refraction. -- Ordinary ray (Opt.) that one of the two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which follows the usual or ordinary law of refraction. -- Pencil of rays (Geom.), a definite system of rays. -- Ray flower, or Ray floret (Bot.), one of the marginal flowers of the capitulum in such composite plants as the aster, goldenrod, daisy, and sunflower. They have an elongated, strap-shaped corolla, while the corollas of the disk flowers are tubular and five-lobed. -- Ray point (Geom.), the common point of a pencil of rays. -- Roentgen ray, Röntgen ray (r&etilde_;nt"g&ebreve_;n rā`) (Phys.), a form of electromagnetic radiation generated in a very highly exhausted vacuum tube by an electrical discharge; now more commonly called X-ray. It is composed of electromagnetic radiation of wavelength shorter than that of ultraviolet light but longer than that of gamma rays. It is capable of passing through many bodies opaque to light, and producing photographic and fluorescent effects by which means pictures showing the internal structure of opaque objects are made, called X-rays, radiographs, sciagraphs, X-ray photographs, radiograms. So called from the discoverer, W. C. Röntgen. -- X ray, the Röntgen ray; -- so called by its discoverer because of its enigmatical character, x being an algebraic symbol for an unknown quantity.
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Ray
Ray, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rayed (rād); p. pr. & vb. n. Raying.] [Cf. OF. raier, raiier, rayer, L. radiare to irradiate. See Ray, n., and cf. Radiate.] 1. To mark with long lines; to streak. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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2. [From Ray, n.] To send forth or shoot out; to cause to shine out; as, to ray smiles. [R.] Thomson.
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Ray
Ray, v. i. To shine, as with rays. Mrs. Browning.
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Ray
Ray, n. [F. raie, L. raia. Cf. Roach.] (Zool.) (a) Any one of numerous elasmobranch fishes of the order Raiae, including the skates, torpedoes, sawfishes, etc. (b) In a restricted sense, any of the broad, flat, narrow-tailed species, as the skates and sting rays. See Skate.
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Bishop ray, a yellow-spotted, long-tailed eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari syn. Stoasodon narinari) of the Southern United States and the West Indies; also called the spotted eagle ray and white-spotted eagle ray. -- Butterfly ray, a short-tailed American sting ray (Pteroplatea Maclura), having very broad pectoral fins. -- Devil ray. See Sea Devil. -- Eagle ray, any large ray of the family Myliobatidae, or Aetobatidae. The common European species (Myliobatis aquila) is called also whip ray, and miller. -- Electric ray, or Cramp ray, a torpedo. -- Starry ray, a common European skate (Raia radiata). -- Sting ray, any one of numerous species of rays of the family Trygonidae having one or more large, sharp, barbed dorsal spines on the whiplike tail. Called also stingaree.
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Rayah
Ra"yah (rā"y&adot_; or rä"y&adot_;), n. [Ar. ra'iyah a herd, a subject, fr. ra'a to pasture, guard.] A person not a Mohammedan, who pays the capitation tax. [Turkey.]
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Ray grass
Ray" grass` (rā" gr&adot_;s`). [Etymol. of ray is uncertain.] (Bot.) A perennial European grass (Lolium perenne); -- called also rye grass, and red darnel. See Darnel, and Grass.
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Italian ray grass or Italian rye grass. See Darnel, and Grass.
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Rayless
Ray"less (rā"l&ebreve_;s), a. Destitute of rays; hence, dark; not illuminated; blind; as, a rayless sky; rayless eyes.
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Rayon
Ray"on (rā"&obreve_;n), n. [F.] Ray; beam. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Rayon
Ray"on (rā"&obreve_;n), n. 1. A synthetic fiber, made of thin filaments of regenerated cellulose, extruded from a solution of viscose. Called also viscose fiber and viscose rayon fiber.
[PJC]

2. a textile fabric made from rayon{1}.
[PJC]

Rayonnant
Ray"on*nant (rā"&obreve_;n*nănt), a. [F.] (Her.) Darting forth rays, as the sun when it shines out.
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Raze
Raze (rāz), n. [See Race.] A Shakespearean word (used once) supposed to mean the same as race, a root. [Obs.]
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Raze
Raze, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Razed (rāzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Razing.] [F. raser. See Rase, v. t.] [Written also rase.] 1. To erase; to efface; to obliterate.
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Razing the characters of your renown. Shak.
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2. To subvert from the foundation; to lay level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to demolish.
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The royal hand that razed unhappy Troy. Dryden.
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Syn. -- To demolish; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; ruin. See Demolish.
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Razed
Razed (rāzd), a. Slashed or striped in patterns. [Obs.] “Two Provincial roses on my razed shoes.” Shak.
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Razee
Ra*zee" (r&adot_;*zē"), n. [F. vaisseau rasé, fr. raser to raze, to cut down ships. See Raze, v. t., Rase, v. t.] (Naut.) An armed ship having her upper deck cut away, and thus reduced to the next inferior rate, as a seventy-four cut down to a frigate. Totten.
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Razee
Ra*zee", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Razeed (r&adot_;*zēd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Razeeing.] To cut down to a less number of decks, and thus to an inferior rate or class, as a ship; hence, to prune or abridge by cutting off or retrenching parts; as, to razee a book, or an article.
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Razor
Ra"zor (rā"z&etilde_;r), n. [OE. rasour, OF. rasur, LL. rasor: cf. F. rasoir, LL. rasorium. See Raze, v. t., Rase, v. t.] 1. A keen-edged knife of peculiar shape, used in shaving the hair from the face or the head; also called a straight razor. “Take thee a barber's razor.” Ezek. v. 1.
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2. a device used for shaving, having a replaceable blade with a very sharp edge; also called safety razor. Also a similar device, made of plastic, in which the blade is neither replaceable nor can be sharpened, intended to be discarded after the blade dulls -- called a disposable razor.
[PJC]

3. (Zool.) A tusk of a wild boar.
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Razor fish. (Zool.) (a) A small Mediterranean fish (Coryphaena novacula), prized for the table. (b) The razor shell. -- Razor grass (Bot.), a West Indian plant (Scleria scindens), the triangular stem and the leaves of which are edged with minute sharp teeth. -- Razor grinder (Zool.), the European goat-sucker. -- Razor shell (Zool.), any marine bivalve shell belonging to Solen and allied genera, especially Solen ensis (or Ensatella ensis), and Solen Americana, which have a long, narrow, somewhat curved shell, resembling a razor handle in shape. Called also razor clam, razor fish, knife handle. -- Razor stone. Same as Novaculite. -- Razor strap, or razor strop, a strap or strop used in sharpening razors.
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Razorable
Ra"zor*a*ble (rā"z&etilde_;r*&adot_;*b'l), a. Ready for the razor; fit to be shaved. [R.] Shak.
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Razorback
Ra"zor*back` (rā"z&etilde_;r*băk`), n. (Zool.) The rorqual.
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Razor-backed
Ra"zor-backed" (-băkt`), a. (Zool.) Having a sharp, lean, or thin back; as, a razor-backed hog, perch, etc.
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Razorbill
Ra"zor*bill` (-b&ibreve_;l`), n. (Zool.) (a) A species of auk (Alca torda) common in the Arctic seas. See Auk, and Illust. in Appendix. (b) See Cutwater, 3.
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razor-edged
ra"zor-edged a. having an edge as sharp as that of a razor; very sharp.
[PJC]

razor-thin
ra"zor-thin a. as thin as a razor blade; very thin.
[PJC]

Razure
Ra"zure (rā"zh&uuptack_;r; 135), n. [See Rasure.] 1. The act of erasing or effacing, or the state of being effaced; obliteration. See Rasure.
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2. An erasure; a change made by erasing.
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Razzia
Raz"zi*a (rä"z&euptack_;*ä), n. [F., fr. Ar. ghāzīa (pron. razia in Algeria).] A plundering and destructive incursion; a foray; a raid.
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Re-
Re- (rē-). [L. re-, older form (retained before vowels) red-: cf. F. re-, ré-.] A prefix signifying back, against, again, anew; as, recline, to lean back; recall, to call back; recede; remove; reclaim, to call out against; repugn, to fight against; recognition, a knowing again; rejoin, to join again; reiterate; reassure. Combinations containing the prefix re- are readily formed, and are for the most part of obvious signification.
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With the increase of electronic connunications, in which the vowels with a diaeresis (e.g. ë) are seldom used in contrast with printed materials, some words with re followed by a vowel are now spelled with a hyphen to indicate that the two vowels are to be pronounced as two syllables rather than as one syllable, as in re-emerge rather than reëmerge. The unbroken forms (e.g. reemerge) are, however, usually more commonly used, and the pronunciation with two syllables for the two vowels is taken as understood.
[PJC]

Re
Re (rā). [It.] (Mus.) A syllable applied in solmization to the second tone of the diatonic scale of C; in the American system, to the second tone of any diatonic scale.
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Reabsorb
Re`ab*sorb" (rē`ăb*sôrb"), v. t. To absorb again; to draw in, or imbibe, again what has been effused, extravasated, or thrown off; to swallow up again; as, to reabsorb chyle, lymph, etc.; -- used esp. of fluids.
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Reabsorption
Re`ab*sorp"tion (rē`ăb*sôrp"shŭn), n. The act or process of reabsorbing.
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Reaccess
Re`ac*cess" (rē`ăk*s&ebreve_;s" or r&euptack_;*ăk"s&ebreve_;s), n. A second access or approach; a return. Hakewill.
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Reaccuse
Re`ac*cuse" (rē`ăk*kūz"), v. t. To accuse again. Cheyne.
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Reach
Reach (rēch), v. i. To retch. Cheyne.
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Reach
Reach, n. An effort to vomit. [R.]
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Reach
Reach, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reached (rēcht) (Raught, the old preterit, is obsolete); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaching.] [OE. rechen, AS. r&aemacr_;can, r&aemacr_;cean, to extend, stretch out; akin to D. reiken, G. reichen, and possibly to AS. rīce powerful, rich, E. rich. √115.] 1. To extend; to stretch; to thrust out; to put forth, as a limb, a member, something held, or the like.
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Her tresses yellow, and long straughten,
Unto her heeles down they raughten.
Rom. of R.
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Reach hither thy hand and thrust it into my side. John xx. 27.
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Fruit trees, over woody, reached too far
Their pampered boughs.
Milton.
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2. Hence, to deliver by stretching out a member, especially the hand; to give with the hand; to pass to another; to hand over; as, to reach one a book.
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He reached me a full cup. 2 Esd. xiv. 39.
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3. To attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; to extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to reach an object with the hand, or with a spear.
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O patron power, . . . thy present aid afford,
Than I may reach the beast.
Dryden.
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4. To strike, hit, or touch with a missile; as, to reach an object with an arrow, a bullet, or a shell.
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5. Hence, to extend an action, effort, or influence to; to penetrate to; to pierce, or cut, as far as.
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If these examples of grown men reach not the case of children, let them examine. Locke.
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6. To extend to; to stretch out as far as; to touch by virtue of extent; as, his land reaches the river.
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Thy desire . . . leads to no excess
That reaches blame.
Milton.
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7. To arrive at; to come to; to get as far as.
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Before this letter reaches your hands. Pope.
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8. To arrive at by effort of any kind; to attain to; to gain; to be advanced to.
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The best account of the appearances of nature which human penetration can reach, comes short of its reality. Cheyne.
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9. To understand; to comprehend. [Obs.]
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Do what, sir? I reach you not. Beau. & Fl.
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10. To overreach; to deceive. [Obs.] South.
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Reach
Reach, v. i. 1. To stretch out the hand.
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Goddess humane, reach, then, and freely taste! Milton.
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2. To strain after something; to make efforts.
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Reaching above our nature does no good. Dryden.
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3. To extend in dimension, time, amount, action, influence, etc., so as to touch, attain to, or be equal to, something.
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And behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. Gen. xxviii. 12.
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The new world reaches quite across the torrid zone. Boyle.
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4. (Naut.) To sail on the wind, as from one point of tacking to another, or with the wind nearly abeam.
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To reach after or To reach for or To reach at, to make efforts to attain to or obtain.
[1913 Webster] He would be in the posture of the mind reaching after a positive idea of infinity. Locke.
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Reach
Reach, n. 1. The act of stretching or extending; extension; power of reaching or touching with the person, or a limb, or something held or thrown; as, the fruit is beyond my reach; to be within reach of cannon shot.
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2. The power of stretching out or extending action, influence, or the like; power of attainment or management; extent of force or capacity.
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Drawn by others who had deeper reaches than themselves to matters which they least intended. Hayward.
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Be sure yourself and your own reach to know. Pope.
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3. Extent; stretch; expanse; hence, application; influence; result; scope.
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And on the left hand, hell,
With long reach, interposed.
Milton.
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I am to pray you not to strain my speech
To grosser issues, nor to larger reach
Than to suspicion.
Shak.
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4. An extended portion of land or water; a stretch; a straight portion of a stream or river, as from one turn to another; a level stretch, as between locks in a canal; an arm of the sea extending up into the land. “The river's wooded reach.” Tennyson.
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The coast . . . is very full of creeks and reaches. Holland.
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5. An artifice to obtain an advantage.
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The Duke of Parma had particular reaches and ends of his own underhand to cross the design. Bacon.
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6. The pole or rod which connects the hind axle with the forward bolster of a wagon.
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Reachable
Reach"a*ble (-&adot_;*b'l), a. Being within reach.
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Reacher
Reach"er (-&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who reaches.
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2. An exaggeration. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Reachless
Reach"less, a. Being beyond reach; lofty.
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Unto a reachless pitch of praises hight. Bp. Hall.
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React
Re*act" (rē*ăkt"), v. t. To act or perform a second time; to do over again; to reenact; as, to react a play; the same scenes were reacted at Rome.
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React
Re*act" (r&euptack_;*ăkt"), v. i. 1. To return an impulse or impression; to resist the action of another body by an opposite force; as, every body reacts on the body that impels it from its natural state.
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2. To act upon each other; to exercise a reciprocal or a reverse effect, as two or more chemical agents; to act in opposition.
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Reactance
Re*act"ance (r&euptack_;*ăk"t&aitalic_;ns), n. [React + -ance.] (Elec.) The influence of a coil of wire upon an alternating current passing through it, tending to choke or diminish the current, or the similar influence of a condenser; inductive resistance. Reactance is measured in ohms. The reactance of a circuit is equal to the component of the impressed electro-motive force at right angles to the current divided by the current, that is, the component of the impedance due to the self-inductance or capacity of the circuit.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reactance coil
Reactance coil (Elec.) A choking coil.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reaction
Re*ac"tion (r&euptack_;*ăk"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. réaction.] 1. Any action in resisting other action or force; counter tendency; movement in a contrary direction; reverse action.
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2. (Chem.) The mutual or reciprocal action of chemical agents upon each other, or the action upon such chemical agents of some form of energy, as heat, light, or electricity, resulting in a chemical change in one or more of these agents, with the production of new compounds or the manifestation of distinctive characters. See Blowpipe reaction, Flame reaction, under Blowpipe, and Flame.
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3. (Med.) An action induced by vital resistance to some other action; depression or exhaustion of vital force consequent on overexertion or overstimulation; heightened activity and overaction succeeding depression or shock.
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4. (Mech.) The force which a body subjected to the action of a force from another body exerts upon the latter body in the opposite direction.
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Reaction is always equal and opposite to action, that is to say, the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and in opposite directions. Sir I. Newton (3d Law of Motion).
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5. (Politics) Backward tendency or movement after revolution, reform, or great progress in any direction.
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The new king had, at the very moment at which his fame and fortune reached the highest point, predicted the coming reaction. Macaulay.
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6. (Psycophysics) A regular or characteristic response to a stimulation of the nerves.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

7. An action by a person or people in response to an event. The reaction may be primarily mental (“ a reaction of surprise”) but is usually manifested by some activity.
[PJC]

Reaction time (Physiol.), in nerve physiology, the interval between the application of a stimulus to an end organ of sense and the reaction or resulting movement; -- called also physiological time. -- Reaction wheel (Mech.), a water wheel driven by the reaction of water, usually one in which the water, entering it centrally, escapes at its periphery in a direction opposed to that of its motion by orifices at right angles, or inclined, to its radii.
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Reactionary
Re*ac"tion*a*ry (-&auptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. Being, causing, or favoring reaction; as, reactionary movements.
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Reactionary
Re*ac"tion*a*ry, n.; pl. Reactionaries (-r&ibreve_;z). One who favors reaction, or seeks to undo political progress or revolution.
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Reactionist
Re*ac"tion*ist, n. A reactionary. C. Kingsley.
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Reactive
Re*act"ive (r&euptack_;*ăkt"&ibreve_;v), a. [Cf. F. réactif.] Having power to react; tending to reaction; of the nature of reaction. -- Re*act"ive*ly, adv. -- Re*act"ive*ness, n.
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Reactor
Re*act"or, n. 1. (Elec.) A choking coil.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. A nuclear reactor.
[PJC]

Read
Read (rēd), n. Rennet. See 3d Reed. [Prov. Eng.]
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Read
Read (rēd), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Read (r&ebreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Reading.] [OE. reden, ræden, AS. r&aemacr_;dan to read, advise, counsel, fr. r&aemacr_;d advice, counsel, r&aemacr_;dan (imperf. reord) to advise, counsel, guess; akin to D. raden to advise, G. raten, rathen, Icel. rāða, Goth. rēdan (in comp.), and perh. also to Skr. rādh to succeed. √116. Cf. Riddle.] 1. To advise; to counsel. [Obs.] See Rede.
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Therefore, I read thee, get thee to God's word, and thereby try all doctrine. Tyndale.
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2. To interpret; to explain; as, to read a riddle.
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3. To tell; to declare; to recite. [Obs.]
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But read how art thou named, and of what kin. Spenser.
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4. To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music; to read a book.
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Redeth [read ye] the great poet of Itaille. Chaucer.
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Well could he rede a lesson or a story. Chaucer.
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5. Hence, to know fully; to comprehend.
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Who is't can read a woman? Shak.
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6. To discover or understand by characters, marks, features, etc.; to learn by observation.
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An armed corse did lie,
In whose dead face he read great magnanimity.
Spenser.
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Those about her
From her shall read the perfect ways of honor.
Shak.
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7. To make a special study of, as by perusing textbooks; as, to read theology or law.
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To read one's self in, to read aloud the Thirty-nine Articles and the Declaration of Assent, -- required of a clergyman of the Church of England when he first officiates in a new benefice.
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Read
Read, v. i. 1. To give advice or counsel. [Obs.]
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2. To tell; to declare. [Obs.] Spenser.
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3. To perform the act of reading; to peruse, or to go over and utter aloud, the words of a book or other like document.
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So they read in the book of the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense. Neh. viii. 8.
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4. To study by reading; as, he read for the bar.
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5. To learn by reading.
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I have read of an Eastern king who put a judge to death for an iniquitous sentence. Swift.
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6. To appear in writing or print; to be expressed by, or consist of, certain words or characters; as, the passage reads thus in the early manuscripts.
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7. To produce a certain effect when read; as, that sentence reads queerly.
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To read between the lines, to infer something different from what is plainly indicated; to detect the real meaning as distinguished from the apparent meaning.
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Read
Read, n. [AS. r&aemacr_;d counsel, fr. r&aemacr_;dan to counsel. See Read, v. t.] 1. Saying; sentence; maxim; hence, word; advice; counsel. See Rede. [Obs.]
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2. [Read, v.] Reading. [Colloq.] Hume.
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One newswoman here lets magazines for a penny a read. Furnivall.
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Read
Read (r&ebreve_;d), imp. & p. p. of Read, v. t. & i.
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Read
Read (r&ebreve_;d), a. Instructed or knowing by reading; versed in books; learned.
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A poet . . . well read in Longinus. Addison.
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Readability
Read`a*bil"i*ty (rēd`&adot_;*b&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. The state of being readable; readableness.
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Readable
Read"a*ble (rēd"&adot_;*b'l), a. Such as can be read; legible; fit or suitable to be read; worth reading; interesting. -- Read"a*ble*ness, n. -- Read"a*bly, adv.
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Readdress
Re`ad*dress" (rē`ăd*dr&ebreve_;s"), v. t. To address a second time; -- often used reflexively.
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He readdressed himself to her. Boyle.
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Readept
Re`a*dept" (-&adot_;*d&ebreve_;pt"), v. t. [Pref. re- + L. adeptus, p. p. of adipisci to obtain.] To regain; to recover. [Obs.]
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Readeption
Re`a*dep"tion (-d&ebreve_;p"shŭn), n. A regaining; recovery of something lost. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Reader
Read"er (rēd"&etilde_;r), n. [AS. r&aemacr_;dere.] 1. One who reads. Specifically: (a) One whose distinctive office is to read prayers in a church. (b) (University of Oxford, Eng.) One who reads lectures on scientific subjects. Lyell. (c) A proof reader. (d) One who reads manuscripts offered for publication and advises regarding their merit.
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2. One who reads much; one who is studious.
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3. A book containing a selection of extracts for exercises in reading; an elementary book for practice in a language; a reading book.
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Readership
Read"er*ship, n. The office of reader. Lyell.
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Readily
Read"i*ly (r&ebreve_;d"&ibreve_;*l&ybreve_;), adv. 1. In a ready manner; quickly; promptly. Chaucer.
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2. Without delay or objection; without reluctance; willingly; cheerfully.
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How readily we wish time spent revoked! Cowper.
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Readiness
Read"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being ready; preparation; promptness; aptitude; willingness.
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They received the word with all readiness of mind. Acts xvii. 11.
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Syn. -- Facility; quickness; expedition; promptitude; promptness; aptitude; aptness; knack; skill; expertness; dexterity; ease; cheerfulness. See Facility.
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Reading
Read"ing (rēd"&ibreve_;ng), n. 1. The act of one who reads; perusal; also, printed or written matter to be read.
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2. Study of books; literary scholarship; as, a man of extensive reading.
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3. A lecture or prelection; public recital.
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The Jews had their weekly readings of the law. Hooker.
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4. The way in which anything reads; force of a word or passage presented by a documentary authority; lection; version.
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5. Manner of reciting, or acting a part, on the stage; way of rendering. [Cant]
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6. An observation read from the scale of a graduated instrument; as, the reading of a barometer.
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Reading of a bill (Legislation), its formal recital, by the proper officer, before the House which is to consider it.
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Reading
Read"ing, a. 1. Of or pertaining to the act of reading; used in reading.
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2. Addicted to reading; as, a reading community.
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Reading book, a book for teaching reading; a reader. -- Reading desk, a desk to support a book while reading; esp., a desk used while reading the service in a church. -- Reading glass, a large lens with more or less magnifying power, attached to a handle, and used in reading, etc. -- Reading man, one who reads much; hence, in the English universities, a close, industrious student. -- Reading room, a room appropriated to reading; a room provided with papers, periodicals, and the like, to which persons resort.
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Readjourn
Re`ad*journ" (rē`ăd*jûrn"), v. t. To adjourn a second time; to adjourn again.
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Readjournment
Re`ad*journ"ment (rē`ăd*jûrn"m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of readjourning; a second or repeated adjournment.
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Readjust
Re`ad*just" (rē`ăd*jŭst"), v. t. To adjust or settle again; to put in a different order or relation; to rearrange.
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Readjuster
Re`ad*just"er (rē`ăd*jŭst"&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, readjusts; in some of the States of the United States, one who advocates a refunding, and sometimes a partial repudiation, of the State debt without the consent of the State's creditors.
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Readjustment
Re`ad*just"ment (rē`ăd*jŭst"m&eitalic_;nt), n. A second adjustment; a new or different adjustment.
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Readmission
Re`ad*mis"sion (rē`ăd*m&ibreve_;sh"ŭn), n. The act of admitting again, or the state of being readmitted; as, the readmission of fresh air into an exhausted receiver; the readmission of a student into a seminary.
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Readmit
Re`ad*mit" (-m&ibreve_;t"), v. t. To admit again; to give entrance or access to again.
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Whose ear is ever open, and his eye
Gracious to readmit the suppliant.
Milton.
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Readmittance
Re`ad*mit"tance (-t&aitalic_;ns), n. Allowance to enter again; a second admission.
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Readopt
Re`a*dopt" (rē`&adot_;*d&obreve_;pt"), v. t. To adopt again. Young.
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Readorn
Re`a*dorn" (-dôrn"), v. t. To adorn again or anew.
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Readvance
Re`ad*vance" (rē`ăd*v&adot_;ns"), v. i. To advance again.
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Readvertency
Re`ad*vert"en*cy (rē`ăd*v&etilde_;rt"&eitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), n. The act of adverting to again, or of reviewing. [R.] Norris.
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Ready
Read"y (r&ebreve_;d"&ybreve_;), a. [Compar. Readier (r&ebreve_;d"&ibreve_;*&etilde_;r); superl. Readiest.] [AS. r&aemacr_;de; akin to D. gereed, bereid, G. bereit, Goth. garáids fixed, arranged, and possibly to E. ride, as meaning originally, prepared for riding. Cf. Array, 1st Curry.] 1. Prepared for what one is about to do or experience; equipped or supplied with what is needed for some act or event; prepared for immediate movement or action; as, the troops are ready to march; ready for the journey. “When she redy was.” Chaucer.
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2. Fitted or arranged for immediate use; causing no delay for lack of being prepared or furnished. “Dinner was ready.” Fielding.
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My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage. Matt. xxii. 4.
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3. Prepared in mind or disposition; not reluctant; willing; free; inclined; disposed.
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I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem, for the name of the Lord Jesus. Acts xxi. 13.
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If need be, I am ready to forego
And quit.
Milton.
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4. Not slow or hesitating; quick in action or perception of any kind; dexterous; prompt; easy; expert; as, a ready apprehension; ready wit; a ready writer or workman.Ready in devising expedients.” Macaulay.
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Gurth, whose temper was ready, though surly. Sir W. Scott.
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5. Offering itself at once; at hand; opportune; convenient; near; easy. “The readiest way.” Milton.
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A sapling pine he wrenched from out the ground,
The readiest weapon that his fury found.
Dryden.
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6. On the point; about; on the brink; near; -- with a following infinitive.
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My heart is ready to crack. Shak.
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7. (Mil.) A word of command, or a position, in the manual of arms, at which the piece is cocked and held in position to execute promptly the next command, which is, aim.
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All ready, ready in every particular; wholly equipped or prepared. “[I] am all redy at your hest.” Chaucer. -- Ready money, means of immediate payment; cash. “'T is all the ready money fate can give.” Cowley. -- Ready reckoner, a book of tables for facilitating computations, as of interest, prices, etc. -- To make ready, to make preparation; to get in readiness.
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Syn. -- Prompt; expeditious; speedy; unhesitating; dexterous; apt; skillful; handy; expert; facile; easy; opportune; fitted; prepared; disposed; willing; free; cheerful. See Prompt.
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Ready
Read"y (r&ebreve_;d"&ybreve_;), adv. In a state of preparation for immediate action; so as to need no delay.
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We ourselves will go ready armed. Num. xxxii. 17.
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Ready
Read"y, n. Ready money; cash; -- commonly with the; as, he was well supplied with the ready. [Slang]
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Lord Strut was not flush in ready, either to go to law, or to clear old debts. Arbuthnot.
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Ready
Read"y, v. t. To dispose in order. [Obs.] Heywood.
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Ready-made
Read"y-made` (r&ebreve_;d"&ybreve_;-mād`), a. Made already, or beforehand, in anticipation of need; not made to order; as, ready-made clothing; ready-made jokes.
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Ready-witted
Read"y-wit`ted (r&ebreve_;d"&ybreve_;-w&ibreve_;t`t&ebreve_;d), a. Having ready wit.
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Reaffirm
Re`af*firm" (rē`ăf*f&etilde_;rm"), v. t. To affirm again.
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Reaffirmation
Reaffirmance
{ Re`af*firm"ance (rē`ăf*f&etilde_;rm"&aitalic_;ns), Re*af`fir*ma"tion (rē*ăf`f&etilde_;r*mā"shŭn), } n. A second affirmation.
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reafforest
re-afforest
re`af*for"est (rē`ăf*f&obreve_;r"&ebreve_;st), v. t. To convert again into a forest, as a region of country; to re-establish a forest after clear-cutting or fire, etc.; -- used more often without the hyphen.
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Reafforestation
Re`af*for`es*ta"tion (-&ebreve_;s*tā"shŭn), n. The act or process of converting again into a forest.
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Reagent
Re*a"gent (r&euptack_;*ā"j&eitalic_;nt), n. (Chem.) A substance capable of producing with another a reaction, especially when employed to detect the presence of other bodies; a test.
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Reaggravation
Re*ag`gra*va"tion (r&euptack_;*ăg`gr&adot_;*vā"shŭn), n. (R. C. Ch.) The last monitory, published after three admonitions and before the last excommunication.
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Reagree
Re`a*gree" (rē`&adot_;*grē"), v. i. To agree again.
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Reak
Reak (rēk), n. [√115. Cf. Wrack seaweed.] A rush. [Obs.] “Feeds on reaks and reeds.” Drant.
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Reak
Reak, n. [Cf. Icel. hrekkr, or E. wreak vengeance.] A prank. [Obs.] “They play such reaks.” Beau. & Fl.
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Real
Re"al (rē"&aitalic_;l), n. [Sp., fr. real royal, L. regalis. See Regal, and cf. Ree a coin.] A former small Spanish silver coin; also, a denomination of money of account, formerly the unit of the Spanish monetary system.
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&hand_; A real of plate (coin) varied in value according to the time of its coinage, from 121/2 down to 10 cents, or from 61/2 to 5 pence sterling. The real vellon, or money of account, was nearly equal to five cents, or 21/2 pence sterling. In 1871 the coinage of Spain was assimilated to that of the Latin Union, of which the franc is the unit. The peseta was introduced in 1868, and continued as the official currency of Spain (splitting temporarily into Nationalist and Republican pesetas during the civil war of the 1930's) until 2002. In 2002, the euro became the official currency of Spain and most other nations of the European Union.
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Real
Re*al" (r&auptack_;*äl"), a. Royal; regal; kingly. [Obs.] “The blood real of Thebes.” Chaucer.
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Real
Re"al (rē"&aitalic_;l), a. [LL. realis, fr. L. res, rei, a thing: cf. F. réel. Cf. Rebus.] 1. Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as, a description of real life.
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Whereat I waked, and found
Before mine eyes all real, as the dream
Had lively shadowed.
Milton.
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2. True; genuine; not artificial, counterfeit, or factitious; often opposed to ostensible; as, the real reason; real Madeira wine; real ginger.
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Whose perfection far excelled
Hers in all real dignity.
Milton.
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3. Relating to things, not to persons. [Obs.]
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Many are perfect in men's humors that are not greatly capable of the real part of business. Bacon.
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4. (Alg.) Having an assignable arithmetical or numerical value or meaning; not imaginary.
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5. (Law) Pertaining to things fixed, permanent, or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as, real property, in distinction from personal or movable property.
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Chattels real (Law), such chattels as are annexed to, or savor of, the realty, as terms for years of land. See Chattel. -- Real action (Law), an action for the recovery of real property. -- Real assets (Law), lands or real estate in the hands of the heir, chargeable with the debts of the ancestor. -- Real composition (Eccl. Law), an agreement made between the owner of lands and the parson or vicar, with consent of the ordinary, that such lands shall be discharged from payment of tithes, in consequence of other land or recompense given to the parson in lieu and satisfaction thereof. Blackstone. -- Real estate or Real property, lands, tenements, and hereditaments; freehold interests in landed property; property in houses and land. Kent. Burrill. -- Real presence (R. C. Ch.), the actual presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist, or the conversion of the substance of the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Christ; transubstantiation. In other churches there is a belief in a form of real presence, not however in the sense of transubstantiation. -- Real servitude, called also Predial servitude (Civil Law), a burden imposed upon one estate in favor of another estate of another proprietor. Erskine. Bouvier.
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Syn. -- Actual; true; genuine; authentic. -- Real, Actual. Real represents a thing to be a substantive existence; as, a real, not imaginary, occurrence. Actual refers to it as acted or performed; and, hence, when we wish to prove a thing real, we often say, “It actually exists,” “It has actually been done.” Thus its reality is shown by its actuality. Actual, from this reference to being acted, has recently received a new signification, namely, present; as, the actual posture of affairs; since what is now in action, or going on, has, of course, a present existence. An actual fact; a real sentiment.
[1913 Webster] For he that but conceives a crime in thought,
Contracts the danger of an actual fault.
Dryden.
[1913 Webster] Our simple ideas are all real; all agree to the reality of things. Locke.

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Real
Re"al (rē"&aitalic_;l), n. A realist. [Obs.] Burton.
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Realgar
Re*al"gar (r&euptack_;*ăl"g&etilde_;r), n. [F. réalgar, Sp. rejalgar, Ar. rahj al ghār powder of the mine.] (Min.) Arsenic sulphide, a mineral of a brilliant red color; red orpiment. It is also an artificial product.
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realign
re-align
realign, re-align v. t. To align anew or better; as, realign the wheels of my car; realign my jaw. Usually used without the hyphen.
[WordNet 1.5]

Realism
Re"al*ism (rē"&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;z'm), n. [Cf. F. réalisme.] 1. (Philos.) (a) As opposed to nominalism, the doctrine that genera and species are real things or entities, existing independently of our conceptions. According to realism the Universal exists ante rem (Plato), or in re (Aristotle). (b) As opposed to idealism, the doctrine that in sense perception there is an immediate cognition of the external object, and our knowledge of it is not mediate and representative.
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2. (Art & Lit.) Fidelity to nature or to real life; representation without idealization, and making no appeal to the imagination; adherence to the actual fact.
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3. the practise of assessing facts and the probabilities of the consequences of actions in an objective manner; avoidance of unrealistic or impractical beliefs or efforts. Contrasted to idealism, self-deception, overoptimism, overimaginativeness, or visionariness.
[PJC]

Realist
Re"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. réaliste.] 1. (Philos.) One who believes in realism; esp., one who maintains that generals, or the terms used to denote the genera and species of things, represent real existences, and are not mere names, as maintained by the nominalists.
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2. (Art. & Lit.) An artist or writer who aims at realism in his work. See Realism, 2.
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3. a person who avoids unrealistic or impractical beliefs or efforts. Contrasted to idealist or visionary.
[PJC]

Realistic
Re`al*is"tic (-&ibreve_;s"t&ibreve_;k), a. Of or pertaining to the realists; in the manner of the realists; characterized by realism rather than by imagination.
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Realistically
Re`al*is"tic*al*ly, adv. In a realistic manner.
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Reality
Re*al"i*ty (r&euptack_;*ăl"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n.; pl. Realities (-t&ibreve_;z). [Cf. F. réalité, LL. realitas. See 3d Real, and cf. 2d Realty.] 1. The state or quality of being real; actual being or existence of anything, in distinction from mere appearance; fact.
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A man fancies that he understands a critic, when in reality he does not comprehend his meaning. Addison.
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2. That which is real; an actual existence; that which is not imagination, fiction, or pretense; that which has objective existence, and is not merely an idea.
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And to realities yield all her shows. Milton.
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My neck may be an idea to you, but it is a reality to me. Beattie.
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3. [See 1st Realty, 2.] Loyalty; devotion. [Obs.]
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To express our reality to the emperor. Fuller.
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4. (Law) See 2d Realty, 2.
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Realizable
Re"al*i`za*ble (rē"&aitalic_;l*ī`z&adot_;*b'l), a. Capable of being realized.
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Realization
Re`al*i*za"tion (rē`&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. réalisation.] The act of realizing, or the state of being realized.
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Realize
Re"al*ize (rē"&aitalic_;l*īz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Realized (-īzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Realizing (-ī`z&ibreve_;ng).] [Cf. F. réaliser.] 1. To make real; to convert from the imaginary or fictitious into the actual; to bring into concrete existence; to effectuate; to accomplish; as, to realize a scheme or project.
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We realize what Archimedes had only in hypothesis, weighing a single grain against the globe of earth. Glanvill.
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2. To cause to seem real; to impress upon the mind as actual; to feel vividly or strongly; to make one's own in apprehension or experience.
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Many coincidences . . . soon begin to appear in them [Greek inscriptions] which realize ancient history to us. Jowett.
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We can not realize it in thought, that the object . . . had really no being at any past moment. Sir W. Hamilton.
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3. To convert into real property; to make real estate of; as, to realize his fortune.
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4. To acquire as an actual possession; to obtain as the result of plans and efforts; to gain; to get; as, to realize large profits from a speculation.
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Knighthood was not beyond the reach of any man who could by diligent thrift realize a good estate. Macaulay.
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5. To convert into actual money; as, to realize assets.
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Realize
Re"al*ize, v. i. To convert any kind of property into money, especially property representing investments, as shares in stock companies, bonds, etc.
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Wary men took the alarm, and began to realize, a word now first brought into use to express the conversion of ideal property into something real. W. Irving.
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Realizer
Re"al*i`zer (-ī`z&etilde_;r), n. One who realizes. Coleridge.
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Realizing
Re"al*i`zing (-z&ibreve_;ng), a. Serving to make real, or to impress on the mind as a reality; as, a realizing view of the danger incurred. -- Re"al*i`zing*ly, adv.
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Reallege
Re`al*lege" (-ăl*l&ebreve_;j"), v. t. To allege again. Cotgrave.
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Realliance
Re`al*li"ance (-lī"&aitalic_;ns), n. A renewed alliance.
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Re-ally
Re"-al*ly" (-lī"), v. t. [Pref. re- + ally, v. t.] To bring together again; to compose or form anew. Spenser.
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Really
Re"al*ly` (rā"äl*lē`), adv. Royally. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Really
Re"al*ly (rē"&aitalic_;l*l&ybreve_;), adv. In a real manner; with or in reality; actually; in truth.
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Whose anger is really but a short fit of madness. Swift.
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&hand_; Really is often used familiarly as a slight corroboration of an opinion or a declaration.
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Why, really, sixty-five is somewhat old. Young.
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Realm
Realm (r&ebreve_;lm), n. [OE. realme, ream, reaume, OF. reialme, roialme, F. royaume, fr. (assumed) LL. regalimen, from L. regalis royal. See Regal.] 1. A royal jurisdiction or domain; a region which is under the dominion of a king; a kingdom.
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The absolute master of realms on which the sun perpetually shone. Motley.
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2. Hence, in general, province; region; country; domain; department; division; as, the realm of fancy.
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Realmless
Realm"less, a. Destitute of a realm. Keats.
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Realness
Re"al*ness (rē"&aitalic_;l*n&ebreve_;s), n. The quality or condition of being real; reality.
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Realty
Re"al*ty (-t&ybreve_;), n. [OF. réalté, LL. regalitas, fr. L. regalis. See Regal.] 1. Royalty. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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2. Loyalty; faithfulness. [R.] Milton.
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Realty
Re"al*ty, n. [Contr. from 1st Reality.] 1. Reality. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.
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2. (Law) (a) Immobility, or the fixed, permanent nature of real property; as, chattels which savor of the realty; -- so written in legal language for reality. (b) Real estate; a piece of real property. Blackstone.
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Ream
Ream (rēm), n. [AS. reám, akin to G. rahm.] Cream; also, the cream or froth on ale. [Scot.]
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Ream
Ream, v. i. To cream; to mantle. [Scot.]
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A huge pewter measuring pot which, in the language of the hostess, reamed with excellent claret. Sir W. Scott.
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Ream
Ream, v. t. [Cf. Reim.] To stretch out; to draw out into thongs, threads, or filaments.
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Ream
Ream, n. [OE. reme, OF. rayme, F. rame (cf. Sp. resma), fr. Ar. rizma a bundle, especially of paper.] A bundle, package, or quantity of paper, usually consisting of twenty quires or 480 sheets.
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Printer's ream, twenty-one and a half quires. [Eng.] A common practice is now to count five hundred sheets to the ream. Knight.
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Ream
Ream, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reamed (rēmd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaming.] [Cf. G. räumen to remove, to clear away, fr. raum room. See Room.] To bevel out, as the mouth of a hole in wood or metal; in modern usage, to enlarge or dress out, as a hole, with a reamer.
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Reame
Reame (rēm), n. Realm. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Reamer
Ream"er (-&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, reams; specifically, an instrument with cutting or scraping edges, used, with a twisting motion, for enlarging a round hole, as the bore of a cannon, etc.
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Reamputation
Re*am`pu*ta"tion (rē*ăm`p&uuptack_;*tā"shŭn), n. (Surg.) The second of two amputations performed upon the same member.
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Reanimate
Re*an"i*mate (r&euptack_;*ăn"&ibreve_;*māt), v. t. To animate anew; to restore to animation or life; to infuse new life, vigor, spirit, or courage into; to revive; to reinvigorate; as, to reanimate a drowned person; to reanimate disheartened troops; to reanimate languid spirits. Glanvill.
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Reanimation
Re*an`i*ma"tion (r&euptack_;*ăn"&ibreve_;*mā"shŭn), n. The act or operation of reanimating, or the state of being reanimated; reinvigoration; revival.
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Reannex
Re`an*nex" (rē`ăn*n&ebreve_;ks"), v. t. To annex again or anew; to reunite. “To reannex that duchy.” Bacon.
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Reannexation
Re*an`nex*a"tion (-ā"shŭn), n. Act of reannexing.
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Reanswer
Re*an"swer (r&euptack_;*ăn"s&etilde_;r), v. t. & i. To answer in return; to repay; to compensate; to make amends for.
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Which in weight to reanswer, his pettiness would bow under. Shak.
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Reap
Reap (rēp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reaped (rēpt); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaping.] [OE. repen, AS. rīpan to seize, reap; cf. D. rapen to glean, reap, G. raufen to pluck, Goth. raupjan, or E. ripe.] 1. To cut with a sickle, scythe, or reaping machine, as grain; to gather, as a harvest, by cutting.
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When ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field. Lev. xix. 9.
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2. To gather; to obtain; to receive as a reward or harvest, or as the fruit of labor or of works; -- in a good or a bad sense; as, to reap a benefit from exertions.
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Why do I humble thus myself, and, suing
For peace, reap nothing but repulse and hate?
Milton.
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3. To clear of a crop by reaping; as, to reap a field.
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4. To deprive of the beard; to shave. [R.] Shak.
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Reaping hook, an implement having a hook-shaped blade, used in reaping; a sickle; -- in a specific sense, distinguished from a sickle by a blade keen instead of serrated.
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Reap
Reap, v. i. To perform the act or operation of reaping; to gather a harvest.
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They that sow in tears shall reap in joy. Ps. cxxvi. 5.
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Reap
Reap, n. [Cf. AS. rīp harvest. See Reap, v.] A bundle of grain; a handful of grain laid down by the reaper as it is cut. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Wright.
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Reaper
Reap"er (rēp"&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who reaps.
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The sun-burned reapers wiping their foreheads. Macaulay.
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2. A reaping machine.
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Reapparel
Re`ap*par"el (rē`ăp*păr"&ebreve_;l), v. t. To clothe again.
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Reappear
Re`ap*pear" (rē`ăp*pēr"), v. i. To appear again.
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Reappearance
Re`ap*pear"ance (-&aitalic_;ns), n. A second or new appearance; the act or state of appearing again.
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Reapplication
Re*ap`pli*ca"tion (rē*ăp`pl&ibreve_;*kā"shŭn), n. The act of reapplying, or the state of being reapplied.
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Reapply
Re`ap*ply" (rē`ăp*plī"), v. t. & i. To apply again.
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Reappoint
Re`ap*point" (-point"), v. t. To appoint again.
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Reappointment
Re`ap*point"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of reappointing, or the state of being reappointed.
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Reapportion
Re`ap*por"tion (-pōr"shŭn), v. t. To apportion again.
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Reapportionment
Re`ap*por"tion*ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. A second or a new apportionment.
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Reapproach
Re`ap*proach" (rē`ăp*prōch"), v. i. & t. To approach again or anew.
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Rear
Rear (rēr), adv. Early; soon. [Prov. Eng.]
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Then why does Cuddy leave his cot so rear? Gay.
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Rear
Rear, n. [OF. riere behind, backward, fr. L. retro. Cf. Arrear.] 1. The back or hindmost part; that which is behind, or last in order; -- opposed to front.
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Nipped with the lagging rear of winter's frost. Milton.
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2. Specifically, the part of an army or fleet which comes last, or is stationed behind the rest.
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When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear. Milton.
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Rear
Rear, a. Being behind, or in the hindmost part; hindmost; as, the rear rank of a company.
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Rear admiral, an officer in the navy, next in rank below a vice admiral and above a commodore. See Admiral. -- Rear front (Mil.), the rear rank of a body of troops when faced about and standing in that position. -- Rear guard (Mil.), the division of an army that marches in the rear of the main body to protect it; -- used also figuratively. -- Rear line (Mil.), the line in the rear of an army. -- Rear rank (Mil.), the rank or line of a body of troops which is in the rear, or last in order. -- Rear sight (Firearms), the sight nearest the breech. -- To bring up the rear, to come last or behind.
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Rear
Rear (rēr), v. t. To place in the rear; to secure the rear of. [R.]
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Rear
Rear, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reared (rērd); p. pr. & vb. n. Rearing.] [AS. r&aemacr_;ran to raise, rear, elevate, for r&aemacr_;san, causative of rīsan to rise. See Rise, and cf. Raise.] 1. To raise; to lift up; to cause to rise, become erect, etc.; to elevate; as, to rear a monolith.
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In adoration at his feet I fell
Submiss; he reared me.
Milton.
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It reareth our hearts from vain thoughts. Barrow.
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Mine [shall be] the first hand to rear her banner. Ld. Lytton.
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2. To erect by building; to set up; to construct; as, to rear defenses or houses; to rear one government on the ruins of another.
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One reared a font of stone. Tennyson.
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3. To lift and take up. [Obs. or R.]
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And having her from Trompart lightly reared,
Upon his courser set the lovely load.
Spenser.
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4. To bring up to maturity, as young; to educate; to instruct; to foster; as, to rear offspring.
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He wants a father to protect his youth,
And rear him up to virtue.
Southern.
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5. To breed and raise; as, to rear cattle.
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6. To rouse; to stir up. [Obs.]
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And seeks the tusky boar to rear. Dryden.
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Syn. -- To lift; elevate; erect; raise; build; establish. See the Note under Raise, 3 (c).
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Rear
Rear, v. i. To rise up on the hind legs, as a horse; to become erect.
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Rearing bit, a bit designed to prevent a horse from lifting his head when rearing. Knight.
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Reardoss
Reardorse
{ Rear"dorse (-dôrs), Rear"doss (-d&obreve_;s) }, n. A reredos.
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Rearer
Rear"er (rēr"&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, rears.
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Reargue
re-argue
Re*ar"gue, Re-ar"gue (rē*är"gū), v. t. To argue anew or again; as, This politician will be forced into re-arguing an old national campaign. Usually used without the hyphen.
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Reargument
Re*ar"gu*ment (-g&uuptack_;*m&eitalic_;nt), n. An arguing over again, as of a motion made in court.
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Rear-horse
Rear"-horse` (rēr"hôrs`), n. [So called because it rears up when disturbed.] (Zool.) A mantis.
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Rearly
Rear"ly, adv. Early. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.
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rearm
re-arm
re-arm, re-arm v. t. To arm (a person, group, or country) again; as, After the war, the defeated country was not rearmed by the victors. Usually used without the hyphen.
Syn. -- rearm.
[WordNet 1.5]

