V.
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V
V (vē). 1. V, the twenty-second letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. V and U are only varieties of the same character, U being the cursive form, while V is better adapted for engraving, as in stone. The two letters were formerly used indiscriminately, and till a comparatively recent date words containing them were often classed together in dictionaries and other books of reference (see U). The letter V is from the Latin alphabet, where it was used both as a consonant (about like English w) and as a vowel. The Latin derives it from a form (V) of the Greek vowel Υ (see Y), this Greek letter being either from the same Semitic letter as the digamma F (see F), or else added by the Greeks to the alphabet which they took from the Semitic. Etymologically v is most nearly related to u, w, f, b, p; as in vine, wine; avoirdupois, habit, have; safe, save; trover, troubadour, trope. See U, F, etc.
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See Guide to Pronunciation, § 265; also §§ 155, 169, 178-179, etc.
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2. As a numeral, V stands for five, in English and Latin.
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Vaagmer
Vaag"mer (?), n. [Icel. vāgmeri a kind of flounder, literally, wave mare.] (Zool.) The dealfish. [Written also vaagmaer, and vaagmar.]
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Vacancy
Va"can*cy (?), n.; pl. Vacancies (#). [Cf. F. vacance.]
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1. The quality or state of being vacant; emptiness; hence, freedom from employment; intermission; leisure; idleness; listlessness.
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All dispositions to idleness or vacancy, even before they are habits, are dangerous. Sir H. Wotton.
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2. That which is vacant. Specifically: --
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(a) Empty space; vacuity; vacuum.
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How is't with you,
That you do bend your eye on vacancy?
Shak.
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(b) An open or unoccupied space between bodies or things; an interruption of continuity; chasm; gap; as, a vacancy between buildings; a vacancy between sentences or thoughts.
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(c) Unemployed time; interval of leisure; time of intermission; vacation.
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Time lost partly in too oft idle vacancies given both to schools and universities. Milton.
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No interim, not a minute's vacancy. Shak.
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Those little vacancies from toil are sweet. Dryden.
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(d) A place or post unfilled; an unoccupied office; as, a vacancy in the senate, in a school, etc.
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Vacant
Va"cant (?), a. [F., fr. L. vacans, -antis, p. pr. of vacare to be empty, to be free or unoccupied, to have leisure, also vocare; akin to vacuus empty, and probably to E. void. Cf. Evacuate, Void, a.]
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1. Deprived of contents; not filled; empty; as, a vacant room.
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Stuffs out his vacant garments with his form. Shak.
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Being of those virtues vacant. Shak.
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There is no fireside, howsoe'er defended,
But has one vacant chair.
Longfellow.
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2. Unengaged with business or care; unemployed; unoccupied; disengaged; free; as, vacant hours.
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Religion is the interest of all; but philosophy of those . . . at leisure, and vacant from the affairs of the world. Dr. H. More.
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There was not a minute of the day which he left vacant. Bp. Fell.
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3. Not filled or occupied by an incumbent, possessor, or officer; unoccupied; as, a vacant throne; a vacant house; a vacant apartment; a vacant parish.
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Special dignities which vacant lie
For thy best use and wearing.
Shak.
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4. Empty of thought; thoughtless; not occupied with study or reflection; as, a vacant mind.
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The duke had a pleasant and vacant face. Sir H. Wotton.
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When on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood.
Wordsworth.
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5. (Law) Abandoned; having no heir, possessor, claimant, or occupier; as, a vacant estate. Bouvier.
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Vacant succession (Law), one that is claimed by no person, or where all the heirs are unknown, or where all the known heirs to it have renounced it. Burrill.
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Syn. -- Empty; void; devoid; free; unemployed; disengaged; unincumbered; uncrowded; idle. -- Vacant, Empty. A thing is empty when there is nothing in it; as, an empty room, or an empty noddle. Vacant adds the idea of having been previously filled, or intended to be filled or occupied; as, a vacant seat at table; a vacant office; vacant hours. When we speak of a vacant look or a vacant mind, we imply the absence of the intelligence naturally to be expected there.
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Vacantly
Va"cant*ly (?), adv. In a vacant manner; inanely.