rearm
re-arm
re-arm, re-arm v. i. To become armed again; as, after the war, the defeated country rapidly rearmed. Usually used without the hyphen.
[WordNet 1.5]

Rearmost
Rear"most` (-mōst`), a. Farthest in the rear; last.
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Rearmouse
Reremouse
{ Rear"mouse`, Rere"mouse` (-mous`) }, n. [AS. hrēremūs; probably fr. hrēran to agitate, stir (akin to G. rühren, Icel. hræra) + mūs mouse.] (Zool.) The leather-winged bat (Vespertilio murinus). [Written also reermouse.]
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Rearrange
re-arrange
re`-ar*range", Re`ar*range" (rē`ăr*rānj"), v. t. To arrange again; to put into a different order; to arrange in a different way; as, Please re-arrange these files in alphabetical order. Usually used without the hyphen.
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Rearrangement
Re`ar*range"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of rearranging, or the state of being rearranged.
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Rearward
Rear"ward` (rēr"w&asuml_;rd`-w&etilde_;rd), n. [Rear + ward.] The last troop; the rear of an army; a rear guard. Also used figuratively. Shak.
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Rearward
Rear"ward (-w&etilde_;rd), a. & adv. At or toward the rear.
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Reascend
Re`as*cend" (rē`ăs*s&ebreve_;nd"), v. i. To rise, mount, or climb again.
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Reascend
Re`as*cend", v. t. To ascend or mount again; to reach by ascending again.
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He mounts aloft, and reascends the skies. Addison.
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Reascension
Re`as*cen"sion (-s&ebreve_;n"shŭn), n. The act of reascending; a remounting.
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Reascent
Re`as*cent" (-s&ebreve_;nt"), n. A returning ascent or ascension; acclivity. Cowper.
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Reason
Rea"son (rē"z'n), n. [OE. resoun, F. raison, fr. L. ratio (akin to Goth. raþjō number, account, garaþjan to count, G. rede speech, reden to speak), fr. reri, ratus, to reckon, believe, think. Cf. Arraign, Rate, Ratio, Ration.] 1. A thought or a consideration offered in support of a determination or an opinion; a just ground for a conclusion or an action; that which is offered or accepted as an explanation; the efficient cause of an occurrence or a phenomenon; a motive for an action or a determination; proof, more or less decisive, for an opinion or a conclusion; principle; efficient cause; final cause; ground of argument.
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I'll give him reasons for it. Shak.
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The reason of the motion of the balance in a wheel watch is by the motion of the next wheel. Sir M. Hale.
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This reason did the ancient fathers render, why the church was called “catholic.” Bp. Pearson.
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Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things; but there is a natural and eternal reason for that goodness and virtue, and against vice and wickedness. Tillotson.
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2. The faculty or capacity of the human mind by which it is distinguished from the intelligence of the inferior animals; the higher as distinguished from the lower cognitive faculties, sense, imagination, and memory, and in contrast to the feelings and desires. Reason comprises conception, judgment, reasoning, and the intuitional faculty. Specifically, it is the intuitional faculty, or the faculty of first truths, as distinguished from the understanding, which is called the discursive or ratiocinative faculty.
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We have no other faculties of perceiving or knowing anything divine or human, but by our five senses and our reason. P. Browne.
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In common and popular discourse, reason denotes that power by which we distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong, and by which we are enabled to combine means for the attainment of particular ends. Stewart.
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Reason is used sometimes to express the whole of those powers which elevate man above the brutes, and constitute his rational nature, more especially, perhaps, his intellectual powers; sometimes to express the power of deduction or argumentation. Stewart.
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By the pure reason I mean the power by which we become possessed of principles. Coleridge.
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The sense perceives; the understanding, in its own peculiar operation, conceives; the reason, or rationalized understanding, comprehends. Coleridge.
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3. Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice.
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I was promised, on a time,
To have reason for my rhyme.
Spenser.
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But law in a free nation hath been ever public reason; the enacted reason of a parliament, which he denying to enact, denies to govern us by that which ought to be our law; interposing his own private reason, which to us is no law. Milton.
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The most probable way of bringing France to reason would be by the making an attempt on the Spanish West Indies. Addison.
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4. (Math.) Ratio; proportion. [Obs.] Barrow.
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By reason of, by means of; on account of; because of. “Spain is thin sown of people, partly by reason of the sterility of the soil.” Bacon. -- In reason, In all reason, in justice; with rational ground; in a right view.
[1913 Webster] When anything is proved by as good arguments as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not, in reason, to doubt of its existence. Tillotson.
[1913 Webster] -- It is reason, it is reasonable; it is right. [Obs.]
[1913 Webster] Yet it were great reason, that those that have children should have greatest care of future times. Bacon.

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Syn. -- Motive; argument; ground; consideration; principle; sake; account; object; purpose; design. See Motive, Sense.
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Reason
Rea"son (rē"z'n), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reasoned (rē"z'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reasoning.] [Cf. F. raisonner. See Reason, n.] 1. To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.
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2. Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue.
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Stand still, that I may reason with you, before the Lord, of all the righteous acts of the Lord. 1 Sam. xii. 7.
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3. To converse; to compare opinions. Shak.
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Reason
Rea"son, v. t. 1. To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss; as, I reasoned the matter with my friend.
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When they are clearly discovered, well digested, and well reasoned in every part, there is beauty in such a theory. T. Burnet.
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2. To support with reasons, as a request. [R.] Shak.
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3. To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to reason one into a belief; to reason one out of his plan.
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Men that will not be reasoned into their senses. L'Estrange.
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4. To overcome or conquer by adducing reasons; -- with down; as, to reason down a passion.
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5. To find by logical processes; to explain or justify by reason or argument; -- usually with out; as, to reason out the causes of the librations of the moon.
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Reasonable
Rea"son*a*ble (rē"z'n*&adot_;*b'l), a. [OE. resonable, F. raisonnable, fr. L. rationabilis. See Reason, n.] 1. Having the faculty of reason; endued with reason; rational; as, a reasonable being.
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2. Governed by reason; being under the influence of reason; thinking, speaking or acting rationally, or according to the dictates of reason; agreeable to reason; just; rational; as, the measure must satisfy all reasonable men.
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By indubitable certainty, I mean that which doth not admit of any reasonable cause of doubting. Bp. Wilkins.
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Men have no right to what is not reasonable. Burke.
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3. Not excessive or immoderate; within due limits; proper; as, a reasonable demand, amount, price.
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Let . . . all things be thought upon
That may, with reasonable swiftness, add
More feathers to our wings.
Shak.
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Syn. -- Rational; just; honest; equitable; fair; suitable; moderate; tolerable. See Rational.
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Reasonable
Rea"son*a*ble, adv. Reasonably; tolerably. [Obs.]
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I have a reasonable good ear in music. Shak.
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Reasonableness
Rea"son*a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being reasonable.
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Reasonably
Rea"son*a*bly, adv. 1. In a reasonable manner.
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2. Moderately; tolerably.Reasonably perfect in the language.” Holder.
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Reasoner
Rea"son*er (rē"z'n*&etilde_;r), n. One who reasons or argues; as, a fair reasoner; a close reasoner; a logical reasoner.
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Reasoning
Rea"son*ing, n. 1. The act or process of adducing a reason or reasons; manner of presenting one's reasons.
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2. That which is offered in argument; proofs or reasons when arranged and developed; course of argument.
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His reasoning was sufficiently profound. Macaulay.
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Syn. -- Argumentation; argument. -- Reasoning, Argumentation. Few words are more interchanged than these; and yet, technically, there is a difference between them. Reasoning is the broader term, including both deduction and induction. Argumentation denotes simply the former, and descends from the whole to some included part; while reasoning embraces also the latter, and ascends from the parts to a whole. See Induction. Reasoning is occupied with ideas and their relations; argumentation has to do with the forms of logic. A thesis is set down: you attack, I defend it; you insist, I reply; you deny, I prove; you distinguish, I destroy your distinctions; my replies balance or overturn your objections. Such is argumentation. It supposes that there are two sides, and that both agree to the same rules. Reasoning, on the other hand, is often a natural process, by which we form, from the general analogy of nature, or special presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or weakened by subsequent experience.
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Reasonist
Rea"son*ist, n. A rationalist. [Obs.]
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Such persons are now commonly called “reasonists” and “rationalists,” to distinguish them from true reasoners and rational inquirers. Waterland.
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Reasonless
Rea"son*less, a. 1. Destitute of reason; as, a reasonless man or mind. Shak.
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2. Void of reason; not warranted or supported by reason; unreasonable.
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This proffer is absurd and reasonless. Shak.
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reassail
re-assail
re`as*sail", re`-as*sail" v. t. To assail again; as, Her old fears reassailed her. Usually used without the hyphen.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reassemblage
Re`as*sem"blage (rē`ăs*s&ebreve_;m"bl&auptack_;j), n. Assemblage a second time or again.
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Reassemble
re-assemble
Re`as*sem"ble, Re`-as*sem"ble (rē`ăs*s&ebreve_;m"b'l), v. t. & i. To assemble again; -- usually after having taking something apart. Usually used without the hyphen.
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Reassert
Re`as*sert" (rē`ăs*s&etilde_;rt"), v. t. To assert again or anew; to maintain after an omission to do so.
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Let us hope . . . we may have a body of authors who will reassert our claim to respectability in literature. Walsh.
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Reassertion
Re`as*ser"tion (rē`ăs*s&etilde_;r"shŭn), n. A second or renewed assertion of the same thing.
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re-assess
re-assess
re`as*sess", re`-as*sess" v. t. To revise or renew one's assessment of; as, we need to reassess our position to include the new information. Usually used without the hyphen.
Syn. -- re-evaluate, reevaluate.
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

Reassessment
Re`as*sess"ment (rē`ăs*s&ebreve_;s"m&eitalic_;nt, n. A renewed or second assessment.
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Reassign
Re`as*sign" (rē`ăs*sīn"), v. t. To assign back or again; to transfer back what has been assigned.
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Reassignment
Re`as*sign"ment (rē`ăs*sīn"m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of reassigning.
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Reassimilate
Re`as*sim"i*late (rē`ăs*s&ibreve_;m"&ibreve_;*lāt), v. t. & i. To assimilate again. -- Re`as*sim`i*la"tion (rē`ăs*s&ibreve_;m"&ibreve_;*lā"shŭn), n.
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Reassociate
Re`as*so"ci*ate (rē`ăs*sō"sh&ibreve_;*āt), v. t. & i. To associate again; to bring again into close relations.
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Reassume
Re`as*sume" (rē`ăs*sūm"), v. t. To assume again or anew; to resume. -- Re`as*sump"tion (rē`ăs*sŭmp"shŭn), n.
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Reassurance
Re`as*sur"ance (rē`&adot_;*sh&usuml_;r"&aitalic_;ns), n. 1. Assurance or confirmation renewed or repeated. Prynne.
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2. (Law) Same as Reinsurance.
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Reassure
Re`as*sure" (rē`&adot_;*sh&usuml_;r"), v. t. 1. To assure anew; to restore confidence to; to free from fear or terror.
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They rose with fear, . . .
Till dauntless Pallas reassured the rest.
Dryden.
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2. To reinsure.
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Reassurer
Re`as*sur"er (rē`&adot_;*sh&usuml_;r"&etilde_;r), n. One who reassures.
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Reasty
Reas"ty (rēs"t&ybreve_;), a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Rusty and rancid; -- applied to salt meat. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Tusser. -- Reas"ti*ness (rēs"t&ibreve_;*n&ebreve_;s), n. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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Reata
Re*a"ta (r&auptack_;*ä"t&adot_;), n. [Sp.] A lariat.
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Reattach
Re`at*tach" (rē`ăt*tăch"), v. t. To attach again. The object reattached may have been an integral part which had never been "attached" (trans), e.g., to reattach a severed finger.
[1913 Webster +PJC]

Reattachment
Re`at*tach"ment (rē`ăt*tăch"m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of reattaching; a second attachment.
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Reattain
Re`at*tain" (rē`ăt*tān"), v. t. To attain again.
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Reattainment
Re`at*tain"ment (rē`ăt*tān"m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of reattaining.
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Reattempt
Re`at*tempt" (rē`ăt*t&ebreve_;mt"; 215), v. t. To attempt again.
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reattribute
re-attribute
reattribute, re-attribute v. t. To attribute to another source or cause. Usually used without the hyphen.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reaume
Re"aume (rē"&asuml_;m), n. Realm. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Reaumur
Ré`au`mur" (r&auptack_;`ō`m&usdot_;r"), a. Of or pertaining to René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur; conformed to the scale adopted by Réaumur in graduating the thermometer he invented. -- n. A Réaumur thermometer or scale.
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&hand_; The Réaumur thermometer is so graduated that 0° marks the freezing point and 80° the boiling point of water. Frequently indicated by R. Cf. Centigrade, and Fahrenheit. See Illust. of Thermometer.
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Reave
Reave (rēv), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reaved (rēvd), Reft (r&ebreve_;ft), or Raft (r&adot_;ft) (obs.); p. pr. & vb. n. Reaving.] [AS. reáfian, from reáf spoil, plunder, clothing, reófan to break (cf. bireófan to deprive of); akin to G. rauben to rob, Icel. raufa to rob, rjūfa to break, violate, Goth. biráubōn to despoil, L. rumpere to break; cf. Skr. lup to break. √114. Cf. Bereave, Rob, v. t., Robe, Rove, v. i., Rupture.] To take away by violence or by stealth; to snatch away; to rob; to despoil; to bereave. [Archaic]. “To reave his life.” Spenser.
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He golden apples raft of the dragon. Chaucer.
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If the wooers reave
By privy stratagem my life at home.
Chapman.
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To reave the orphan of his patrimony. Shak.
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The heathen caught and reft him of his tongue. Tennyson.
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Reaver
Reav"er (rēv"&etilde_;r), n. One who reaves. [Archaic]
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Reawake
Re`a*wake" (rē`&adot_;*wāk"), v. i. To awake again.
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reawaken
re-awaken
reawaken, re-awaken v. t. & i. To awaken once again. Usually used without the hyphen.
[WordNet 1.5]

Rebanish
Re*ban"ish (rē*băn"&ibreve_;sh), v. t. To banish again.
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Rebaptism
Re*bap"tism (rē*băp"t&ibreve_;z'm), n. A second baptism.
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Rebaptization
Re*bap`ti*za"tion (rē*băp`t&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. rebaptisation.] A second baptism. [Obs.] Hooker.
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Rebaptize
Re`bap*tize" (rē`băp*tīz"), v. t. [Pref. re- + baptize: cf. F. rebaptiser, L. rebaptizare.] To baptize again or a second time.
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Rebaptizer
Re`bap*tiz"er (rē`băp*tīz"&etilde_;r), n. One who rebaptizes.
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Rebarbarize
Re*bar"ba*rize (rē*bär"b&adot_;*rīz), v. t. To reduce again to barbarism. -- Re*bar`ba*ri*za"tion (rē*bär"b&adot_;*r&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n.
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Germany . . . rebarbarized by polemical theology and religious wars. Sir W. Hamilton.
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Rebate
Re*bate" (r&euptack_;*bāt"), v. t. [F. rebattre to beat again; pref. re- re- + battre to beat, L. batuere to beat, strike. See Abate.] 1. To beat to obtuseness; to deprive of keenness; to blunt; to turn back the point of, as a lance used for exercise.
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But doth rebate and blunt his natural edge. Shak.
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2. To deduct from; to make a discount from, as interest due, or customs duties. Blount.
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3. To return a portion of a sum paid, as a method of discounting of prices.
[PJC]

Rebated cross, a cross which has the extremities of the arms bent back at right angles, as in the fylfot.
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Rebate
Re*bate", v. i. To abate; to withdraw. [Obs.] Foxe.
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Rebate
Re*bate", n. 1. Diminution.
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2. (Com.) Deduction; abatement; as, a rebate of interest for immediate payment; a rebate of importation duties. Bouvier.
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3. A portion of a sum paid, returned to the purchaser, as a method of discounting. The rebate is sometimes returned by the manufacturer, after the full price is paid to the retailer by the purchaser.
[PJC]

Rebate
Re*bate", n. [See Rabbet.] 1. (Arch.) A rectangular longitudinal recess or groove, cut in the corner or edge of any body; a rabbet. See Rabbet.
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2. A piece of wood hafted into a long stick, and serving to beat out mortar. Elmes.
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3. An iron tool sharpened something like a chisel, and used for dressing and polishing wood. Elmes.
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4. [Perhaps a different word.] A kind of hard freestone used in making pavements. [R.] Elmes.
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Rebate
Re*bate", v. t. To cut a rebate in. See Rabbet, v.
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Rebatement
Re*bate"ment (r&euptack_;*bāt"m&eitalic_;nt), n. [Cf. OF. rabatement, fr. rabatre to diminish, F. rabattre.] Same as 3d Rebate, v.
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Rebato
Re*ba"to (r&euptack_;*bā"t&ouptack_;), n. Same as Rabato. Burton.
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Rebec
Re"bec (rē"b&ebreve_;k), n. [F., fr. It. ribeca, ribeba, fr. Ar. rabāb a musical instrument of a round form.] 1. (Mus.) An instrument formerly used which somewhat resembled the violin, having three strings, and being played with a bow. [Written also rebeck.] Milton.
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He turn'd his rebec to a mournful note. Drayton.
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2. A contemptuous term applied to an old woman. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Rebel
Reb"el (r&ebreve_;b"&ebreve_;l), a. [F. rebelle, fr. L. rebellis. See Rebel, v. i.] Pertaining to rebels or rebellion; acting in revolt; rebellious; as, rebel troops.
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Whoso be rebel to my judgment. Chaucer.
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Convict by flight, and rebel to all law. Milton.
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Rebel
Reb"el, n. [F. rebelle.] One who rebels.
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Syn. -- Revolter; insurgent. -- Rebel, Insurgent. Insurgent marks an early, and rebel a more advanced, stage of opposition to government. The former rises up against his rulers, the latter makes war upon them.
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Rebel
Re*bel" (r&euptack_;*b&ebreve_;l"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rebelled (r&euptack_;*b&ebreve_;ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Rebelling.] [F. rebeller, fr. L. rebellare to make war again; pref. re- again + bellare to make war, fr. bellum war. See Bellicose, and cf. Revel to carouse.] 1. To renounce, and resist by force, the authority of the ruler or government to which one owes obedience. See Rebellion.
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The murmur and the churls' rebelling. Chaucer.
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Ye have builded you an altar, that ye might rebel this day against the Lord. Josh. xxii. 16.
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2. To be disobedient to authority; to assume a hostile or insubordinate attitude; to revolt.
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How could my hand rebel against my heart?
How could your heart rebel against your reason?
Dryden.
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Rebeldom
Reb"el*dom (r&ebreve_;b"&ebreve_;l*dŭm), n. A region infested by rebels; rebels, considered collectively; also, conduct or quality characteristic of rebels. Thackeray.
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Rebeller
Re*bel"ler (r&euptack_;*b&ebreve_;l"l&etilde_;r), n. One who rebels; a rebel.
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Rebellion
Re*bel"lion (r&euptack_;*b&ebreve_;l"yŭn), n. [F. rébellion, L. rebellio. See Rebel, v. i. Among the Romans rebellion was originally a revolt or open resistance to their government by nations that had been subdued in war. It was a renewed war.] 1. The act of rebelling; open and avowed renunciation of the authority of the government to which one owes obedience, and resistance to its officers and laws, either by levying war, or by aiding others to do so; an organized uprising of subjects for the purpose of coercing or overthrowing their lawful ruler or government by force; revolt; insurrection.
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No sooner is the standard of rebellion displayed than men of desperate principles resort to it. Ames.
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2. Open resistance to, or defiance of, lawful authority.
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Commission of rebellion (Eng. Law), a process of contempt issued on the nonappearance of a defendant, -- now abolished. Wharton. Burrill.
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Syn. -- Insurrection; sedition; revolt; mutiny; resistance; contumacy. See Insurrection.
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Rebellious
Re*bel"lious (r&euptack_;*b&ebreve_;l"yŭs), a. Engaged in rebellion; disposed to rebel; of the nature of rebels or of rebellion; resisting government or lawful authority by force. “Thy rebellious crew.” “Proud rebellious arms.” Milton. -- Re*bel"lious*ly, adv. -- Re*bel"lious*ness, n.
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Rebellow
Re*bel"low (rē*b&ebreve_;l"l&ouptack_;), v. i. To bellow again; to repeat or echo a bellow.
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The cave rebellowed, and the temple shook. Dryden.
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rebind
re-bind
rebind, re-bind v. t. To provide with a new binding, as of books. Usually used without the hyphen.
[WordNet 1.5]

Rebiting
Re*bit"ing (rē*bīt"&ibreve_;ng), n. (Etching) The act or process of deepening worn lines in an etched plate by submitting it again to the action of acid. Fairholt.
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Rebloom
Re*bloom" (rē*bl&oomacr_;m"), v. i. To bloom again. Crabbe.
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Reblossom
Re*blos"som (rē*bl&obreve_;s"sŭm), v. i. To blossom again.
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Reboant
Re*bo"ant (r&euptack_;*bō"&aitalic_;nt), a. [L. reboans, p. pr. of reboare; pref. re- re- + boare to cry aloud.] Rebellowing; resounding loudly. [R.] Mrs. Browning.
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Reboation
Re`bo*a"tion (rē`b&ouptack_;*ā"shŭn), n. Repetition of a bellow. [R.] Bp. Patrick.
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Reboil
Re*boil" (rē*boil"), v. t. & i. [Pref. re- + boil: cf. F. rebouillir.] 1. To boil, or to cause to boil, again.
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2. Fig.: To make or to become hot. [Obs.]
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Some of his companions thereat reboyleth. Sir T. Elyot.
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Reborn
Re*born" (rē*bôrn"), p. p. Born again.
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Rebound
Re*bound" (r&euptack_;*bound"), v. i. [Pref. re- + bound: cf. F. rebondir.] 1. To spring back; to start back; to be sent back or reverberated by elastic force on collision with another body; as, a rebounding echo.
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Bodies which are absolutely hard, or so soft as to be void of elasticity, will not rebound from one another. Sir I. Newton.
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2. To give back an echo. [R.] T. Warton.
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3. To bound again or repeatedly, as a horse. Pope.
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4. to recover, as from sickness, psychological shock, or disappointment.
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Rebounding lock (Firearms), one in which the hammer rebounds to half cock after striking the cap or primer.
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Rebound
Re*bound", v. t. To send back; to reverberate.
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Silenus sung; the vales his voice rebound. Dryden.
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Rebound
Re*bound", n. 1. The act of rebounding; resilience.
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Flew . . . back, as from a rock, with swift rebound. Dryden.
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2. recovery, as from sickness, psychological shock, or disappointment.
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Rebozo
Re*bo"zo (?), n. [Sp. rebozo.] A kind of mantilla worn by women over the head and shoulders, and sometimes over part of the face. [Mexico & Sp. Amer.]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Rebrace
Re*brace" (rē*brās"), v. t. To brace again. Gray.
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Rebreathe
Re*breathe" (rē*brēth"), v. t. To breathe again.
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Rebucous
Re*bu"cous (r&euptack_;*bū"kŭs), a. Rebuking. [Obs.]
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She gave unto him many rebucous words. Fabyan.
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Rebuff
Re*buff" (r&euptack_;*bŭf"), n. [It. ribuffo, akin to ribuffare to repulse; pref. ri- (L. re-) + buffo puff. Cf. Buff to strike, Buffet a blow.] 1. Repercussion, or beating back; a quick and sudden resistance.
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The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud. Milton.
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2. Sudden check; unexpected repulse; defeat; refusal; repellence; rejection of solicitation.
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Rebuff
Re*buff", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rebuffed (r&euptack_;*bŭft"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rebuffing.] To beat back; to offer sudden resistance to; to check; to repel or repulse violently, harshly, or uncourteously.
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Rebuild
re-build
Re*build", Re-build" (rē*b&ibreve_;ld"), v. t. To build again, as something which has been demolished; to construct anew; as, to rebuild a house, a wall, a wharf, or a city. Usually used without the hyphen.
Syn. -- build anew, build again, reconstruct, reerect.
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Rebuilder
Re*build"er (rē*b&ibreve_;ld"&etilde_;r), n. One who rebuilds. Bp. Bull.
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Rebukable
Re*buk"a*ble (r&euptack_;*būk"&adot_;*b'l), a. Worthy of rebuke or reprehension; reprehensible. Shak.
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Rebuke
Re*buke" (r&euptack_;*būk"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rebuked (r&euptack_;*būkt"); p. pr. & vb. n. Rebuking.] [OF. rebouquier to dull, blunt, F. reboucher; perhaps fr. pref. re- re- + bouche mouth, OF. also bouque, L. bucca cheek; if so, the original sense was, to stop the mouth of; hence, to stop, obstruct.] To check, silence, or put down, with reproof; to restrain by expression of disapprobation; to reprehend sharply and summarily; to chide; to reprove; to admonish.
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The proud he tamed, the penitent he cheered,
Nor to rebuke the rich offender feared.
Dryden.
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Syn. -- To reprove; chide; check; chasten; restrain; silence. See Reprove.
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Rebuke
Re*buke" (r&euptack_;*būk"), n. 1. A direct and pointed reproof; a reprimand; also, chastisement; punishment.
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For thy sake I have suffered rebuke. Jer. xv. 15.
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Why bear you these rebukes and answer not? Shak.
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2. Check; rebuff. [Obs.] L'Estrange.
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To be without rebuke, to live without giving cause of reproof or censure; to be blameless.
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Rebukeful
Re*buke"ful (r&euptack_;*būk"f&usdot_;l), a. Containing rebuke; of the nature of rebuke. [Obs.] -- Re*buke"ful*ly, adv. [Obs.]
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Rebuker
Re*buk"er (r&euptack_;*būk"&etilde_;r), n. One who rebukes.
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Rebukingly
Re*buk"ing*ly, adv. By way of rebuke.
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Rebullition
Re`bul*li"tion (rē`bŭl*l&ibreve_;sh"ŭn), n. The act of boiling up or effervescing. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.
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Rebury
Re*bur"y (rē*b&ebreve_;r"r&ybreve_;), v. t. To bury again. Ashmole.
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Rebus
Re"bus (rē"bŭs), n.; pl. Rebuses (rē"bŭs*&ebreve_;z). [L. rebus by things, abl. pl. of res a thing: cf. F. rébus. Cf. 3d Real.] 1. A mode of expressing words and phrases by pictures of objects whose names resemble those words, or the syllables of which they are composed; enigmatical representation of words by figures; hence, a peculiar form of riddle made up of such representations.
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&hand_; A gallant, in love with a woman named Rose Hill, had, embroidered on his gown, a rose, a hill, an eye, a loaf, and a well, signifying, Rose Hill I love well.
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2. (Her.) A pictorial suggestion on a coat of arms of the name of the person to whom it belongs. See Canting arms, under Canting.
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Rebus
Re"bus, v. t. To mark or indicate by a rebus.
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He [John Morton] had a fair library rebused with More in text and Tun under it. Fuller.
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Rebut
Re*but" (r&euptack_;*bŭt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rebutted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rebutting.] [OF. rebouter to repulse, drive back; pref. re- + bouter to push, thrust. See 1st Butt, Boutade.]
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1. To drive or beat back; to repulse.
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Who him, rencount'ring fierce, as hawk in flight,
Perforce rebutted back.
Spenser.
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2. (Law) To contradict, meet, or oppose by argument, plea, or countervailing proof. Abbott.
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Rebut
Re*but", v. i. 1. To retire; to recoil. [Obs.] Spenser.
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2. (Law) To make, or put in, an answer, as to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.
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The plaintiff may answer the rejoinder by a surrejoinder; on which the defendant may rebut. Blackstone.
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Rebuttable
Re*but"ta*ble (r&euptack_;*bŭt"t&adot_;*b'l), a. Capable of being rebutted.
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Rebuttal
Re*but"tal (r&euptack_;*bŭt"t&aitalic_;l), n. (Law) The giving of evidence on the part of a plaintiff to destroy the effect of evidence introduced by the defendant in the same suit.
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Rebutter
Re*but"ter (r&euptack_;*bŭt"t&etilde_;r), n. (Law) The answer of a defendant in matter of fact to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.
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Recadency
Re*ca"den*cy (rē*kā"d&eitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), n. A falling back or descending a second time; a relapse. W. Montagu.
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Recalcitrant
Re*cal"ci*trant (r&euptack_;*kăl"s&ibreve_;*tr&aitalic_;nt), a. [L. recalcitrans, p. pr. of recalcitrare to kick back; pref. re- re- + calcitrare to kick, fr. calx heel. Cf. Inculcate.] Kicking back; recalcitrating; hence, showing repugnance or opposition; refractory.
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Recalcitrate
Re*cal"ci*trate (r&euptack_;*kăl"s&ibreve_;*trāt), v. t. To kick against; to show repugnance to; to rebuff.
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The more heartily did one disdain his disdain, and recalcitrate his tricks. De Quincey.
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Recalcitrate
Re*cal"ci*trate, v. i. To kick back; to kick against anything; hence, to express repugnance or opposition.
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Recalcitration
Re*cal`ci*tra"tion (r&euptack_;*kăl"s&ibreve_;*trā"shŭn), n. A kicking back again; opposition; repugnance; refractoriness.
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Recall
Re*call" (r&euptack_;*k&asuml_;l"), v. t. 1. To call back; to summon to return; as, to recall troops; to recall an ambassador.
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If Henry were recalled to life again. Shak.