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Vacate
Va"cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vacated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vacating.] [L. vacare, vacatum, to be empty. See Vacant.] 1. To make vacant; to leave empty; to cease from filling or occupying; as, it was resolved by Parliament that James had vacated the throne of England; the tenant vacated the house.
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2. To annul; to make void; to deprive of force; to make of no authority or validity; as, to vacate a commission or a charter; to vacate proceedings in a cause.
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That after act vacating the authority of the precedent. Eikon Basilike.
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The necessity of observing the Jewish Sabbath was vacated by the apostolical institution of the Lord's Day. R. Nelson.
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3. To defeat; to put an end to. [R.]
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He vacates my revenge. Dryden.
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Vacation
Va*ca"tion (?), n. [F., fr. L. vacatio a being free from a duty, service, etc., fr. vacare. See Vacate.]
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1. The act of vacating; a making void or of no force; as, the vacation of an office or a charter.
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2. Intermission of a stated employment, procedure, or office; a period of intermission; rest; leisure.
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It was not in his nature, however, at least till years had chastened it, to take any vacation from controversy. Palfrey.
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Hence, specifically: -
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(a) (Law) Intermission of judicial proceedings; the space of time between the end of one term and the beginning of the next; nonterm; recess. “With lawyers in the vacation.” Shak.
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(b) A period of intermission of regular paid work or employment, or of studies and exercises at an educational institution; the time during which a person temporarily ceases regular duties of any kind and performs other activites, usually some form of liesure; holidays; recess (at a school); as, the spring vacation; to spend one's vacation travelling; to paint the house while on vacation. Vacation is typically used for rest, travel, or recreation, but may be used for any purpose. In Britain this sense of vacation is usually referred to as holiday.
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(c) The time when an office is vacant; esp. (Eccl.), the time when a see, or other spiritual dignity, is vacant.
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Vacatur
Va*ca"tur (?), n. [NL., it is made void, fr. L. vacare to be empty. See Vacant.] (Law) An order of court by which a proceeding is set aside or annulled.
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Vaccary
Vac"ca*ry (?), n. [LL. vaccarium, from L. vacca cow. Cf. Vachery.] A cow house, dairy house, or cow pasture. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Wright.
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Vaccina
Vac*ci"na (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) Vaccinia.
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Vaccinal
Vac"ci*nal (?), a. (Med.) Of or pertaining to vaccinia or vaccination.
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Vaccinate
Vac"ci*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vaccinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vaccinating.] [See Vaccine.] To inoculate with the cowpox by means of a virus, called vaccine, taken either directly or indirectly from cows; now, generally, to administer (by injection or otherwise) any vaccine with the objective of rendering the recipient immune to an infectious disease. One who has been thus immunized by vaccination is said to be vaccinated against a particular disease. One may be thus immunized (vaccinated) also by oral ingestion or inhalation of a vaccine.
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Vaccination
Vac`ci*na"tion (?), n. 1. The act, art, or practice of vaccinating, or inoculating with the cowpox, in order to prevent or mitigate an attack of smallpox. Cf. Inoculation.
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&hand_; In recent use, vaccination sometimes includes inoculation with any virus as a preventive measure; as, vaccination against cholera.
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2. Any inoculation intended to raise immunity to a disease.
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Vaccinator
Vac"ci*na`tor (?), n. One who, or that which, vaccinates.
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Vaccine
Vac"cine (văk"sīn or văk"s&ibreve_;n; 277), a. [L. vaccinus, fr. vacca a cow; cf. Skr. vāç to bellow, to groan.] 1. Of or pertaining to cows; pertaining to, derived from, or caused by, vaccinia; as, vaccine virus; the vaccine disease.
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2. Of or pertaining to a vaccine or vaccination.
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Vaccine
Vac"cine (văk*sēn" or văk"sēn), n. 1. The virus of vaccinia used in vaccination.
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2. any preparation used to render an organism immune to some disease, by inducing or increasing the natural immunity mechanisms. Prior to 1995, such preparations usually contained killed organisms of the type for which immunity was desired, and sometimes used live organisms having attenuated virulence. Since that date, preparations containing only specific antigenic portions of the pathogenic organism have also been used. Some of these are prepared by genetic engineering techniques.