2. To revoke; to annul by a subsequent act; to take back; to withdraw; as, to recall words, or a decree.
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Passed sentence may not be recall'd. Shak.
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3. To call back to mind; to revive in memory; to recollect; to remember; as, to recall bygone days.
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Recall
Re*call", n. 1. A calling back; a revocation.
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'T is done, and since 't is done, 't is past recall. Dryden.
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2. (Mil.) A call on the trumpet, bugle, or drum, by which soldiers are recalled from duty, labor, etc. Wilhelm.
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3. (Political Science) (a) The right or procedure by which a public official, commonly a legislative or executive official, may be removed from office, before the end of his term of office, by a vote of the people to be taken on the filing of a petition signed by a required number or percentage of qualified voters. (b) Short for recall of judicial decisions, the right or procedure by which the decision of a court may be directly reversed or annulled by popular vote, as was advocated, in 1912, in the platform of the Progressive party for certain cases involving the police power of the state.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Recallable
Re*call"a*ble (r&euptack_;*k&asuml_;l"&adot_;*b'l), a. Capable of being recalled.
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Recallment
Re*call"ment (r&euptack_;*k&asuml_;l"m&eitalic_;nt), n. Recall. [R.] R. Browning.
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Recant
Re*cant" (r&euptack_;*kănt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recanted; p. pr. & vb. n. Recanting.] [L. recantare, recantatum, to recall, recant; pref. re- re- + cantare to sing, to sound. See 3d Cant, Chant.] To withdraw or repudiate formally and publicly (opinions formerly expressed); to contradict, as a former declaration; to take back openly; to retract; to recall.
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How soon . . . ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void!
Milton.
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Syn. -- To retract; recall; revoke; abjure; disown; disavow. See Renounce.
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Recant
Re*cant", v. i. To revoke a declaration or proposition; to unsay what has been said; to retract; as, convince me that I am wrong, and I will recant. Dryden.
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Recantation
Re`can*ta"tion (rē`kăn*tā"shŭn), n. The act of recanting; a declaration that contradicts a former one; that which is thus asserted in contradiction; retraction.
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The poor man was imprisoned for this discovery, and forced to make a public recantation. Bp. Stillingfleet.
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Recanter
Re*cant"er (r&euptack_;*kănt"&etilde_;r), n. One who recants.
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Recapacitate
Re`ca*pac"i*tate (rē`k&adot_;*păs"&ibreve_;*tāt), v. t. To qualify again; to confer capacity on again. Atterbury.
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Recapitulate
Re*ca*pit"u*late (rē`k&adot_;*p&ibreve_;t"&uuptack_;*lāt), v. t. [L. recapitulare, recapitulatum; pref. re- re- + capitulum a small head, chapter, section. See Capitulate.] To repeat, as the principal points in a discourse, argument, or essay; to give a summary of the principal facts, points, or arguments of; to relate in brief; to summarize.
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Recapitulate
Re`ca*pit"u*late (rē`k&adot_;*p&ibreve_;t"&uuptack_;*lāt), v. i. To sum up, or enumerate by heads or topics, what has been previously said; to repeat briefly the substance.
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Recapitulation
Re`ca*pit`u*la"tion (rē`k&adot_;*p&ibreve_;t"&uuptack_;*lā"shŭn), n. [LL. recapitulatio: cf. F. recapitulation.] 1. The act of recapitulating; a summary, or concise statement or enumeration, of the principal points, facts, or statements, in a preceding discourse, argument, or essay.
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2. (Zool.) That process of development of the individual organism from the embryonic stage onward, which displays a parallel between the development of an individual animal (ontogeny) and the historical evolution of the species (phylogeny). Some authors recognize two types of recapitulation, palingenesis, in which the truly ancestral characters conserved by heredity are reproduced during development; and cenogenesis (kenogenesis or coenogenesis), the mode of individual development in which alterations in the development process have changed the original process of recapitulation and obscured the evolutionary pathway.
[PJC]

This parallel is explained by the theory of evolution, according to which, in the words of Sidgwick, "the developmental history of the individual appears to be a short and simplified repetition, or in a certain sense a recapitulation, of the course of development of the species." Examples of recapitulation may be found in the embryological development of all vertebrates. Thus the frog develops through stages in which the embryo just before hatching is very fish-like, after hatching becomes a tadpole which exhibits many newt-like characters; and finally reaches the permanent frog stage. This accords with the comparative rank of the fish, newt and frog groups in classification; and also with the succession appearance of these groups. Man, as the highest animal, exhibits most completely these phenomena. In the earliest stages the human embryo is indistinguishable from that of any other creature. A little later the cephalic region shows gill-slits, like those which in a shark are a permanent feature, and the heart is two-chambered or fish-like. Further development closes the gill-slits, and the heart changes to the reptilian type. Here the reptiles stop, while birds and mammals advance further; but the human embryo in its progress to the higher type recapitulates and leaves features characteristic of lower mammalian forms -- for instance, a distinct and comparatively long tail exists. Most of these changes are completed before the embryo is six weeks old, but some traces of primitive and obsolete structures persist throughout life as "vestiges" or "rudimentary organs," and others appear after birth in infancy, as the well-known tendency of babies to turn their feet sideways and inward, and to use their toes and feet as grasping organs, after the manner of monkeys. This recapitulation of ancestral characters in ontogeny is not complete, however, for not all the stages are reproduced in every case, so far as can be perceived; and it is irregular and complicated in various ways among others by the inheritance of acquired characters. The most special students of it, as Haeckel, Fritz Mütter, Hyatt, Balfour, etc., distinguish two sorts of recapitulation palingenesis, exemplified in amphibian larvae and coenogenesis, the last manifested most completely in the metamorphoses of insects. Palingenesis is recapitulation without any fundamental changes due to the later modification of the primitive method of development, while in coenogenesis, the mode of development has suffered alterations which obscure the original process of recapitulation, or support it entirely. Encyclopedia Americana, 1961.
[PJC]

Recapitulator
Re`ca*pit"u*la`tor (rē`k&adot_;*p&ibreve_;t"&uuptack_;*lā`t&etilde_;r), n. One who recapitulates.
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Recapitulatory
Re`ca*pit"u*la*to*ry (rē`k&adot_;*p&ibreve_;t"&uuptack_;*l&adot_;*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. Of the nature of a recapitulation; containing recapitulation.
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Recapper
Re*cap"per (r&euptack_;*kăp"p&etilde_;r), n. (Firearms) A tool used for applying a fresh percussion cap or primer to a cartridge shell in reloading it.
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Recaption
Re*cap"tion (r&euptack_;*kăp"shŭn), n. (Law) The act of retaking, as of one who has escaped after arrest; reprisal; the retaking of one's own goods, chattels, wife, or children, without force or violence, from one who has taken them and who wrongfully detains them. Blackstone.
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Writ of recaption (Law), a writ to recover damages for him whose goods, being distrained for rent or service, are distrained again for the same cause. Wharton.
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Recaptor
Re*cap"tor (r&euptack_;*kăp"t&etilde_;r), n. One who recaptures; one who takes a prize which had been previously taken.
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Recapture
Re*cap"ture (r&euptack_;*kăp"t&uuptack_;r; 135), n. 1. The act of retaking or recovering by capture; especially, the retaking of a prize or goods from a captor.
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2. That which is captured back; a prize retaken.
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Recapture
Re*cap"ture, v. t. To capture again; to retake.
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Recarbonize
Re*car"bon*ize (r&euptack_;*kär"b&obreve_;n*īz), v. t. (Metal.) To restore carbon to; as, to recarbonize iron in converting it into steel.
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Recarnify
Re*car"ni*fy (r&euptack_;*kär"n&ibreve_;*fī), v. t. To convert again into flesh. [Obs.] Howell.
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Recarriage
Re*car"riage (r&euptack_;*kăr"r&ibreve_;j), n. Act of carrying back.
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Recarry
Re*car"ry (r&euptack_;*kăr"r&ybreve_;), v. t. To carry back. Walton.
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Recast
Re*cast" (rē*k&adot_;st"), v. t. 1. To throw again. Florio.
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2. To mold anew; to cast anew; to throw into a new form or shape; to reconstruct; as, to recast cannon; to recast an argument or a play.
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3. To compute, or cast up, a second time.
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Recche
Rec"che (r&ebreve_;k"k&eitalic_;), v. i. To reck. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Reccheles
Rec"che*les (r&ebreve_;k"l&ebreve_;s), a. Reckless. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Recede
Re*cede" (r&euptack_;*sēd"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Receded; p. pr. & vb. n. Receding.] [L. recedere, recessum; pref. re- re- + cedere to go, to go along: cf. F. recéder. See Cede.] 1. To move back; to retreat; to withdraw.
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Like the hollow roar
Of tides receding from the insulted shore.
Dryden.
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All bodies moved circularly endeavor to recede from the center. Bentley.
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2. To withdraw a claim or pretension; to desist; to relinquish what had been proposed or asserted; as, to recede from a demand or proposition.
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Syn. -- To retire; retreat; return; retrograde; withdraw; desist.
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Recede
Re*cede" (rē*sēd"), v. t. [Pref. re- + cede. Cf. Recede, v. i.] To cede back; to grant or yield again to a former possessor; as, to recede conquered territory.
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Receipt
Re*ceipt" (r&euptack_;*sēt"), n. [OE. receite, OF. recete, recepte, F. recette, fr. L. recipere, receptum, to receive. See Receive.] 1. The act of receiving; reception. “At the receipt of your letter.” Shak.
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2. Reception, as an act of hospitality. [Obs.]
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Thy kind receipt of me. Chapman.
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3. Capability of receiving; capacity. [Obs.]
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It has become a place of great receipt. Evelyn.
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4. Place of receiving. [Obs.]
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He saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom. Matt. ix. 9.
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5. Hence, a recess; a retired place. [Obs.] “In a retired receipt together lay.” Chapman.
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6. A formulary according to the directions of which things are to be taken or combined; a recipe; as, a receipt for making sponge cake.
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She had a receipt to make white hair black. Sir T. Browne.
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7. A writing acknowledging the taking or receiving of goods delivered; an acknowledgment of money paid.
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8. That which is received; that which comes in, in distinction from what is expended, paid out, sent away, and the like; -- usually in the plural; as, the receipts amounted to a thousand dollars.
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Gross receipts. See under Gross, a.
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Receipt
Re*ceipt", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Receipted; p. pr. & vb. n. Receipting.] 1. To give a receipt for; as, to receipt goods delivered by a sheriff.
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2. To put a receipt on, as by writing or stamping; as, to receipt a bill.
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Receipt
Re*ceipt", v. i. To give a receipt, as for money paid.
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Receiptment
Re*ceipt"ment (r&euptack_;*sēt"m&eitalic_;nt), n. (O. Eng. Law) The receiving or harboring a felon knowingly, after the commission of a felony. Burrill.
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Receiptor
Re*ceipt"or (r&euptack_;*sēt"&etilde_;r), n. One who receipts; specifically (Law), one who receipts for property which has been taken by the sheriff.
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Receit
Re*ceit" (r&euptack_;*sēt"), n. Receipt. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Receivability
Re*ceiv`a*bil"i*ty (r&euptack_;*sēv`&adot_;*b&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. The quality of being receivable; receivableness.
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Receivable
Re*ceiv"a*ble (r&euptack_;*sēv"&adot_;*b'l), a. [Cf. F. recevable.] Capable of being received. -- Re*ceiv"a*ble*ness, n.
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Bills receivable. See under 6th Bill.
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Receive
Re*ceive" (r&euptack_;*sēv"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Received (r&euptack_;*sēvd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Receiving.] [OF. receveir, recevoir, F. recevoir, fr. L. recipere; pref. re- re- + capere to take, seize. See Capable, Heave, and cf. Receipt, Reception, Recipe.] 1. To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to receive money offered in payment of a debt; to receive a gift, a message, or a letter.
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Receyven all in gree that God us sent. Chaucer.
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2. Hence: To gain the knowledge of; to take into the mind by assent to; to give admission to; to accept, as an opinion, notion, etc.; to embrace.
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Our hearts receive your warnings. Shak.
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The idea of solidity we receive by our touch. Locke.
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3. To allow, as a custom, tradition, or the like; to give credence or acceptance to.
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Many other things there be which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots. Mark vii. 4.
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4. To give admittance to; to permit to enter, as into one's house, presence, company, and the like; as, to receive a lodger, visitor, ambassador, messenger, etc.
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They kindled a fire, and received us every one. Acts xxviii. 2.
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5. To admit; to take in; to hold; to contain; to have capacity for; to be able to take in.
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The brazen altar that was before the Lord was too little to receive the burnt offerings. 1 Kings viii. 64.
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6. To be affected by something; to suffer; to be subjected to; as, to receive pleasure or pain; to receive a wound or a blow; to receive damage.
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Against his will he can receive no harm. Milton.
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7. To take from a thief, as goods known to be stolen.
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8. (Lawn Tennis) To bat back (the ball) when served.
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Receiving ship, one on board of which newly recruited sailors are received, and kept till drafted for service.
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Syn. -- To accept; take; allow; hold; retain; admit. -- Receive, Accept. To receive describes simply the act of taking. To accept denotes the taking with approval, or for the purposes for which a thing is offered. Thus, we receive a letter when it comes to hand; we receive news when it reaches us; we accept a present when it is offered; we accept an invitation to dine with a friend.
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Who, if we knew
What we receive, would either not accept
Life offered, or soon beg to lay it down.
Milton.
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Receive
Re*ceive" (r&euptack_;*sēv"), v. i. 1. To receive visitors; to be at home to receive calls; as, she receives on Tuesdays.
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2. (Lawn Tennis) To return, or bat back, the ball when served; as, it is your turn to receive.
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Receivedness
Re*ceiv"ed*ness, n. The state or quality of being received, accepted, or current; as, the receivedness of an opinion. Boyle.
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Receiver
Re*ceiv"er (r&euptack_;*sēv"&etilde_;r), n. [Cf. F. receveur.] 1. One who takes or receives in any manner.
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2. (Law) A person appointed, ordinarily by a court, to receive, and hold in trust, money or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the suit; a person appointed to take charge of the estate and effects of a corporation, and to do other acts necessary to winding up its affairs, in certain cases. Bouvier.
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3. One who takes or buys stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen. Blackstone.
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4. (Chem.) (a) A vessel connected with an alembic, a retort, or the like, for receiving and condensing the product of distillation. (b) A vessel for receiving and containing gases.
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5. (Pneumatics) The glass vessel in which the vacuum is produced, and the objects of experiment are put, in experiments with an air pump. Cf. Bell jar, and see Illust. of Air pump.
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6. (Steam Engine) (a) A vessel for receiving the exhaust steam from the high-pressure cylinder before it enters the low-pressure cylinder, in a compound engine. (b) A capacious vessel for receiving steam from a distant boiler, and supplying it dry to an engine.
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7. That portion of a telephonic apparatus, or similar system, at which the message is received and made audible; -- opposed to transmitter.
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8. (Firearms) In portable breech-loading firearms, the steel frame screwed to the breech end of the barrel, which receives the bolt or block, gives means of securing for firing, facilitates loading, and holds the ejector, cut-off, etc.
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Exhausted receiver (Physics), a receiver, as that used with the air pump, from which the air has been withdrawn; a vessel the interior of which is a more or less complete vacuum.
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Receiver's certificate
Re*ceiv"er's cer*tif"i*cate (?). An acknowledgement of indebtedness made by a receiver under order of court to obtain funds for the preservation of the assets held by him, as for operating a railroad. Receivers' certificates are ordinarily a first lien on the assets, prior to that of bonds or other securities.
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Receivership
Re*ceiv"er*ship, n. The state or office of a receiver.
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Recelebrate
Re*cel"e*brate (rē*s&ebreve_;l"&euptack_;*brāt), v. t. To celebrate again, or anew. -- Re*cel`e*bra"tion (rē*s&ebreve_;l"&euptack_;*brā"shŭn), n.
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Recency
Re"cen*cy (rē"s&eitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), n. [LL. recentia, fr. L. recens. See Recent.] The state or quality of being recent; newness; new state; late origin; lateness in time; freshness; as, the recency of a transaction, of a wound, etc.
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Recense
Re*cense" (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;ns"), v. t. [L. recensere; pref. re- again + censere to value, estimate: cf. F. recenser.] To review; to revise. [R.] Bentley.
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Recension
Re*cen"sion (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;n"shŭn), n. [L. recensio: cf. F. recension.] 1. The act of reviewing or revising; review; examination; enumeration. Barrow.
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2. Specifically, the review of a text (as of an ancient author) by an editor; critical revisal and establishment.
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3. The result of such a work; a text established by critical revision; an edited version.
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Recensionist
Re*cen"sion*ist, n. One who makes recensions; specifically, a critical editor.
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Recent
Re"cent (rē"s&eitalic_;nt), a. [L. recens, -entis: cf. F. récent.] 1. Of late origin, existence, or occurrence; lately come; not of remote date, antiquated style, or the like; not already known, familiar, worn out, trite, etc.; fresh; novel; new; modern; as, recent news.
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The ancients were of opinion, that a considerable portion of that country [Egypt] was recent, and formed out of the mud discharged into the neighboring sea by the Nile. Woodward.
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2. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to the present or existing epoch; as, recent shells.
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Recenter
Re*cen"ter (rē*s&ebreve_;n"t&etilde_;r), v. t. [Pref. re- + center.] To center again; to restore to the center. Coleridge.
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Recently
Re"cent*ly (rē"s&eitalic_;nt*l&ybreve_;), adv. Newly; lately; freshly; not long since; as, advices recently received.
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Recentness
Re"cent*ness, n. Quality or state of being recent.
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Receptacle
Re*cep"ta*cle (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;p"t&adot_;*k'l), n. [F. réceptacle, L. receptaculum, fr. receptare, v. intens. fr. recipere to receive. See Receive.] 1. That which serves, or is used, for receiving and containing something, as for examople, a basket, a vase, a bag, a reservoir; a repository.
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O sacred receptacle of my joys! Shak.
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2. (Bot.) (a) The apex of the flower stalk, from which the organs of the flower grow, or into which they are inserted. See Illust. of Flower, and Ovary. (b) The dilated apex of a pedicel which serves as a common support to a head of flowers. (c) An intercellular cavity containing oil or resin or other matters. (d) A special branch which bears the fructification in many cryptogamous plants.
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Receptacular
Rec`ep*tac"u*lar (r&ebreve_;s`&ebreve_;p*tăk"&uuptack_;*l&etilde_;r), a. [Cf. F. réceptaculaire.] (Bot.) Pertaining to the receptacle, or growing on it; as, the receptacular chaff or scales in the sunflower.
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Receptaculum
Rec`ep*tac"u*lum (r&ebreve_;s`&ebreve_;p*tăk"&uuptack_;*lŭm), n.; pl. Receptacula (r&ebreve_;s`&ebreve_;p*tăk"&uuptack_;*l&adot_;). [L.] (Anat.) A receptacle; as, the receptaculum of the chyle.
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Receptary
Rec"ep*ta*ry (r&ebreve_;s"&ebreve_;p*t&auptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. Generally or popularly admitted or received. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Receptary
Rec"ep*ta*ry, n. That which is received. [Obs.]Receptaries of philosophy.” Sir T. Browne.
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Receptibility
Re*cep`ti*bil"i*ty (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;p`t&ibreve_;*b&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. 1. The quality or state of being receptible; receivableness.
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2. A receptible thing. [R.] Glanvill.
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Receptible
Re*cep"ti*ble (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;p"t&ibreve_;*b'l), a. [L. receptibilis.] Such as may be received; receivable.
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Reception
Re*cep"tion (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;p"shŭn), n. [F. réception, L. receptio, fr. recipere, receptum. See Receive.] 1. The act of receiving; receipt; admission; as, the reception of food into the stomach; the reception of a letter; the reception of sensation or ideas; reception of evidence.
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2. The state of being received.
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3. The act or manner of receiving, especially of receiving visitors; entertainment; hence, an occasion or ceremony of receiving guests; as, a hearty reception; an elaborate reception.
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What reception a poem may find. Goldsmith.
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4. Acceptance, as of an opinion or doctrine.
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Philosophers who have quitted the popular doctrines of their countries have fallen into as extravagant opinions as even common reception countenanced. Locke.
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5. A retaking; a recovery. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Receptive
Re*cep"tive (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;p"t&ibreve_;v), a. [Cf. F. réceptif. See Receive.] Having the quality of receiving; able or inclined to take in, absorb, hold, or contain; receiving or containing; as, a receptive mind.
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Imaginary space is receptive of all bodies. Glanvill.
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Receptiveness
Re*cep"tive*ness, n. The quality of being receptive.
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Receptivity
Rec`ep*tiv"i*ty (r&ebreve_;s`&ebreve_;p*t&ibreve_;v"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_; or rē`s&ebreve_;p*t&ibreve_;v"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [Cf. F. réceptivité.] 1. The state or quality of being receptive.
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2. (Kantian Philos.) The power or capacity of receiving impressions, as those of the external senses.
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Receptory
Re*cep"to*ry (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;p"t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;; 277), n. [Cf. L. receptorium a place of shelter.] Receptacle. [Obs.] Holland.
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Recess
Re*cess" (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;s"), n. [L. recessus, fr. recedere, recessum. See Recede.] 1. A withdrawing or retiring; a moving back; retreat; as, the recess of the tides.
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Every degree of ignorance being so far a recess and degradation from rationality. South.
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My recess hath given them confidence that I may be conquered. Eikon Basilike.
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2. The state of being withdrawn; seclusion; privacy.
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In the recess of the jury they are to consider the evidence. Sir M. Hale.
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Good verse recess and solitude requires. Dryden.
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3. Remission or suspension of business or procedure; intermission, as of a legislative body, court, or school; as, the children were allowed to play in the school yard during recess.
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The recess of . . . Parliament lasted six weeks. Macaulay.
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4. Part of a room formed by the receding of the wall, as an alcove, niche, etc.
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A bed which stood in a deep recess. W. Irving.
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5. A place of retirement, retreat, secrecy, or seclusion.
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Departure from this happy place, our sweet
Recess, and only consolation left.
Milton.
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6. Secret or abstruse part; as, the difficulties and recesses of science; the deepest recesses of the mind. I. Watts.
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7. (Bot. & Zool.) A sinus.
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Recess
Re*cess", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recessed; p. pr. & vb. n. Recessing.] To make a recess in; as, to recess a wall.
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Recess
Re*cess", n. [G.] A decree of the imperial diet of the old German empire. Brande & C.
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Recessed
Re*cessed" (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;st"), a. 1. Having a recess or recesses; as, a recessed arch or wall.
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2. Withdrawn; secluded. [R.] “Comfortably recessed from curious impertinents.” Miss Edgeworth.
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Recessed arch (Arch.), one of a series of arches constructed one within another so as to correspond with splayed jambs of a doorway, or the like.
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Recession
Re*ces"sion (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;sh"ŭn), n. [L. recessio, fr. recedere, recessum. See Recede.] 1. The act of receding or withdrawing, as from a place, a claim, or a demand. South.
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Mercy may rejoice upon the recessions of justice. Jer. Taylor.
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2. (Economics) A period during which economic activity, as measured by gross domestic product, declines for at least two quarters in a row in a specific country. If the decline is severe and long, such as greater than ten percent, it may be termed a depression.
[PJC]

3. A procession in which people leave a ceremony, such as at a religious service.
[PJC]

Recession
Re*ces"sion, n. [Pref. re- + cession.] The act of ceding back; restoration; repeated cession; as, the recession of conquered territory to its former sovereign.
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Recessional
Re*ces"sion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to recession or withdrawal.
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Recessional hymn, a hymn sung in a procession returning from the choir to the robing room; a recessional.
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recessional
re*ces"sion*al (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;sh"ŭn*&aitalic_;l), n. a hymn or other piece of music sung or played while a church congregation is leaving a service, or a choir is returning to the cloak room; a recessional hymn.
[PJC]

Recessive
Re*ces"sive (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;s"s&ibreve_;v), a. 1. Going back; receding.
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2. (Genetics) Not appearing in the phenotype unless both alleles of the organism have the same trait; -- of genetic characteristics, or of the genes coding for such characteristics, in diploid organisms. Opposite of dominant; hemophilia is a recessive trait.
[PJC]

Recessive
Re*ces"sive (r&euptack_;*s&ebreve_;s"s&ibreve_;v), n. (Genetics) A genetic trait determined by a recessive{2} allele; a trait not appearing in the phenotype unless both chromosomes of the organism have the same allele; also, an allele which is recessive{2}.
[PJC]

Rechabite
Re"chab*ite (rē"kăb*īt), n. (Jewish Hist.) One of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, all of whom by his injunction abstained from the use of intoxicating drinks and even from planting the vine. Jer. xxxv. 2-19. Also, in modern times, a member of a certain society of abstainers from alcoholic liquors.
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Rechange
Re*change" (rē*chānj"), v. t. & i. To change again, or change back.
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Recharge
Re*charge" (rē*chärj"), v. t. & i. [Pref. re- + charge: cf. F. recharger.] 1. To charge or accuse in return.
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2. To attack again; to attack anew. Dryden.
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Recharter
Re*char"ter (rē*chär"t&etilde_;r), n. A second charter; a renewal of a charter. D. Webster.
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Recharter
Re*char"ter, v. t. To charter again or anew; to grant a second or another charter to.
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Rechase
Re*chase" (rē*chās"), v. t. [Pref. re- + chase: cf. F. rechasser.] To chase again; to chase or drive back.
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Rechauffé
Ré`chauf`fé" (?), n. [F., orig. p.p. of réchauffer 8warm over. See Chafe, v. t.] A dish of food that has been warmed again, hence, fig., something made up from old material; a rehash.
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It is merely a réchauffé of ancient philosophies. F. W. H. Myers.
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Recheat
Re*cheat" (r&euptack_;*chēt"), n. [F. requêté, fr. requêter to hunt anew. See Request.] (Sporting) A strain given on the horn to call back the hounds when they have lost track of the game.
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Recheat
Re*cheat", v. i. To blow the recheat. Drayton.
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Recherche
Re*cher`ché" (r&eitalic_;*shâr`sh&auptack_;"), a. [F.] Sought out with care; choice. Hence: of rare quality, elegance, or attractiveness; peculiar and refined in kind.
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Rechless
Rech"less (r&ebreve_;k"l&ebreve_;s), a. Reckless. [Obs.] P. Plowman.
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Rechoose
Re*choose" (rē*ch&oomacr_;z"), v. t. To choose again.
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Recidivate
Re*cid"i*vate (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*vāt), v. i. [LL. recidivare. See Recidivous.] To backslide; to fall again. [Obs.]
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Recidivation
Re*cid`i*va"tion (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*vā"shŭn), n. [LL. recidivatio.] A falling back; a backsliding. Hammond.
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Recidivism
Re*cid"i*vism (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*v&ibreve_;z'm), n. The state or quality of being recidivous; relapse, specif. (Criminology), a falling back or relapse into prior criminal habits, esp. after conviction and punishment.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

The old English system of recognizances, in which the guilty party deposits a sum of money, is an excellent guarantee to society against recidivism. Havelock Ellis.
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Recidivist
Re*cid"i*vist (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*v&ibreve_;st), n. One who is recidivous or is characterized by recidivism; an incorrigible criminal. -- Re*cid`i*vis"tic (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;d`&ibreve_;*v&ibreve_;s"t&ibreve_;k), a.
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The criminal by passion never becomes a recidivist, it is the social, not the antisocial, instincts that are strong within him, his crime is a solitary event in his life. Havelock Ellis.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Recidivous
Re*cid"i*vous (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*vŭs), a. [L. recidivus, fr. recidere to fall back.] Tending or liable to backslide or relapse to a former condition or habit.
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Recipe
Rec"i*pe (r&ebreve_;s"&ibreve_;*p&euptack_;), n.; pl. Recipes (r&ebreve_;s"&ibreve_;*pēz). [L., imperative of recipere to take back, take in, receive. See Receive.] A formulary or prescription for making some combination, mixture, or preparation of materials; a receipt.
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2. a prescription for medicine. [archaic]
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2. a prescription for medicine. [archaic]
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3. a set of directions for preparing food from its ingredients.
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4. a method or procedure for accomplishing a goal by defined steps; -- implying a high probability of achieving the goal; as, a recipe for success. Also used in a negative sense, as, a recipe for disaster.
[PJC]

Recipiangle
Re*cip"i*an`gle (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"&ibreve_;*ă&nsmacr_;`g'l), n. [L. recipere to take + angulus angle.] An instrument with two arms that are pivoted together at one end, and a graduated arc, -- used by military engineers for measuring and laying off angles of fortifications.
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Recipiency
Recipience
{ Re*cip"i*ence (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"&ibreve_;*&eitalic_;ns), Re*cip"i*en*cy (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"&ibreve_;*&eitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), } n. The quality or state of being recipient; a receiving; reception; receptiveness.
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Recipient
Re*cip"i*ent (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"&ibreve_;*&eitalic_;nt), n. [L. recipiens, -entis, receiving, p. pr. of recipere to receive: cf. F. récipient. See Receive.] A receiver; the person or thing that receives; one to whom, or that to which, anything is given or communicated; specifically, the receiver of a still.
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Recipient
Re*cip"i*ent, a. Receiving; receptive.
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Reciprocal
Re*cip"ro*cal (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*k&aitalic_;l), a. [L. reciprocus; of unknown origin.] 1. Recurring in vicissitude; alternate.
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2. Done by each to the other; interchanging or interchanged; given and received; due from each to each; mutual; as, reciprocal love; reciprocal duties.
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Let our reciprocal vows be remembered. Shak.
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3. Mutually interchangeable.
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These two rules will render a definition reciprocal with the thing defined. I. Watts.
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4. (Gram.) Reflexive; -- applied to pronouns and verbs, but sometimes limited to such pronouns as express mutual action.
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5. (Math.) Used to denote different kinds of mutual relation; often with reference to the substitution of reciprocals for given quantities. See the Phrases below.
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Reciprocal equation (Math.), one which remains unchanged in form when the reciprocal of the unknown quantity is substituted for that quantity. -- Reciprocal figures (Geom.), two figures of the same kind (as triangles, parallelograms, prisms, etc.), so related that two sides of the one form the extremes of a proportion of which the means are the two corresponding sides of the other; in general, two figures so related that the first corresponds in some special way to the second, and the second corresponds in the same way to the first. -- Reciprocal proportion (Math.), a proportion such that, of four terms taken in order, the first has to the second the same ratio which the fourth has to the third, or the first has to the second the same ratio which the reciprocal of the third has to the reciprocal of the fourth. Thus, 2:5: :20:8 form a reciprocal proportion, because 2:5: :1/20:1/8. -- Reciprocal quantities (Math.), any two quantities which produce unity when multiplied together. -- Reciprocal ratio (Math.), the ratio between the reciprocals of two quantities; as, the reciprocal ratio of 4 to 9 is that of 1/4 to 1/9. -- Reciprocal terms (Logic), those terms which have the same signification, and, consequently, are convertible, and may be used for each other.
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Syn. -- Mutual; alternate. -- Reciprocal, Mutual. The distinctive idea of mutual is, that the parties unite by interchange in the same act; as, a mutual covenant; mutual affection, etc. The distinctive idea of reciprocal is, that one party acts by way of return or response to something previously done by the other party; as, a reciprocal kindness; reciprocal reproaches, etc. Love is reciprocal when the previous affection of one party has drawn forth the attachment of the other. To make it mutual in the strictest sense, the two parties should have fallen in love at the same time; but as the result is the same, the two words are here used interchangeably. The ebbing and flowing of the tide is a case where the action is reciprocal, but not mutual.
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Reciprocal
Re*cip"ro*cal, n. 1. That which is reciprocal to another thing.
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Corruption is a reciprocal to generation. Bacon.
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2. (Arith. & Alg.) The quotient arising from dividing unity by any quantity; thus 1/4 is the reciprocal of 4; 1/(a + b) is the reciprocal of a + b. The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction inverted, or the denominator divided by the numerator.
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Reciprocality
Re*cip`ro*cal"i*ty (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p`r&ouptack_;*kăl"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. The quality or condition of being reciprocal; reciprocalness. [R.]
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Reciprocally
Re*cip"ro*cal*ly (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*k&aitalic_;l*l&ybreve_;), adv. 1. In a reciprocal manner; so that each affects the other, and is equally affected by it; interchangeably; mutually.
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These two particles do reciprocally affect each other with the same force. Bentley.
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2. (Math.) In the manner of reciprocals.
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Reciprocally proportional (Arith. & Alg.), proportional, as two variable quantities, so that the one shall have a constant ratio to the reciprocal of the other.
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Reciprocalness
Re*cip"ro*cal*ness (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*k&aitalic_;l*n&ebreve_;s), n. The quality or condition of being reciprocal; mutual return; alternateness.
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Reciprocate
Re*cip"ro*cate (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*kāt), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reciprocated (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*kā`t&ebreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Reciprocating.] [L. reciprocatus, p. p. of reciprocare. See Reciprocal.] To move forward and backward alternately; to recur in vicissitude; to act interchangeably; to alternate.
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One brawny smith the puffing bellows plies,
And draws and blows reciprocating air.
Dryden.
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Reciprocating engine, a steam, air, or gas engine, etc., in which the piston moves back and forth; -- in distinction from a rotary engine, in which the piston travels continuously in one direction in a circular path. -- Reciprocating motion (Mech.), motion alternately backward and forward, or up and down, as of a piston rod.
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Reciprocate
Re*cip"ro*cate, v. t. To give and return mutually; to make return for; to give in return; to interchange; to alternate; as, to reciprocate favors. Cowper.
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Reciprocation
Re*cip`ro*ca"tion (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*kā"shŭn), n. [L. reciprocatio: cf. F. réciprocation.] 1. The act of reciprocating; interchange of acts; a mutual giving and returning; as, the reciprocation of kindness.
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2. Alternate recurrence or action; as, the reciprocation of the sea in the flow and ebb of tides. Sir T. Browne.
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Reciprocity
Rec`i*proc"i*ty (r&ebreve_;s`&ibreve_;*pr&obreve_;s"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [Cf. F. réciprocité. See Reciprocal.] 1. Mutual action and reaction.
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2. Reciprocal advantages, obligations, or rights; reciprocation.
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Reciprocity treaty, or Treaty of reciprocity, a treaty concluded between two countries, conferring equal privileges as regards customs or charges on imports, or in other respects.
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Syn. -- Reciprocation; interchange; mutuality.
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Reciprocornous
Re*cip`ro*cor"nous (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p`r&ouptack_;*kôr"nŭs), a. [L. reciprocus returning, reciprocal + cornu horn.] (Zool.) Having horns turning backward and then forward, like those of a ram. [R.] Ash.
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Reciprocous
Re*cip"ro*cous (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;p"r&ouptack_;*kŭs), a. Reciprocal. [Obs.]
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Reciprok
Rec"i*prok (r&ebreve_;s"&ibreve_;*pr&obreve_;k), a. [F. réciproque, L. reciprocus.] Reciprocal. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Reciproque
Rec"i*proque (r&ebreve_;s"&ibreve_;*prōk), a. & n. [F. réciproque.] Reciprocal. Bacon.
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Recision
Re*ci"sion (r&euptack_;*s&ibreve_;zh"ŭn), n. [L. recisio, fr. recidere, recisum, to cut off; pref. re- re- + caedere to cut.] The act of cutting off. Sherwood.
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Recital
Re*cit"al (r&euptack_;*sīt"&aitalic_;l), n. [From Recite.] 1. The act of reciting; the repetition of the words of another, or of a document; rehearsal; as, the recital of testimony.
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2. A telling in detail and due order of the particulars of anything, as of a law, an adventure, or a series of events; narration. Addison.
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3. That which is recited; a story; a narration.
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4. (Mus.) A vocal or instrumental performance by one person; -- distinguished from concert; as, a song recital; an organ, piano, or violin recital.
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5. (Law) The formal statement, or setting forth, of some matter of fact in any deed or writing in order to explain the reasons on which the transaction is founded; the statement of matter in pleading introductory to some positive allegation. Burn.
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Syn. -- Account; rehearsal; recitation; narration; description; explanation; enumeration; detail; narrative. See Account.
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Recitation
Rec`i*ta"tion (r&ebreve_;s`&ibreve_;*tā"shŭn), n. [L. recitatio: cf. F. récitation. See Recite.] 1. The act of reciting; rehearsal; repetition of words or sentences. Hammond.
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2. The delivery before an audience of something committed to memory, especially as an elocutionary exhibition; also, that which is so delivered.
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3. (Colleges and Schools) The rehearsal of a lesson by pupils before their instructor.
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Recitative
Rec`i*ta*tive" (r&ebreve_;s`&ibreve_;*t&adot_;*tēv"), n. [It. recitativo, or F. récitatif. See Recite.] (Mus.) A species of musical recitation in which the words are delivered in a manner resembling that of ordinary declamation; also, a piece of music intended for such recitation; -- opposed to melisma.
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Recitative
Rec`i*ta*tive", a. Of or pertaining to recitation; intended for musical recitation or declamation; in the style or manner of recitative. -- Rec`i*ta*tive"ly, adv.
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Recitativo
Rec`i*ta*ti"vo (r&ebreve_;s`&ibreve_;*t&adot_;*tē"v&ouptack_;), n. [It.] (Mus.) Recitative.
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Recite
Re*cite" (r&euptack_;*sīt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recited; p. pr. & vb. n. Reciting.] [F. réciter, fr. L. recitare, recitatum; pref. re- re- + citare to call or name, to cite. See Cite.] 1. To repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory, or the like; to deliver from a written or printed document, or from recollection; to rehearse; as, to recite the words of an author, or of a deed or covenant.
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2. To tell over; to go over in particulars; to relate; to narrate; as, to recite past events; to recite the particulars of a voyage.
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3. To rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor.
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4. (Law) To state in or as a recital. See Recital, 5.
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Syn. -- To rehearse; narrate; relate; recount; describe; recapitulate; detail; number; count.
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Recite
Re*cite", v. i. To repeat, pronounce, or rehearse, as before an audience, something prepared or committed to memory; to rehearse a lesson learned.
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Recite
Re*cite", n. A recital. [Obs.] Sir W. Temple.
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Reciter
Re*cit"er (r&euptack_;*sīt"&etilde_;r), n. One who recites; also, a book of extracts for recitation.
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Reck
Reck (r&ebreve_;k), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recked (r&ebreve_;kt) (obs. imp. Roughte); p. pr. & vb. n. Recking.] [AS. reccan, rēcan, to care for; akin to OS. rōkian, OHG. ruochan, G. geruhen, Icel. rækja, also to E. reckon, rake an implement. See Rake, and cf. Reckon.] 1. To make account of; to care for; to heed; to regard. [Archaic]
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This son of mine not recking danger. Sir P. Sidney.
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And may you better reck the rede
Than ever did the adviser.
Burns.
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2. To concern; -- used impersonally. [Poetic]
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What recks it them? Milton.
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Reck
Reck (r&ebreve_;k), v. i. To make account; to take heed; to care; to mind; -- often followed by of. [Archaic]
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Then reck I not, when I have lost my life. Chaucer.
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I reck not though I end my life to-day. Shak.
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Of me she recks not, nor my vain desire. M. Arnold.
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Reckless
Reck"less, a. [AS. recceleás, rēceleás.] 1. Inattentive to duty; careless; neglectful; indifferent. Chaucer.
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2. Rashly negligent; utterly careless or heedless.
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It made the king as reckless as them diligent. Sir P. Sidney.
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Syn. -- Heedless; careless; mindless; thoughtless; negligent; indifferent; regardless; unconcerned; inattentive; remiss; rash.
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-- Reck"less*ly, adv. -- Reck"less*ness, n.
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Reckling
Reck"ling (r&ebreve_;k"l&ibreve_;ng), a. Needing care; weak; feeble; as, a reckling child. H. Taylor. -- n. A weak child or animal. Tennyson.
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Reckon
Reck"on (r&ebreve_;k"'n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reckoned (r&ebreve_;k"'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reckoning.] [OE. rekenen, AS. gerecenian to explain; akin to D. rekenen to reckon, G. rechnen, OHG. rehhanōn (cf. Goth. rahnjan), and to E. reck, rake an implement; the original sense probably being, to bring together, count together. See Reck, v. t.]
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1. To count; to enumerate; to number; also, to compute; to calculate.
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The priest shall reckon to him the money according to the years that remain. Lev. xxvii. 18.
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I reckoned above two hundred and fifty on the outside of the church. Addison.
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2. To count as in a number, rank, or series; to estimate by rank or quality; to place by estimation; to account; to esteem; to repute.
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He was reckoned among the transgressors. Luke xxii. 37.
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For him I reckon not in high estate. Milton.
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3. To charge, attribute, or adjudge to one, as having a certain quality or value.
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Faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. Rom. iv. 9.
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Without her eccentricities being reckoned to her for a crime. Hawthorne.
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4. To conclude, as by an enumeration and balancing of chances; hence, to think; to suppose; -- followed by an objective clause; as, I reckon he won't try that again. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U. S.]
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Syn. -- To number; enumerate; compute; calculate; estimate; value; esteem; account; repute. See Calculate, Guess.
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Reckon
Reck"on, v. i. 1. To make an enumeration or computation; to engage in numbering or computing. Shak.
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2. To come to an accounting; to make up accounts; to settle; to examine and strike the balance of debt and credit; to adjust relations of desert or penalty.
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“Parfay,” sayst thou, “sometime he reckon shall.” Chaucer.
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To reckon for, to answer for; to pay the account for. “If they fail in their bounden duty, they shall reckon for it one day.” Bp. Sanderson. -- To reckon on To reckon upon, to count or depend on; to include as a factor within one's considerations. -- To reckon with, (a) to settle accounts or claims with; -- used literally or figuratively. (b) to include as a factor in one's plans or calculations; to anticipate. (c) to deal with; to handle; as, I have to reckon with raising three children as well as doing my job.
[1913 Webster +PJC] After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. Matt. xxv. 19.
[1913 Webster] -- To reckon without one's host, to ignore in a calculation or arrangement the person whose assent is essential; hence, to reckon erroneously.