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3. (Computers) A program designed to protect a computer from software viruses, by detecting and or eliminating them.
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Vaccine point
Vac"cine point` (?). (Med.) See Point, n., 26.
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Vaccinia
Vac*cin"i*a (?), n. [NL. See Vaccine.] (Med.) Cowpox; vaccina. See Cowpox.
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Vaccinist
Vac"ci*nist (?), n. A vaccinator.
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Vaccinium
Vac*cin"i*um (?), n. [L., the blueberry, or whortleberry.] (Bot.) A genus of ericaceous shrubs including the various kinds of blueberries and the true cranberries.
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Vacher
Va`cher" (?), n. [F., from vache a cow. Cf. Vaquero.] A keeper of stock or cattle; a herdsman. [Southwestern U. S.] Bartlett.
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Vachery
Vach"er*y (?), n. [F. vacherie, from vache a cow, L. vacca. Cf. Vaccary.] 1. An inclosure for cows.
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2. A dairy. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Prompt. Parv.
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Vachette clasp
Va`chette" clasp (?). [Cf. F. vachette cowhide leather used for ligatures.] (Veter.) A piece of strong steel wire with the ends curved and pointed, used on toe or quarter cracks to bind the edges together and prevent motion. It is clasped into two notches, one on each side of the crack, burned into the wall with a cautery iron.
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Vacillancy
Vac"il*lan*cy (?), n. The quality or state of being vacillant, or wavering. [R.] Dr. H. More.
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Vacillant
Vac"il*lant (?), a. [L. vacillans, p. pr. of vacillare: cf. F. vacillant. See Vacillate.] Vacillating; wavering; fluctuating; irresolute.
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Vacillate
Vac"il*late (văs"&ibreve_;l*lāt), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vacillated (văs"&ibreve_;l*lā`t&ebreve_;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Vacillating.] [L. vacillare, vacillatum; cf. Skr. vañc.]
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1. To move one way and the other; to reel or stagger; to waver.
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[A spheroid] is always liable to shift and vacillatefrom one axis to another. Paley.
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2. To fluctuate in mind or opinion; to be unsteady or inconstant; to waver.
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Syn. -- See Fluctuate.
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Vacillating
Vac"il*la`ting (?), a. Inclined to fluctuate; wavering. Tennyson. -- Vac"il*la`ting*ly, adv.
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Vacillation
Vac`il*la"tion (?), n. [L. vacillatio: cf. F. vacillation.] 1. The act of vacillating; a moving one way and the other; a wavering.
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His vacillations, always exhibited most pitiably in emergencies. Macaulay.
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2. Unsteadiness of purpose; changeableness.
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There is a vacillation, or an alternation of knowledge and doubt. Jer. Taylor.
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Vacillatory
Vac"il*la*to*ry (?), a. Inclined to vacillate; wavering; irresolute. Hawthorne.
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Vacuate
Vac"u*ate (?), v. t. [L. vacuatus, p. p. of vacuare to empty, from vacuus empty. See Vacant.] To make void, or empty. [R.]
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Vacuation
Vac`u*a"tion (?), n. The act of emptying; evacuation. [R.]
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Vacuist
Vac"u*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. vacuiste.] One who holds the doctrine that the space between the bodies of the universe, or the molecules and atoms of matter, is a vacuum; -- opposed to plenist.
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Vacuity
Va*cu"i*ty (v&adot_;*kū"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [L. vacuitas. See Vacuous.] 1. The quality or state of being vacuous, or not filled; emptiness; vacancy; as, vacuity of mind; vacuity of countenance.
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Hunger is such a state of vacuity as to require a fresh supply of aliment. Arbuthnot.
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2. Space unfilled or unoccupied, or occupied with an invisible fluid only; emptiness; void; vacuum.
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A vacuity is interspersed among the particles of matter. Bentley.
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God . . . alone can answer all our longings and fill every vacuity of our soul. Rogers.
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3. Want of reality; inanity; nihility. [R.]
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Their expectations will meet with vacuity. Glanvill.
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Vacuna
Va*cu"na (v&adot_;*kū"n&adot_;), prop. n. [L. fr. vacuus unoccupied.] (Rom. Myth.) The goddess of rural leisure, to whom the husbandmen sacrificed at the close of the harvest. She was especially honored by the Sabines.
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Vacuolated
Vac"u*o*la`ted (?), a. (Biol.) Full of vacuoles, or small air cavities; as, vacuolated cells.
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Vacuolation
Vac"u*o*la"tion (?), n. (Biol.) Formation into, or multiplication of, vacuoles.
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Vacuole
Vac"u*ole (?), n. [L. vacuus empty: cf. F. vacuole.] (Biol.) A small air cell, or globular space, in the interior of organic cells, either containing air, or a pellucid watery liquid, or some special chemical secretions of the cell protoplasm.
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Contractile vacuole. (Zool.) See under Contractile, and see Illusts. of Infusoria, and Lobosa. -- Food vacuole. (Zool.) See under Food, and see Illust. of Infusoria.
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Vacuometer
Vac`u*om"e*ter (?), n. [Vacuum + -meter.] (Physics) (a) An instrument for the comparison of barometers. (b) An apparatus for the measurement of low pressures.
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Vacuous
Vac"u*ous (văk"&uuptack_;*ŭs), a. [L. vacuus. See Vacant.] Empty; unfilled; void; vacant.
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Boundless the deep, because I am who fill
Infinitude; nor vacuous the space.
Milton.
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That the few may lead selfish and vacuous days. J. Morley.
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Vacuousness
Vac"u*ous*ness, n. The quality or state of being vacuous; emptiness; vacuity. W. Montagu.
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Vacuum
Vac"u*um (văk"&uuptack_;*ŭm), n.; pl. E. Vacuums (văk"&uuptack_;*ŭmz), L. Vacua (văk"&uuptack_;*&adot_;). [L., fr. vacuus empty. See Vacuous.] 1. (Physics) A space entirely devoid of matter (called also, by way of distinction, absolute vacuum); hence, in a more general sense, a space, as the interior of a closed vessel, which has been exhausted to a high or the highest degree by an air pump or other artificial means; as, water boils at a reduced temperature in a vacuum.
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2. The condition of rarefaction, or reduction of pressure below that of the atmosphere, in a vessel, as the condenser of a steam engine, which is nearly exhausted of air or steam, etc.; as, a vacuum of 26 inches of mercury, or 13 pounds per square inch.
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Vacuum brake, a kind of continuous brake operated by exhausting the air from some appliance under each car, and so causing the pressure of the atmosphere to apply the brakes. -- Vacuum pan (Technol.), a kind of large closed metallic retort used in sugar making for boiling down sirup. It is so connected with an exhausting apparatus that a partial vacuum is formed within. This allows the evaporation and concentration to take place at a lower atmospheric pressure and hence also at a lower temperature, which largely obviates the danger of burning the sugar, and shortens the process. -- Vacuum pump. Same as Pulsometer, 1. -- Vacuum tube (Phys.), (a) a glass tube provided with platinum electrodes and exhausted, for the passage of the electrical discharge; a Geissler tube. (a) any tube used in electronic devices, containing a vacuum and used to control the flow of electrons in a circuit, as a vacuum diode, triode, tetrode, or pentode. -- Vacuum valve, a safety valve opening inward to admit air to a vessel in which the pressure is less than that of the atmosphere, in order to prevent collapse. -- Torricellian vacuum. See under Torricellian.
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Vacuum cleaner
Vac"u*um clean"er. A machine for cleaning carpets, tapestry, upholstered work, etc., by suction; -- sometimes called a vacuum.
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Vadantes
Va*dan"tes (?), n. pl. [NL., from L. vadans, p. pr. of vadare to wade, to ford.] (Zool.) An extensive artificial group of birds including the wading, swimming, and cursorial birds.
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Vade
Vade (vād), v. i. [For fade.] To fade; hence, to vanish. [Obs.] “ Summer leaves all vaded.” Shak.
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They into dust shall vade. Spenser.
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Vade mecum
Va`de me"cum (?). [L., go with me.] A book or other thing that a person carries with him as a constant companion; a manual; a handbook.