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Reckoner
Reck"on*er (r&ebreve_;k"'n*&etilde_;r), n. One who reckons or computes; also, a book of calculations, tables, etc., to assist in reckoning.
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Reckoners without their host must reckon twice. Camden.
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Reckoning
Reck"on*ing, n. 1. The act of one who reckons, counts, or computes; the result of reckoning or counting; calculation. Specifically: (a) An account of time. Sandys. (b) Adjustment of claims and accounts; settlement of obligations, liabilities, etc.
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Even reckoning makes lasting friends, and the way to make reckonings even is to make them often. South.
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He quitted London, never to return till the day of a terrible and memorable reckoning had arrived. Macaulay.
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2. The charge or account made by a host at an inn.
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A coin would have a nobler use than to pay a reckoning. Addison.
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3. Esteem; account; estimation.
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You make no further reckoning of it [beauty] than of an outward fading benefit nature bestowed. Sir P. Sidney.
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4. (Navigation) (a) The calculation of a ship's position, either from astronomical observations, or from the record of the courses steered and distances sailed as shown by compass and log, -- in the latter case called dead reckoning (see under Dead); -- also used for dead reckoning in contradistinction to observation. (b) The position of a ship as determined by calculation.
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To be out of her reckoning, to be at a distance from the place indicated by the reckoning; -- said of a ship. -- day of reckoning the day or time when one must pay one's debts, fulfill one's obligations, or be punished for one's transgressions.
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Reclaim
Re*claim" (rē*klām"), v. t. To claim back; to demand the return of as a right; to attempt to recover possession of.
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A tract of land [Holland] snatched from an element perpetually reclaiming its prior occupancy. W. Coxe.
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Reclaim
Re*claim" (r&euptack_;*klām"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reclaimed (r&euptack_;*klāmd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reclaiming.] [F. réclamer, L. reclamare, reclamatum, to cry out against; pref. re- re- + clamare to call or cry aloud. See Claim.] 1. To call back, as a hawk to the wrist in falconry, by a certain customary call. Chaucer.
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2. To call back from flight or disorderly action; to call to, for the purpose of subduing or quieting.
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The headstrong horses hurried Octavius . . . along, and were deaf to his reclaiming them. Dryden.
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3. To reduce from a wild to a tamed state; to bring under discipline; -- said especially of birds trained for the chase, but also of other animals. “An eagle well reclaimed.” Dryden.
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4. Hence: To reduce to a desired state by discipline, labor, cultivation, or the like; to rescue from being wild, desert, waste, submerged, or the like; as, to reclaim wild land, overflowed land, etc.
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5. To call back to rectitude from moral wandering or transgression; to draw back to correct deportment or course of life; to reform.
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It is the intention of Providence, in all the various expressions of his goodness, to reclaim mankind. Rogers.
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6. To correct; to reform; -- said of things. [Obs.]
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Your error, in time reclaimed, will be venial. Sir E. Hoby.
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7. To exclaim against; to gainsay. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Syn. -- To reform; recover; restore; amend; correct.
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Reclaim
Re*claim" (r&euptack_;*klām"), v. i. 1. To cry out in opposition or contradiction; to exclaim against anything; to contradict; to take exceptions.
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Scripture reclaims, and the whole Catholic church reclaims, and Christian ears would not hear it. Waterland.
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At a later period Grote reclaimed strongly against Mill's setting Whately above Hamilton. Bain.
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2. To bring anyone back from evil courses; to reform.
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They, hardened more by what might most reclaim,
Grieving to see his glory, . . . took envy.
Milton.
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3. To draw back; to give way. [R. & Obs.] Spenser.
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Reclaim
Re*claim", n. The act of reclaiming, or the state of being reclaimed; reclamation; recovery. [Obs.]
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Reclaimable
Re*claim"a*ble (r&euptack_;*klām"&adot_;*b'l), a. That may be reclaimed.
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Reclaimant
Re*claim"ant (r&euptack_;*klām"&aitalic_;nt), n. [Cf. F. réclamant, p. pr.] One who reclaims; one who cries out against or contradicts. Waterland.
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Reclaimer
Re*claim"er (r&euptack_;*klām"&etilde_;r), n. One who reclaims.
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Reclaimless
Re*claim"less, a. That can not be reclaimed.
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Reclamation
Rec`la*ma"tion (r&ebreve_;k`l&adot_;*mā"shŭn), n. [F. réclamation, L. reclamatio. See Reclaim.] 1. The act or process of reclaiming.
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2. Representation made in opposition; remonstrance.
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I would now, on the reclamation both of generosity and of justice, try clemency. Landor.
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Reclasp
Re*clasp" (rē*kl&adot_;sp"), v. i. To clasp or unite again.
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Reclinant
Re*clin"ant (r&euptack_;*klīn"&aitalic_;nt), a. [L. reclinans, p. pr. See Recline.] Bending or leaning backward.
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Reclinate
Rec"li*nate (r&ebreve_;k"l&ibreve_;*n&auptack_;t), a. [L. reclinatus, p. p.] (Bot.) Reclined, as a leaf; bent downward, so that the point, as of a stem or leaf, is lower than the base.
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Reclination
Rec`li*na"tion (r&ebreve_;k`l&ibreve_;*nā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. réclinaison.] 1. The act of leaning or reclining, or the state of being reclined.
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2. (Dialing) The angle which the plane of the dial makes with a vertical plane which it intersects in a horizontal line. Brande & C.
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3. (Surg.) The act or process of removing a cataract, by applying the needle to its anterior surface, and depressing it into the vitreous humor in such a way that the front surface of the cataract becomes the upper one and its back surface the lower one. Dunglison.
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Recline
Re*cline" (r&euptack_;*klīn"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reclined (r&euptack_;*klīnd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Reclining.] [L. reclinare; pref. re- re- + clinare to lean, incline. See Incline, Lean to incline.] To cause or permit to lean, incline, rest, etc.; to place in a recumbent position; as, to recline the head on the hand.
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The mother
Reclined her dying head upon his breast.
Dryden.
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Recline
Re*cline", v. i. 1. To lean or incline; as, to recline against a wall.
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2. To assume, or to be in, a recumbent position; as, to recline on a couch.
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Recline
Re*cline", a. [L. reclinis. See Recline, v. t.] Having a reclining posture; leaning; reclining. [R.]
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They sat, recline
On the soft downy bank, damasked with flowers.
Milton.
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Reclined
Re*clined" (r&euptack_;*klīnd"), a. (Bot.) Falling or turned downward; reclinate.
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Recliner
Re*clin"er (r&euptack_;*klīn"&etilde_;r), n. 1. One who, or that which, reclines.
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2. Specifically: An armchair with a back that can be adjusted to lean backward, and a footrest that can be moved up to support the legs, or folded under the chair when the person is sitting up; the back and footrest are often geared so that they move together, allowing the chair to be conveniently adjusted either for sitting up or for lying back; also called a reclining chair.
[PJC]

Reclining
Re*clin"ing, a. (Bot.) (a) Bending or curving gradually back from the perpendicular. (b) Recumbent.
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Reclining dial, a dial whose plane is inclined to the vertical line through its center. Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.).
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Reclose
Re*close" (rē*klōz"), v. t. To close again. Pope.
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Reclothe
Re*clothe" (rē*klōth"), v. t. To clothe again.
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Reclude
Re*clude" (r&euptack_;*klūd"), v. t. [L. recludere to unclose, open; pref. re- again, back, un- + claudere to shut.] To open; to unclose. [R.] Harvey.
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Recluse
Re*cluse" (r&euptack_;*klūs"), a. [F. reclus, L. reclusus, from recludere, reclusum, to unclose, open, in LL., to shut up. See Close.] Shut up, sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a recluse monk or hermit; a recluse life
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In meditation deep, recluse
From human converse.
J. Philips.
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Recluse
Re*cluse", n. [F. reclus, LL. reclusus. See Recluse, a.] 1. A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells, usually attached to monasteries.
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2. The place where a recluse dwells. [Obs.] Foxe.
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Recluse
Re*cluse", v. t. To shut up; to seclude. [Obs.]
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Reclusely
Re*cluse"ly, adv. In a recluse or solitary manner.
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Recluseness
Re*cluse"ness, n. Quality or state of being recluse.
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Reclusion
Re*clu"sion (r&euptack_;*klū"zhŭn), n. [LL. reclusio: cf. F. reclusion.] A state of retirement from the world; seclusion.
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Reclusive
Re*clu"sive (r&euptack_;*klū"s&ibreve_;v), a. 1. Affording retirement from society. “Some reclusive and religious life.” Shak.
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2. Disposed to avoid the company of other people; living like a recluse{1}; not sociable; -- of people.
[PJC]

Reclusory
Re*clu"so*ry (r&euptack_;*klū"s&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), n. [LL. reclusorium.] The habitation of a recluse; a hermitage.
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Recoct
Re*coct" (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;kt"), v. t. [L. recoctus, p. p. of recoquere to cook or boil over again. See Re-, and 4th Cook.] To boil or cook again; hence, to make over; to vamp up; to reconstruct. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.
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Recoction
Re*coc"tion (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;k"shŭn), n. A second coction or preparation; a vamping up.
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Recognition
Rec`og*ni"tion (r&ebreve_;k`&obreve_;g*n&ibreve_;sh"ŭn), n. [L. recognitio: cf. F. recognition. See Recognizance.] The act of recognizing, or the state of being recognized; acknowledgment; formal avowal; knowledge confessed or avowed; notice.
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The lives of such saints had, at the time of their yearly memorials, solemn recognition in the church of God. Hooker.
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Recognitor
Re*cog"ni*tor (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g"n&ibreve_;*t&etilde_;r), n. [LL.] (Law) One of a jury impaneled on an assize. Blackstone.
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Recognitory
Re*cog"ni*to*ry (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g"n&ibreve_;*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. Pertaining to, or connected with, recognition. Lamb.
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Recognizability
Rec`og*ni`za*bil"i*ty (r&ebreve_;k`&obreve_;g*nī`z&adot_;*b&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. The quality or condition of being recognizable.
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Recognizable
Rec"og*ni`za*ble (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;g*nī`z&adot_;*b'l or r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g"n&ibreve_;*z&adot_;*b'l; 277), a. Capable of being recognized. [Written also recognisable.] -- Rec"og*ni`za*bly, adv.
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Recognizance
Re*cog"ni*zance (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g"n&ibreve_;*z&aitalic_;ns or r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;n"&ibreve_;-), n. [F. reconnaissance, OF. recognoissance, fr. recognoissant, p. pr. of recognoistre to recognize, F. reconnaître, fr. L. recognoscere; pref. re- re- + cognoscere to know. See Cognizance, Know, and cf. Recognize, Reconnoissance.] [Written also recognisance.] 1. (Law) (a) An obligation of record entered into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the same or some other court, to keep the peace, or pay a debt. A recognizance differs from a bond, being witnessed by the record only, and not by the party's seal. (b) The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize. Cowell.
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&hand_; Among lawyers the g in this and the related words (except recognize) is usually silent.
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2. A token; a symbol; a pledge; a badge.
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That recognizance and pledge of love
Which I first gave her.
Shak.
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3. Acknowledgment of a person or thing; avowal; profession; recognition.
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Recognization
Re*cog`ni*za"tion (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g"n&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n. Recognition. [R.]
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Recognize
Rec"og*nize (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;g*nīz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recognized (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;g*nīzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Recognizing (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;g*nī`z&ibreve_;ng).] [From Recognizance; see Cognition, and cf. Reconnoiter.] [Written also recognise.] 1. To know again; to perceive the identity of, with a person or thing previously known; to recover or recall knowledge of.
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Speak, vassal; recognize thy sovereign queen. Harte.
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2. To avow knowledge of; to allow that one knows; to consent to admit, hold, or the like; to admit with a formal acknowledgment; as, to recognize an obligation; to recognize a consul.
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3. To acknowledge acquaintance with, as by salutation, bowing, or the like.
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4. To show appreciation of; as, to recognize services by a testimonial.
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5. To review; to reexamine. [Obs.] South.
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6. To reconnoiter. [Obs.] R. Monro.
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Syn. -- To acknowledge; avow; confess; own; allow; concede. See Acknowledge.
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Recognize
Rec"og*nize, v. i. (Law) To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal; as, A B recognized in the sum of twenty dollars. [Written also recognise.]
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&hand_; In legal usage in the United States the second syllable is often accented.
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Recognizee
Re*cog`ni*zee" (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g`n&ibreve_;*zē" or r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;n`&ibreve_;*zē"), n. (Law) The person in whose favor a recognizance is made. [Written also recognisee.] Blackstone.
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Recognizer
Rec"og*ni`zer (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;g*nī`z&etilde_;r), n. One who recognizes; a recognizor. [Written also recogniser.]
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Recognizor
Re*cog`ni*zor" (r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;g`n&ibreve_;*zôr" or r&euptack_;*k&obreve_;n`&ibreve_;*zôr"), n. (Law) One who enters into a recognizance. [Written also recognisor.] Blackstone.
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Recognosce
Rec"og*nosce (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;g*n&obreve_;s), v. t. [L. recognoscere. See Recognizance.] To recognize. [R. & Obs.] Boyle.
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Recoil
Re*coil" (r&euptack_;*koil"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Recoiled (r&euptack_;*koild"); p. pr. & vb. n. Recoiling.] [OE. recoilen, F. reculer, fr. L. pref. re- re- + culus the fundament. The English word was perhaps influenced in form by accoil.]
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1. To start, roll, bound, spring, or fall back; to take a reverse motion; to be driven or forced backward; to return.
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Evil on itself shall back recoil. Milton.
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The solemnity of her demeanor made it impossible . . . that we should recoil into our ordinary spirits. De Quincey.
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2. To draw back, as from anything repugnant, distressing, alarming, or the like; to shrink. Shak.
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3. To turn or go back; to withdraw one's self; to retire. [Obs.] “To your bowers recoil.” Spenser.
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Recoil
Re*coil" (r&euptack_;*koil"), v. t. To draw or go back. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Recoil
Re*coil", n. 1. A starting or falling back; a rebound; a shrinking; as, the recoil of nature, or of the blood.
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2. The state or condition of having recoiled.
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The recoil from formalism is skepticism. F. W. Robertson.
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3. Specifically, the reaction or rebounding of a firearm when discharged.
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Recoil dynamometer (Gunnery), an instrument for measuring the force of the recoil of a firearm. -- Recoil escapement. See the Note under Escapement.
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Recoiler
Re*coil"er (r&euptack_;*koil"&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, recoils.
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Recoilingly
Re*coil"ing*ly, adv. In the manner of a recoil.
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Recoilment
Re*coil"ment, n. [Cf. F. reculement.] Recoil. [R.]
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Recoin
Re*coin" (rē*koin"), v. t. To coin anew or again.
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Recoinage
Re*coin"age (rē*koin"&auptack_;j), n. 1. The act of coining anew.
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2. That which is coined anew.
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Re-collect
Re`-col*lect" (rē`k&obreve_;l*l&ebreve_;kt"), v. t. [Pref. re- + collect.] To collect again; to gather what has been scattered; as, to re-collect routed troops.
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God will one day raise the dead, re-collecting our scattered dust. Barrow.
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Recollect
Rec`ol*lect" (r&ebreve_;k`&obreve_;l*l&ebreve_;kt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recollected; p. pr. & vb. n. Recollecting.] [Pref. re- + collect: cf. L. recolligere, recollectum, to collect. Cf. Recollet.]
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1. To recover or recall the knowledge of; to bring back to the mind or memory; to remember.
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2. Reflexively, to compose one's self; to recover self-command; as, to recollect one's self after a burst of anger; -- sometimes, formerly, in the perfect participle.
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The Tyrian queen . . .
Admired his fortunes, more admired the man;
Then recollected stood.
Dryden.
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Recollect
Rec"ol*lect (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;l*l&ebreve_;kt), n. [See Recollet.] (Eccl.) A friar of the Strict Observance, -- an order of Franciscans. [Written also Recollet.] Addis & Arnold.
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Recollection
Rec`ol*lec"tion (r?k`?l*l?k"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. récollection.] 1. The act of recollecting, or recalling to the memory; the operation by which objects are recalled to the memory, or ideas revived in the mind; reminiscence; remembrance.
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2. The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance; memory; as, an event within my recollection.
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3. That which is recollected; something called to mind; reminiscence. “One of his earliest recollections.” Macaulay.
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4. The act or practice of collecting or concentrating the mind; concentration; self-control. [Archaic]
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From such an education Charles contracted habits of gravity and recollection. Robertson.
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Syn. -- Reminiscence; remembrance. See Memory.
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Recollective
Rec`ol*lect"ive (-l?k"t?v), a. Having the power of recollecting. J. Foster.
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Recollet
Rec"ol*let (r?k"?l*l?t; F. r?`k?`l?"), n. [F. récollet, fr. L. recollectus, p. p. of recolligere to gather again, to gather up; NL., to collect one's self, esp. for religious contemplation.] (Eccl.) Same as Recollect, n.
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Recolonization
Re*col`o*ni*za"tion (r?*k?l`?*n?*z?"sh?n), n. A second or renewed colonization.
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Recolonize
Re*col"o*nize (r?*k?l"?*n?z), v. t. To colonize again.
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Recombination
Re*com`bi*na"tion (r?*k?m`b?*n?"sh?n), n. Combination a second or additional time.
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Recombine
Re`com*bine" (r?`k?m*b?n"), v. t. To combine again.
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Recomfort
Re*com"fort (r?*k?m"f?rt), v. t. [Pref. re- + comfort: cf. F. réconforter.] To comfort again; to console anew; to give new strength to. Bacon.
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Gan her recomfort from so sad affright. Spenser.
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Recomfortless
Re*com"fort*less, a. Without comfort. [Obs.]
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Recomforture
Re*com"for*ture (-f?r*t?r;135), n. The act of recomforting; restoration of comfort. [Obs.] Shak.
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Recommence
Re`com*mence" (r?`k?m*m?ns"), v. i. 1. To commence or begin again. Howell.
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2. To begin anew to be; to act again as. [Archaic.]
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He seems desirous enough of recommencing courtier. Johnson.
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Recommence
Re`com*mence", v. t. [Pref. re- + commence: cf. F. recommencer.] To commence again or anew.
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Recommencement
Re`com*mence"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. A commencement made anew.
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Recommend
Rec`om*mend" (r?k`?m*m?nd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recommended; p. pr. & vb. n. Recommending.] [Pref. re- + commend: cf. F. recommander.] 1. To commend to the favorable notice of another; to commit to another's care, confidence, or acceptance, with favoring representations; to put in a favorable light before any one; to bestow commendation on; as, he recommended resting the mind and exercising the body.
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Maecenas recommended Virgil and Horace to Augustus, whose praises . . . have made him precious to posterity. Dryden.
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2. To make acceptable; to attract favor to.
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A decent boldness ever meets with friends,
Succeeds, and e'en a stranger recommends.
Pope.
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3. To commit; to give in charge; to commend.
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Paul chose Silas and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God. Acts xv. 40.
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Recommendable
Rec`om*mend"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. recommandable.] Suitable to be recommended; worthy of praise; commendable. Glanvill. -- Rec`om*mend"a*ble*ness, n. -- Rec`om*mend"a*bly, adv.
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Recommendation
Rec`om*men*da"tion (r?k`?m*m?n*d?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. recommandation.] 1. The act of recommending.
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2. That which recommends, or commends to favor; anything procuring, or tending to procure, a favorable reception, or to secure acceptance and adoption; as, he brought excellent recommendations.
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3. The state of being recommended; esteem. [R.]
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The burying of the dead . . . hath always been had in an extraordinary recommendation amongst the ancient. Sir T. North.
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Recommendative
Rec`om*mend"a*tive (-m?nd"?*t?v), n. That which recommends; a recommendation. [Obs.]
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Recommendatory
Rec`om*mend"a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), a. Serving to recommend; recommending; commendatory. Swift.
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Recommender
Rec`om*mend"er (-?r), n. One who recommends.
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Recommission
Re`com*mis"sion (r?`k?m*m?sh?n), v. t. To commission again; to give a new commission to.
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Officers whose time of service had expired were to be recommissioned. Marshall.
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Recommit
Re`com*mit" (-m?t"), v. t. To commit again; to give back into keeping; specifically, to refer again to a committee; as, to recommit a bill to the same committee.
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Recommittal
Recommitment
{ Re`com*mit"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), Re`com*mit"tal (-?l), } n. A second or renewed commitment; a renewed reference to a committee.
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Recompact
Re`com*pact" (-p?kt"), v. t. To compact or join anew.Recompact my scattered body.” Donne.
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Recompensation
Re*com`pen*sa"tion (r?*k?m`p?n*s?"sh?n), n. [Cf. LL. recompensatio.] 1. Recompense. [Obs.]
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2. (Scots Law) Used to denote a case where a set-off pleaded by the defendant is met by a set-off pleaded by the plaintiff.
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Recompense
Rec"om*pense (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;m*p&ebreve_;ns), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recompensed (-p?nst); p. pr. & vb. n. Recompensing (-p?n`s?ng).] [F. récompenser, LL. recompensare, fr.L. pref. re- re- + compensare to compensate. See Compensate.] 1. To render an equivalent to, for service, loss, etc.; to requite; to remunerate; to compensate.
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He can not recompense me better. Shak.
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2. To return an equivalent for; to give compensation for; to atone for; to pay for.
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God recompenseth the gift. Robynson (More's Utopia).
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To recompense
My rash, but more unfortunate, misdeed.
Milton.
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3. To give in return; to pay back; to pay, as something earned or deserved. [R.]
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Recompense to no man evil for evil. Rom. xii. 17.
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Syn. -- To repay; requite; compensate; reward; remunerate.
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Recompense
Rec"om*pense (r?k"?m*p?ns), v. i. To give recompense; to make amends or requital. [Obs.]
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Recompense
Rec"om*pense, n. [Cf. F. récompense.] An equivalent returned for anything done, suffered, or given; compensation; requital; suitable return.
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To me belongeth vengeance, and recompense. Deut. xxii. 35.
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And every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward. Heb. ii. 2.
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Syn. -- Repayment; compensation; remuneration; amends; satisfaction; reward; requital.
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Recompensement
Rec"om*pense`ment (-p?ns`m?nt), n. Recompense; requital. [Obs.] Fabyan.
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Recompenser
Rec"om*pen`ser (-p?n`s?r), n. One who recompenses.
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A thankful recompenser of the benefits received. Foxe.
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Recompensive
Rec"om*pen`sive (-s?v), a. Of the nature of recompense; serving to recompense. Sir T. Browne.
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Recompilation
Re*com`pi*la"tion (r?*k?m`p?*l?"tion), n. A new compilation.
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Recompile
Re`com*pile" (rē`k&obreve_;m*pīl"), v. t. To compile anew.
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Recompilement
Re`com*pile"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of recompiling; new compilation or digest; as, a recompilement of the laws. Bacon.
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Recompose
Re`com*pose" (-p?z"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recomposed (-p?zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Recomposing.] [Pref. re- + compose: cf. F. recomposer.] 1. To compose again; to form anew; to put together again or repeatedly.
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The far greater number of the objects presented to our observation can only be decomposed, but not actually recomposed. Sir W. Hamilton.
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2. To restore to composure; to quiet anew; to tranquilize; as, to recompose the mind. Jer. Taylor.
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Recomposer
Re`com*pos"er (-p?z"?r), n. One who recomposes.
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Recomposition
Re*com`po*si"tion (r?*k?m`p?z?sh?n), n. [Cf. F. recomposition.] The act of recomposing.
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Reconcentrado
Re*con`cen*tra"do (?), n. [Sp., p.p. of reconcentrar to inclose, to reconcentrate.] Lit., one who has been reconcentrated; specif., in Cuba, the Philippines, etc., during the revolution of 1895-98, one of the rural noncombatants who were concentrated by the military authorities in areas surrounding the fortified towns, and later were reconcentrated in the smaller limits of the towns themselves.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reconcentrate
Re`con*cen"trate (?), v. t. & i. To concentrate again; to concentrate thoroughly.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reconcentration
Re*con`cen*tra"tion (?), n. The act of reconcentrating or the state of being reconcentrated; esp., the act or policy of concentrating the rural population in or about towns and villages for convenience in political or military administration, as in Cuba during the revolution of 1895-98.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reconcilable
Rec"on*ci`la*ble (r?k"?n*s?`l?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. réconciliable.] Capable of being reconciled; as, reconcilable adversaries; an act reconciable with previous acts.
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The different accounts of the numbers of ships are reconcilable. Arbuthnot.
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-- Rec"on*ci`la*ble*ness, n. -- Rec"on*ci`la*bly, adv.
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Reconcile
Rec"on*cile` (-s?l`), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reconciled (-s?ld`); p. pr. & vb. n. Reconciling.] [F. réconcilier, L. reconciliare; pref. re- re- + conciliare to bring together, to unite. See Conciliate.] 1. To cause to be friendly again; to conciliate anew; to restore to friendship; to bring back to harmony; to cause to be no longer at variance; as, to reconcile persons who have quarreled.
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Propitious now and reconciled by prayer. Dryden.
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The church [if defiled] is interdicted till it be reconciled [i.e., restored to sanctity] by the bishop. Chaucer.
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We pray you . . . be ye reconciled to God. 2 Cor. v. 20.
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2. To bring to acquiescence, content, or quiet submission; as, to reconcile one's self to affictions.
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3. To make consistent or congruous; to bring to agreement or suitableness; -- followed by with or to.
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The great men among the ancients understood how to reconcile manual labor with affairs of state. Locke.
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Some figures monstrous and misshaped appear,
Considered singly, or beheld too near;
Which, but proportioned to their light or place,
Due distance reconciles to form and grace.
Pope.
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4. To adjust; to settle; as, to reconcile differences.
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Syn. -- To reunite; conciliate; placate; propitiate; pacify; appease.
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Reconcile
Rec"on*cile`, v. i. To become reconciled. [Obs.]
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Reconcilement
Rec"on*cile`ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. Reconciliation. Milton.
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Reconciler
Rec"on*ci`ler (-s?`l?r), n. One who reconciles.
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Reconciliation
Rec`on*cil`i*a"tion (-s?l`?*?"sh?n), n. [F. réconciliation, L. reconciliatio.] 1. The act of reconciling, or the state of being reconciled; reconcilenment; restoration to harmony; renewal of friendship.
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Reconciliation and friendship with God really form the basis of all rational and true enjoyment. S. Miller.
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2. Reduction to congruence or consistency; removal of inconsistency; harmony.
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A clear and easy reconciliation of those seeming inconsistencies of Scripture. D. Rogers.
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Syn. -- Reconcilement; reunion; pacification; appeasement; propitiation; atonement; expiation.
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Reconciliatory
Rec`on*cil"i*a*to*ry (-s?l"?*?*t?*r?), a. Serving or tending to reconcile. Bp. Hall.
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Recondensation
Re*con`den*sa"tion (r?*k?n`d?n*s?"sh?n), n. The act or process of recondensing.
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Recondense
Re`con*dense" (rē`k&obreve_;n*d&ebreve_;ns"), v. t. To condense again.
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Recondite
Rec"on*dite (r&ebreve_;k"&obreve_;n*dīt or r&euptack_;k&obreve_;n"d&ibreve_;t; 277), a. [L. reconditus, p. p. of recondere to put up again, to lay up, to conceal; pref. re- re- + condere to bring or lay together. See Abscond.] 1. Hidden from the mental or intellectual view; secret; abstruse; as, recondite causes of things.
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2. Dealing in things abstruse; profound; searching; as, recondite studies.Recondite learning.” Bp. Horsley.
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Reconditory
Re*con"di*to*ry (r&euptack_;k&obreve_;n"d&ibreve_;*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), n. [LL. reconditorium.] A repository; a storehouse. [Obs.] Ash.
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Reconduct
Re`con*duct" (rē`k&obreve_;n*dŭkt"), v. t. To conduct back or again. “A guide to reconduct thy steps.” Dryden.
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Reconfirm
Re`con*firm" (rē`k&obreve_;n*f&etilde_;rm"), v. t. [Pref. re- + confirm: cf. F. reconfirmer.] To confirm anew. Clarendon.
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Reconfort
Re`con*fort" (-f?rt"), v. t. [F. réconforter.] To recomfort; to comfort. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Reconjoin
Re`con*join" (r?`k?n*join"), v. t. To join or conjoin anew. Boyle.
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Reconnoissance
Reconnaissance
{ Re*con"nais*sance, Re*con"nois*sance } (r?-k?n"n?s-s?ns), n. [F. See Recognizance.] The act of reconnoitering; preliminary examination or survey. Specifically: (a) (Geol.) An examination or survey of a region in reference to its general geological character. (b) (Engin.) An examination of a region as to its general natural features, preparatory to a more particular survey for the purposes of triangulation, or of determining the location of a public work. (c) (Mil.) An examination of a territory, or of an enemy's position, for the purpose of obtaining information necessary for directing military operations; a preparatory expedition.
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Reconnoissance in force (Mil.), a demonstration or attack by a large force of troops for the purpose of discovering the position and strength of an enemy.
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Reconnoitre
Reconnoiter
{ Rec`on*noi"ter, Rec`on*noi"tre } (r?k`?n*noi"t?r), v. t. [F. reconnoitre, a former spelling of reconnaître. See Recognize.] 1. To examine with the eye to make a preliminary examination or survey of; esp., to survey with a view to military or engineering operations.
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2. To recognize. [Obs.] Sir H. Walpole.
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Reconquer
Re*con"quer (r?*k?n"k?r), v. t. [Pref. re- + conquer: cf. F. reconquérir.] To conquer again; to recover by conquest; as, to reconquer a revolted province.
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Reconquest
Re*con"quest (-kw?st), n. A second conquest.
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Reconsecrate
Re*con"se*crate (-k?n"s?*kr?t), v. t. To consecrate anew or again.
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Reconsecration
Re*con`se*cra"tion, n. Renewed consecration.
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Reconsider
Re`con*sid"er (r?`k?n*s?d"?r), v. t. 1. To consider again; as, to reconsider a subject.
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2. (Parliamentary Practice) To take up for renewed consideration, as a motion or a vote which has been previously acted upon.
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Reconsideration
Re`con*sid`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. The act of reconsidering, or the state of being reconsidered; as, the reconsideration of a vote in a legislative body.
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Reconsolate
Re*con"so*late (r?*k?n"s?*l?t), v. t. To console or comfort again. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.
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Reconsolidate
Re`con*sol"i*date (r?`k?n*s?l"?*d?t), v. t. To consolidate anew or again.
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Reconsolidation
Re`con*sol`i*da"tion (-d?"sh?n), n. The act or process of reconsolidating; the state of being reconsolidated.
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Reconstruct
Re`con*struct" (-str?kt"), v. t. To construct again; to rebuild; to remodel; to form again or anew.
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Regiments had been dissolved and reconstructed. Macaulay.
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Reconstruction
Re`con*struc"tion (-str?k"sh?n), n. 1. The act of constructing again; the state of being reconstructed.
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2. (U.S. Politics) The act or process of reorganizing the governments of the States which had passed ordinances of secession, and of reestablishing their constitutional relations to the national government, after the close of the Civil War.
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Reconstructive
Re`con*struct"ive (-str?k"t?v), a. Reconstructing; tending to reconstruct; as, a reconstructive policy.
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Recontinuance
Re`con*tin"u*ance (-t?n"?*?ns), n. The act or state of recontinuing.
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Recontinue
Re`con*tin"ue (-?), v. t. & i. To continue anew.
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Reconvene
Re`con*vene" (r?`k?n*v?n"), v. t. & i. To convene or assemble again; to call or come together again.
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Reconvention
Re`con*ven"tion (-v?n"sh?n), n. (Civil Law) A cross demand; an action brought by the defendant against the plaintiff before the same judge. Burrill. Bouvier.
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Reconversion
Re`con*ver"sion (-v?r"sh?n), n. A second conversion.
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Reconvert
Re`con*vert" (-v?rt"), v. t. To convert again. Milton.
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Reconvert
Re*con"vert (r?*k?n"v?rt), n. A person who has been reconverted. Gladstone.
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Reconvertible
Re`con*vert"i*ble (r?`k?n*v?rt"?*b'l), a. (Chem.) Capable of being reconverted; convertible again to the original form or condition.
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Reconvey
Re`con*vey" (-v?"), v. t. 1. To convey back or to the former place; as, to reconvey goods.
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2. To transfer back to a former owner; as, to reconvey an estate.
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Reconveyance
Re`con*vey"ance (-v?"?ns), n. Act of reconveying.
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Recopy
Re*cop"y (r?*k?p"?), v. t. To copy again.
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Record
Re*cord" (r?*k?rd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recorded; p. pr. & vb. n. Recording.] [OE. recorden to repeat, remind, F. recorder, fr. L. recordari to remember; pref. re- re- + cor, cordis, the heart or mind. See Cordial, Heart.] 1. To recall to mind; to recollect; to remember; to meditate. [Obs.] “I it you record.” Chaucer.
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2. To repeat; to recite; to sing or play. [Obs.]
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They longed to see the day, to hear the lark
Record her hymns, and chant her carols blest.
Fairfax.
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3. To preserve the memory of, by committing to writing, to printing, to inscription, or the like; to make note of; to write or enter in a book or on parchment, for the purpose of preserving authentic evidence of; to register; to enroll; as, to record the proceedings of a court; to record historical events.
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Those things that are recorded of him . . . are written in the chronicles of the kings. 1 Esd. i. 42.
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To record a deed, mortgage, lease, etc., to have a copy of the same entered in the records of the office designated by law, for the information of the public.
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Record
Re*cord", v. i. 1. To reflect; to ponder. [Obs.]
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Praying all the way, and recording upon the words which he before had read. Fuller.
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2. To sing or repeat a tune. [Obs.] Shak.
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Whether the birds or she recorded best. W. Browne.
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Record
Rec"ord (r&ebreve_;k"&etilde_;rd), n. [OF. recort, record, remembrance, attestation, record. See Record, v. t.] 1. A writing by which some act or event, or a number of acts or events, is recorded; a register; as, a record of the acts of the Hebrew kings; a record of the variations of temperature during a certain time; a family record.
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2. Especially: (a) An official contemporaneous writing by which the acts of some public body, or public officer, are recorded; as, a record of city ordinances; the records of the receiver of taxes. (b) An authentic official copy of a document which has been entered in a book, or deposited in the keeping of some officer designated by law. (c) An official contemporaneous memorandum stating the proceedings of a court of justice; a judicial record. (d) The various legal papers used in a case, together with memoranda of the proceedings of the court; as, it is not permissible to allege facts not in the record.
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3. Testimony; witness; attestation.
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John bare record, saying. John i. 32.
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4. That which serves to perpetuate a knowledge of acts or events; a monument; a memorial.
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5. That which has been, or might be, recorded; the known facts in the course, progress, or duration of anything, as in the life of a public man; as, a politician with a good or a bad record.
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6. That which has been publicly achieved in any kind of competitive sport as recorded in some authoritative manner, as the time made by a winning horse in a race.
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Court of record (pron. r&unr_;*k&unr_;rd" in Eng.), a court whose acts and judicial proceedings are written on parchment or in books for a perpetual memorial. -- Debt of record, a debt which appears to be due by the evidence of a court of record, as upon a judgment or a cognizance. -- Trial by record, a trial which is had when a matter of record is pleaded, and the opposite party pleads that there is no such record. In this case the trial is by inspection of the record itself, no other evidence being admissible. Blackstone. -- To beat the record, or To break the record (Sporting), to surpass any performance of like kind as authoritatively recorded; as, to break the record in a walking match. Records in many fields of endeavor are listed in the Guiness Book of World Records.
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Recordance
Re*cord"ance (r?*k?rd"?ns), n. Remembrance. [Obs.]
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Recordation
Rec`or*da"tion (r?k`?r*d?"sh?n), n. [L. recordatio: cf. F. recordation. See Record, v. t.] Remembrance; recollection; also, a record. [Obs.] Shak.
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Recorder
Re*cord"er (r?*k?rd"?r), n. 1. One who records; specifically, a person whose official duty it is to make a record of writings or transactions.
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2. The title of the chief judical officer of some cities and boroughs; also, of the chief justice of an East Indian settlement. The Recorder of London is judge of the Lord Mayor's Court, and one of the commissioners of the Central Criminal Court.
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3. (Mus.) A kind of wind instrument resembling the flageolet. [Obs.] “Flutes and soft recorders.” Milton.
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Recordership
Re*cord"er*ship, n. The office of a recorder.
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Recording
Re*cord"ing, a. Keeping a record or a register; as, a recording secretary; -- applied to numerous instruments with an automatic appliance which makes a record of their action; as, a recording gauge or telegraph.
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Recorporification
Re`cor*por`i*fi*ca"tion (r?`k?r*p?r`?*f?*k?"sh?n), n. The act of investing again with a body; the state of being furnished anew with a body. [R.] Boyle.
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Recouch
Re*couch" (r?*kouch"), v. i. [Pref. re- + couch: cf. F. recoucher.] To retire again to a couch; to lie down again. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.
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Recount
Re*count" (rē*kount"), v. t. [Pref. re- + count.] To count or reckon again.
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Recount
Re*count", n. A counting again, as of votes.
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Recount
Re*count" (r&euptack_;*kount"), v. t. [F. raconter to relate, to recount; pref. re- again + &unr_; (L. ad.) + conter to relate. See Count, v.] To tell over; to relate in detail; to recite; to tell or narrate the particulars of; to rehearse; to enumerate; as, to recount one's blessings. Dryden.
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To all his angels, who, with true applause,
Recount his praises.
Milton.
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Recountment
Re*count`ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. Recital. [Obs.] Shak.
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Recoupe
Recoup
{ Re*coup", Re*coupe" } (-k??p"), v. t. [F. recouper; pref. re- re- + couper to cut.] 1. (Law) To keep back rightfully (a part), as if by cutting off, so as to diminish a sum due; to take off (a part) from damages; to deduct; as, where a landlord recouped the rent of premises from damages awarded to the plaintiff for eviction.
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2. To get an equivalent or compensation for; as, to recoup money lost at the gaming table; to recoup one's losses in the share market.
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3. To reimburse; to indemnify; -- often used reflexively and in the passive.
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Elizabeth had lost her venture; but if she was bold, she might recoup herself at Philip's cost. Froude.
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Industry is sometimes recouped for a small price by extensive custom. Duke of Argyll.
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Recouper
Re*coup"er (r?*k??p"?r), n. One who recoups. Story.
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Recoupment
Re*coup"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of recouping.
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&hand_; Recoupment applies to equities growing out of the very affair from which thw principal demand arises, set-off to cross-demands which may be independent in origin. Abbott.
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Recourse
Re*course" (r?*k?rs"), n. [F. recours, L. recursus a running back, return, fr. recurrere, recursum, to run back. See Recur.] 1. A coursing back, or coursing again, along the line of a previous coursing; renewed course; return; retreat; recurence. [Obs.] “Swift recourse of flushing blood.” Spenser.
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Unto my first I will have my recourse. Chaucer.
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Preventive physic . . . preventeth sickness in the healthy, or the recourse thereof in the valetudinary. Sir T. Browne.
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2. Recurrence in difficulty, perplexity, need, or the like; access or application for aid; resort.
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Thus died this great peer, in a time of great recourse unto him and dependence upon him. Sir H. Wotton.
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Our last recourse is therefore to our art. Dryden.
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3. Access; admittance. [Obs.]
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Give me recourse to him. Shak.
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Without recourse (Commerce), words sometimes added to the indorsement of a negotiable instrument to protect the indorser from liability to the indorsee and subsequent holders. It is a restricted indorsement.
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Recourse
Re*course", v. i. 1. To return; to recur. [Obs.]
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The flame departing and recoursing. Foxe.
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2. To have recourse; to resort. [Obs.] Bp. Hacket.
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Recourseful
Re*course"ful (-f?l), a. Having recurring flow and ebb; moving alternately. [Obs.] Drayton.
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Recover
Re*cov"er (r?*k?v"?r), v. t. [Pref. re- + cover: cf. F. recouvrir.] To cover again. Sir W. Scott.
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Recover
Re*cov"er (r?*k?v"?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recovered (-?rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Recovering. ] [OE. recoveren, OF. recovrer, F. recouvrer, from L. recuperare; pref. re- re + a word of unknown origin. Cf.Recuperate.]
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1. To get or obtain again; to get renewed possession of; to win back; to regain.
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David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away. 1. Sam. xxx. 18.
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2. To make good by reparation; to make up for; to retrieve; to repair the loss or injury of; as, to recover lost time. “Loss of catel may recovered be.” Chaucer.
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Even good men have many failings and lapses to lament and recover. Rogers.
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3. To restore from sickness, faintness, or the like; to bring back to life or health; to cure; to heal.
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The wine in my bottle will recover him. Shak.
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4. To overcome; to get the better of, -- as a state of mind or body.
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I do hope to recover my late hurt. Cowley.
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When I had recovered a little my first surprise. De Foe.
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5. To rescue; to deliver.
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That they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him. 2. Tim. ii. 26.
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6. To gain by motion or effort; to obtain; to reach; to come to. [Archaic]
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The forest is not three leagues off;
If we recover that, we're sure enough.
Shak.
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Except he could recover one of the Cities of Refuge he was to die. Hales.
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7. (Law) To gain as a compensation; to obtain in return for injury or debt; as, to recover damages in trespass; to recover debt and costs in a suit at law; to obtain title to by judgement in a court of law; as, to recover lands in ejectment or common recovery; to gain by legal process; as, to recover judgement against a defendant.
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Recover arms (Mil. Drill), a command whereby the piece is brought from the position of “aim” to that of “ready.”
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Syn. -- To regain; repossess; resume; retrieve; recruit; heal; cure.
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Recover
Re*cov"er (r?*k?v"?r), v. i. 1. To regain health after sickness; to grow well; to be restored or cured; hence, to regain a former state or condition after misfortune, alarm, etc.; -- often followed by of or from; as, to recover from a state of poverty; to recover from fright.
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Go, inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover of this disease. 2 Kings i. 2.
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2. To make one's way; to come; to arrive. [Obs.]
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With much ado the Christians recovered to Antioch. Fuller.
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3. (Law) To obtain a judgement; to succeed in a lawsuit; as, the plaintiff has recovered in his suit.
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Recover
Re*cov"er, n. Recovery. Sir T. Malory.
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Recoverable
Re*cov"er*a*ble (-?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. recouvrable.] Capable of being recovered or regained; capable of being brought back to a former condition, as from sickness, misfortune, etc.; obtainable from a debtor or possessor; as, the debt is recoverable; goods lost or sunk in the ocean are not recoverable.
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A prodigal course
Is like the sun's; but not, like his, recoverable.
Shak.
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If I am recoverable, why am I thus? Cowper.
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-- Re*cov"er*a*ble*ness, n.
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Re coverance
Re cov"er*ance (-&aitalic_;ns), n. Recovery. [Obs.]
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Recoveree
Re*cov`er*ee" (-ē"), n. (Law) The person against whom a judgment is obtained in common recovery.
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Recoverer
Re*cov"er*er (r?*k?v"?r*?r), n. One who recovers.
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Recoveror
Re*cov`er*or" (-?r), n. (Law) The demandant in a common recovery after judgment. Wharton.
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Recovery
Re*cov"er*y (r?*k?v"?r*?), n. 1. The act of recovering, regaining, or retaking possession.
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2. Restoration from sickness, weakness, faintness, or the like; restoration from a condition of mistortune, of fright, etc.
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3. (Law) The obtaining in a suit at law of a right to something by a verdict and judgment of court.
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4. The getting, or gaining, of something not previously had. [Obs.] “Help be past recovery.” Tusser.
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5. In rowing, the act of regaining the proper position for making a new stroke.
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6. Act of regaining the natural position after curtseying.
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7. (Fencing, Sparring, etc.) Act of regaining the position of guard after making an attack.
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Common recovery (Law), a species of common assurance or mode of conveying lands by matter of record, through the forms of an action at law, formerly in frequent use, but now abolished or obsolete, both in England and America. Burrill. Warren.
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Recreance
Rec"re*ance (r?k"r?*?ns), n. Recreancy.
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Recreancy
Rec"re*an*cy (-an*s?), n. The quality or state of being recreant.
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Recreant
Rec"re*ant (-ant), a. [OF., cowardly, fr. recroire, recreire, to forsake, leave, tire, discourage, regard as conquered, LL. recredere se to declare one's self conquered in combat; hence, those are called recrediti or recreanti who are considered infamous; L. pref. re- again, back + credere to believe, to be of opinion; hence, originally, to disavow one's opinion. See Creed.] 1. Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; cowardly; mean-spirited; craven. “This recreant knight.” Spenser.
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2. Apostate; false; unfaithful.
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Who, for so many benefits received,
Turned recreant to God, ingrate and false.
Milton.
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Recreant
Rec"re*ant, n. One who yields in combat, and begs for mercy; a mean-spirited, cowardly wretch. Blackstone.
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You are all recreants and dastards! Shak.
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Re-create
Re`-cre*ate" (r?`kr?*?t"), v. t. [Pref. re- + create.] To create or form anew.
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On opening the campaign of 1776, instead of reenforcing, it was necessary to re-create, the army. Marshall.
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Recreate
Rec"re*ate (rk"r*t), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recreated (-`td); p. pr. & vb. n. Recreating.] [L. recreatus, p. p. of recreate to create anew, to refresh; pref. re- re- + creare to create. See Create.] To give fresh life to; to reanimate; to revive; especially, to refresh after wearying toil or anxiety; to relieve; to cheer; to divert; to amuse; to gratify.
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Painters, when they work on white grounds, place before them colors mixed with blue and green, to recreate their eyes, white wearying . . . the sight more than any. Dryden.
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St. John, who recreated himself with sporting with a tame partridge. Jer. Taylor.
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These ripe fruits recreate the nostrils with their aromatic scent. Dr. H. More.
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Recreate
Rec"re*ate, v. i. To take recreation. L. Addison.
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Recreation
Rec"re*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [F. récréation, L. recreatio.] The act of recreating, or the state of being recreated; refreshment of the strength and spirits after toil; amusement; diversion; sport; pastime.
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Re-creation
Re`-cre*a"tion (r?`kr?*?sh?n), n. [See Re-create.] A forming anew; a new creation or formation.
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Re-creative
Re`-cre*a"tive (-?`t?v), a. Creating anew; as, re-creative power.
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Recreative
Rec"re*a`tive (r?k"r?*?`t?v), a. [Cf. F. récréatif. See Recreate.] Tending to recreate or refresh; recreating; giving new vigor or animation; reinvigorating; giving relief after labor or pain; amusing; diverting.
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Let the music of them be recreative. Bacon.
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--- Rec"re*a`tive*ly, adv. -- Rec"re*a`tive*ness, n.
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Recrement
Rec"re*ment (r?k"r?*ment), n. [L. recrementum; pref. re- re- + cernere, cretum, to separate, sift: cf. F. récrément.] 1. Superfluous matter separated from that which is useful; dross; scoria; as, the recrement of ore.
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2. (Med.) (a) Excrement. [Obs.] (a) A substance secreted from the blood and again absorbed by it.
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Recremental
Rec`re*men"tal (-m?n"tal), a. Recrementitious.
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Recrementitial
Rec`re*men*ti"tial (-m?n*t?sh"al), a. [Cf. F. récrémentitiel.] (Med.) Of the nature of a recrement. See Recrement, 2 (b).Recrementitial fluids.” Dunglison.
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Recrementitious
Rec`re*men*ti"tious (-t?sh"?s), a. Of or pertaining to recrement; consisting of recrement or dross. Boyle.
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Recriminate
Re*crim"i*nate (r?*kr?m"?*n?t), v. i. [Pref. re- + criminate: cf. F. récriminer, LL. recriminare.] To return one charge or accusation with another; to charge back fault or crime upon an accuser.
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It is not my business to recriminate, hoping sufficiently to clear myself in this matter. Bp. Stillingfleet.
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Recriminate
Re*crim"i*nate, v. t. To accuse in return. South.
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Recrimination
Re*crim`i*na"tion (-n?"sh?n), n. [F. récrimination, LL. recriminatio.] The act of recriminating; an accusation brought by the accused against the accuser; a counter accusation.
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Accusations and recriminations passed backward and forward between the contending parties. Macaulay.
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Recriminative
Re*crim"i*na*tive (-n?*t?v), a. Recriminatory.
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Recriminator
Re*crim"i*na`tor (-n?`t?r), n. One who recriminates.
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Recriminatory
Re*crim"i*na*to*ry (-n?*t?*r?), a. [Cf. F. récriminatoire.] Having the quality of recrimination; retorting accusation; recriminating.
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Recross
Re*cross" (r?*kr?s";115), v. t. To cross a second time.
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Recrudency
Re*cru"den*cy (r&euptack_;*kr&usuml_;"d&eitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), n. Recrudescence.
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Recrudesce
Re`cru*desce" (?), v. i. [See Recrudescent.] To be in a state of recrudescence; esp., to come into renewed freshness, vigor, or activity; to revive.

The general influence . . . which is liable every now and then to recrudesce in his absence. Edmund Gurney.
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Recrudescency
Recrudescence
{ Re`cru*des"cence (r?`kr?*d?s"sens), Re`cru*des`cen*cy (-d?s"sen*s?), } n. [Cf. F. recrudescence.]
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1. The state or condition of being recrudescent.
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A recrudescence of barbarism may condemn it [land] to chronic poverty and waste. Duke of Argyll.
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2. (Med.) Increased severity of a disease after temporary remission. Dunglison.
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Recrudescent
Re`cru*des"cent (-sent), a. [L. recrudescens, -entis, p. pr. of recrudescere to become raw again; pref. re- re- + crudescere to become hard or raw: cf. F. recrudescent.] 1. Growing raw, sore, or painful again.
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2. Breaking out again after temporary abatement or supression; as, a recrudescent epidemic.
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Recruit
Re*cruit" (r?*kr?t"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Recruited; p. pr. & vb. n. Recruiting.] [F. recruter, corrupted (under influence of recrue recruiting, recruit, from recroî/tre, p. p. recrû, to grow again) from an older recluter, properly, to patch, to mend (a garment); pref. re- + OF. clut piece, piece of cloth; cf. Icel. klūtr kerchief, E. clout.] 1. To repair by fresh supplies, as anything wasted; to remedy lack or deficiency in; as, food recruits the flesh; fresh air and exercise recruit the spirits.
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Her cheeks glow the brighter, recruiting their color. Glanvill.
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2. Hence, to restore the wasted vigor of; to renew in strength or health; to reinvigorate.
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3. To supply with new men, as an army; to fill up or make up by enlistment; as, he recruited two regiments; the army was recruited for a campaign; also, to muster; to enlist; as, he recruited fifty men. M. Arnold.
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Recruit
Re*cruit", v. i. 1. To gain new supplies of anything wasted; to gain health, flesh, spirits, or the like; to recuperate; as, lean cattle recruit in fresh pastures.
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2. To gain new supplies of men for military or other service; to raise or enlist new soldiers; to enlist troops.
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Recruit
Re*cruit", n. 1. A supply of anything wasted or exhausted; a reenforcement.
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The state is to have recruits to its strength, and remedies to its distempers. Burke.
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2. Specifically, a man enlisted for service in the army; a newly enlisted soldier.
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Recruiter
Re*cruit"er, n. One who, or that which, recruits.
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Recruitment
Re*cruit"ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act or process of recruiting; especially, the enlistment of men for an army.
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Recrystallization
Re*crys`tal*li*za"tion (rē*kr&ibreve_;s`t&aitalic_;l*l&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n. (Chem. & Min.) The process or recrystallizing.
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Recrystallize
Re*crys"tal*lize (rē*kr&ibreve_;s"t&aitalic_;l*līz), v. i. & t. (Chem. & Min.) To crystallize again. Henry.
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Rectal
Rec"tal (r?k"tal), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the rectum; in the region of the rectum.
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Rectangle
Rec"tan`gle (r?k"t??`g'l), n. [F., fr. L. rectus right + angulus angle. See Right, and Angle.] (Geom.) A four-sided figure having only right angles; a right-angled parallelogram.
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&hand_; As the area of a rectangle is expressed by the product of its two dimensions, the term rectangle is sometimes used for product; as, the rectangle of a and b, that is, ab.
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Rectangle
Rec"tan`gle, a. Rectangular. [R.]
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Rectangled
Rec"tan`gled (-g'ld), a. Rectangular. Hutton.
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Rectangular
Rec*tan"gu*lar (r?k*t?n"g?*l?r), a. [CF. F. rectangulaire.] Right-angled; having one or more angles of ninety degrees. -- Rec*tan"gu*lar*ly (r&unr_;k*t&unr_;n"g&unr_;*l&unr_;r*l&unr_;), adv. -- Rec*tan"gu*lar*ness, n.
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Rectangularity
Rec*tan`gu*lar"i*ty (-l?r"?*t?), n. The quality or condition of being rectangular, or right-angled.
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Recti-
Rec"ti- (r?k"t?*). [L. rectus straight.] A combining form signifying straight; as, rectilineal, having straight lines; rectinerved.
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Rectifiable
Rec"ti*fi`a*ble (r?k"t?*f?`?*b'l), a. 1. Capable of being rectified; as, a rectifiable mistake.
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2. (Math.) Admitting, as a curve, of the construction of a straight line equal in length to any definite portion of the curve.
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Rectification
Rec`ti*fi*ca"tion (r?k`t?*f?*k?1sh?n), n. [Cf. F. rectification.] 1. The act or operation of rectifying; as, the rectification of an error; the rectification of spirits.
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After the rectification of his views, he was incapable of compromise with profounder shapes of error. De Quincey.
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2. (Geom.) The determination of a straight line whose length is equal a portion of a curve.
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Rectification of a globe (Astron.), its adjustment preparatory to the solution of a proposed problem.
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Rectificator
Rec"ti*fi*ca`tor (r?k"t?*f?*k?`t?r), n. (Chem.) That which rectifies or refines; esp., a part of a distilling apparatus in which the more volatile portions are separated from the less volatile by the process of evaporation and condensation; a rectifier.
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Rectifier
Rec"ti*fi`er (r?k"t?*f?`?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, rectifies.
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2. Specifically: (a) (Naut.) An instrument used for determining and rectifying the variations of the compass on board ship. (b) (Chem.) A rectificator.
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Rectify
Rec"ti*fy (-f?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rectified (-f?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Rectifying (-f?`?ng).] [F. rectifier, LL. rectificare; L. rectus right + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Right, and -fy.] 1. To make or set right; to correct from a wrong, erroneous, or false state; to amend; as, to rectify errors, mistakes, or abuses; to rectify the will, the judgment, opinions; to rectify disorders.
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I meant to rectify my conscience. Shak.
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This was an error of opinion which a conflicting opinion would have rectified. Burke.
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2. (Chem.) To refine or purify by repeated distillation or sublimation, by which the fine parts of a substance are separated from the grosser; as, to rectify spirit of wine.
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3. (Com.) To produce ( as factitious gin or brandy) by redistilling low wines or ardent spirits (whisky, rum, etc.), flavoring substances, etc., being added.
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To rectify a globe, to adjust it in order to prepare for the solution of a proposed problem.
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Syn. -- To amend; emend; correct; better; mend; reform; redress; adjust; regulate; improve. See Amend.
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Rectilinear
Rectilineal
{ Rec`ti*lin"e*al (-l?n"?*al), Rec`ti*lin"e*ar (-l?n"?*?r), } a. [Recti- + lineal, linear.] Straight; consisting of a straight line or lines; bounded by straight lines; as, a rectineal angle; a rectilinear figure or course. -- Rec`ti*lin"e*al*ly, adv. -- Rec`ti*lin"e*ar*ly, adv.
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Rectilinearity
Rec`ti*lin`e*ar"i*ty (-?r"?*t?), n. The quality or state of being rectilinear. Coleridge.
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Rectilineous
Rec`ti*lin"e*ous (-?s), a. Rectilinear. [Obs.] Ray.
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Rectinerved
Rec"ti*nerved` (r?k"t?*n?rrvd`), a. [Recti- + nerve.] (Bot.) Having the veins or nerves straight; -- said of leaves.
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Rection
Rec"tion (r?k"sh?n), n. [L. rectio, fr. regere to rule or govern.] (Gram.) See Government, n., 7. Gibbs.
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Rectirostral
Rec`ti*ros"tral (r?k`t?*r?s"tral), a. [Recti- + rostral.] (Zool.) Having a straight beak.
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Rectiserial
Rec`ti*se"ri*al (-s?"r?*al), a. [Recti- + serial.] (Bot.) Arranged in exactly vertical ranks, as the leaves on stems of many kinds; -- opposed to curviserial.
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Rectitis
Rec*ti"tis (r?k*t?"t?s), n. [NL. See Rectum, and -itis.] (Med.) Proctitis. Dunglison.
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Rectitude
Rec"ti*tude (r?k"t?*t?d), n. [L. rectitudo, fr. rectus right, straight: cf. F. rectitude. See Right.] 1. Straightness. [R.] Johnson.
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2. Rightness of principle or practice; exact conformity to truth, or to the rules prescribed for moral conduct, either by divine or human laws; uprightness of mind; uprightness; integrity; honesty; justice.
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3. Right judgment. [R.] Sir G. C. Lewis.
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Syn. -- See Justice.
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Recto-
Rec"to- (r?k"t?*). A combining form indicating connection with, or relation to, the rectum; as, recto-vesical.
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Recto
Rec"to, n. [Abbrev. fr. LL. breve de recto. See Right.] (Law) A writ of right.
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Recto
Rec"to, n. [Cf. F. recto.] (Print.) The right-hand page; -- opposed to verso.
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Rector
Rec"tor (r?k"t?r), n. [L., fr. regere, rectum, to lead straight, to rule: cf. F. recteur. See Regiment, Right.]
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1. A ruler or governor. [R.]
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God is the supreme rector of the world. Sir M. Hale.
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2. (a) (Ch. of Eng.) A clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish, and has the tithes, etc.; the clergyman of a parish where the tithes are not impropriate. See the Note under Vicar. Blackstone. (b) (Prot. Epis. Ch.) A clergyman in charge of a parish.
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3. The head master of a public school. [Scot.]
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4. The chief elective officer of some universities, as in France and Scotland; sometimes, the head of a college; as, the Rector of Exeter College, or of Lincoln College, at Oxford.
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5. (R. C. Ch.) The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.
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Rectoral
Rec"tor*al (-al), a. [CF. F. rectoral.] Pertaining to a rector or governor.
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Rectorate
Rec"tor*ate (-?t), n. [LL. rectoratus: cf. F. rectorat.] The office, rank, or station of a rector; rectorship.
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Rectoress
Rec"tor*ess, n. 1. A governess; a rectrix. Drayton.
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2. The wife of a rector. Thackeray.
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Rectorial
Rec*to"ri*al (r?k*t?"r?*al), a. Pertaining to a rector or a rectory; rectoral. Shipley.
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Rectorship
Rec"tor*ship (r?k"t?r*sh?p), n. 1. Government; guidance. [Obs.] “The rectorship of judgment.” Shak.
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2. The office or rank of a rector; rectorate.
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Rectory
Rec"to*ry (-t?*r?), n.; pl. Rectories (-r&unr_;z). [Cf. OF. rectorie or rectorerie, LL. rectoria.] 1. The province of a rector; a parish church, parsonage, or spiritual living, with all its rights, tithes, and glebes.
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2. A rector's mansion; a parsonage house.
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Recto-uterine
Rec`to-u"ter*ine (-?"t?r*?n or *?n), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the uterus.
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Rectovaginal
Rec`to*vag"i*nal (r?k`t?*v?j"?*nal), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the vagina.
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Recto-vesical
Rec`to-ves"i*cal (-v?s"?*kal), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the bladder.
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Rectress
Rec"tress (r?k"tr?s), n. A rectoress. B. Jonson.
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Rectrix
Rec"trix (-tr?ks), n.; pl. Rectrices (-tr&unr_;"s&unr_;z). [L., fem. of rector.] 1. A governess; a rectoress.
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2. (Zool.) One of the quill feathers of the tail of a bird.
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Rectum
Rec"tum (-t?m), n. [NL. (sc. intestinum), fr. L. rectus straight. See Right.] (Anat.) The terminal part of the large intestine; -- so named because supposed by the old anatomists to be straight. See Illust. under Digestive.
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Rectus
Rec"tus (-t?s), n.; pl. Recti (-t&unr_;). [NL., fr. L. regere to keep straight.] (Anat.) A straight muscle; as, the recti of the eye.
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Recubation
Rec`u*ba"tion (r?k`?*b?"sh?n), n. [L. recubare to lie upon the back.] Recumbence. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Recule
Re*cule" (r?*k?l"), v. i. To recoil. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Reculement
Recule
{ Re*cule" (r?*k?l"), Re*cule"ment (-ment), } n. [F. reculement.] Recoil. [Obs.]
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Recumb
Re*cumb" (-k?m"), v. i. [L. recumbere; pref. re- back + cumbere (in comp.), akin to cubare to lie down.] To lean; to recline; to repose. [Obs.] J. Allen (1761).
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Recumbence
Re*cum"bence (r?*k?m"bens), n. The act of leaning, resting, or reclining; the state of being recumbent.
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Recumbency
Re*cum"ben*cy (-ben*s?), n. Recumbence.
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Recumbent
Re*cum"bent (-bet), a. [L. recumbens, -entis, p. pr. of recumbere. See Recumb, Incumbent.] Leaning; reclining; lying; as, the recumbent posture of the Romans at their meals. Hence, figuratively; Resting; inactive; idle. -- Re*cum"bent*ly, adv.
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Recuperable
Re*cu"per*a*ble (r&euptack_;*kū`p&etilde_;r*&adot_;*b'l), a. [Cf.F. récupérable. See Recover.] Recoverable. Sir T. Elyot.
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Recuperate
Re*cu"per*ate (-?t), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Recuperated (-?`t?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Recuperating.] [L. recuperatus, p. p. of recuperare. See Recover to get again.] To recover health; to regain strength; to convalesce.
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Recuperate
Re*cu"per*ate, v. t. To recover; to regain; as, to recuperate the health or strength.
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Recuperation
Re*cu`per*a"tion (r&euptack_;*kū`p&etilde_;r*ā"shŭn), n. [L. recuperatio: cf. F. récupération.] Recovery, as of anything lost, especially of the health or strength.
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Recuperatory
Recuperative
{ Re*cu"per*a*tive (-?*t?v), Re*cu"per*a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), } a. [L. recuperativus, recuperatorius.] Of or pertaining to recuperation; tending to recovery.
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Recuperator
Re*cu"per*a`tor (r?*k?"pp?r*?`t?r), n. [Cf. L. recuperator a recoverer.] (Steel Manuf.) Same as Regenerator.
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Recur
Re*cur" (r?*k?r"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Recurred (-k?rd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Recurring.] [L. recurrere; pref. re- re- + currere to run. See Current.] 1. To come back; to return again or repeatedly; to come again to mind.
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When any word has been used to signify an idea, the old idea will recur in the mind when the word is heard. I. Watts.
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2. To occur at a stated interval, or according to some regular rule; as, the fever will recur to-night.
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3. To resort; to have recourse; to go for help.
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If, to avoid succession in eternal existence, they recur to the “punctum stans” of the schools, they will thereby very little help us to a more positive idea of infinite duration. Locke.
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Recurring decimal (Math.), a circulating decimal. See under Decimal. -- Recurring series (Math.), an algebraic series in which the coefficients of the several terms can be expressed by means of certain preceding coefficients and constants in one uniform manner.
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Recure
Re*cure" (r?*k?r"), v. t. [Cf. Recover.] 1. To arrive at; to reach; to attain. [Obs.] Lydgate.
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2. To recover; to regain; to repossess. [Obs.]
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When their powers, impaired through labor long,
With due repast, they had recured well.
Spenser.
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3. To restore, as from weariness, sickness; or the like; to repair.
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In western waves his weary wagon did recure. Spenser.
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4. To be a cure for; to remedy. [Obs.]
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No medicine
Might avail his sickness to recure.
Lydgate.
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Recure
Re*cure", n. Cure; remedy; recovery. [Obs.]
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But whom he hite, without recure he dies. Fairfax.
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Recureless
Re*cure"less, a. Incapable of cure. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.
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Recurrency
Recurrence
{ Re*cur"rence (r?*k?r"rens), Re*cur"ren*cy (-ren*s?), } n. [Cf. F. récurrence.] The act of recurring, or state of being recurrent; return; resort; recourse.
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I shall insensibly go on from a rare to a frequent recurrence to the dangerous preparations. I. Taylor.
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Recurrent
Re*cur"rent (-rent), a. [L. recurrens, -entis, p. pr. of recurrere: cf.F. récurrent. See Recur.] 1. Returning from time to time; recurring; as, recurrent pains.
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2. (Anat.) Running back toward its origin; as, a recurrent nerve or artery.
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Recurrent fever. (Med.) See Relapsing fever, under Relapsing. -- Recurrent pulse (Physiol.), the pulse beat which appears (when the radial artery is compressed at the wrist) on the distal side of the point of pressure through the arteries of the palm of the hand. -- Recurrent sensibility (Physiol.), the sensibility manifested by the anterior, or motor, roots of the spinal cord (their stimulation causing pain) owing to the presence of sensory fibers from the corresponding sensory or posterior roots.
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Recursant
Re*cur"sant (r?*k?r"sant), a. [L. recursans, -antis, p. pr. of recursare to run back, v. freq. of recurrere. See Recure.] (Her.) Displayed with the back toward the spectator; -- said especially of an eagle.
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Recursion
Re*cur"sion (-sh?n), n. [L. recursio. See Recur.] The act of recurring; return. [Obs.] Boyle.
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Recurvate
Re*cur"vate (r?*k?r"v?t), a. [L. recurvatus, p. p. of recurvare. See Re-, and Curvate.] (Bot.) Recurved.
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Recurvate
Re*cur"vate (-v?t), v. t. To bend or curve back; to recurve. Pennant.
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Recurvation
Re`cur*va"tion (r?`k?r*v?"sh?n), n. The act of recurving, or the state of being recurved; a bending or flexure backward.
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Recurve
Re*curve" (r?*k?rv"), v. t. To curve in an opposite or unusual direction; to bend back or down.
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Recurved
Re*curved" (r?*k?rvd"), a. Curved in an opposite or uncommon direction; bent back; as, a bird with a recurved bill; flowers with recurved petals.
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Recurviroster
Re*cur`vi*ros"ter (r?*k?r`v?*r?s"t?r), n. [L. recurvus bent back + rostrum beack; cf. F. récurvirostre.] (Zool.) A bird whose beak bends upward, as the avocet.
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Recurvirostral
Re*cur`vi*ros"tral (-tral), a. [See Recurviroster.] (Zool.) Having the beak bent upwards.
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Recurvity
Re*cur"vi*ty (r?*k?r"v?*t?), n. Recurvation.
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Recurvous
Re*cur"vous (-v?s), a. [L. recurvus; pref. re- re + curvus curved.] Recurved. Derham.
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Recusancy
Re*cu"san*cy (r?*k?"zan*s? or r?k"?-), n. The state of being recusant; nonconformity. Coke.
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Recusant
Re*cu"sant (-zat; 277), a.[L. recusans, -antis, p. pr. of recure to refuse, to oject to; pref. re- re + causa a cause, pretext: cf. F. récusant. See Cause, and cf. Ruse.] Obstinate in refusal; specifically, in English history, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in the churc, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as, a recusant lord.
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It stated him to have placed his son in the household of the Countess of Derby, a recusant papist. Sir W. Scott.
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Recusant
Re*cu"sant, n. 1. One who is obstinate in refusal; one standing out stubbornly against general practice or opinion.
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The last rebellious recusants among the European family of nations. De Quincey.
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2. (Eng. Hist.) A person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as, a Roman Catholic recusant, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope. Brande & C.
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3. One who refuses communion with the Church of England; a nonconformist.
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All that are recusants of holy rites. Holyday.
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Recusation
Rec`u*sa"tion (r?k`?*z?"sh?n), n. [L. recusatio: cf. F. récusation.] 1. Refusal. [Obs.]
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2. (Old Law) The act of refusing a judge or challenging that he shall not try the cause, on account of his supposed partiality. Blackstone.
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Recusative
Re*cu"sa*tive (r?*k?"z?*t?v), a. Refusing; denying; negative. [R.] Jer. Taylor.
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recuse
re*cuse" (r?*k?z"), v. t. [F. récuser, or L. recusare. See Recusant.] (Law) To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.
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recuse
re*cuse" (r?*k?z"), v. i. To withdraw oneself from serving as a judge or other decision-maker in order to avoid a real or apparent conflict of interest; -- often used with the reflexive; as, the judge recused himself due to a financial interest in the matter.
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Recussion
Re*cus"sion (r?*k?sh"?n), n. [L. recutire, recussum, to beat back; pref. re- re- + quatere to shake.] The act of beating or striking back.
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Red
Red (r&ebreve_;d), obs. imp. & p. p. of Read. Spenser.
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Red
Red, v. t. To put on order; to make tidy; also, to free from entanglement or embarrassement; -- generally with up; as, to red up a house. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
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Red
Red, a. [Compar. Redder (-d?r); superl. Reddest.] [OE. red, reed, AS. reád, reód; akin to OS. rōd, OFries. rād, D. rood, G. roht, rot, OHG. rōt, Dan. & Sw. röd, Icel. rauðr, rjōðr, Goth. ráuds, W. rhudd, Armor. ruz, Ir. & Gael. ruadh, L. ruber, rufus, Gr. 'eryqro`s, Skr. rudhira, rohita; cf. L. rutilus. √113. Cf. Erysipelas, Rouge, Rubric, Ruby, Ruddy, Russet, Rust.] Of the color of blood, or of a tint resembling that color; of the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is furthest from the violet part. “Fresh flowers, white and reede.” Chaucer.
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Your color, I warrant you, is as red as any rose. Shak.
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&hand_; Red is a general term, including many different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, and the like.
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&hand_; Red is often used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, red-breasted, red-cheeked, red-faced, red-haired, red-headed, red-skinned, red-tailed, red-topped, red-whiskered, red-coasted.
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Red admiral (Zool.), a beautiful butterfly (Vanessa Atalanta) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atalanta butterfly, and nettle butterfly. -- Red ant. (Zool.) (a) A very small ant (Myrmica molesta) which often infests houses. (b) A larger reddish ant (Formica sanguinea), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.), kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b), under Kermes. -- Red ash (Bot.), an American tree (Fraxinus pubescens), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray. -- Red bass. (Zool.) See Redfish (d). -- Red bay (Bot.), a tree (Persea Caroliniensis) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zool.), a bright red sponge (Microciona prolifera), common on oyster shells and stones. [Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Bot.), a species of birch (Betula nigra) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light-colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness. (Med.) See Daltonism. -- Red book, a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer, an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass, an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug. (Zool.) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites. (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris, especially the European species (Pyrrhocoris apterus), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder, under Cotton. -- Red cedar. (Bot.) An evergreen North American tree (Juniperus Virginiana) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia (Cedrela Toona) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. -- Red chalk. See under Chalk. -- Red copper (Min.), red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zool.), the precious coral (Corallium rubrum). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea. -- Red cross. The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention, and Geneva cross, under Geneva. -- Red currant. (Bot.) See Currant. -- Red deer. (Zool.) (a) The common stag (Cervus elaphus), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer. -- Red duck (Zool.), a European reddish brown duck (Fuligula nyroca); -- called also ferruginous duck. -- Red ebony. (Bot.) See Grenadillo. -- Red empress (Zool.), a butterfly. See Tortoise shell. -- Red fir (Bot.), a coniferous tree (Pseudotsuga Douglasii) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and Abies nobilis. -- Red fire. (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire, under Fire. -- Red flag. See under Flag. -- Red fox (Zool.), the common American fox (Vulpes fulvus), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zool.), the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan. -- Red gum, or Red gum-tree (Bot.), a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus amygdalina, resinifera, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus. -- Red hand (Her.), a left hand appaumé, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster. -- Red herring, the common herring dried and smoked. -- Red horse. (Zool.) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species. (b) See the Note under Drumfish. -- Red lead. (Chem) See under Lead, and Minium. -- Red-lead ore. (Min.) Same as Crocoite. -- Red liquor (Dyeing), a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant. -- Red maggot (Zool.), the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese. (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite. -- Red man, one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Bot.), a species of maple (Acer rubrum). See Maple. -- Red mite. (Zool.) See Red spider, below. -- Red mulberry (Bot.), an American mulberry of a dark purple color (Morus rubra). -- Red mullet (Zool.), the surmullet. See Mullet. -- Red ocher (Min.), a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zool.), the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus. (Chem.) See under Phosphorus. -- Red pine (Bot.), an American species of pine (Pinus resinosa); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate. See under Precipitate. -- Red Republican (European Politics), originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [Cant] -- Red ribbon, the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders. (Bot.) See Sanders. -- Red sandstone. (Geol.) See under Sandstone. -- Red scale (Zool.), a scale insect (Aspidiotus aurantii) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.), an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite, or light red silver, and pyrargyrite, or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zool.), a large fish (Lutjanus aya syn. Lutjanus Blackfordii) abundant in the Gulf of Mexico and about the Florida reefs. -- Red snow, snow colored by a mocroscopic unicellular alga (Protococcus nivalis) which produces large patches of scarlet on the snows of arctic or mountainous regions. -- Red softening (Med.) a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zool.), a very small web-spinning mite (Tetranychus telarius) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite. -- Red squirrel (Zool.), the chickaree. -- Red tape, (a) the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc. Hence, (b) official formality and delay; excessive bureaucratic paperwork. -- Red underwing (Zool.), any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water, a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.
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Red
Red (r?d), n. 1. The color of blood, or of that part of the spectrum farthest from violet, or a tint resembling these. “Celestial rosy red, love's proper hue.” Milton.
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2. A red pigment.
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3. (European Politics) An abbreviation for Red Republican. See under Red, a. [Cant]
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4. pl. (Med.) The menses. Dunglison.
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English red, a pigment prepared by the Dutch, similar to Indian red. -- Hypericum red, a red resinous dyestuff extracted from Hypericum. -- Indian red. See under Indian, and Almagra.
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Redact
Re*dact" (r?*d?kt"), v. t. [L. redactus, p. p. of redigere; pref. red-, re-, again, back + agere to put in motion, to drive.] To reduce to form, as literary matter; to digest and put in shape (matter for publication); to edit.
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Redacteur
Ré`dac`teur" (r&auptack_;`d&adot_;k`t&etilde_;r"), n. [F.] See Redactor.
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Redaction
Re*dac"tion (r?*d?k"sh?n), n. [F. rédaction.] The act of redacting; work produced by redacting; a digest.
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Redactor
Re*dac"tor (-t?r), n. One who redacts; one who prepares matter for publication; an editor. Carlyle.
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Redan
Re*dan" (r?*d?n"), n. [F., for OF. redent a double notching or jagging, as in the teeth of a saw, fr. L. pref. re- re- + dens, dentis, a tooth. Cf. Redented.] [Written sometimes redent and redens.] 1. (Fort.) A work having two parapets whose faces unite so as to form a salient angle toward the enemy.
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2. A step or vertical offset in a wall on uneven ground, to keep the parts level.
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Redargue
Red*ar"gue (r?d*?r"g?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Redargued (-g?d); p. pr. & vb. n. Redarguing.] [L. redarguere; pref. red-, re- re- + arguere to accuse, charge with: cf. F. rédarguer.] To disprove; to refute; toconfute; to reprove; to convict. [Archaic]
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How shall I . . . suffer that God should redargue me at doomsday, and the angels reproach my lukewarmness? Jer. Taylor.
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Now this objection to the immediate cognition of external objects has, as far as I know, been redargued in three different ways. Sir W. Hamilton.
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Redargution
Red`ar*gu"tion (r?d`?r*g?"sh?n), n. [L. redargutio.] The act of redarguing; refutation. [Obs. or R.] Bacon.
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Redargutory
Red`ar*gu"to*ry (-t?*r?), a. Pertaining to, or containing, redargution; refutatory. [R.]
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Redback
Red"back` (r?d"b?k`), n. (Zool.) The dunlin. [U. S.]
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Redbelly
Red"bel`ly (-b?l`l?), n. (Zool.) The char.
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Redbird
Red"bird` (-b?rd`), n. (Zool.) (a) The cardinal bird. (b) The summer redbird (Piranga rubra). (c) The scarlet tanager. See Tanager.
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Redbreast
Red"breast` (-br?st`), n. 1. (Zool.) (a) The European robin. (b) The American robin. See Robin. (c) The knot, or red-breasted snipe; -- called also robin breast, and robin snipe. See Knot.
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2. (Zool.) The long-eared pondfish. See Pondfish.
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Redbud
Red"bud` (-b?d`), n. (Bot.) A small ornamental leguminous tree of the American species of the genus Cercis. See Judas tree, under Judas.
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Redcap
Red"cap`, n. 1. (Zool.) The European goldfinch.
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2. A specter having long teeth, popularly supposed to haunt old castles in Scotland. [Scot.] Jamieson.
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Redcoat
Red"coat` (-kōt`), n. One who wears a red coat; specifically, a red-coated British soldier.
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Red Cross
Red Cross. 1. The crusaders or the cause they represented.
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2. A hospital or ambulance service established as a result of, though not provided for by, the Geneva convention of 1864; any of the national societies for alleviating the sufferings of the sick and wounded war, also giving aid and relief during great calamities; also, a member or worker of such a society; -- so called from the badge of neutrality; the Geneva cross. In islamic countries, a similarly motivated affiliated organization is called the Red Crescent. The American Red Cross was founded in 1881, largely due to the initiative of Clara Barton. The American Red Cross maintains a web page on the internet, where additional information can be found.
[Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Redde
Red"de (-de), obs. imp. of Read, or Rede. Chaucer.
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Redden
Red"den (r?d"d'n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reddened (-d'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reddening.] [From Red, a.] To make red or somewhat red; to give a red color to.
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Redden
Red"den, v. i. To grow or become red; to blush.
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Appius reddens at each word you speak. Pope.
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He no sooner saw that her eye glistened and her cheek reddened than his obstinacy was at once subbued. Sir W. SCott.
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Reddendum
Red*den"dum (r?d*d?n"d?m), n. [Neut. of L. reddendus that must be given back or yielded, gerundive of reddere. See Reddition.] (Law) A clause in a deed by which some new thing is reserved out of what had been granted before; the clause by which rent is reserved in a lease. Cruise.
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Reddish
Red"dish (r?d"d?sh), a. Somewhat red; moderately red. -- Red"dish*ness, n.
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Reddition
Red*di"tion (r?d*d?sh"?n), n.[L. redditio, fr. reddere to give back, to return: cf. F. reddition. See Render.]
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1. Restoration: restitution: surrender. Howell.
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2. Explanation; representation. [R.]
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The reddition or application of the comparison. Chapman.
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Redditive
Red"di**tive (r?d"d?*t?v), a. [L. redditivus.] (Gram.) Answering to an interrogative or inquiry; conveying a reply; as, redditive words.
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Reddle
Red"dle (r?d"d'l), n. [From Red; cf. G. röthel. Cf. Ruddle.] (Min.) Red chalk. See under Chalk.
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Red-dog flour
Red dog
{ Red dog, or Red`-dog" flour }. The lowest grade of flour in milling. It is dark and of little expansive power, is secured largely from the germ or embryo and adjacent parts, and contains a relatively high percentage of protein. It is chiefly useful as feed for farm animals.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reddour
Red"dour (r?d"d?r), n. [F. raideur, fr. raide stiff.] Rigor; violence. [Obs.] Gower.
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Rede
Rede (r?d), v. t. [See Read, v. t.] 1. To advise or counsel. [Obs. or Scot.]
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I rede that our host here shall begin. Chaucer.
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2. To interpret; to explain. [Obs.]
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My sweven [dream] rede aright. Chaucer.
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Rede
Rede, n. [See Read, n.] 1. Advice; counsel; suggestion. [Obs. or Scot.] Burns.
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There was none other remedy ne reed. Chaucer.
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2. A word or phrase; a motto; a proverb; a wise saw. [Obs.] “This rede is rife.” Spenser.
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Redeem
Re*deem" (r?*d?m"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Redeemed. (-d&unr_;md"); p. pr. & vb. n. Redeeming.] [F. rédimer, L. redimere; pref. red-, re- re- + emere, emptum, to buy, originally, to take, cf. OIr. em (in comp.), Lith. imti. Cf. Assume, Consume, Exempt, Premium, Prompt, Ransom.] 1. To purchase back; to regain possession of by payment of a stipulated price; to repurchase.
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If a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold. Lev. xxv. 29.
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2. Hence, specifically: (a) (Law) To recall, as an estate, or to regain, as mortgaged property, by paying what may be due by force of the mortgage. (b) (Com.) To regain by performing the obligation or condition stated; to discharge the obligation mentioned in, as a promissory note, bond, or other evidence of debt; as, to redeem bank notes with coin.
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3. To ransom, liberate, or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying a price or ransom; to ransom; to rescue; to recover; as, to redeem a captive, a pledge, and the like.
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Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles. Ps. xxv. 22.
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The Almighty from the grave
Hath me redeemed.
Sandys.
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4. (Theol.) Hence, to rescue and deliver from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.
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Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us. Gal. iii. 13.
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5. To make good by performing fully; to fulfill; as, to redeem one's promises.
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I will redeem all this on Percy's head. Shak.
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6. To pay the penalty of; to make amends for; to serve as an equivalent or offset for; to atone for; to compensate; as, to redeem an error.
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Which of ye will be mortal, to redeem
Man's mortal crime?
Milton.
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It is a chance which does redeem all sorrows. Shak.
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To redeem the time, to make the best use of it.
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Redeemability
Re*deem`a*bil"i*ty (-?*b?l"?*t?), n. Redeemableness.
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Redeemable
Re*deem"a*ble (-?*b;l), a. 1. Capable of being redeemed; subject to repurchase; held under conditions permitting redemption; as, a pledge securing the payment of money is redeemable.
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2. Subject to an obligation of redemtion; conditioned upon a promise of redemtion; payable; due; as, bonds, promissory notes, etc. , redeemabble in gold, or in current money, or four months after date.
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Redeemableness
Re*deem"a*ble*ness (r?*d?m"?*b'l*n?s), n. The quality or state of being redeemable; redeemability.
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Redeemer
Re*deem"er (r?*d?m"?r), n. 1. One who redeems.
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2. Specifically, the Savior of the world, Jesus Christ.
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Redeless
Rede"less (r?d"l?s), a. Without rede or counsel. [Obs.]
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Redeliberate
Re`de*lib"er*ate (r?`d?*l?b"?r*?t), v. t. & i. To deliberate again; to reconsider.
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Redeliver
Re`de*liv"er (r?`d?*l?v"?r), v. t. 1. To deliver or give back; to return. Ay&unr_;iffe.
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2. To deliver or liberate a second time or again.
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3. To report; to deliver the answer of. [R.] “Shall I redeliver you e'en so?” Shak.
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Redeliverance
Re`de*liv"er*ance (-ans), n. A second deliverance.
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Redelivery
Re`de*liv"er*y (-?), n. 1. Act of delivering back.
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2. A second or new delivery or liberation.
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Redemand
Re`de*mand" (rē`d&euptack_;*mănd" or rē`d&euptack_;*m&adot_;nd"), v. t. [Pref. re- back, again + demand: cf. F. redemander.] To demand back; to demand again.
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Redemand
Re`de*mand", n. A demanding back; a second or renewed demand.
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Redemise
Re`de*mise" (rē`d&euptack_;*mīz"), v. t. To demise back; to convey or transfer back, as an estate.
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Redemise
Re`de*mise", n. (Law) The transfer of an estate back to the person who demised it; reconveyance; as, the demise and redemise of an estate. See under Demise.
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Redemonstrate
Re*dem"on*strate (r?*d?m"?n*str?t or r?`d?*m?n"-str?t), v. t. To demonstrate again, or anew.
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Every truth of morals must be redemonstrated in the experience of the individual man before he is capable of utilizing it as a constituent of character or a guide in action. Lowell.
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Redemptible
Re*demp"ti*ble (r&euptack_;*d&ebreve_;mp"t&ibreve_;*b'l), a. Redeemable.
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redemption
re*demp"tion (r&euptack_;*d&ebreve_;mp"shŭn), n. [F. rédemption, L. redemptio. See redeem, and cf. ransom.] The act of redeeming, or the state of being redeemed; repurchase; ransom; release; rescue; deliverance; as, the redemption of prisoners taken in war; the redemption of a ship and cargo. Specifically: (a) (Law) The liberation of an estate from a mortgage, or the taking back of property mortgaged, upon performance of the terms or conditions on which it was conveyed; also, the right of redeeming and reentering upon an estate mortgaged. See Equity of redemption, under Equity. (b) (Com.) Performance of the obligation stated in a note, bill, bond, or other evidence of debt, by making payment to the holder. (c) (Theol.) The procuring of God's favor by the sufferings and death of Christ; the ransom or deliverance of sinners from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.
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In whom we have redemption through his blood. Eph. i. 7.
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Redemptionary
Re*demp"tion*a*ry (-?*r?), n. One who is, or may be, redeemed. [R.] Hakluyt.
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Redemptioner
Re*demp"tion*er (-?r), n. 1. One who redeems himself, as from debt or servitude.
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2. Formerly, one who, wishing to emigrate from Europe to America, sold his services for a stipulated time to pay the expenses of his passage.
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Redemptionist
Re*demp"tion*ist, n. (R.C.Ch.) A monk of an order founded in 1197; -- so called because the order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans. Called also Trinitarian.
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Redemptive
Re*demp"tive (-t?v), a. Serving or tending to redeem; redeeming; as, the redemptive work of Christ.
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Redemptorist
Re*demp"tor*ist (-t?r*?st), n. [F. rédemptoriste, fr. L. redemptor redeemer, from redinere. See Redeem.] (R.C.Ch.) One of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, founded in Naples in 1732 by St. Alphonsus Maria de Liquori. It was introduced onto the United States in 1832 at Detroit. The Fathers of the Congregation devote themselves to preaching to the neglected, esp. in missions and retreats, and are forbidden by their rule to engage in the instruction of youth.
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Redemptory
Re*demp"to*ry (-t?*r?), a. Paid for ransom; serving to redeem. “Hector's redemptory price.” Chapman.
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Redempture
Re*demp"ture (-t?r; 135), n. Redemption. [Obs.]
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Redented
Re*dent"ed (r?*d?nt"?d), a. [From OF. redent. See Redan.] Formed like the teeth of a saw; indented.
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Redeposit
Re`de*pos"it (r?`d?*p?z"?t), v. t. To deposit again.
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Redescend
Re`de*scend" (-s?nd"), v. i. [Pref. re- + descend: cf. F. redescendre.] To descend again. Howell.
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Redevelop
Re`de*vel"op (?), v. t. & i. 1. To develop again; specif. (Photog.), to intensify (a developed image), as by bleaching with mercuric chloride and subsequently subjecting anew to a developing agent.
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2. to rebuild an urban area, usually commercial but sometimes residential; -- typically involving some portion of government involvement and expenditure.
[PJC]