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Vadimony
Vad"i*mo*ny (?), n. [L. vadimonium.] (Law) A bond or pledge for appearance before a judge on a certain day. [Obs.]
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Vadium
Va"di*um (?), n. [LL., from L. vas, vadis, bail.] (Law) Pledge; security; bail. See Mortgage.
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Vadium vivum [LL.] (Law), a living pledge, which exists where an estate is granted until a debt is paid out of its proceeds.
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Vae
Vae (?), n. See Voe. [Scot.]
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Vafrous
Va"frous (?), a. [L. vafer.] Crafty; cunning; sly; as, vafrous tricks. [Obs.] Feltham.
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Vagabond
Vag"a*bond (?), a. [F., fr. L. vagabundus, from vagari to stroll about, from vagus strolling. See Vague.] 1. Moving from place to place without a settled habitation; wandering.Vagabond exile.” Shak.
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2. Floating about without any certain direction; driven to and fro.
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To heaven their prayers
Flew up, nor missed the way, by envious winds
Blown vagabond or frustrate.
Milton.
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3. Being a vagabond; strolling and idle or vicious.
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Vagabond
Vag"a*bond, n. One who wanders from place to place, having no fixed dwelling, or not abiding in it, and usually without the means of honest livelihood; a vagrant; a tramp; hence, a worthless person; a rascal.
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A fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be. Gen. iv. 12.
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&hand_; In English and American law, vagabond is used in bad sense, denoting one who is without a home; a strolling, idle, worthless person. Vagabonds are described in old English statutes as “such as wake on the night and sleep on the day, and haunt customable taverns and alehouses, and routs about; and no man wot from whence they came, nor whither they go.” In American law, the term vagrant is employed in the same sense. Cf Rogue, n., 1. Burrill. Bouvier.
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Vagabond
Vag"a*bond, v. i. To play the vagabond; to wander like a vagabond; to stroll.
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On every part my vagabonding sight
Did cast, and drown mine eyes in sweet delight.
Drummond.
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Vagabondage
Vag"a*bond`age (?), n. [Cf. F. vagabondage.] The condition of a vagabond; a state or habit of wandering about in idleness; vagrancy.
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Vagabondism
Vag"a*bond`ism (?), n. Vagabondage.
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Vagabondize
Vag"a*bond`ize (?), v. i. To play the vagabond; to wander about in idleness.
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Vagabondry
Vag"a*bond`ry (?), n. Vagabondage.
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Vagal
Va"gal (?), a. [See Vagus.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the vagus, or pneumogastric nerves; pneumogastric.
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Vagancy
Va"gan*cy (vā"g&aitalic_;n*s&ybreve_;), n. [From L. vagans, p. pr. See Vagantes.] A wandering; vagrancy. [Obs.]
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A thousand vagancies of glory and delight. Milton.
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Vagantes
Va*gan"tes (v&adot_;*găn"tēz), prop. n. pl. [NL., fr. L. vagans, p. pr. of vagari to stroll or wander.] (Zool.) A tribe of spiders, comprising some of those which take their prey in a web, but which also frequently run with agility, and chase and seize their prey.
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Vagarious
Va*ga"ri*ous (v&adot_;*gā"r&ibreve_;*ŭs), a. Given to, or characterized by, vagaries; capricious; whimsical; crochety.
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Vagary
Va*ga"ry (v&adot_;*gā"r&ybreve_; or văg"&adot_;*r&euptack_;), n.; pl. Vagaries (v&adot_;*gā"r&ibreve_;z or văg"&adot_;*r&euptack_;z). [L. vagari to stroll about. See Vague.]
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1. A wandering or strolling. [Obs.]
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2. Hence, a wandering of the thoughts; a wild or fanciful freak; a whim; a whimsical purpose. “The vagaries of a child.” Spectator.
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They changed their minds,
Flew off, and into strange vagaries fell.
Milton.
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Vagient
Va"gi*ent (?), a. [L. vagiens, p. pr. of vagire to cry like a young child.] Crying like a child. [Obs.]
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Vagina
Va*gi"na (?), n.; pl. Vaginae (#). [L. vagina a scabbard or sheath.]