-- Re`de*vel"op*er (#), n. -- Re`de*vel"op*ment (#), n.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Redevelopment
Re`de*vel"op*ment (?), n. the rebuilding of an urban area, usually a commercial district but sometimes residential or industrial, and typically involving some portion of government involvement and expenditure; to organize a municipal redevelopment agency.
[PJC]

Redeye
Red"eye` (r&ebreve_;d"ī`), n. 1. (Zool.) (a) The rudd. (b) Same as Redfish (d). (c) The goggle-eye, or fresh-water rock bass. [Local, U.S.]
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2. A scheduled public conveyance, such as a train or airplane, which travels late at night or overnight. [Colloq.]
[PJC]

Redfin
Red"fin` (-f?n`), n. (Zool.) A small North American dace (Minnilus cornutus, or Notropis megalops). The male, in the breeding season, has bright red fins. Called also red dace, and shiner. Applied also to Notropis ardens, of the Mississippi valley.
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Redfinch
Red"finch` (-f&ibreve_;nch`), n. (Zool.) The European linnet.
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Redfish
Red"fish` (r&ebreve_;d"f&ibreve_;sh`), n. (Zool.) (a) The blueback salmon of the North Pacific; -- called also nerka. See Blueback (b). (b) The rosefish. (c) A large California labroid food fish (Trochocopus pulcher); -- called also fathead. (d) The red bass, red drum, or drumfish. See the Note under Drumfish.
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Red-gum
Red"-gum` (-g?m`), n. [OE. reed gounde; AS. reád red + gund matter, pus.] 1. (Med.) An eruption of red pimples upon the face, neck, and arms, in early infancy; tooth rash; strophulus. Good.
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2. A name of rust on grain. See Rust.
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Red-handed
Red-hand
{ Red"-hand` (r?d"h?nd`), Red"-hand`ed (-h?nd`?d), } a. or adv. Having hands red with blood; in the very act, as if with red or bloody hands; -- said of a person taken in the act of homicide; hence, fresh from the commission of crime; as, he was taken red-hand or red-handed.
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Redhead
Red"head` (-h?d`), n. 1. A person having red hair.
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2. (Zool.) (a) An American duck (Aythya Americana) highly esteemed as a game bird. It is closely allied to the canvasback, but is smaller and its head brighter red. Called also red-headed duck. American poachard, grayback, and fall duck. See Illust. under Poachard. (b) The red-headed woodpecker. See Woodpecker.
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3. (Bot.) A kind of milkweed (Asclepias Curassavica) with red flowers. It is used in medicine.
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Redhibition
Red`hi*bi"tion (r?d`h?*b?sh"?n), n. [L. redhibitio a taking back.] (Civil Law) The annulling of a sale, and the return by the buyer of the article sold, on account of some defect.
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Redhibitory
Red*hib"i*to*ry (r?d*h?b"?*t?*r?), a. [L. redhibitorius.] (Civil Law) Of or pertaining to redhibition; as, a redhibitory action or fault.
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Redhoop
Red"hoop` (r?d"h??p`), n. (Zool.) The male of the European bullfinch. [Prov. Eng.]
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Redhorn
Red"horn` (-h?rn`), n. (Zool.) Any species of a tribe of butterflies (Fugacia) including the common yellow species and the cabbage butterflies. The antennae are usually red.
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Red-hot
Red"-hot` (-h?t`), a. Red with heat; heated to redness; as, red-hot iron; red-hot balls. Hence, figuratively, excited; violent; as, a red-hot radical. Shak.
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Redia
Re"di*a (r?"d?*?), n.; pl. L. Rediae (-ē), E. Redias (-&unr_;z). [NL.; of uncertain origin.] (Zool.) A kind of larva, or nurse, which is prroduced within the sporocyst of certain trematodes by asexual generation. It in turn produces, in the same way, either another generation of rediae, or else cercariae within its own body. Called also proscolex, and nurse. See Illustration in Appendix.
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Redient
Re"di*ent (r?"d?-ent), a. [L. rediens, p. pr. of redire to return; pref. red- + ire to go.] Returning. [R.]
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Redif
Re*dif" (?), n. [Turk. redīf, fr. radīf, orig., he who rides behind another on the same beast, fr. radaf to follow.] A reserve force in the Turkish army, or a soldier of the reserve. See Army organization, above.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Redigest
Re`di*gest" (r?`d?*j?st"), v. t. To digest, or reduce to form, a second time. Kent.
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Rediminish
Re`di*min"ish (-m?n"?sh), v. t. To diminish again.
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Redingote
Red"in*gote (r&ebreve_;d"&ibreve_;n*gōt), n. [F., corrupted from E. riding coat.] A long plain double-breasted outside coat for women.
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Redintegrate
Re*din"te*grate (r?*d?n"t?*gr?t), a. [L. redintegratus, p. p. of redintegrare to restore; pref. red-, re-, re- + integrare to make whole, to renew, fr. integer whole. See Integer.] Restored to wholeness or a perfect state; renewed. Bacon.
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Redintegrate
Re*din"te*grate (-gr?t), v. t. To make whole again; a renew; to restore to integrity or soundness.
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The English nation seems obliterated. What could redintegrate us again? Coleridge.
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Redintegration
Re*din`te*gra"tion (-gr?"sh?n), n. [L. redintegratio.] 1. Restoration to a whole or sound state; renewal; renovation. Dr. H. More.
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2. (Chem.) Restoration of a mixed body or matter to its former nature and state. [Achaic.] Coxe.
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3. (Psychology) The law that objects which have been previously combined as part of a single mental state tend to recall or suggest one another; -- adopted by many philosophers to explain the phenomena of the association of ideas.
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Redirect
Re`di*rect" (r?`d?*r?kt"), a. (Law) Applied to the examination of a witness, by the party calling him, after the cross-examination.
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Redisburse
Re`dis*burse" (r?`d?s*b?rs"), v. t. To disburse anew; to give, or pay, back. Spenser.
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Rediscover
Re`dis*cov"er (-k?v"?r), v. t. To discover again.
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Redispose
Re`dis*pose" (-p?z"), v. t. To dispose anew or again; to readjust; to rearrange. A. Baxter.
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Redisseize
Re`dis*seize" (-s?z"), v. t. (Law) To disseize anew, or a second time. [Written also redisseise.]
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Redisseizin
Re`dis*sei"zin (-s?"z?n), n. (Law) A disseizin by one who once before was adjudged to have dassezed the same person of the same lands, etc.; also, a writ which lay in such a case. Blackstone.
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Redisseizor
Re`dis*sei"zor (-z?r), n. (Law) One who redisseizes.
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Redissolve
Re`dis*solve" (r?`d?z*z?lv"), v. t. To dissolve again.
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Redistill
Re`dis*till" (r?`d?s*t?l"), v. t. To distill again.
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Redistrainer
Re`dis*train"er (-tr?n"?r), n. One who distrains again.
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Redistribute
Re`dis*trib"ute (-tr?b"?t), v. t. To distribute again.
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-- Re*dis`tri*bu"tion (-tr&unr_;*b&unr_;"sh&unr_;n), n.
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Redistrict
Re*dis"trict (-tr?kt), v. t. To divide into new districts.
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Redition
Re*di"tion (r?*d?sh"?n), n. [L. reditio, fr. redire. See Redient.] Act of returning; return. [Obs.] Chapman.
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Redivide
Re`di*vide" (r?`d?*v?d"), v. t. To divide anew.
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Redivivus
Red`i*vi"vus (?), a. [L., fr. pref. red-, re-, re- + vivus alive.] Living again; revived; restored.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Redlegs
Redleg
{ Red"leg` (r?d"l?g`), Red`legs` (-l?gz`), } n. (Zool.) (a) The redshank. (b) The turnstone.
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Red-letter
Red"-let`ter (-l?t`t?r), a. Of or pertaining to a red letter; marked by red letters.
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Red-letter day, a day that is fortunate or auspicious; -- so called in allusion to the custom of marking holy days, or saints' days, in the old calendars with red letters.
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Red-light district
Red-light district. A district or neighborhood in which houses of prostitution are located; -- so called in allusion to the red light kept in front of many such resorts at night. [Colloq. or Cant]
[Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Red light
Red light. 1. an electrically operated set of lights at a road intersection which has different lights visible to traffic from different directions, designed to control vehicle traffic through the intersection. Each set of lights typically has a colored red light and also green and amber lights; the color of the light which is lighted at any one time changes automatically to control the flow of traffic through the intersection, allowing flow from different directions in alternating succession. Also called traffic light, traffic signal or stop light. When the red light is illuminated the signal means to stop; green means to go; and amber means to stop or procede through the intersection with caution. In simple intersections of two roads, a red light visible to traffic on one road will usually be accompanied by a green light visible to traffic on the intersecting road. In some locations the lights may be set to be illuminated in other sequences or combinations; a blinking red light is typically equivalent to a “stop” sign, and a blinking amber light typically means “procede with caution”.
[PJC]

2. the condition of a traffic light when the signal visible to the driver of a vehicle is red, signalling that the vehicle must stop and not enter the intersection; I got seven red lights on the way to work.
[PJC]

3. figuratively, a sign or signal that one must stop doing what one is presently doing; as, a fatal side effect is often a red light to continuation of a clinical trial.
[PJC]

Redly
Red"ly, adv. In a red manner; with redness.
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Redmouth
Red"mouth` (-mouth`), n. (Zool.) Any one of several species of marine food fishes of the genus Diabasis, or Haemulon, of the Southern United States, having the inside of the mouth bright red. Called also flannelmouth, and grunt.
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Redness
Red"ness, n. [AS. reádness. See Red.] The quality or state of being red; red color.
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Redolency
Redolence
{ Red"o*lence (r?d"?*lens), Red"o*len*cy (-len*s?), } n. The quality of being redolent; sweetness of scent; pleasant odor; fragrance.
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Redolent
Red"o*lent (-lent), a. [L. redolens, -entis, p. pr. of redolere to emit a scent, diffuse an odor; pref. red-, re-, re- + olere to emit a smell. See Odor.] Diffusing odor or fragrance; spreading sweet scent; scented; odorous; smelling; -- usually followed by of. “Honey redolent of spring.” Dryden. -- Red"o*lent*ly, adv.
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Gales . . . redolent of joy and youth. Gray.
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Redouble
Re*dou"ble (r?*d?b"'l), v. t. [Pref. re- + double: cf. F. redoubler. Cf. Reduplicate.] To double again or repeatedly; to increase by continued or repeated additions; to augment greatly; to multiply.
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So they
Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe.
Shak.
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Redouble
Re*dou"ble, v. i. To become greatly or repeatedly increased; to be multiplied; to be greatly augmented; as, the noise redoubles.
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Redoubt
Re*doubt" (r?*dout"), n. [F. redoute, fem., It. ridotto, LL. reductus, literally, a retreat, from L. reductus drawn back, retired, p. p. of reducere to lead or draw back; cf. F. réduit, also fr. LL. reductus. See Reduce, and cf. Reduct, Réduit, Ridotto.] (Fort.) (a) A small, and usually a roughly constructed, fort or outwork of varying shape, commonly erected for a temporary purpose, and without flanking defenses, -- used esp. in fortifying tops of hills and passes, and positions in hostile territory. (b) In permanent works, an outwork placed within another outwork. See F and i in Illust. of Ravelin. [Written also redout.]
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Redoubt
Re*doubt", v. t. [F. redouter, formerly also spelt redoubter; fr. L. pref. re- re- + dubitare to doubt, in LL., to fear. See Doubt.] To stand in dread of; to regard with fear; to dread. [R.]
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Redoubtable
Re*doubt"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. [F. redoutable, formerly also spelt redoubtable.] Formidable; dread; terrible to foes; as, a redoubtable hero; hence, valiant; -- often in contempt or burlesque. [Written also redoutable.]
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Redoubted
Re*doubt"ed, a. Formidable; dread. “Some redoubted knight.” Spenser.
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Lord regent, and redoubted Burgandy. Shak.
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Redoubting
Re*doubt"ing, n. Reverence; honor. [Obs.]
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In redoutyng of Mars and of his glory. Chaucer.
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Redound
Re*dound" (r?*dound"), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Redounded; p. pr. & vb. n. Redounding.] [F. redonder, L. redundare; pref. red-, re-, re- + undare to rise in waves or surges, fr. unda a wave. See Undulate, and cf. Redundant.] 1. To roll back, as a wave or flood; to be sent or driven back; to flow back, as a consequence or effect; to conduce; to contribute; to result.
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The evil, soon
Driven back, redounded as a flood on those
From whom it sprung.
Milton.
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The honor done to our religion ultimately redounds to God, the author of it. Rogers.
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both . . . will devour great quantities of paper, there will no small use redound from them to that manufacture. Addison.
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2. To be in excess; to remain over and above; to be redundant; to overflow.
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For every dram of honey therein found,
A pound of gall doth over it redound.
Spenser.
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Redound
Re*dound", n. 1. The coming back, as of consequence or effect; result; return; requital.
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We give you welcome; not without redound
Of use and glory to yourselves ye come.
Tennyson.
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2. Rebound; reverberation. [R.] Codrington.
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Redowa
Red"ow*a (r?d"?*?), n. [F., fr. Bohemian.] A Bohemian dance of two kinds, one in triple time, like a waltz, the other in two-four time, like a polka. The former is most in use.
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Redpole
Red"pole` (r?d"p?l`), n. (Zool.) Same as Redpoll.
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Redpoll
Red"poll` (-p?l`), n. (Zool.) (a) Any one of several species of small northern finches of the genus Acanthis (formerly Aegiothus), native of Europe and America. The adults have the crown red or rosy. The male of the most common species (Acanthis linarius) has also the breast and rump rosy. Called also redpoll linnet. See Illust. under Linnet. (b) The common European linnet. (c) The American redpoll warbler (Dendroica palmarum).
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Redraft
Re*draft" (rē*dr&adot_;ft"), v. t. To draft or draw anew.
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Redraft
Re*draft", n. 1. A second draft or copy.
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2. (Com.) A new bill of exchange which the holder of a protected bill draws on the drawer or indorsers, in order to recover the amount of the protested bill with costs and charges.
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Redraw
Re*draw" (rē*dr&asuml_;"), v. t. [imp. Redrew (rē*dr&usuml_;");p. p. Redrawn (rē*dr&asuml_;n"); p. pr. & vb. n. Redrawing.] To draw again; to make a second draft or copy of; to redraft.
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Redraw
Re*draw", v. i. (Com.) To draw a new bill of exchange, as the holder of a protested bill, on the drawer or indorsers.
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Redress
Re*dress" (rē*dr&ebreve_;s"), v. t. [Pref. re- + dress.] To dress again.
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Redress
Re*dress" (r&euptack_;*dr&ebreve_;s"), v. t. [F. redresser to straighten; pref. re- re- + dresser to raise, arrange. See Dress.] 1. To put in order again; to set right; to emend; to revise. [R.]
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The common profit could she redress. Chaucer.
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In yonder spring of roses intermixed
With myrtle, find what to redress till noon.
Milton.
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Your wish that I should redress a certain paper which you had prepared. A. Hamilton.
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2. To set right, as a wrong; to repair, as an injury; to make amends for; to remedy; to relieve from.
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Those wrongs, those bitter injuries, . . .
I doubt not but with honor to redress.
Shak.
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3. To make amends or compensation to; to relieve of anything unjust or oppressive; to bestow relief upon. “'T is thine, O king! the afflicted to redress.” Dryden.
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Will Gaul or Muscovite redress ye? Byron.
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Redress
Re*dress", n. 1. The act of redressing; a making right; reformation; correction; amendment. [R.]
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Reformation of evil laws is commendable, but for us the more necessary is a speedy redress of ourselves. Hooker.
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2. A setting right, as of wrong, injury, or opression; as, the redress of grievances; hence, relief; remedy; reparation; indemnification. Shak.
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A few may complain without reason; but there is occasion for redress when the cry is universal. Davenant.
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3. One who, or that which, gives relief; a redresser.
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Fair majesty, the refuge and redress
Of those whom fate pursues and wants oppress.
Dryden.
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Redressal
Re*dress"al (r?*dr?s"al), n. Redress.
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Redresser
Re*dress"er (-?r), n. One who redresses.
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Redressible
Re*dress"i*ble (-?*b'l), a. Such as may be redressed.
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Redressive
Re*dress"ive (-?v), a. Tending to redress. Thomson.
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Redressless
Re*dress"less, a. Not having redress; such as can not be redressed; irremediable. Sherwood.
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Redressment
Re*dress"ment (-ment), n. [Cf. F. redressement.] The act of redressing; redress. Jefferson.
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Red-riband
Red"-rib`and (r?d"r?b`and), n. (Zool.) The European red band fish, or fireflame. See Rend fish.
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Redroot
Red"root` (r?d"r?t`), n. (Bot.) A name of several plants having red roots, as the New Jersey tea (see under Tea), the gromwell, the bloodroot, and the Lachnanthes tinctoria, an endogenous plant found in sandy swamps from Rhode Island to Florida.
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Redsear
Red`sear" (r?d`s?r"), v. i. To be brittle when red-hot; to be red-short. Moxon.
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Redshank
Red"shank` (r?d"sh?nk`), n. 1. (Zool.) (a) A common Old World limicoline bird (Totanus calidris), having the legs and feet pale red. The spotted redshank (Totanus fuscus) is larger, and has orange-red legs. Called also redshanks, redleg, and clee. (b) The fieldfare.
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2. A bare-legged person; -- a contemptuous appellation formerly given to the Scotch Highlanders, in allusion to their bare legs. Spenser.
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Red-short
Red"-short` (-sh?rt`), a. (Metal.) Hot-short; brittle when red-hot; -- said of certain kinds of iron. -- Red"-short`ness, n.
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Redskin
Red"skin` (-sk?n`), n. 1. A common appellation for a North American Indian; -- so called from the color of the skin. It is now considered pejorative by some persons of North American Indian heritage. Cooper.
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2. (Football) A member of the Washington Redskins, a football team.
[PJC]

Redstart
Red"start` (-st?rt`), n. [Red + start tail.] (Zool.) (a) A small, handsome European singing bird (Phoenicurus phoenicurus, formerly Ruticilla phoenicurus), allied to the nightingale; -- called also redtail, brantail, fireflirt, firetail. The black redstart is Phoenicurus ochruros (formerly Phoenicurus tithys), and is now rare and protected by law in England. The name is also applied to several other species of Ruticilla and allied genera, native of India. (b) An American fly-catching warbler (Setophaga ruticilla). The male is black, with large patches of orange-red on the sides, wings, and tail. The female is olive, with yellow patches.
[1913 Webster +PJC]

Redstreak
Red"streak` (-str?k`), n. 1. A kind of apple having the skin streaked with red and yellow, -- a favorite English cider apple. Mortimer.
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2. Cider pressed from redstreak apples.
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Redtail
Red"tail` (-t?l`), n. (Zool.) (a) The red-tailed hawk. (b) The European redstart.
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Red-tailed
Red"-tailed` (-t?ld`), a. Having a red tail.
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Red-tailed hawk (Zool.), a large North American hawk (Buteo borealis). When adult its tail is chestnut red. Called also hen hawck, and red-tailed buzzard.
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Red-tape
Red"-tape` (-t?p`), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, official formality. See Red tape, under Red, a.
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Red-tapism
Red`-tap"ism (r?d`t?p"?z'm), n. Strict adherence to official formalities. J. C. Shairp.
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Red-tapist
Red`-tap"ist, n. One who is tenacious of a strict adherence to official formalities. Ld. Lytton.
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Redthroat
Red"throat` (r?d"thr?t`), n. (Zool.) A small Australian singing bird (Phyrrholaemus brunneus). The upper parts are brown, the center of the throat red.
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Redtop
Red"top` (-t?p`), n. (Bot.) A kind of grass (Agrostis vulgaris) highly valued in the United States for pasturage and hay for cattle; -- called also English grass, and in some localities herd's grass. See Illustration in Appendix. The tall redtop is Triodia seslerioides.
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Redub
Re*dub" (r&euptack_;*dŭb"), v. t. [F. radouber to refit or repair.] 1. To refit; to repair, or make reparation for; hence, to repay or requite. [Obs.]
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It shall be good that you redub that negligence. Wyatt.
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God shall give power to redub it with some like requital to the French. Grafton.
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2. To dub again.
[PJC]

Reduce
Re*duce" (r&euptack_;*dūs"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reduced (-dūst"),; p. pr. & vb. n. Reducing (-dū"s&ibreve_;ng).] [L. reducere, reductum; pref. red-. re-, re- + ducere to lead. See Duke, and cf. Redoubt, n.] 1. To bring or lead back to any former place or condition. [Obs.]
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And to his brother's house reduced his wife. Chapman.
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The sheep must of necessity be scattered, unless the great Shephered of souls oppose, or some of his delegates reduce and direct us. Evelyn.
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2. To bring to any inferior state, with respect to rank, size, quantity, quality, value, etc.; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; to impair; as, to reduce a sergeant to the ranks; to reduce a drawing; to reduce expenses; to reduce the intensity of heat. “An ancient but reduced family.” Sir W. Scott.
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Nothing so excellent but a man may fasten upon something belonging to it, to reduce it. Tillotson.
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Having reduced
Their foe to misery beneath their fears.
Milton.
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Hester Prynne was shocked at the condition to which she found the clergyman reduced. Hawthorne.
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3. To bring to terms; to humble; to conquer; to subdue; to capture; as, to reduce a province or a fort.
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4. To bring to a certain state or condition by grinding, pounding, kneading, rubbing, etc.; as, to reduce a substance to powder, or to a pasty mass; to reduce fruit, wood, or paper rags, to pulp.
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It were but right
And equal to reduce me to my dust.
Milton.
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5. To bring into a certain order, arrangement, classification, etc.; to bring under rules or within certain limits of descriptions and terms adapted to use in computation; as, to reduce animals or vegetables to a class or classes; to reduce a series of observations in astronomy; to reduce language to rules.
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6. (Arith.) (a) To change, as numbers, from one denomination into another without altering their value, or from one denomination into others of the same value; as, to reduce pounds, shillings, and pence to pence, or to reduce pence to pounds; to reduce days and hours to minutes, or minutes to days and hours. (b) To change the form of a quantity or expression without altering its value; as, to reduce fractions to their lowest terms, to a common denominator, etc.
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7. (Chem.) To add an electron to an atom or ion. Specifically: To remove oxygen from; to deoxidize. (Metallurgy) To bring to the metallic state by separating from combined oxygen and impurities; as, metals are reduced from their ores. (Chem.) To combine with, or to subject to the action of, hydrogen or any other reducing agent; as, ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron; aldehydes can be reduced to alcohols by lithium hydride; -- opposed to oxidize.
[1913 Webster +PJC]

8. (Med.) To restore to its proper place or condition, as a displaced organ or part; as, to reduce a dislocation, a fracture, or a hernia.
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Reduced iron (Chem.), metallic iron obtained through deoxidation of an oxide of iron by exposure to a current of hydrogen or other reducing agent. When hydrogen is used the product is called also iron by hydrogen. -- To reduce an equation (Alg.), to bring the unknown quantity by itself on one side, and all the known quantities on the other side, without destroying the equation. -- To reduce an expression (Alg.), to obtain an equivalent expression of simpler form. -- To reduce a square (Mil.), to reform the line or column from the square.
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Syn. -- To diminish; lessen; decrease; abate; shorten; curtail; impair; lower; subject; subdue; subjugate; conquer.
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Reducement
Re*duce"ment (r?*d?s"ment), n. Reduction. Milton.
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Reducent
Re*du"cent (r?*d?"sent), a. [L. reducens, p. pr. of reducere.] Tending to reduce. -- n. A reducent agent.
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Reducer
Re*du"cer (-s?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, reduces.
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2. (Mach.) (a) A contrivance for reducing the dimensions of one part so as to fit it to another, as a reducing coupling, or a device for holding a drilling a chuck. (b) A reducing motion. (c) A reducing valve. (d) A hydraulic device for reducing pressure and hence increasing movement, used to transmit the load from the hydraulic support of the lower shackle to the lever weighing apparatus in some kinds of heavy testing machines.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

3. (Photog.) A reducing agent, either a developer or an agent for reducing density.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

4. (Chem.) a reducing agent.
[PJC]

Reducible
Re*du"ci*ble (-s?*b'll), a. Capable of being reduced.
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Reducibleness
Re*du"ci*ble*ness, n. Quality of being reducible.
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Reducing
Re*du"cing (r?*d?"s?ng), a & n. from Reduce.
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Reducing furnace (Metal.), a furnace for reducing ores. -- Reducing pipe fitting, a pipe fitting, as a coupling, an elbow, a tee, etc., for connecting a large pipe with a smaller one. -- Reducing valve, a device for automatically maintaining a diminished pressure of steam, air, gas, etc., in a pipe, or other receiver, which is fed from a boiler or pipe in which the pressure is higher than is desired in the receiver.
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Reducing agent
Re*du"cing a`gent (?), n. (Chem.) a substance that causes reduction of another substance in a chemical reaction, as by donating electrons or adding hydrogen atoms; as, lithium hydride is a powerful reducing agent.
[PJC]

Reduct
Re*duct" (r&euptack_;*dŭkt"), v. t. [L. reductus, p. p. of reducere. See Reduce.] To reduce. [Obs.] W. Warde.
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Reductibility
Re*duc`ti*bil"i*ty (r?*d?k`t?*b?l"?*t?), n. The quality of being reducible; reducibleness.
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Reduction
Re*duc"tion (r&euptack_;*dŭk"shŭn), n. [F. réduction, L. reductio. See Reduce.] 1. The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the reduction of a body to powder; the reduction of things to order; the reduction of the expenses of government; the reduction of a rebellious province.
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2. (Arith. & Alg.) The act or process of reducing. See Reduce, v. t., 6. and To reduce an equation, To reduce an expression, under Reduce, v. t.
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3. (Astron.) (a) The correction of observations for known errors of instruments, etc. (b) The preparation of the facts and measurements of observations in order to deduce a general result.
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4. The process of making a copy of something, as a figure, design, or draught, on a smaller scale, preserving the proper proportions. Fairholt.
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5. (Logic) The bringing of a syllogism in one of the so-called imperfect modes into a mode in the first figure.
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6. (Chem. & Metal.) The act, process, or result of reducing{7}; as, the reduction of iron from its ores; the reduction of an aldehyde into an alcohol.
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7. (Med.) The operation of restoring a dislocated or fractured part to its former place.
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Reduction ascending (Arith.), the operation of changing numbers of a lower into others of a higher denomination, as cents to dollars. -- Reduction descending (Arith.), the operation of changing numbers of a higher into others of a lower denomination, as dollars to cents.
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Syn. -- Diminution; decrease; abatement; curtailment; subjugation; conquest; subjection.
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Reductive
Re*duc"tive (-t?v), a. [Cf. F. réductif.] Tending to reduce; having the power or effect of reducing. -- n. A reductive agent. Sir M. Hale.
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Reductively
Re*duc"tive*ly, adv. By reduction; by consequence.
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Reduit
Ré`duit" (r?`dw?"), n. [F. See Redoubt, n. ] (Fort.) A central or retired work within any other work.
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Redundancy
Redundance
{ Re*dun"dance (r?*d?n"dans), Re*dun"dan*cy (-dan*s?), } n. [L. redundantia: cf. F. redondance.]
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1. The quality or state of being redundant; superfluity; superabundance; excess.
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2. That which is redundant or in excess; anything superfluous or superabundant.
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Labor . . . throws off redundacies. Addison.
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3. (Law) Surplusage inserted in a pleading which may be rejected by the court without impairing the validity of what remains.
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Redundant
Re*dun"dant (-dant), a. [L. redundans, -antis, p. pr. of redundare: cf. F. redondant. See Redound.] 1. Exceeding what is natural or necessary; superabundant; exuberant; as, a redundant quantity of bile or food.
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Notwithstanding the redundant oil in fishes, they do not increase fat so much as flesh. Arbuthnot.
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2. Using more worrds or images than are necessary or useful; pleonastic.
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Where an suthor is redundant, mark those paragraphs to be retrenched. I. Watts.
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Syn. -- Superfluous; superabundant; excessive; exuberant; overflowing; plentiful; copious.
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Redundantly
Re*dun"dant*ly (r?*d?n"dant*l?), adv. In a refundant manner.
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Reduplicate
Re*du"pli*cate (r?*d?"pl?*k?t), a. [Pref. re- + duplicate: cf. L. reduplicatus. Cf. Redouble.] 1. Double; doubled; reduplicative; repeated.
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2. (Bot.) Valvate with the margins curved outwardly; -- said of the &unr_;stivation of certain flowers.
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Reduplicate
Re*du"pli*cate (-k?t), v. t. [Cf. LL. reduplicare.]
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1. To redouble; to multiply; to repeat.
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2. (Gram.) To repeat the first letter or letters of (a word). See Reduplication, 3.
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Reduplication
Re*du`pli*ca"tion (-k?sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réduplication, L. reduplicatio repetition.] 1. The act of doubling, or the state of being doubled.
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2. (Pros.) A figure in which the first word of a verse is the same as the last word of the preceding verse.
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3. (Philol.) The doubling of a stem or syllable (more or less modified), with the effect of changing the time expressed, intensifying the meaning, or making the word more imitative; also, the syllable thus added; as, L. tetuli; poposci.
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Reduplicative
Re*du"pli*ca*tive (-k?*t?v), a. [Cf. F. réduplicatif.] Double; formed by reduplication; reduplicate. I. Watts.
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Reduvid
Red"u*vid (r?d"?*v?d), n. [L. reduvia a hangnail.] (Zool.) Any hemipterous insect of the genus Redivius, or family Reduvidae. They live by sucking the blood of other insects, and some species also attack man.
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Redweed
Red"weed` (r&ebreve_;d"wēd`), n. (Bot.) The red poppy (Papaver Rhoeas). Dr. Prior.
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Redwing
Red"wing` (-w?ng`), n. (Zool.) A European thrush (Turdus iliacus). Its under wing coverts are orange red. Called also redwinged thrush. (b) A North American passerine bird (Agelarius phœniceus) of the family Icteridae. The male is black, with a conspicuous patch of bright red, bordered with orange, on each wing. Called also redwinged blackbird, red-winged troupial, marsh blackbird, and swamp blackbird.
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Redwithe
Red"withe` (r?d"w?th`), n. (Bot.) A west Indian climbing shrub (Combretum Jacquini) with slender reddish branchlets.
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Redwood
Red"wood` (-w&oobreve_;d`), n. (Bot.) (a) A gigantic coniferous tree (Sequoia sempervirens) of California, and its light and durable reddish timber. See Sequoia. (b) An East Indian dyewood, obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus, Caesalpinia Sappan, and several other trees.
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&hand_; The redwood of Andaman is Pterocarpus dalbergioides; that of some parts of tropical America, several species of Erythoxylum; that of Brazil, the species of Humirium.
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Ree
Ree (rē), n. [Pg. real, pl. reis. See Real the money.] See Rei.
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Ree
Ree, v. t. [Cf. Prov. G. räden, raden, raiten. Cf. Riddle a sieve.] To riddle; to sift; to separate or throw off. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Mortimer.
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Reebok
Ree"bok` (r?"b?k`), n. [D., literally, roebuck.] (Zool.) The peele. [Written also rehboc and rheeboc.]
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Reecho
re-echo
Re*ech"o, Re-ech"o (rē*&ebreve_;k"&ouptack_;), v. t. To echo back; to reverberate again; as, the hills reecho the roar of cannon.
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2. To repeat back.
Syn. -- echo back.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reecho
Re-echo
Re*ech"o, Re-ech"o, v. i. To give echoes; to return back, or be reverberated, as an echo; to resound; to be resonant; to echo repeatedly, again and again.
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And a loud groan reechoes from the main. Pope.
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Reecho
Re*ech"o, n. The echo of an echo; a repeated or second echo.
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Reechy
Reech"y (rēch"&ybreve_;), a. [See Reeky.] Smoky; reeky; hence, begrimed with dirt. [Obs.]
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Reed
Reed (rēd), a. Red. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Reed
Reed, v. & n. Same as Rede. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Reed
Reed, n. The fourth stomach of a ruminant; rennet. [Prov. Eng. or Scot.]
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Reed
Reed, n. [AS. hreód; akin to D. riet, G. riet, ried, OHG. kriot, riot.] 1. (Bot.) A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (Phragmites communis).
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2. A musical instrument made of the hollow joint of some plant; a rustic or pastoral pipe.
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Arcadian pipe, the pastoral reed
Of Hermes.
Milton.
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3. An arrow, as made of a reed. Prior.
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4. Straw prepared for thatching a roof. [Prov. Eng.]
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5. (Mus.) (a) A small piece of cane or wood attached to the mouthpiece of certain instruments, and set in vibration by the breath. In the clarinet it is a single fiat reed; in the oboe and bassoon it is double, forming a compressed tube. (b) One of the thin pieces of metal, the vibration of which produce the tones of a melodeon, accordeon, harmonium, or seraphine; also attached to certain sets or registers of pipes in an organ.
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6. (Weaving) A frame having parallel flat stripe of metal or reed, between which the warp threads pass, set in the swinging lathe or batten of a loom for beating up the weft; a sley. See Batten.
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7. (Mining) A tube containing the train of powder for igniting the charge in blasting.
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8. (Arch.) Same as Reeding.
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Egyptian reed (Bot.), the papyrus. -- Free reed (Mus.), a reed whose edges do not overlap the wind passage, -- used in the harmonium, concertina, etc. It is distinguished from the beating or striking reed of the organ and clarinet. -- Meadow reed grass (Bot.), the Glyceria aquatica, a tall grass found in wet places. -- Reed babbler. See Reedbird. -- Reed bunting (Zool.) A European sparrow (Emberiza schœniclus) which frequents marshy places; -- called also reed sparrow, ring bunting. (b) Reedling. -- Reed canary grass (Bot.), a tall wild grass (Phalaris arundinacea). -- Reed grass. (Bot.) (a) The common reed. See Reed, 1. (b) A plant of the genus Sparganium; bur reed. See under Bur. -- Reed organ (Mus.), an organ in which the wind acts on a set of free reeds, as the harmonium, melodeon, concertina, etc. -- Reed pipe (Mus.), a pipe of an organ furnished with a reed. -- Reed sparrow. (Zool.) See Reed bunting, above. -- Reed stop (Mus.), a set of pipes in an organ furnished with reeds. -- Reed warbler. (Zool.) (a) A small European warbler (Acrocephalus streperus); -- called also reed wren. (b) Any one of several species of Indian and Australian warblers of the genera Acrocephalus, Calamoherpe, and Arundinax. They are excellent singers. -- Sea-sand reed (Bot.), a kind of coarse grass (Ammophila arundinacea). See Beach grass, under Beach. -- Wood reed grass (Bot.), a tall, elegant grass (Cinna arundinacea), common in moist woods.
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Reedbuck
Reedbird
Reed"bird` (r?d"b?rd`), n. (Zool.) (a) The bobolink. (b) One of several small Asiatic singing birds of the genera Schœnicola and Eurycercus; -- called also reed babbler. Reed"buck" (-b?k`), n. (Zool.) See Rietboc.
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Reeded
Reed"ed, a. 1. Civered with reeds; reedy. Tusser.
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2. Formed with channels and ridges like reeds.
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Reeden
Reed"en (r?d"'n), a. Consisting of a reed or reeds.
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Through reeden pipes convey the golden flood. Dryden.
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Reedification
Re*ed`i*fi*ca"tion (r?*?d`?*f?*k?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réédification. See Reedify.] The act reedifying; the state of being reedified.
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Reedify
Re*ed"i*fy (r?*?d"?*ff?), v. t. [Pref. re- + edify: cf. F. réédifier, L. reaedificare.] To edify anew; to build again after destruction. [R.] Milton.
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Reeding
Reed"ing (rēd"&ibreve_;ng), n. [From 4th Reed.] 1. (Arch.) A small convex molding; a reed (see Illust. (i) of Molding); one of several set close together to decorate a surface; also, decoration by means of reedings; -- the reverse of fluting.
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&hand_; Several reedings are often placed together, parallel to each other, either projecting from, or inserted into, the adjoining surface. The decoration so produced is then called, in general, reeding.
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2. The nurling on the edge of a coin; -- commonly called milling.
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Reedless
Reed"less, a. Destitute of reeds; as, reedless banks.
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Reedling
Reed"ling (rēd"l&ibreve_;ng), n. (Zool.) The European bearded titmouse (Panurus biarmicus); -- called also reed bunting, bearded pinnock, and lesser butcher bird.
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&hand_; It is orange brown, marked with black, white, and yellow on the wings. The male has a tuft of black feathers on each side of the face.
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Reed-mace
Reed"-mace` (rēd"mās`), n. (Bot.) The cat-tail.
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Reedwork
Reed"work` (rēd"wûrk`), n. (Mus.) A collective name for the reed stops of an organ.
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Reedy
Reed"y (rēd"&ybreve_;), a. 1. Abounding with reeds; covered with reeds. “A reedy pool.” Thomson .
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2. Having the quality of a reed in tone, that is, harsh and thin, as some voices.
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Reef
Reef (rēf), n. [Akin to D. rif, G. riff, Icel. rif, Dan. rev; cf. Icel. rifa rift, rent, fissure, rifa to rive, bear. Cf. Rift, Rive.] 1. A chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water. See Coral reefs, under Coral.
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2. (Mining.) A large vein of auriferous quartz; -- so called in Australia. Hence, any body of rock yielding valuable ore.
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Reef builder (Zool.), any stony coral which contributes material to the formation of coral reefs. -- Reef heron (Zool.), any heron of the genus Demigretta; as, the blue reef heron (Demigretta jugularis) of Australia.
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Reef
Reef, n. [Akin to D. reef, G. reff, Sw. ref; cf. Icel. rif reef, rifa to basten together. Cf. Reeve, v. t., River.] (Naut.) That part of a sail which is taken in or let out by means of the reef points, in order to adapt the size of the sail to the force of the wind.
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&hand_; From the head to the first reef-band, in square sails, is termed the first reef; from this to the next is the second reef; and so on. In fore-and-aft sails, which reef on the foot, the first reef is the lowest part. Totten.
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Close reef, the last reef that can be put in. -- Reef band. See Reef-band in the Vocabulary. -- Reef knot, the knot which is used in tying reef pointss. See Illust. under Knot. -- Reef line, a small rope formerly used to reef the courses by being passed spirally round the yard and through the holes of the reef. Totten. -- Reef points, pieces of small rope passing through the eyelet holes of a reef-band, and used reefing the sail. -- Reef tackle, a tackle by which the reef cringles, or rings, of a sail are hauled up to the yard for reefing. Totten. -- To take a reef in, to reduce the size of (a sail) by folding or rolling up a reef, and lashing it to the spar.
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Reef
Reef, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reefed (rēft); p. pr. & vb. n. Reefing.] (Naut.) To reduce the extent of (as a sail) by rolling or folding a certain portion of it and making it fast to the yard or spar. Totten.
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To reef the paddles, to move the floats of a paddle wheel toward its center so that they will not dip so deeply.
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Reef-band
Reef"-band` (rēf"bănd`), n. (Naut.) A piece of canvas sewed across a sail to strengthen it in the part where the eyelet holes for reefing are made. Totten.
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Reefer
Reef"er (rēf"&etilde_;r), n. 1. (Naut.) One who reefs; -- a name often given to midshipmen. Marryat.
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2. A close-fitting jacket or short coat of thick cloth.
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3. A marijuana cigarette. [Slang]
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Reefing
Reef"ing, n. (Naut.) The process of taking in a reef.
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Reefing bowsprit, a bowsprit so rigged that it can easily be run in or shortened by sliding inboard, as in cutters.
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Reefy
Reef"y (rēf"&ybreve_;), a. Full of reefs or rocks.
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Reek
Reek (rēk), n. A rick. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Reek
Reek, n. [AS. rēc; akin to OFries. rēk, LG. & D. rook, G. rauch, OHG. rouh, Dan. rög, Sw. rök, Icel. reykr, and to AS. reócan to reek, smoke, Icel. rjūka, G. riechen to smell.] Vapor; steam; smoke; fume.
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As hateful to me as the reek of a limekiln. Shak.
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Reek
Reek, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reeked (rēkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Reeking.] [As. rēcan. See Reek vapor.] To emit vapor, usually that which is warm and moist; to be full of fumes; to steam; to smoke; to exhale.
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Few chimneys reeking you shall espy. Spenser.
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I found me laid
In balmy sweat, which with his beams the sun
Soon dried, and on the reeking moisture fed.
Milton.
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The coffee rooms reeked with tobacco. Macaulay.
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Reeky
Reek"y (-?), a. [From 2d Reek; cf. Reechy.] 1. Soiled with smoke or steam; smoky; foul. Shak.
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2. Emitting reek.Reeky fen.” Sir W. Scott.
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Reel
Reel (rēl), n. [Gael. righil.] A lively dance of the Highlanders of Scotland; also, the music to the dance; -- often called Scotch reel.
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Virginia reel, the common name throughout the United States for the old English “country dance,” or contradance (contredanse). Bartlett.
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Reel
Reel (rēl), n. [AS. hreól: cf. Icel. hræll a weaver's reed or sley.] 1. A frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on an axis, on which yarn, threads, lines, or the like, are wound; as, a log reel, used by seamen; an angler's reel; a garden reel.
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2. A machine on which yarn is wound and measured into lays and hanks, -- for cotton or linen it is fifty-four inches in circuit; for worsted, thirty inches. McElrath.
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3. (Agric.) A device consisting of radial arms with horizontal stats, connected with a harvesting machine, for holding the stalks of grain in position to be cut by the knives.
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Reel oven, a baker's oven in which bread pans hang suspended from the arms of a kind of reel revolving on a horizontal axis. Knight.
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Reel
Reel (rēl), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reeled (r?ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Reeling. ] 1. To roll. [Obs.]
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And Sisyphus an huge round stone did reel. Spenser.
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2. To wind upon a reel, as yarn or thread.
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Reel
Reel (rēl), v. i. [Cf. Sw. ragla. See 2d Reel.] 1. To incline, in walking, from one side to the other; to stagger.
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They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man. Ps. cvii. 27.
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He, with heavy fumes oppressed,
Reeled from the palace, and retired to rest.
Pope.
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The wagons reeling under the yellow sheaves. Macaulay.
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2. To have a whirling sensation; to be giddy.
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In these lengthened vigils his brain often reeled. Hawthorne.
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Reel
Reel (rēl), n. The act or motion of reeling or staggering; as, a drunken reel. Shak.
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Reelect
Re`e*lect" (r?`?*l?kt"), v. t. To elect again; as, to reelect the former governor.
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Reelection
Re`e*lec"tion (-l?k"sh?n), n. Election a second time, or anew; as, the reelection of a former chief.
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Reeler
Reel"er (r?l"?r), n. 1. One who reels.
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2. (Zool.) The grasshopper warbler; -- so called from its note. [Prov. Eng.]
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Reeligible
Re*el"i*gi*ble (rē*&ebreve_;l"&ibreve_;*j&ibreve_;*b'l), a. Eligible again; capable of reelection; as, reeligible to the same office. -- Re*el`i*gi*bil"i*ty (rē*&ebreve_;l`&ibreve_;*j&ibreve_;*b&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n.
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Reem
Reem (r?m), n. [Heb.] (Zool.) The Hebrew name of a horned wild animal, probably the Urus.
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&hand_; In King James's Version it is called unicorn; in the Revised Version,wild ox. Job xxxix. 9.
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Reem
Reem, v. t. [Cf. Ream to make a hole in.] (Naut.) To open (the seams of a vessel's planking) for the purpose of calking them.
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Reeming iron (Naut.), an iron chisel for reeming the seams of planks in calking ships.
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Reembark
Re`em*bark" (r?`?m*b?rk"), v. t. & i. To put, or go, on board a vessel again; to embark again.
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Reembarkation
Re*em`bar*ka"tion (r?*?m`b?r*k?"sh?n), n. A putting, or going, on board a vessel again.
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Reembody
Re`em*bod"y (r?`?m*b?d"?), v. t. To embody again.
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Reembrace
Re`em*brace" (-br?s"), v. i. To embrace again.
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re-emerge v. 1. to appear once more.
Syn. -- reappear, appear again.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reemerge
re-emerge
Re`e*merge", Re`-e*merge" (r?`?*m?rj"), v. i. To emerge again.
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Reemergence
Re`e*mer"gence (-m?r"jens), n. Act of reemerging.
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re-emphasise
re-emphasise
reemphasise, re-emphasise v. t. Same as reemphasize. [mostly Brit.]
Syn. -- re-emphasize.
[WordNet 1.5]

reemphasize
re-emphasize
reemphasize, re-emphasize v. t. To emphasize again.
Syn. -- re-emphasise.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reenact
Re-enact
Re`en*act", Re`-en*act" (r?`?n*?kt"), v. t. 1. To enact again.
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2. Specifically: To enact into law, again; as, Congress reenacted the environmental law, which had expired.
[WordNet 1.5]

3. To perform (an action) as a simulation of a prior event; as, She re-enacted what had happened earlier that day; the historical society reenacted the signing of the Declaration of Independence; the militia reenacted the battle of Trenton.
Syn. -- model, reenact, simulate, act out.
[WordNet 1.5 + PJC]

Reenaction
Re`en*ac"tion (-?k"sh?n), n. The act of reenacting; the state of being reenacted.
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Reenactment
Re`en*act"ment (-?kt"ment), n. The enacting or passing of a law a second time; the renewal of a law.
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Reencourage
Re`en*cour"age (-k?r"?j;), v. t. To encourage again.
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Reendow
Re`en*dow" (-dou"), v. t. To endow again.
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re-enforce v. 1. to make stronger; "reinforced concrete".
Syn. -- reinforce, reenforce.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reenforce
re-enforce
Re`en*force", Re`-en*force" (rē`&ebreve_;n*fōrs"), v. t. [Pref. re- + enforce: cf. F. renforcer.] 1. To strengthen with new force, assistance, material, or support; as, to reenforce an argument; to reenforce a garment; especially, to strengthen with additional troops, as an army or a fort, or with additional ships, as a fleet. [Written also reinforce.]
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2. (Psychology) To increase the likelihood that (a specific behavior) will be repeated by giving a reward or punishment to a person or animal; as, to reenforce the students' willingness to study by giving awards for good grades.
[PJC]

Reenforce
Re`en*force", n. [See Reenforce, v., and cf. Ranforce, Reinforce.] Something which reenforces or strengthens. Specifically: (a) That part of a cannon near the breech which is thicker than the rest of the piece, so as better to resist the force of the exploding powder. See Illust. of Cannon. (b) An additional thickness of canvas, cloth, or the like, around an eyelet, buttonhole, etc. [Written also reinforce.]
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Reenforced concrete
Reenforced concrete. Concrete having within its mass a system of iron or steel supports, such as bars, rods, or a heavy mesh, to provide increased tensile strength and shear resistance. Same as Ferro-concrete.
Syn. -- reinforced concrete. [Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Reenforcement
Re`en*force"ment (r?`?n*f?rs"ment), n. 1. The act of reenforcing, or the state of being reenforced.
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2. That which reenforces; additional force; especially, additional troops or force to augment the strength of any army, or ships to strengthen a navy or fleet.
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3. (Psychology) A reward or punishment which is given to a person or animal in order to increase the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated.
[PJC]

Reengage
Re`en*gage" (-g?j), v. t. & i. To engage a second time or again.
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Reengagement
Re`en*gage"ment (-ment), n. A renewed or repeated engagement.
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Reengrave
Re`en*grave" (-gr?v"), v. t. To engrave anew.
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Reenjoy
Re`en*joy" (-joi"), v. i. To enjoy anew. Pope.
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Reenjoyment
Re`en*joy"ment (-ment), n. Renewed enjoyment.
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Reenkindle
Re`en*kin"dle (-k?n"d'l), v. t. To enkindle again.
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Reenlist
Re`en*list" (-l?st"), v. t. & i. To enlist again.
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Reenlistment
Re`en*list"ment (-ment), n. A renewed enlistment.
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Reenslave
Re`en*slave" (-sl?v"), v. t. To enslave again.
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Reenter
re-enter
Re*en"ter, Re-en"ter (r?*?n"t?r), v. t. 1. To enter again; as, You cannot re-enter the country with this visa.
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2. (Engraving) To cut deeper, as engraved lines on a plate of metal, when the engraving has not been deep enough, or the plate has become worn in printing.
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3. (Computers) To put (data) into a document or form on a computer again; -- usually to correct an erroneous entry; as, the password was incorrect, and had to be reentered.
[PJC]

Reenter
Re*en"ter, v. i. To enter anew or again.
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Reentering angle, an angle of a polygon pointing inward, as a, in the cut. -- Reentering polygon, a polygon having one or more reentering angles.
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Reentering
Re*en"ter*ing, n. (Calico Printing.) The process of applying additional colors, by applications of printing blocks, to patterns already partly colored.
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Reenthrone
Re`en*throne" (-thr?n"), v. t. To enthrone again; to replace on a throne.
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Reenthronement
Re`en*throne"ment (-ment), n. A second enthroning.
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Reentrance
Re*en"trance (rē`&ebreve_;n"tr&aitalic_;ns), n. The act entering again; reentry. Hooker.
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Reentrant
Re*en"trant (rē`&ebreve_;n"tr&aitalic_;nt), a. Reentering; pointing or directed inwards; as, a reentrant angle.
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Reentry
Re*en"try (rē`&ebreve_;n"tr&ybreve_;), n. 1. A second or new entry; as, a reentry into public life.
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2. (Law) A resuming or retaking possession of what one has lately foregone; -- applied especially to land; the entry by a lessor upon the premises leased, on failure of the tenant to pay rent or perform the covenants in the lease. Burrill.
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3. (Astronautics) To enter (the Earth's atmosphere) after having passed beyond the atmosphere, as when in orbit or returning from another planet.
[PJC]

Card of reentry, (Whist), a card that by winning a trick will bring one the lead at an advanced period of the hand.
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reequip
re-equip
reequip, re-equip v. t. 1. 1 to furnish with new equipment. Forms with and without the hyphen are common.
Syn. -- rejig.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reerect
Re`e*rect" (r?`?*r?kt"), v. t. To erect again.
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Reermouse
Reer"mouse` (r?r"mous`), n. (Zool.) See Rearmouse.
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Reestablish
Re`es*tab"lish (r?`?s*t?b"l?sh), v. t. To establish anew; to fix or confirm again; to restore; as, to reestablish a covenant; to reestablish health.
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Reestablisher
Re`es*tab"lish*er (-?r), n. One who establishes again.
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Reestablishment
Re`es*tab"lish*ment (-mnt), n. The act reestablishing; the state of being reestablished. Addison.
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Reestate
Re`es*tate" (-t?t), v. t. To reestablish. [Obs.] Walis.
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reevaluate
re-evaluate
reevaluate, re-evaluate v. t. To revise or renew one's assessment; to evaluate again.
Syn. -- re-assess, reassess.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reeve
Reeve (rēv), n. (Zool.) The female of the ruff.
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Reeve, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rove (rōv); p. pr. & vb. n. Reeving.] [Cf. D. reven. See Reef, n. & v. t.] (Naut.) To pass, as the end of a rope, through any hole in a block, thimble, cleat, ringbolt, cringle, or the like.
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Reeve, n. [OE. reve, AS. gerēfa. Cf. Sheriff.] An officer, steward, bailiff, or governor; -- used chiefly in compounds; as, shirereeve, now written sheriff; portreeve, etc. Chaucer. Piers Plowman.
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Re`ëx*am"i*na*ble (rē`&ebreve_;gz*ăm"&ibreve_;*n&adot_;*b'l), a. Admitting of being reexamined or reconsidered. Story.
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Reexamination
Re`ex*am`i*na"tion (-?*n?"sh?n), n. A repeated examination. See under Examination.
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Reexamine
Re`ex*am"ine (--?n), v. t. To examine anew. Hooker.
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Reexchange
Re`ex*change" (r?`?ks*ch?nj"), v. t. To exchange anew; to reverse (a previous exchange).
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Reexchange
Re`ex*change" n. 1. A renewed exchange; a reversal of an exchange.
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2. (Com.) The expense chargeable on a bill of exchange or draft which has been dishonored in a foreign country, and returned to the country in which it was made or indorsed, and then taken up. Bouvier.
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The rate of reexchange is regulated with respect to the drawer, at the course of exchange between the place where the bill of exchange was payable, and the place where it was drawn. Reexchange can not be cumulated. Walsh.
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Reexhibit
Re`ex*hib"it (r?`?gz*?b"?t or -?ks*h?b"?t), v. t. To exhibit again.
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Reexpel
Re`ex*pel" (r?`?ks*p?l"), v. t. To expel again.
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Reexperience
Re`ex*pe"ri*ence (-p?`r?-ens), n. A renewed or repeated experience.
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reexplain
re-explain
reexplain, re-explain v. t. 1. To explain or interpret from a different viewpoint. The form without the hyphen is more common.
Syn. -- reinterpret.
[WordNet 1.5]

reexplore
re-explore
reexplore, re-explore v. t. to explore again; as, We need to re-explore Colonialism.
Syn. -- explore again.
[WordNet 1.5]

Reexport
Re`ex*port" (-p?rt"), v. t. To export again, as what has been imported.
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Reexport
Re*ex"port (r?*?ks"p?rt), n. Any commodity reexported; -- chiefly in the plural.
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Reexportation
Re*ex`por*ta"tion (-p?r*t?"sh?n), n. The act of reexporting, or of exporting an import. A. Smith.
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Reexpulsion
Re`ex*pul"sion (r?`?ks*p?l"sh?n), n. Renewed or repeated expulsion. Fuller.
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Reezed
Reezed (rēzd), a. Grown rank; rancid; rusty. [Obs.]Reezed bacon.” Marston.
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Refaction
Re*fac"tion (r?*f?k"sh?n), n. [See Refection.] Recompense; atonement; retribution. [Obs.] Howell.
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Refait
Re*fait" (?), n. [F.] (Card Playing) A drawn game; specif. (Trente et quarante), A state of the game in which the aggregate pip value of cards dealt to red equals that of those dealt to black. All bets are then off; unless the value is 31, in which case the banker wins half the stakes.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Refar
Re*far" (r?*f?r"), v. t. [Cf. F. refaire to do over again.] To go over again; to repeat. [Obs.]
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To him therefore this wonder done refar. Fairfax.
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Refashion
Re*fash"ion (r?*f?sh"?n), v. t. To fashion anew; to form or mold into shape a second time. MacKnight.
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Refashionment
Re*fash"ion*ment (-ment), n. The act of refashioning, or the state of being refashioned. [R.] Leigh Hunt.
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Refasten
Re*fas"ten (r?*f?s"'n), v. t. To fasten again.
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Refect
Re*fect" (r?*f?kt), v. t. [L. refectus, p. p. of reficere; pref. re- re- + facere to make.] To restore after hunger or fatigue; to refresh. [Archaic] Sir T. Browne.
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Refection
Re*fec"tion (r?*f?k"sh?n), n. [L. refectio: cf. F. réfection. See Refect, Fact.] Refreshment after hunger or fatigue; a repast; a lunch.
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[His] feeble spirit inly felt refection. Spenser.
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Those Attic nights, and those refections of the gods. Curran.
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Refective
Re*fec"tive (r?*f?k"t?v), a. Refreshing; restoring.
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Refective
Re*fec"tive, n. That which refreshes.
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Refectory
Re*fec"to*ry (-&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), n.; pl.; Refectories (-r&unr_;z). [LL. refectorium: cf. F. réfectoire. See Refection.] A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.
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&hand_; Sometimes pronounced r&ebreve_;f"&ebreve_;k*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;, especially when signifying the eating room in monasteries.
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Refel
Re*fel" (r?*f?l"), v. t. [L. refellere; pref. re- re- + fallere to deceive.] To refute; to disprove; as, to refel the tricks of a sophister. [Obs.]
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How he refelled me, and how I replied. Shak.
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Refer
Re*fer" (r&euptack_;*f&etilde_;r"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Referred (r&euptack_;*f&etilde_;rd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Referring.] [F. référer, L. referre; pref. re- re- + ferre to bear. See Bear to carry.] 1. To carry or send back. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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2. Hence: To send or direct away; to send or direct elsewhere, as for treatment, aid, information, decision, etc.; to make over, or pass over, to another; as, to refer a student to an author; to refer a beggar to an officer; to refer a bill to a committee; a court refers a matter of fact to a commissioner for investigation, or refers a question of law to a superior tribunal.
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3. To place in or under by a mental or rational process; to assign to, as a class, a cause, source, a motive, reason, or ground of explanation; as, he referred the phenomena to electrical disturbances.
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To refer one's self, to have recourse; to betake one's self; to make application; to appeal. [Obs.]
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I'll refer me to all things sense. Shak.
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Refer
Re*fer", v. i. 1. To have recourse; to apply; to appeal; to betake one's self; as, to refer to a dictionary.
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In suits . . . it is to refer to some friend of trust. Bacon.
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2. To have relation or reference; to relate; to point; as, the figure refers to a footnote.
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Of those places that refer to the shutting and opening the abyss, I take notice of that in Job. Bp. Burnet.
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3. To carry the mind or thought; to direct attention; as, the preacher referred to the late election.
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4. To direct inquiry for information or a guarantee of any kind, as in respect to one's integrity, capacity, pecuniary ability, and the like; as, I referred to his employer for the truth of his story.
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Syn. -- To allude; advert; suggest; appeal. Refer, Allude, Advert. We refer to a thing by specifically and distinctly introducing it into our discourse. We allude to it by introducing it indirectly or indefinitely, as by something collaterally allied to it. We advert to it by turning off somewhat abruptly to consider it more at large. Thus, Macaulay refers to the early condition of England at the opening of his history; he alludes to these statements from time to time; and adverts, in the progress of his work, to various circumstances of peculiar interest, on which for a time he dwells. “But to do good is . . . that that Solomon chiefly refers to in the text.” Sharp. “This, I doubt not, was that artificial structure here alluded to.” T. Burnet.
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Now to the universal whole advert:
The earth regard as of that whole a part.
Blackmore.
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Referable
Ref"er*a*ble (r?f"?r*?*b'l), a. Capable of being referred, or considered in relation to something else; assignable; ascribable. [Written also referrible.]
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It is a question among philosophers, whether all the attractions which obtain between bodies are referable to one general cause. W. Nicholson.
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Referee
Ref`er*ee" (-&unr_;), n. One to whom a thing is referred; a person to whom a matter in dispute has been referred, in order that he may settle it.
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Syn. -- Judge; arbitrator; umpire. See Judge.
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Reference
Ref"er*ence (r?f"?r-ens), n. [See Refer.] 1. The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, reference to a chart for guidance.
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2. That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a reference in a text-book.
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3. Relation; regard; respect.
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Something that hath a reference to my state. Shak.
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4. One who, or that which, is referred to. Specifically; (a) One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another. (b) A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred.
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5. (Law) (a) The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision. (b) (Equity) The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court.
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6. Appeal. [R.] “Make your full reference.” Shak.
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Reference Bible, a Bible in which brief explanations, and references to parallel passages, are printed in the margin of the text.
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Referendary
Ref`er*en"da*ry (r?f`?r*?n"d?*r?), n. [LL. referendarius, fr. L. referendus to be referred, gerundive of referre: cf. F. référendaire. See Refer.] 1. One to whose decision a cause is referred; a referee. [Obs.] Bacon.
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2. An officer who delivered the royal answer to petitions.Referendaries, or masters of request.” Harmar.
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3. Formerly, an officer of state charged with the duty of procuring and dispatching diplomas and decrees.
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Referendum
Ref`er*en"dum (r?f`?r*?n"d?m), n.; pl. -da (#) [Gerundive fr. L. referre. See Refer.] 1. A diplomatic agent's note asking for instructions from his government concerning a particular matter or point.
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2. The right to approve or reject by popular vote a meassure passed upon by a legislature.
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3. The principle or practice of referring measures passed upon by the legislative body to the body of voters, or electorate, for approval or rejection, as in the Swiss cantons (except Freiburg) and in various local governments in the United States, and also in the local option laws, etc.; also, the right to so approve or reject laws, or the vote by which this is done. Referendum is distinguished from the mandate, or instruction of representatives by the people, from direct government by the people, in which they initiate and make the laws by direct action without representation, and from a plebiscite, or popular vote taken on any measure proposed by a person or body having the initiative but not constituting a representative or constituent body.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Referential
Ref`er*en"tial (-shal), a. Containing a reference; pointing to something out of itself; as, notes for referential use. -- Ref`er*en"tial*ly, adv.
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Referment
Re*fer"ment (r?*f?r"ment), n. The act of referring; reference. Laud.
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Re-ferment
Re`-fer*ment" (r&unr_;`f&unr_;r*m&unr_;nt"), v. t. & i. To ferment, or cause to ferment, again. Blackmore.
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Referrer
Re*fer"rer (r?*f?r"r?r), n. One who refers.
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Referrible
Re*fer"ri*ble (-r?*b'l), a. Referable. Hallam.
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Refigure
Re*fig"ure (r?*f?g"?r), v. t. To figure again. Shak.
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Refill
Re*fill" (r?*f?l"), v. t. & i. To fill, or become full, again.
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Refind
Re*find" (r?*f?nd), v. t. To find again; to get or experience again. Sandys.
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Refine
Re*fine" (r?*f?n"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refined (-find"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refining.] [Pref. re- + fine to make fine: cf. F. raffiner.] 1. To reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; to free from impurities; to free from dross or alloy; to separate from extraneous matter; to purify; to defecate; as, to refine gold or silver; to refine iron; to refine wine or sugar.
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I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined. Zech. xiii. 9.
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2. To purify from what is gross, coarse, vulgar, inelegant, low, and the like; to make elegant or exellent; to polish; as, to refine the manners, the language, the style, the taste, the intellect, or the moral feelings.
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Love refines
The thoughts, and heart enlarges.
Milton.
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Syn. -- To purify; clarify; polish; ennoble.
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Refine
Re*fine", v. i. 1. To become pure; to be cleared of feculent matter.
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So the pure, limpid stream, when foul with stains,
Works itself clear, and, as it runs, refines.
Addison.
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2. To improve in accuracy, delicacy, or excellence.
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Chaucer refined on Boccace, and mended his stories. Dryden.
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But let a lord once own the happy lines,
How the wit brightens! How the style refines!
Pope.
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3. To affect nicety or subtilty in thought or language. “He makes another paragraph about our refining in controversy.” Atterbury.
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Refined
Re*fined" (-f?nd"), a. Freed from impurities or alloy; purifed; polished; cultured; delicate; as; refined gold; refined language; refined sentiments.
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Refined wits who honored poesy with their pens. Peacham.
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-- Re*fin"ed*ly (r&unr_;*f&unr_;n"&unr_;d*l&unr_;), adv. -- Re*fin"ed*ness, n.
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Refinement
Re*fine"ment (r?*f?n"ment), n. [Cf. F. raffinement.] 1. The act of refining, or the state of being refined; as, the refinement or metals; refinement of ideas.
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The more bodies are of kin to spirit in subtilty and refinement, the more diffusive are they. Norris.
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From the civil war to this time, I doubt whether the corruptions in our language have not equaled its refinements. Swift.
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2. That which is refined, elaborated, or polished to excess; an affected subtilty; as, refinements of logic. “The refinements of irregular cunning.” Rogers.
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Syn. -- Purification; polish; politeness; gentility; elegance; cultivation; civilization.
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Refiner
Re*fin"er (-f?n"?r), n. One who, or that which, refines.
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Refinery
Re*fin"er*y (-?), n.; pl. Refineries (-&unr_;z). [Cf. F. raffinerie.] 1. The building and apparatus for refining or purifying, esp. metals and sugar.
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2. A furnace in which cast iron is refined by the action of a blast on the molten metal.
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Refit
Re*fit" (r?*f?t"), v. t. 1. To fit or prepare for use again; to repair; to restore after damage or decay; as, to refit a garment; to refit ships of war. Macaulay.
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2. To fit out or supply a second time.
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Refit
Re*fit", v. i. To obtain repairs or supplies; as, the fleet returned to refit.
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Refitment
Re*fit"ment (-ment), n. The act of refitting, or the state of being refitted.
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Refix
Re*fix" (r?*f?ks"), v. t. To fix again or anew; to establish anew. Fuller.
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Reflame
Re*flame" (r?*fl?m"), v. i. To kindle again into flame.
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Reflect
Re*flect" (r?*fl?kt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reflected; p. pr. & vb. n. Reflecting.] [L. reflectere, reflexum; pref. re- re- + flectere to bend or turn. See Flexible, and cf. Reflex, v.] 1. To bend back; to give a backwa&unr_;d turn to; to throw back; especially, to cause to return after striking upon any surface; as, a mirror reflects rays of light; polished metals reflect heat.
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Let me mind the reader to reflect his eye on our quotations. Fuller.
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Bodies close together reflect their own color. Dryden.
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2. To give back an image or likeness of; to mirror.
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Nature is the glass reflecting God,
As by the sea reflected is the sun.
Young.
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Reflect
Re*flect" v. i. 1. To throw back light, heat, or the like; to return rays or beams.
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2. To be sent back; to rebound as from a surface; to revert; to return.
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Whose virtues will, I hope,
Reflect on Rome, as Titan's rays on earth.
Shak.
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3. To throw or turn back the thoughts upon anything; to contemplate. Specifically: To attend earnestly to what passes within the mind; to attend to the facts or phenomena of consciousness; to use attention or earnest thought; to meditate; especially, to think in relation to moral truth or rules.
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We can not be said to reflect upon any external object, except so far as that object has been previously perceived, and its image become part and parcel of our intellectual furniture. Sir W. Hamilton.
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All men are concious of the operations of their own minds, at all times, while they are awake, but there few who reflect upon them, or make them objects of thought. Reid.
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As I much reflected, much I mourned. Prior.
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4. To cast reproach; to cause censure or dishonor.
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Errors of wives reflect on husbands still. Dryden.
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Neither do I reflect in the least upon the memory of his late majesty. Swift.
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Syn. -- To consider; think; cogitate; mediate; contemplate; ponder; muse; ruminate.
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Reflected
Re*flect"ed, a. 1. Thrown back after striking a surface; as, reflected light, heat, sound, etc.
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2. Hence: Not one's own; received from another; as, his glory was reflected glory.
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3. Bent backward or outward; reflexed.
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Reflectent
Re*flect"ent (r?*fl?kt"ent), a. [L. reflectens, p. pr. of reflectere. See Reflect.] 1. Bending or flying back; reflected. “The ray descendent, and the ray reflectent flying with so great a speed.” Sir K. Digby.
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2. Reflecting; as, a reflectent body. Sir K. Digby.
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Reflectible
Re*flect"i*ble (-?*b'l), a. Capable of being reflected, or thrown back; reflexible.
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Reflecting
Re*flect"ing, a. 1. Throwing back light, heat, etc., as a mirror or other surface.
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2. Given to reflection or serious consideration; reflective; contemplative; as, a reflecting mind.
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Reflecting circle, an astronomical instrument for measuring angless, like the sextant or Hadley's quadrant, by the reflection of light from two plane mirrors which it carries, and differing from the sextant chiefly in having an entire circle. -- Reflecting galvanometer, a galvanometer in which the deflections of the needle are read by means of a mirror attached to it, which reflects a ray of light or the image of a scale; -- called also mirror galvanometer. -- Reflecting goniometer. See under Goniometer. -- Reflecting telescope. See under Telescope.
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Reflectingly
Re*flect"ing*ly, adv. With reflection; also, with censure; reproachfully. Swift.
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Reflection
Re*flec"tion (r?*fl?k"sh?n), n. [L. reflexio: cf. F. réflexion. See Riflect.] [Written also reflexion.] 1. The act of reflecting, or turning or sending back, or the state of being reflected. Specifically: (a) The return of rays, beams, sound, or the like, from a surface. See Angle of reflection, below.
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The eye sees not itself,
But by reflection, by some other things.
Shak.
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(b) The reverting of the mind to that which has already occupied it; continued consideration; meditation; contemplation; hence, also, that operation or power of the mind by which it is conscious of its own acts or states; the capacity for judging rationally, especially in view of a moral rule or standard.
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By reflection, . . . I would be understood to mean, that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of these operations in the understanding. Locke.
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This delight grows and improves under thought and reflection. South.
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2. Shining; brightness, as of the sun. [Obs.] Shak.
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3. That which is produced by reflection. Specifically: (a) An image given back from a reflecting surface; a reflected counterpart.
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As the sun water we can bear,
Yet not the sun, but his reflection, there.
Dryden.
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(b) A part reflected, or turned back, at an angle; as, the reflection of a membrane. (c) Result of meditation; thought or opinion after attentive consideration or contemplation; especially, thoughts suggested by truth.
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Job's reflections on his once flourishing estate did at the same time afflict and encourage him. Atterbury.
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4. Censure; reproach cast.
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He died; and oh! may no reflection shed
Its poisonous venom on the royal dead.
Prior.
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5. (Physiol.) The transference of an excitement from one nerve fiber to another by means of the nerve cells, as in reflex action. See Reflex action, under Reflex.
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Angle of reflection, the angle which anything, as a ray of light, on leaving a reflecting surface, makes with the perpendicular to the surface. -- Angle of total reflection. (Opt.) Same as Critical angle, under Critical.
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Syn. -- Meditation; contemplation; rumination; cogitation; consideration; musing; thinking.
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Reflective
Re*flect"ive (r?*fl?kt"?v), a. [Cf. F. réflectif. Cf. Reflexive.] 1. Throwing back images; as, a reflective mirror.
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In the reflective stream the sighing bride, viewing her charms. Prior.
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2. Capable of exercising thought or judgment; as, reflective reason. Prior.
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His perceptive and reflective faculties . . . thus acquired a precocious and extraordinary development. Motley.
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3. Addicted to introspective or meditative habits; as, a reflective person.
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4. (Gram.) Reflexive; reciprocal.
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-- Re*flect"ive*ly, adv. -- Re*flect"ive*ness, n.Reflectiveness of manner.” J. C. Shairp.
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Reflector
Re*flect"or (-&etilde_;r), n. [Cf. F. réflecteur.] 1. One who, or that which, reflects. Boyle.
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2. (Physics) (a) Something having a polished surface for reflecting light or heat, as a mirror, a speculum, etc. (b) A reflecting telescope. (c) A device for reflecting sound.
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Reflet
Re*flet" (r&eitalic_;*fl&ebreve_;"), n. [F., reflection. See Reflect.] Luster; special brilliancy of surface; -- used esp. in ceramics to denote the peculiar metallic brilliancy seen in lustered pottery such as majolica; as, silver reflet; gold reflet.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reflex
Re"flex (r?"fl?ks), a. [L. reflexus, p. p. of reflectere: cf. F. réflexe. See Reflect.] 1. Directed back; attended by reflection; retroactive; introspective.
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The reflex act of the soul, or the turning of the intellectual eye inward upon its own actions. Sir M. Hale.
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2. Produced in reaction, in resistance, or in return.
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3. (Physiol.) Of, pertaining to, or produced by, stimulus or excitation without the necessary intervention of consciousness.
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Reflex action (Physiol.), any action performed involuntarily in consequence of an impulse or impression transmitted along afferent nerves to a nerve center, from which it is reflected to an efferent nerve, and so calls into action certain muscles, organs, or cells. -- Reflex nerve (Physiol.), an excito-motory nerve. See Exito-motory.
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Reflex
Re"flex (r?"fl?ks; formerly r?*fl?ks"), n. [L. reflexus a bending back. See Reflect.] 1. Reflection; the light reflected from an illuminated surface to one in shade.
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Yon gray is not the morning's eye,
'Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthia's brow.
Shak.
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On the depths of death there swims
The reflex of a human face.
Tennyson.
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2. (Physiol.) An involuntary movement produced by reflex action.
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Patellar reflex. See Knee jerk, under Knee.
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Reflex
Re*flex" (r?*fl?ks"), v. t. [L. reflexus, p. p. of reflectere. See Reflect.] 1. To reflect. [Obs.] Shak.
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2. To bend back; to turn back. J. Gregory.
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Reflexed
Re*flexed" (r?*fl?kst"), a. Bent backward or outward.
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Reflexibility
Re*flex`i*bil"i*ty (r?*fl?ks`?*b?l"?*t?), n. [Cf. F. réflexibilité.] The quality or capability of being reflexible; as, the reflexibility of the rays of light. Sir I. Newton.
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Reflexible
Re*flex"i*ble (r?*fl?ks"?*b'l), a. [CF. F. réflexible.] Capable of being reflected, or thrown back.
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The light of the sun consists of rays differently refrangible and reflexible. Cheyne.
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Reflexion
Re*flex"ion (-fl?k"sh?n), n. See Reflection. Chaucer.
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Reflexity
Re*flex"i*ty (r?*fl?ks"?*t?), n. The state or condition of being reflected. [R.]
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Reflexive
Re*flex"ive (-?v), a. 1. [Cf. F. réflexif.] Bending or turned backward; reflective; having respect to something past.
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Assurance reflexive can not be a divine faith. Hammond.
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2. Implying censure. [Obs.] “What man does not resent an ugly reflexive word?” South.
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3. (Gram.) Having for its direct object a pronoun which refers to the agent or subject as its antecedent; -- said of certain verbs; as, the witness perjured himself; I bethought myself. Applied also to pronouns of this class; reciprocal; reflective.
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-- Re*flex"ive*ly, adv. -- Re*flex"ive*ness, n.
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Reflexly
Re*flex"ly, adv. In a reflex manner; reflectively.
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Refloat
Re"float (r?"fl?t), n. Reflux; ebb. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Reflorescence
Re`flo*res"cence (r?`fl?*r?s"sens), n. (Bot.) A blossoming anew of a plant after it has apparently ceased blossoming for the season.
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Reflourish
Re*flour"ish (r?*fl?r"?sh), v. t. & i. To flourish again.
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Reflow
Re*flow" (r?*fl?"), v. i. To flow back; to ebb.
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Reflower
Re*flow"er (rē*flou"&etilde_;r), v. i. & t. To flower, or cause to flower, again. Sylvester.
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Refluctuation
Re*fluc`tu*a"tion (r?*fl?k`t?*?"sh?n; 135), n. A flowing back; refluence.
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Refluency
Refluence
{ Ref"lu*ence (r?f"l?-ens), Ref"lu*en*cy (-en*s?), } n. The quality of being refluent; a flowing back.
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Refluent
Ref"lu*ent (-ent), a. [L. refluens, p. pr. of refluere to flow back; pref. re- re- + fluere to flow. See Flurent.] Flowing back; returning; ebbing. Cowper.
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And refluent through the pass of fear
The battle's tide was poured.
Sir W. Scott.
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Reflueus
Ref"lu*eus (-?s), a. [L. refluus.] Refluent. [Obs.]
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Reflux
Re"flux` (r?"fl?ks`), a. Returning, or flowing back; reflex; as, reflux action.
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Reflux
Re"flux`, n. [F. reflux. See Refluent, Flux.] A flowing back, as the return of a fluid; ebb; reaction; as, the flux and reflux of the tides.
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All from me
Shall with a fierce reflux on me redound.
Milton.
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Refocillate
Re*foc"il*late (r?*f?s"?l*l?t), v. t. [L. refocillatus, p. p. of refocillare; pref. re- re- + focillare to revive by warmth.] To refresh; to revive. [Obs.] Aubrey.
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Refocillation
Re*foc`il*la"tion (-l?"sh?n), n. Restoration of strength by refreshment. [Obs.] Middleton.
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Refold
Re*fold" (r?*f?ld"), v. t. To fold again.
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Refoment
Re`fo*ment" (r?`f?*m?nt"), v. t. To foment anew.
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Reforest
Re*for"est (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Reforested (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Reforesting.] To replant with trees; to reafforest; to reforestize.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Reforestation
Re`for*est*a"tion (?), n replanting with trees; reconversion into a forest; the act of reforesting.
[PJC]