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1. (Anat.) (a) A sheath; a theca; as, the vagina of the portal vein. (b) Specifically, the canal which leads from the uterus to the external orifice of the genital canal, or to the cloaca.
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2. (Zool.) The terminal part of the oviduct in insects and various other invertebrates. See Illust., of Spermatheca.
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3. (Bot.) The basal expansion of certain leaves, which inwraps the stem; a sheath.
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4. (Arch.) The shaft of a terminus, from which the bust or figure seems to issue or arise.
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Vaginal
Vag"i*nal (?), a. [Cf. F. vaginal.]
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1. Of or pertaining to a vagina; resembling a vagina, or sheath; thecal; as, a vaginal synovial membrane; the vaginal process of the temporal bone.
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2. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the vagina of the genital canal; as, the vaginal artery.
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Vaginant
Vag"i*nant (?), a. [Cf. F. vaginant. See Vagina.] Serving to invest, or sheathe; sheathing.
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Vaginant leaf (Bot.), a leaf investing the stem or branch by its base, which has the form of a tube.
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Vaginated
Vaginate
{ Vag"i*nate (?), Vag"i*na`ted (?), } a. [See Vagina.] Invested with, or as if with, a sheath; as, a vaginate stem, or one invested by the tubular base of a leaf.
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Vaginati
Vag`i*na"ti (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zool.) A tribe of birds comprising the sheathbills.
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Vaginervose
Vag`i*ner*vose" (?), a. [L. vagus wandering + E. nervose.] (Bot.) Having the nerves, or veins, placed in apparent disorder.
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Vaginicola
Vag`i*nic"o*la (?), prop. n. [NL., from L. vagina sheath + colere to inhabit.] (Zool.) A genus of Infusoria which form minute vaselike or tubular cases in which they dwell.
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Vaginismus
Vag`i*nis"mus (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) A painful spasmodic contraction of the vagina, often rendering copulation impossible.
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Vaginitis
Vag`i*ni"tis (?), n. [NL. See Vagina, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the vagina, or the genital canal, usually of its mucous lining membrane.
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Vaginopennous
Vag`i*no*pen"nous (?), a. [L. vagina a sheath + penna a feather, pl. pennae a wing.] (Zool.) Having elytra; sheath-winged. [R.]
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Vaginula
Va*gin"u*la (?), n. [L., dim. of vagina sheath.] (Bot.) (a) A little sheath, as that about the base of the pedicel of most mosses. (b) One of the tubular florets in composite flowers. Henslow.
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Vaginule
Vag"i*nule (?), n. (Bot.) A vaginula.
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Vagissate
Vag"is*sate (?), v. i. [L. vagari to stroll or wander.] To caper or frolic. [Obs.]
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Vagous
Va"gous (?), a. [L. vagus. See Vague.] Wandering; unsettled. [Obs.] Ayliffe.
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Vagrancy
Va"gran*cy (?), n. The quality or state of being a vagrant; a wandering without a settled home; an unsettled condition; vagabondism.
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Threatened away into banishment and vagrancy. Barrow.
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Vagrant
Va"grant (?), a. [Probably fr. OF. waucrant, wacrant, p. p. of waucrer, wacrer, walcrer, to wander (probably of Teutonic origin), but influenced by F. vagant, p. pr. of vaguer to stray, L. vagari. Cf. Vagary.]
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1. Moving without certain direction; wandering; erratic; unsettled.
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That beauteous Emma vagrant courses took. Prior.
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While leading this vagrant and miserable life, Johnson fell in love. Macaulay.
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2. Wandering from place to place without any settled habitation; as, a vagrant beggar.
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Vagrant
Va"grant, n. One who strolls from place to place; one who has no settled habitation; an idle wanderer; a sturdy beggar; an incorrigible rogue; a vagabond.
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Vagrants and outlaws shall offend thy view. Prior.
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Vagrantly
Va"grant*ly, adv. In a vagrant manner.
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Vagrantness
Va"grant*ness, n. State of being vagrant; vagrancy.
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Vague
Vague (vāg), a. [Compar. Vaguer (vāg"&etilde_;r); superl. Vaguest.] [F. vague, or L. vagus. See Vague, v. i.]
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1. Wandering; vagrant; vagabond. [Archaic] “To set upon the vague villains.” Hayward.
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She danced along with vague, regardless eyes. Keats.
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2. Unsettled; unfixed; undetermined; indefinite; ambiguous; as, a vague idea; a vague proposition.
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This faith is neither a mere fantasy of future glory, nor a vague ebullition of feeling. I. Taylor.
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The poet turned away, and gave himself up to a sort of vague revery, which he called thought. Hawthorne.
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3. Proceeding from no known authority; unauthenticated; uncertain; flying; as, a vague report.
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Some legend strange and vague. Longfellow.
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Vague year. See Sothiac year, under Sothiac.
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Syn. -- Unsettled; indefinite; unfixed; ill-defined; ambiguous; hazy; loose; lax; uncertain.
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Vague
Vague, n. [Cf. F. vague.] An indefinite expanse. [R.]
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The gray vague of unsympathizing sea. Lowell.
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Vague
Vague, v. i. [F. vaguer, L. vagari, fr. vagus roaming.] To wander; to roam; to stray. [Obs.] “[The soul] doth vague and wander.” Holland.
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Vague
Vague, n. A wandering; a vagary. [Obs.] Holinshed.
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Vaguely
Vague"ly, adv. In a vague manner.
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What he vaguely hinted at, but dared not speak. Hawthorne.
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Vagueness
Vague"ness, n. The quality or state of being vague.
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Vagus
Va"gus (?), a. [L., wandering.] (Anat.) Wandering; -- applied especially to the pneumogastric nerve. -- n. The vagus, or pneumogastric, nerve.
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Vail
Vail (vāl), n. & v. t. Same as Veil. [Obs.]
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Vail
Vail, n. [Aphetic form of avail, n.]
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1. Avails; profit; return; proceeds. [Obs.]
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My house is as 'twere the cave where the young outlaw hoards the stolen vails of his occupation. Chapman.
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2. An unexpected gain or acquisition; a casual advantage or benefit; a windfall. [Obs.]
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3. Money given to servants by visitors; a gratuity; -- usually in the plural. [Written also vale.] Dryden.
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Vail
Vail, v. t. [Aphetic form of avale. See Avale, Vale.] [Written also vale, and veil.] 1. To let fall; to allow or cause to sink. [Obs.]
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Vail your regard
Upon a wronged, I would fain have said, a maid!
Shak.
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2. To lower, or take off, in token of inferiority, reverence, submission, or the like.
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France must vail her lofty-plumed crest! Shak.
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Without vailing his bonnet or testifying any reverence for the alleged sanctity of the relic. Sir. W. Scott.
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Vail
Vail (vāl), v. i. To yield or recede; to give place; to show respect by yielding, uncovering, or the like. [Written also vale, and veil.] [Obs.]
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Thy convenience must vail to thy neighbor's necessity. South.
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Vail
Vail, n. Submission; decline; descent. [Obs.]
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Vailer
Vail"er (?), n. One who vails. [Obs.] Overbury.
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Vaimure
Vai"mure (?), n. An outer, or exterior, wall. See Vauntmure. [Obs.] Hakluyt.
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Vain
Vain (vān), a. [Compar. Vainer (?); superl. Vainest.] [F. vain, L. vanus empty, void, vain. Cf. Vanish, Vanity, Vaunt to boast.] 1. Having no real substance, value, or importance; empty; void; worthless; unsatisfying. “Thy vain excuse.” Shak.
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Every man walketh in a vain show. Ps. xxxix. 6.
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Let no man deceive you with vain words. Eph. v. 6.
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Vain pomp, and glory of this world, I hate ye! Shak.
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Vain wisdom all, and false philosophy. Milton.
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2. Destitute of force or efficacy; effecting no purpose; fruitless; ineffectual; as, vain toil; a vain attempt.
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Bring no more vain oblations. Isa. i. 13.
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Vain is the force of man
To crush the pillars which the pile sustain.
Dryden.
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3. Proud of petty things, or of trifling attainments; having a high opinion of one's own accomplishments with slight reason; conceited; puffed up; inflated.
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But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith apart from works is barren? James ii. 20 (Rev. Ver.).
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The minstrels played on every side,
Vain of their art.