Reforestization
Re*for`est*i*za`tion (r?*f?r`?st*?*z?"sh?n), n. The act or process of reforestizing.
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Reforestize
Re*for"est*ize (r?*f?r"?st*?z), v. t. To convert again into a forest; to plant again with trees.
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Reforge
Re*forge" (r?*f?rj"), v. t. [Pref. re- + forge: cf. F. reforger.] To forge again or anew; hence, to fashion or fabricate anew; to make over. Udall.
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Reforger
Re*for"ger (r?*f?r"j?r), n. One who reforges.
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Reform
Re*form" (r?*f?rm"), v. t. [F. réformer, L. reformare; pref. re- re- + formare to form, from forma form. See Form.] To put into a new and improved form or condition; to restore to a former good state, or bring from bad to good; to change from worse to better; to amend; to correct; as, to reform a profligate man; to reform corrupt manners or morals.
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The example alone of a vicious prince will corrupt an age; but that of a good one will not reform it. Swift.
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Syn. -- To amend; correct; emend; rectify; mend; repair; better; improve; restore; reclaim.
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Reform
Re*form", v. i. To return to a good state; to amend or correct one's own character or habits; as, a man of settled habits of vice will seldom reform.
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Reform
Re*form", n. [F. réforme.] Amendment of what is defective, vicious, corrupt, or depraved; reformation; as, reform of elections; reform of government.
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Civil service reform. See under Civil. -- Reform acts (Eng. Politics), acts of Parliament passed in 1832, 1867, 1884, 1885, extending and equalizing popular representation in Parliament. -- Reform school, a school established by a state or city government, for the confinement, instruction, and reformation of juvenile offenders, and of young persons of idle, vicious, and vagrant habits. [U. S.]
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Syn. -- Reformation; amendment; rectification; correction. See Reformation.
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Re-form
Re-form" (r?*f?rm"), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Re-formed (-f?rmd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Re-forming.] To give a new form to; to form anew; to take form again, or to take a new form; as, to re-form the line after a charge.
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Reformable
Re*form"a*ble (r?*f?rm"?*b'l), a. Capable of being reformed. Foxe.
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Reformade
Ref`or*made" (r?f`?r*m?d"), n. A reformado. [Obs.]
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Reformado
Ref`or*ma"do (-m?"d?), n. [Sp., fr. reformar, L. reformare. SEe Reform, v. t.] 1. A monk of a reformed order. [Obs.] Weever.
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2. An officer who, in disgrace, is deprived of his command, but retains his rank, and sometimes his pay. [Obs.]
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Reformalize
Re*form"al*ize (r?*f?rm"al*?z), v. i. To affect reformation; to pretend to correctness. [R.]
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Reformation
Ref`or*ma"tion (r?f`?r*m?"sh?n), n. [F. réformation, L. reformatio.] 1. The act of reforming, or the state of being reformed; change from worse to better; correction or amendment of life, manners, or of anything vicious or corrupt; as, the reformation of manners; reformation of the age; reformation of abuses.
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Satire lashes vice into reformation. Dryden.
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2. Specifically (Eccl. Hist.), the important religious movement commenced by Luther early in the sixteenth century, which resulted in the formation of the various Protestant churches.
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Syn. -- Reform; amendment; correction; rectification. -- Reformation, Reform. Reformation is a more thorough and comprehensive change than reform. It is applied to subjects that are more important, and results in changes which are more lasting. A reformation involves, and is followed by, many particular reforms. “The pagan converts mention this great reformation of those who had been the greatest sinners, with that sudden and surprising change which the Christian religion made in the lives of the most profligate.” Addison. “A variety of schemes, founded in visionary and impracticable ideas of reform, were suddenly produced.” Pitt.
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Re-formation
Re`-for*ma"tion (r?`f?r*m?"sh?n), n. The act of forming anew; a second forming in order; as, the reformation of a column of troops into a hollow square.
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Reformative
Re*form"a*tive (r?*f?rm"?*t?v), a. Forming again; having the quality of renewing form; reformatory. Good.
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Reformatory
Re*form"a*to*ry (-t?*r?), a. Tending to produce reformation; reformative.
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Reformatory
Re*form"a*to*ry, n.; pl. -ries (-r&unr_;z). An institution for promoting the reformation of offenders.
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Magistrates may send juvenile offenders to reformatories instead of to prisons. Eng. Cyc.
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Reformed
Re*formed" (r?*f?rmd"), a. 1. Corrected; amended; restored to purity or excellence; said, specifically, of the whole body of Protestant churches originating in the Reformation. Also, in a more restricted sense, of those who separated from Luther on the doctrine of consubstantiation, etc., and carried the Reformation, as they claimed, to a higher point. The Protestant churches founded by them in Switzerland, France, Holland, and part of Germany, were called the Reformed churches.
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The town was one of the strongholds of the Reformed faith. Macaulay.
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2. Amended in character and life; as, a reformed gambler or drunkard.
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3. (Mil.) Retained in service on half or full pay after the disbandment of the company or troop; -- said of an officer. [Eng.]
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Reformer
Re*form"er (r?*f?rm"?r), n. 1. One who effects a reformation or amendment; one who labors for, or urges, reform; as, a reformer of manners, or of abuses.
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2. (Eccl.Hist.) One of those who commenced the reformation of religion in the sixteenth century, as Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin.
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Reformist
Re*form"ist, n. [Cf. F. réformiste.] A reformer.
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Reformly
Re*form"ly, adv. In the manner of a reform; for the purpose of reform. [Obs.] Milton.
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Refortification
Re*for`ti*fi*ca"tion (r?*f?r`t?*f?*k?"sh?n), n. A fortifying anew, or a second time. Mitford.
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Refortify
Re*for"ti*fy (r?*f?r"t?*f?), v. t. To fortify anew.
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Refossion
Re*fos"sion (r?*f?sh"?n), n. [L. refodere, refossum, to dig up again. See Fosse.] The act of digging up again. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.
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Refound
Re*found" (r?*found"), v. t. [Pref. re- + found to cast; cf. F. refondare. Cf. Refund.] 1. To found or cast anew. “Ancient bells refounded.” T. Warton.
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2. To found or establish again; to re&unr_;stablish.
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Refound
Re*found", imp. & p. p. of Refind, v. t.
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Refounder
Re*found"er (-?r), n. One who refounds.
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Refract
Re*fract" (r?*fr$kt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refracted; p. pr. & vb. n. Refracting.] [L. refractus, p. p. of refringere; pref. re- re- + frangere to break: cf. F. réfracter. SEe FRacture, and cf. Refrain, n.] 1. To bend sharply and abruptly back; to break off.
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2. To break the natural course of, as rays of light orr heat, when passing from one transparent medium to another of different density; to cause to deviate from a direct course by an action distinct from reflection; as, a dense medium refrcts the rays of light as they pass into it from a rare medium.
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Refractable
Re*fract"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. Capable of being refracted.
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Refracted
Re*fract"ed, a. 1. (Bot. & Zool.) Bent backward angularly, as if half-broken; as, a refracted stem or leaf.
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2. Turned from a direct course by refraction; as, refracted rays of light.
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Refracting
Re*fract"ing, a. Serving or tending to refract; as, a refracting medium.
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Refracting angle of a prism (Opt.), the angle of a triangular prism included between the two sides through which the refracted beam passes in the decomposition of light. -- Refracting telescope. (Opt.) See under Telescope.
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Refraction
Re*frac"tion (r?*fr?k"sh?n), n. [F. réfraction.] 1. The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted.
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2. The change in the direction of ray of light, heat, or the like, when it enters obliquely a medium of a different density from that through which it has previously moved.
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Refraction out of the rarer medium into the denser, is made towards the perpendicular. Sir I. Newton.
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3. (Astron.) (a) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction. (b) The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.
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Angle of refraction (Opt.), the angle which a refracted ray makes with the perpendicular to the surface separating the two media traversed by the ray. -- Conical refraction (Opt.), the refraction of a ray of light into an infinite number of rays, forming a hollow cone. This occurs when a ray of light is passed through crystals of some substances, under certain circumstances. Conical refraction is of two kinds; external conical refraction, in which the ray issues from the crystal in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is at the point of emergence; and internal conical refraction, in which the ray is changed into the form of a cone on entering the crystal, from which it issues in the form of a hollow cylinder. This singular phenomenon was first discovered by Sir W. R. Hamilton by mathematical reasoning alone, unaided by experiment. -- Differential refraction (Astron.), the change of the apparent place of one object relative to a second object near it, due to refraction; also, the correction required to be made to the observed relative places of the two bodies. -- Double refraction (Opt.), the refraction of light in two directions, which produces two distinct images. The power of double refraction is possessed by all crystals except those of the isometric system. A uniaxial crystal is said to be optically positive (like quartz), or optically negative (like calcite), or to have positive, or negative, double refraction, according as the optic axis is the axis of least or greatest elasticity for light; a biaxial crystal is similarly designated when the same relation holds for the acute bisectrix. -- Index of refraction. See under Index. -- Refraction circle (Opt.), an instrument provided with a graduated circle for the measurement of refraction. -- Refraction of latitude, longitude, declination, right ascension, etc., the change in the apparent latitude, longitude, etc., of a heavenly body, due to the effect of atmospheric refraction. -- Terrestrial refraction, the change in the apparent altitude of a distant point on or near the earth's surface, as the top of a mountain, arising from the passage of light from it to the eye through atmospheric strata of varying density.
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Refractive
Re*fract"ive (r?*fr?kt"?v), a. [Cf. F. réfractif. See Refract.] Serving or having power to refract, or turn from a direct course; pertaining to refraction; as, refractive surfaces; refractive powers.
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Refractive index. (Opt.) See Index of refraction, under Index. -- Absolute refractive index (Opt.), the index of refraction of a substances when the ray passes into it from a vacuum. -- Relative refractive index (of two media) (Opt.), the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction for a ray passing out of one of the media into the other.
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Refractiveness
Re*fract"ive*ness, n. The quality or condition of being refractive.
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Refractometer
Re`frac*tom"e*ter (r?`fr?k*t?m"?*t?r), n. [Refraction + -meter.] (Opt.) A contrivance for exhibiting and measuring the refraction of light.
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Refractor
Re*fract"or (r&unr_;-fr&unr_;kt"&unr_;r), n. Anything that refracts; specifically: (Opt.) A refracting telescope, in which the image to be viewed is formed by the refraction of light in passing through a convex lens.
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Refractorily
Re*frac"to*ri*ly (r?*fr?k"t?*r?*l?), adv. In a refractory manner; perversely; obstinately.
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Refractoriness
Re*frac"to*ri*ness, n. The quality or condition of being refractory.
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Refractory
Re*frac"to*ry (-r?), a. [L. refractorius, fr. refringere: cf. F. refractaire. See Refract.] 1. Obstinate in disobedience; contumacious; stubborn; unmanageable; as, a refractory child; a refractory beast.
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Raging appetites that are
Most disobedient and refractory.
Shak.
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2. Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.
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Syn. -- Perverse; contumacious; unruly; stubborn; obstinate; unyielding; ungovernable; unmanageable.
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Refractory
Re*frac"to*ry, n. 1. A refractory person. Bp. Hall.
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2. Refractoriness. [Obs.] Jer. TAylor.
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3. OPottery) A piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln, to communicate a glaze to the other articles. Knight.
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Refracture
Re*frac"ture (r?*fr?k"t?r;135), n. (Surg.) A second breaking (as of a badly set bone) by the surgeon.
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Refracture
Re*frac"ture, v. t. (Surg.) To break again, as a bone.
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Refragable
Ref"ra*ga*ble (r?f"r?*g?*b'l), a. [LL. refragabilis, fr. L. refragari to oppose.] Capable of being refuted; refutable. [R.] -- Ref"ra*ga*ble*ness, n. [R.] -- Ref`ra*ga*bil"i*ty (-b&unr_;l`&unr_;*t&unr_;), n. [R.]
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Refragate
Ref"ra*gate (-g?t), v. i. [L. refragatus, p. p. of refragor.] To oppose. [R.] Glanvill.
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Refrain
Re*frain" (r&euptack_;*frān"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refrained (-frānd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refraining.] [OE. refreinen, OF. refrener, F. refréner, fr. L. refrenare; influenced by OF. refraindre to restrain, moderate, fr. LL. refrangere, for L. refringere to break up, break (see Refract). L. refrenare is fr. pref. re- back + frenum bridle; cf. Skr. dh&rsdot_; to hold.] 1. To hold back; to restrain; to keep within prescribed bounds; to curb; to govern.
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His reason refraineth not his foul delight or talent. Chaucer.
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Refrain thy foot from their path. Prov. i. 15.
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2. To abstain from. [Obs.]
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Who, requiring a remedy for his gout, received no other counsel than to refrain cold drink. Sir T. Browne.
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Refrain
Re*frain", v. i. To keep one's self from action or interference; to hold aloof; to forbear; to abstain.
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Refrain from these men, and let them alone. Acts v. 38.
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They refrained therefrom [eating flesh] some time after. Sir T. Browne.
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Syn. -- To hold back; forbear; abstain; withhold.
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Refrain
Re*frain", n. [F. refrain, fr. OF. refraindre; cf. Pr. refranhs a refrain, refranher to repeat. See Refract,Refrain, v.] The burden of a song; a phrase or verse which recurs at the end of each of the separate stanzas or divisions of a poetic composition.
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We hear the wild refrain. Whittier.
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Refrainer
Re*frain"er (r&euptack_;*frān"&etilde_;r), n. One who refrains.
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Refrainment
Re*frain"ment (-ment), n. Act of refraining. [R.]
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Reframe
Re*frame" (r&euptack_;*frām), v. t. To frame again or anew.
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Refrangibility
Re*fran`gi*bil"i*ty (r?*fr?n`j?*b?l"?*t?), n. [Cf. F. réfrangibilité.] The quality of being refrangible.
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Refrangible
Re*fran"gi*ble (-fr?n"j?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. réfrangible. See Refract.] Capable of being refracted, or turned out of a direct course, in passing from one medium to another, as rays of light. -- Re*fran"gi*ble*ness, n.
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Refrenation
Ref`re*na"tion (r?f`r?*n?"sh?n), n. [L. refrenatio. See Refrain, v. t.] The act of refraining. [Obs.]
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Refresh
Re*fresh" (r?*fr?sh"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refreshed (-fr?sht"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refreshing.] [OE. refreshen, refreschen, OF. refreschir (cf. OF. rafraischir, rafreschir, F. rafra&unr_;chir); pref. re- re- + fres fresh. F. frais. See Fresh, a.] 1. To make fresh again; to restore strength, spirit, animation, or the like, to; to relieve from fatigue or depression; to reinvigorate; to enliven anew; to reanimate; as, sleep refreshes the body and the mind. Chaucer.
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Foer they have refreshed my spirit and yours. 1 Cor. xvi. 18.
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And labor shall refresh itself with hope. Shak.
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2. To make as if new; to repair; to restore.
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The rest refresh the scaly snakes that fol&unr_;
The shield of Pallas, and renew their gold.
Dryden.
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To refresh the memory, to quicken or strengthen it, as by a reference, review, memorandum, or suggestion.
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Syn. -- To cool; refrigerate; invigorate; revive; reanimate; renovate; renew; restore; recreate; enliven; cheer.
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Refresh
Re*fresh", n. The act of refreshing. [Obs.] Daniel.
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Refresher
Re*fresh"er (-?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, refreshes.
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2. (Law) An extra fee paid to counsel in a case that has been adjourned from one term to another, or that is unusually protracted.
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Ten guineas a day is the highest refresher which a counsel can charge. London Truth.
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Refreshful
Re*fresh"ful (-f?l), a. Full of power to refresh; refreshing. -- Re*fresh"ful*ly, adv.
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Refreshing
Re*fresh"ing, a. Reviving; reanimating. -- Re*fresh"ing*ly, adv. -- Re*fresh"ing*ness, n.
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Refreshment
Re*fresh"ment (-ment), n. [CF. OF. refreschissement, F. rafraîchissement.] 1. The act of refreshing, or the state of being refreshed; restoration of strength, spirit, vigor, or liveliness; relief after suffering; new life or animation after depression.
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2. That which refreshes; means of restoration or reanimation; especially, an article of food or drink.
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Refret
Re*fret" (r?*fr?t"), n. [OF. refret, L. refractus, p. p. See Refrain, n., Refract.] Refrain. [Obs.] Bailey.
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Refreyd
Re*freyd" (r?*fr?d"), v. t. [OF. refreidier.] To chill; to cool. [Obs.]
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Refreyded by sickness . . . or by cold drinks. Chaucer.
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Refrication
Ref`ri*ca"tion (r?f`r?*k?"sh?n), n. [L. refricare to rub again.] A rubbing up afresh; a brightening. [Obs.]
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A continual refrication of the memory. Bp. Hall.
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Refrigerant
Re*frig"er*ant (r?*fr?j"?r-ant), a. [L. refrigerans, p. pr. of refrigerare: cf. F. réfrigérant. See Refrigerate.] Cooling; allaying heat or fever. Bacon.
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Refrigerant
Re*frig"er*ant, n. That which makes to be cool or cold; specifically, a medicine or an application for allaying fever, or the symptoms of fever; -- used also figuratively. Holland. “A refrigerant to passion.” Blair.
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Refrigerate
Re*frig"er*ate (-āt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refrigerated (-ā`t&ebreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Refrigerating.] [L. refrigeratus, p. p. of refrigerare; pref. re- re- + frigerare to make cool, fr. frigus, frigoris, coolness. See Frigid.] To cause to become cool; to make or keep cold or cool.
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Refrigeration
Re*frig`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [Cf. F. réfrigération, L. refrigeratio.] The act or process of refrigerating or cooling, or the state of being cooled.
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Refrigerative
Re*frig"er*a*tive (r?*fr?j"?r*?*t?v), a. [Cf. F. réfrigératif.] Cooling; allaying heat. -- n. A refrigerant.
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Crazed brains should come under a refrigerative treatment. I. Taylor.
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Refrigerator
Re*frig"er*a`tor (-?`t?r), n. That which refrigerates or makes cold; that which keeps cool. Specifically: (a) A box or room for keeping food or other articles cool, usually by means of ice. (b) An apparatus for rapidly cooling heated liquids or vapors, connected with a still, etc.
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Refrigerator car (Railroad), a freight car constructed as a refrigerator, for the transportation of fresh meats, fish, etc., in a temperature kept cool by ice.
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Refrigeratory
Re*frig"er*a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), a. [L. refrigeratorius.] Mitigating heat; cooling.
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Refrigeratory
Re*frig"er*a*to*ry, n.; pl. -ries (-fr&unr_;z). [CF. F. réfrigératoire.] That which refrigerates or cools. Specifically: (a) In distillation, a vessel filled with cold water, surrounding the worm, the vapor in which is thereby condensed. (b) The chamber, or tank, in which ice is formed, in an ice machine.
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Refrigerium
Ref`ri*ge"ri*um (r?f`r?*j?"r?*?m), n. [L.] Cooling refreshment; refrigeration. [Obs.] South.
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Refringency
Re*frin"gen*cy (r?*fr?n"jen*s?), n. The power possessed by a substance to refract a ray; as, different substances have different refringencies. Nichol.
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Refringent
Re*frin"gent (-jent), a. [L. refringens, p. pr. of refringere. See Refract.] Pertaining to, or possessing, refringency; refractive; refracting; as, a refringent prism of spar. Nichol.
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Reft
Reft (r?ft), imp. & p. p. of Reave. Bereft.
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Reft of thy sons, amid thy foes forlorn. Heber.
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Reft
Reft, n. A chink; a rift. See Rift. Rom. of R.
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Refuge
Ref"uge (r?f"?j), n. [F. réfuge, L. refugium, fr. refugere to flee back; pref. re- + figere. SEe Fugitive.]
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1. Shelter or protection from danger or distress.
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Rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these
Find place or refuge.
Milton.
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We might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us. Heb. vi. 18.
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2. That which shelters or protects from danger, or from distress or calamity; a stronghold which protects by its strength, or a sanctuary which secures safety by its sacredness; a place inaccessible to an enemy.
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The high hills are a refuger the wild goats. Ps. civ. 18.
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The Lord also will be a refuge for the oppressed. Ps. ix. 9.
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3. An expedient to secure protection or defense; a device or contrivance.
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Their latest refuge
Was to send him.
Shak.
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Light must be supplied, among gracefulrefuges, by terracing &unr_;&unr_;&unr_; story in danger of darkness. Sir H. Wotton.
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Cities of refuge (Jewish Antiq.), certain cities appointed as places of safe refuge for persons who had committed homicide without design. Of these there were three on each side of Jordan. Josh. xx. -- House of refuge, a charitable institution for giving shelter and protection to the homeless, destitute, or tempted.
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Syn. -- Shelter; asylum; retreat; covert.
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Refuge
Ref"uge (r?f"?j), v. t. To shelter; to protect. [Obs.]
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Refugee
Ref`u*gee" (r?f`?*j?"), n. [F. réfugié, fr. se réfugier to take refuge. See Refuge, n.] 1. One who flees to a shelter, or place of safety.
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2. Especially, one who, in times of persecution or political commotion, flees to a foreign power or country for safety; as, the French refugees who left France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
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Refulgency
Refulgence
{ Re*ful"gence (r?*f?l"jens), Re*ful"gen*cy (-jen*s?), } n. [L. refulgentia. See Refulgent.] The quality of being refulgent; brilliancy; splender; radiance.
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Refulgent
Re*ful"gent (r?*f?l"j&eitalic_;nt), a. [L. refulgens, p. pr. of refulgere to flash back, to shine bright; pref. re- re- + fulgere to shine. See Fulgent.] Casting a bright light; radiant; brilliant; resplendent; shining; splendid; as, refulgent beams. -- Re*ful"gent*ly, adv.
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So conspicuous and refulgent a truth. Boyle.
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Refund
Re*fund" (r?*f?nd"), v. t. [Pref. re- + fund.] To fund again or anew; to replace (a fund or loan) by a new fund; as, to refund a railroad loan.
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Refund
Re*fund" (r?*f?nd"), v. t. [L. refundere; pref. re- re- + fundere to pour: cf. F. refondre, refonder. See Fuse to melt, and cf. Refound to cast again, 1st Refuse.] 1. To pour back. [R. & Obs.]
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Were the humors of the eye tinctured with any color, they would refund that color upon the object. Ray.
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2. To give back; to repay; to restore.
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A governor, that had pillaged the people, was . . . sentenced to refund what he had wrongfully taken. L'Estrange.
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3. To supply again with funds; to reimburse. [Obs.]
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Refunder
Re*fund"er (-?r), n. One who refunds.
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Refundment
Re*fund"ment (-ment), n. The act of refunding; also, that which is refunded. [R.] Lamb.
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Refurbish
Re*fur"bish (r?*f?r"b?sh), v. t. To furbish anew.
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Refurnish
Re*fur"nish (-n?sh), v. t. To furnish again.
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Refurnishment
Re*fur"nish*ment (-ment), n. The act of refurnishing, or state of being refurnished.
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The refurnishment was in a style richer than before. L. Wallace.
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Refusable
Re*fus"a*ble (r?*f?z"?*b'l), a. [Cf. F. refusable. See Refuse.] Capable of being refused; admitting of refusal.
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Refusal
Re*fus"al (-al), n. 1. The act of refusing; denial of anything demanded, solicited, or offered for acceptance.
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Do they not seek occasion of new quarrels,
On my refusal, to distress me more?
Milton.
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2. The right of taking in preference to others; the choice of taking or refusing; option; as, to give one the refusal of a farm; to have the refusal of an employment.
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Refuse
Re*fuse" (r?*f?z"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refused (-f?zd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Refusing.] [F. refuser, either from (assumed) LL. refusare to refuse, v. freq. of L. refundere to pour back, give back, restore (see Refund to repay), or. fr. L. recusare to decline, refuse cf. Accuse, Ruse), influenced by L. refutare to drive back, repel, refute. Cf. Refute.] 1. To deny, as a request, demand, invitation, or command; to decline to do or grant.
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That never yet refused your hest. Chaucer.
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2. (Mil.) To throw back, or cause to keep back (as the center, a wing, or a flank), out of the regular aligment when troops ar&unr_; about to engage the enemy; as, to refuse the right wing while the left wing attacks.
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3. To decline to accept; to reject; to deny the request or petition of; as, to refuse a suitor.
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The cunning workman never doth refuse
The meanest tool that he may chance to use.
Herbert.
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4. To disown. [Obs.]Refuse thy name.” Shak.
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Refuse
Re*fuse", v. i. To deny compliance; not to comply.
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Too proud to ask, too humble to refuse. Garth.
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If ye refuse . . . ye shall be devoured with the sword. Isa. i. 20.
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Refuse
Re*fuse", n. Refusal. [Obs.] Fairfax.
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Refuse
Ref`use (r?f"?s;277), n. [F. refus refusal, also, that which is refused. See Refuse to deny.] That which is refused or rejected as useless; waste or worthless matter.
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Syn. -- Dregs; sediment; scum; recrement; dross.
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Refuse
Ref"use, a. Refused; rejected; hence; left as unworthy of acceptance; of no value; worthless.
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Everything that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly. 1. Sam. xv. 9.
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Refuser
Re*fus"er (r?*f?z"?r), n. One who refuses or rejects.
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Refusion
Re*fu"sion (r?*f?"zh?n), n. [Pref. re- + fusion.]
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1. New or repeated melting, as of metals.
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2. Restoration. “This doctrine of the refusion of the soul.” Bp. Warbuton.
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Refut
Ref"ut (r&ebreve_;f"&usdot_;t), n. [OF. refuite.] Refuge. “Thou haven of refut.” [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Refutability
Re*fut`a*bil"i*ty (r?*f?t`?*b?l"?*t?), n. The quality of being refutable.
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Refutable
Re*fut"a*ble (r?*f?t"?*b'l;277), a. [Cf. F. réfutable.] Admitting of being refuted or disproved; capable of being proved false or erroneous.
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Refutal
Re*fut"al (r?*f?t"al), n. Act of refuting; refutation.
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Refutation
Ref`u*ta"tion (r?f`?*t?"sh?n), n. [L. refutatio: cf. F. réfutation.] The act or process of refuting or disproving, or the state of being refuted; proof of falsehood or error; the overthrowing of an argument, opinion, testimony, doctrine, or theory, by argument or countervailing proof.
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Same of his blunders seem rather to deserve a flogging than a refutation. Macaulay.
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Refutatory
Re*fut"a*to*ry (r&euptack_;*fūt"&adot_;*t&ouptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. [L. refutatorius: cf. F. réfutatoire.] Tending to refute; refuting.
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refute
re*fute" (r&euptack_;*fūt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Refuted; p. pr. & vb. n. Refuting.] [F. réfuter, L. refuteare to repel, refute. Cf. Confute, Refuse to deny.] To disprove and overthrow by argument, evidence, or countervailing proof; to prove to be false or erroneous; to confute; as, to refute arguments; to refute testimony; to refute opinions or theories; to refute a disputant.
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There were so many witnesses in these two miracles that it is impossible to refute such multitudes. Addison.
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Syn. -- To confute; disprove. See Confute.
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Refuter
Re*fut"er (r&euptack_;*fūt"&etilde_;r), n. One who, or that which, refutes.
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Regain
Re*gain" (r?*g?n"), v. t. [Pref. re- + gain: cf. F. regagner.] To gain anew; to get again; to recover, as what has escaped or been lost; to reach again.
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Syn. -- To recover; reobtain; repossess; retrieve.
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Regal
Re"gal (rē"g&aitalic_;l), a. [L. regalis, fr. rex, regis, a king. See Royal, and cf. Rajah, Realm, Regalia.] Of or pertaining to a king; kingly; royal; as, regal authority, pomp, or sway. “The regal title.” Shak.
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He made a scorn of his regal oath. Milton.
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Syn. -- Kingly; royal. See Kingly.
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Regal
Re"gal, n. [F. régale, It. regale. CF. Rigoll.] (Mus.) A small portable organ, played with one hand, the bellows being worked with the other, -- used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
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Regale
Re*ga"le (r&euptack_;*gā"l&euptack_;), n. [LL. regale, pl. regalia, fr. L. regalis: cf. F. régale. See Regal.] A prerogative of royalty. [R.] Johnson.
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Regale
Re*gale" (r&euptack_;*gāl"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regaled (r&euptack_;*gāld"); p. pr. & vb. n. Regaling.] [F. régaler, Sp. regalar to regale, to caress, to melt, perhaps fr. L. regalare to thaw (cff. Gelatin), or cf. Sp. gala graceful, pleasing address, choicest part of a thing (cf. Gala), or most likely from OF. galer to rejoice, gale pleasure.] To entertain in a regal or sumptuous manner; to entertain with something that delights; to gratify; to refresh; as, to regale the taste, the eye, or the ear.
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Regale
Re*gale", v. i. To feast; to fare sumtuously.
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Regale
Re*gale", n. [F. régal. See Regale, v. t.] A sumptuous repast; a banquet. Johnson. Cowper.
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Two baked custards were produced as additions to the regale. E. E. Hale.
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Regalement
Re*gale"ment (r&euptack_;*gāl"m&eitalic_;nt), n. The act of regaling; anything which regales; refreshment; entertainment.
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Regaler
Re*gal"er (-g?l"?r), n. One who regales.
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Regalia
Re*ga"li*a (r&euptack_;*gā"l&ibreve_;*&adot_;), n. pl. [LL., from L. regalisregal. See Regal.] 1. That which belongs to royalty. Specifically: (a) The rights and prerogatives of a king. (b) Royal estates and revenues. (c) Ensigns, symbols, or paraphernalia of royalty.
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2. Hence, decorations or insignia of an office or order, as of Freemasons, Odd Fellows,etc.
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3. Sumptuous food; delicacies. [Obs.] Cotton.
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Regalia of a church, the privileges granted to it by kings; sometimes, its patrimony. Brande & C.
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Regalia
Re*ga"li*a, n. A kind of cigar of large size and superior quality; also, the size in which such cigars are classed.
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Regalian
Re*ga"li*an (-an), a. Pertaining to regalia; pertaining to the royal insignia or prerogatives. Hallam.
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Regalism
Re"gal*ism (r?"gal*?z'm), n. The doctrine of royal prerogative or supremacy. [R.] Cardinal Manning.
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Regality
Re*gal"i*ty (r?*g?l"?*t?), n. [LL. regalitas, from L. regalis regal, royal. See Regal, and cf. Royality.]
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1. Royalty; sovereignty; sovereign jurisdiction.
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[Passion] robs reason of her due regalitie. Spenser.
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He came partly in by the sword, and had high courage in all points of regality. Bacon.
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2. An ensign or badge of royalty. [Obs.]
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Regally
Re"gal*ly (r?"gal*l?), adv. In a regal or royal manner.
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Regard
Re*gard" (r?*g?rd"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regarded; p. pr. & vb. n. Regarding.] [F. regarder; pref. re- re + garder to guard, heed, keep. See Guard, and cf. Reward.] 1. To keep in view; to behold; to look at; to view; to gaze upon.
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Your niece regards me with an eye of favor. Shak.
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2. Hence, to look or front toward; to face. [Obs.]
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It is peninsula which regardeth the mainland. Sandys.
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That exceedingly beatiful seat, on the ass&unr_;ent of a hill, flanked with wood and regarding the river. Evelyn.
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3. To look closely at; to observe attentively; to pay attention to; to notice or remark particularly.
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If much you note him,
You offened him; . . . feed, and regard him not.
Shak.
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4. To look upon, as in a certain relation; to hold as an popinion; to consider; as, to regard abstinence from wine as a duty; to regard another as a friend or enemy.
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5. To consider and treat; to have a certain feeling toward; as, to regard one with favor or dislike.
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His associates seem to have regarded him with kindness. Macaulay.
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6. To pay respect to; to treat as something of peculiar value, sanctity, or the like; to care for; to esteem.
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He that regardeth thae day, regardeth it into the LOrd. Rom. xiv. 6.
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Here's Beaufort, that regards nor God nor king. Shak.
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7. To take into consideration; to take account of, as a fact or condition. “Nether regarding that she is my child, nor fearing me as if II were her father.” Shak.
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8. To have relation to, as bearing upon; to respect; to relate to; to touch; as, an argument does not regard the question; -- often used impersonally; as, I agree with you as regards this or that.
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Syn. -- To consider; observe; remark; heed; mind; respect; esteem; estimate; value. See Attend.
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Regard
Re*gard" (r?*g?rd"), v. i. To look attentively; to consider; to notice. [Obs.] Shak.
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Regard
Re*gard", n. [F. regard See Regard, v. t.] 1. A look; aspect directed to another; view; gaze.
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But her, with stern regard, he thus repelled. Milton.
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2. Attention of the mind with a feeling of interest; observation; heed; notice.
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Full many a lady
I have eyed with best regard.
Shak.
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3. That view of the mind which springs from perception of value, estimable qualities, or anything that excites admiration; respect; esteem; reverence; affection; as, to have a high regard for a person; -- often in the plural.
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He has rendered himself worthy of their most favorable regards. A. Smith.
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Save the long-sought regards of woman, nothing is sweeter than those marks of childish preference. Hawthorne.
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4. State of being regarded, whether favorably or otherwise; estimation; repute; note; account.
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A man of meanest regard amongst them, neither having wealth or power. Spenser.
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5. Consideration; thought; reflection; heed.
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Sad pause and deep regard become the sage. Shak.
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6. Matter for consideration; account; condition. [Obs.] “Reason full of good regard.” Shak.
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7. Respect; relation; reference.
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Persuade them to pursue and persevere in virtue, with regard to themselves; in justice and goodness with regard to their neighbors; and piefy toward God. I. Watts.
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&hand_; The phrase in regard of was formerly used as equivalent in meaning to on account of, but in modern usage is often improperly substituted for in respect to, or in regard to. G. P. Marsh.
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Change was thought necessary in regard of the injury the church did receive by a number of things then in use. Hooker.
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In regard of its security, it had a great advantage over the bandboxes. Dickens.
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8. Object of sight; scene; view; aspect. [R.]
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Throw out our eyes for brave Othello,
Even till we make the main and the aerial blue
An indistinct regard.
Shak.
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9. (O.Eng.Law) Supervision; inspection.
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At regard of, in consideration of; in comparison with. [Obs.] “Bodily penance is but short and little at regard of the pains of hell.” Chaucer. -- Court of regard, a forest court formerly held in England every third year for the lawing, or expeditation, of dogs, to prevent them from running after deer; -- called also survey of dogs. Blackstone.
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Syn. -- Respect; consideration; notice; observance; heed; care; concern; estimation; esteem; attachment; reverence.
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Regardable
Re*gard"a*ble (-?*b'l), a. Worthy of regard or notice; to be regarded; observable. [R.] Sir T. Browne.
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Regardant
Re*gard"ant (-ant), a. [F. regardant, fr. regarder. See Regard, v. t.] [Written also regardant.] 1. Looking behind; looking backward watchfully.
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[He] turns thither his regardant eye. Southey.
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2. (Her.) Looking behind or backward; as, a lion regardant.
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3. (O.Eng.Law) Annexed to the land or manor; as, a villain regardant.
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Regarder
Re*gard"er (r?*g?rd"?r), n. 1. One who regards.
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2. (Eng. Forest law) An officer appointed to supervise the forest. Cowell.
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Regardful
Re*gard"ful (-f?l), a. Heedful; attentive; observant. -- Re*gard"ful*ly, adv.
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Let a man be very tender and regardful of every pious motion made by the Spirit of God to his heart. South.
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Syn. -- Mindful; heedful; attentive; observant.
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Regarding
Re*gard"ing, prep. Concerning; respecting.
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Regardless
Re*gard"less, a. 1. Having no regard; heedless; careless; as, regardless of life, consequences, dignity.
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Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat. Milton.
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2. Not regarded; slighted. [R.] Spectator.
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Syn. -- Heedless; negligent; careless; indifferent; unconcerned; inattentive; unobservant; neglectful.
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-- Re*gard"less*ly, adv. -- Re*gard"less*ness, n.
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Regather
Re*gath"er (r?*g?th"?r), v. t. To gather again.
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Regatta
Re*gat"ta (r?*g?t"t?), n.; pl. Regattas (-t&unr_;z). [It. regatta, regata.] Originally, a gondola race in Venice; now, a rowing or sailing race, or a series of such races.
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Regel
Re"gel (r?"g?l), n. (Astron.) See Rigel.
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Regelate
Re"ge*late (r?"j?*l?t or r?j"?-), v. i. (Physics) To freeze together again; to undergo regelation, as ice.
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Regelation
Re`ge*la"tion (-l?"sh?n), n. [Pref. re- + L. gelatio a freezing.] (Physics) The act or process of freezing anew, or together,as two pieces of ice.
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&hand_; Two pieces of ice at (or even) 32&unr_; Fahrenheit, with moist surfaces, placed in contact, freeze together to a rigid mass. This is called regelation. Faraday.
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Regence
Re"gence (r?"jens), n. Rule. [Obs.] Hudibras.
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Regency
Re"gen*cy (r?*jen*s?), n.; pl. Regencies (-s&unr_;z). [CF. F. régence, LL. regentia. See Regent, a.] 1. The office of ruler; rule; authority; government.
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2. Especially, the office, jurisdiction, or dominion of a regent or vicarious ruler, or of a body of regents; deputed or vicarious government. Sir W. Temple.
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3. A body of men intrusted with vicarious government; as, a regency constituted during a king's minority, absence from the kingdom, or other disability.
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A council or regency consisting of twelve persons. Lowth.
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Regeneracy
Re*gen"er*a*cy (r?*j?n"?r*?*s?), n. [See Regenerate.] The state of being regenerated. Hammond.
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Regenerate
Re*gen"er*ate (-?t), a. [L. regeneratus, p. p. of regenerare to regenerate; pref. re- re- + generare to beget. See Generate.] 1. Reproduced.
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The earthly author of my blood,
Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,
Doth with a twofold vigor lift me up.
Shak.
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2. (Theol.) Born anew; become Christian; renovated in heart; changed from a natural to a spiritual state.
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Regenerate
Re*gen"er*ate (r?*j?n"?r*?t), v. t. 1. To generate or produce anew; to reproduce; to give new life, strength, or vigor to.
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Through all the soil a genial fferment spreads.
Regenerates the plauts, and new adorns the meads.
Blackmore.
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2. (Theol.) To cause to be spiritually born anew; to cause to become a Christian; to convert from sin to holiness; to implant holy affections in the heart of.
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3. Hence, to make a radical change for the better in the character or condition of; as, to regenerate society.
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Regenerateness
Re*gen"er*ate*ness (-?t*n?s), n. The quality or state of being rgenerate.
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Regeneration
Re*gen`er*a"tion (-?"sh?n), n. [L. regeneratio: cf. F. régéneration.] 1. The act of regenerating, or the state of being regenerated.
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2. (Theol.) The entering into a new spiritual life; the act of becoming, or of being made, Christian; that change by which holy affectations and purposes are substituted for the opposite motives in the heart.
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He saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Chost. Tit. iii. 5.
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3. (Biol.) The reproduction of a part which has been removed or destroyed; re-formation; -- a process especially characteristic of a many of the lower animals; as, the regeneration of lost feelers, limbs, and claws by spiders and crabs.
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4. (Physiol.) (a) The reproduction or renewal of tissues, cells, etc., which have been used up and destroyed by the ordinary processes of life; as, the continual regeneration of the epithelial cells of the body, or the regeneration of the contractile substance of muscle. (b) The union of parts which have been severed, so that they become anatomically perfect; as, the regeneration of a nerve.
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Regenerative
Re*gen"er*a*tive (r?*j?n"?r*?*t?v), a. Of or pertaining to regeneration; tending to regenerate; as, regenerative influences. H. Bushnell.
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Regenerative furnace (Metal.), a furnace having a regenerator in which gas used for fuel, and air for supporting combustion, are heated; a Siemens furnace.
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Regeneratively
Re*gen"er*a*tive*ly, adv. So as to regenerate.
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Regenerator
Re*gen"er*a`tor (-?`t?r), n. 1. One who, or that which, regenerates.
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2. (Mech.) A device used in connection with hot-air engines, gas-burning furnaces, etc., in which the incoming air or gas is heated by being brought into contact with masses of iron, brick, etc., which have been previously heated by the outgoing, or escaping, hot air or gas.
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Regeneratory
Re*gen"er*a*to*ry (-?*t?*r?), a. Having power to renew; tending to reproduce; regenerating. G. S. Faber.
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Regenesis
Re*gen"e*sis (-?*s?s), n. New birth; renewal.
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A continued regenesis of dissenting sects. H. Spenser.
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Regent
Re"gent (r?"jent), a. [L. regens, -entis, p. pr. of regere to rule: cf. F. régent. See Regiment.] 1. Ruling; governing; regnant. “Some other active regent principle . . . which we call the soul.” Sir M. Hale.
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2. Exercising vicarious authority. Milton.
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Queen regent. See under Queen, n.
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Regent
Re"gent, n. [F. régent. See Regent, a.] 1. One who rules or reigns; a governor; a ruler. Milton.
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2. Especially, one invested with vicarious authority; one who governs a kingdom in the minority, absence, or disability of the sovereign.
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3. One of a governing board; a trustee or overseer; a superintendent; a curator; as, the regents of the Smithsonian Institution.
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4. (Eng.Univ.) A resident master of arts of less than five years' standing, or a doctor of less than twwo. They were formerly privileged to lecture in the schools.
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Regent bird (Zool.), a beautiful Australian bower bird (Sericulus melinus). The male has the head, neck, and large patches on the wings, bright golden yellow, and the rest of the plumage deep velvety black; -- so called in honor of the Prince of Wales (afterward George IV.), who was Prince Regent in the reign of George III. -- The Regents of the University of the State of New York, the members of a corporate body called the University of New York. They have a certain supervisory power over the incorporated institution for Academic and higher education in the State.
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Regent diamond
Re"gent di"a*mond. A famous diamond of fine quality, which weighs about 137 carats and is among the state jewels of France. It is so called from the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, to whom it was sold in 1717 by Pitt the English Governor of Madras (whence also called the Pitt diamond), who bought it of an Indian merchant in 1701.
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Regentess
Re"gent*ess, n. A female regent. [R.] Cotgrave.
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Regentship
Re"gent*ship, n. The office of a regent; regency.
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Regerminate
Re*ger"mi*nate (r?*j?r"m?*n?t), v. i. [Pref. re- + germinate: cf. L. regerminare.] To germinate again.
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Perennial plants regerminate several years successively. J. Lee.
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Regermination
Re*ger`mi*na"tion (-n?"sh?n), n. [L. regerminatio.] A germinating again or anew.
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Regest
Re*gest" (r?*j?st"), n. [L. regesta, pl.: cf. OF. regestes, pl. See Register.] A register. [Obs.] Milton.
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Reget
Re*get" (r?*g?t"), v. t. To get again.
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Regian
Re"gi*an (r?"j?-an), n. [L. regius regal.] An upholder of kingly authority; a royalist. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Regible
Reg"i*ble (r&ebreve_;j"&ibreve_;*b'l), a. [L. regibilis, from regere to rule.] Governable; tractable. [Obs.]
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Regicidal
Reg"i*ci`dal (r&ebreve_;j"&ibreve_;*sī`d&aitalic_;l), a. Pertaining to regicide, or to one committing it; having the nature of, or resembling, regicide. Bp. Warburton.
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Regicide
Reg"i*cide (r&ebreve_;j"&ibreve_;*sīd), n. [F. régicide; L. rex, regis, a king + caedere to kill. Cf. Homicide.] 1. One who kills or who murders a king; specifically (Eng. Hist.), one of the judges who condemned Charles I. to death.
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2. The killing or the murder of a king.
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Regidor
Re`gi*dor" (?), n.; pl. -dores (#). [Sp., fr. regir to rule, L. regere.] One of a body of officers charged with the government of Spanish municipalities, corresponding to the English alderman.
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Regie
Ré`gie" (?), n. [F.] 1. Direct management of public finance or public works by agents of the government for government account; -- opposed to the contract system.
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2. Specif.: The system of collecting taxes by officials who have either no interest or a very small interest in the proceeds, as distinguished from the ancient system of farming them out.
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3. Any kind of government monopoly (tobacco, salt, etc.) used chiefly as a means of taxation. Such monopolies are largely employed in Austria, Italy, France, and Spain.
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Regild
Re*gild" (rē*g&ibreve_;ld"), v. t. To gild anew.
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Regime
Ré`gime" (r?`zh?m"), n. [F. See Regimen.] 1. Mode or system of rule or management; character of government, or of the prevailing social system.
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I dream . . . of the new régime which is to come. H. Kingsley.
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2. (Hydraul.) The condition of a river with respect to the rate of its flow, as measured by the volume of water passing different cross sections in a given time, uniform régime being the condition when the flow is equal and uniform at all the cross sections.
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The ancient régime, or Ancien régime [F.], the former political and social system, as distinguished from the modern; especially, the political and social system existing in France before the Revolution of 1789.
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Regimen
Reg"i*men (r?j"?*m?n), n. [L. regimen, -inis, fr. regere to guide, to rule. See Right, and cf. Regal, Régime, Regiment.] 1. Orderly government; system of order; adminisration. Hallam.
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2. Any regulation or remedy which is intended to produce beneficial effects by gradual operation; esp. (Med.), a systematic course of diet, etc., pursed with a view to improving or preserving the health, or for the purpose of attaining some particular effect, as a reduction of flesh; -- sometimes used synonymously with hygiene.
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3. (Gram.) (a) A syntactical relation between words, as when one depends on another and is regulated by it in respect to case or mood; government. (b) The word or words governed.
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Regiment
Reg"i*ment (-ment), n. [F. régiment a regiment of men, OF. also government, L. regimentum government, fr. regere to guide, rule. See Regimen.] 1. Government; mode of ruling; rule; authority; regimen. [Obs.] Spenser.Regiment of health.” Bacon.
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But what are kings, when regiment is gone,
But perfect shadows in a sunshine day?
Marlowe.
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The law of nature doth now require of necessity some kind of regiment. Hocker.
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2. A region or district governed. [Obs.] Spenser.
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3. (Mil.) A body of men, either horse, foot, or artillery, commanded by a colonel, and consisting of a number of companies, usually ten.
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&hand_; In the British army all the artillery are included in one regiment, which (reversing the usual practice) is divided into brigades.
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Regiment of the line (Mil.), a regiment organized for general service; -- in distinction from those (as the Life Guards) whose duties are usually special. [Eng.]
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Regiment
Reg"i*ment (-m&eitalic_;nt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Regimented; p. pr. & vb. n. Regimenting.] 1.