Dryden.
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4. Showy; ostentatious.
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Load some vain church with old theatric state. Pope.
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Syn. -- Empty; worthless; fruitless; ineffectual; idle; unreal; shadowy; showy; ostentatious; light; inconstant; deceitful; delusive; unimportant; trifling.
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Vain
Vain, n. Vanity; emptiness; -- now used only in the phrase in vain.
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For vain. See In vain. [Obs.] Shak. -- In vain, to no purpose; without effect; ineffectually.In vain doth valor bleed.” Milton.In vain they do worship me.” Matt. xv. 9. -- To take the name of God in vain, to use the name of God with levity or profaneness.
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Vainglorious
Vain`glo"ri*ous (?), a. Feeling or indicating vainglory; elated by vanity; boastful. “Arrogant and vainglorious expression.” Sir M. Hale. -- Vain`glo"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Vain`glo"ri*ous*ness, n.
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Vainglory
Vain`glo"ry (?), n. [Vain + glory.] Excessive vanity excited by one's own performances; empty pride; undue elation of mind; vain show; boastfulness.
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He had nothing of vainglory. Bacon.
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The man's undone forever; for if Hector break not his neck i' the combat, he'll break't himself in vainglory. Shak.
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Vainly
Vain"ly (?), adv. In a vain manner; in vain.
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Vainness
Vain"ness, n. The quality or state of being vain.
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Vair
Vair (vâr), n. [F. vair, from OF. vair, a., L. varius various, variegated. See Various, and cf. Meniver.] The skin of the squirrel, much used in the fourteenth century as fur for garments, and frequently mentioned by writers of that period in describing the costly dresses of kings, nobles, and prelates. It is represented in heraldry by a series of small shields placed close together, and alternately white and blue. Fairholt.
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No vair or ermine decked his garment. Sir W. Scott.
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Counter vair (Her.), a fur resembling vair, except in the arrangement of the patches or figures.
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Vairy
Vair"y (?), a. [F. vairé. See Vair, n.] (Her.) Charged with vair; variegated with shield-shaped figures. See Vair.
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Vaishnava
Vaish"na*va (vīsh"n&adot_;*v&adot_;), n. [Skr. vaish&nsdot_;ava.] (Hindu Myth.) A worshiper of the god Vishnu in any of his incarnations.
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Vaishnavism
Vaish"na*vism (?), n. The worship of Vishnu.
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Vaisya
Vais"ya (?), n. [Skr. vaiçya.] The third of the four great original castes among the Hindus, now either extinct or partially represented by the mercantile class of Banyas. See the Note under Caste, 1.
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Vaivode
Vai"vode (?), n. [Cf. F. vayvode. See Waywode.] See Waywode.
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Vakeel
Va*keel" (?), n. [Ar. wakīl.] A native attorney or agent; also, an ambassador. [India]
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Valance
Val"ance (?), n. [Perhaps fr. OF. avalant descending, hanging down, p. pr. of avaler to go down, let down, descend (cf. Avalanche); but probably from the town of Valence in France.]
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1. Hanging drapery for a bed, couch, window, or the like, especially that which hangs around a bedstead, from the bed to the floor. [Written also valence.]
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Valance of Venice gold in needlework. Shak.
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2. The drooping edging of the lid of a trunk, which covers the joint when the lid is closed.
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Valance
Val"ance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Valanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Valancing (?).] To furnish with a valance; to decorate with hangings or drapery.
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His old fringed chair valanced around with party-colored worsted bobs. Sterne.
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Vale
Vale (vāl), n. [OE. val, F. val, L. vallis; perhaps akin to Gr. 'e`los low ground, marsh meadow. Cf. Avalanche, Vail to lower, Valley.] A tract of low ground, or of land between hills; a valley. “ Make me a cottage in the vale.” Tennyson.
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Beyond this vale of tears there is a life above. Montgomery.
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In those fair vales, by nature formed to please. Harte.
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&hand_; Vale is more commonly used in poetry, and valley in prose and common discourse.
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Syn. -- Valley; dingle; dell; dale.
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Vale
Vale, n. See 2d Vail, 3.
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Valediction
Val`e*dic"tion (?), n. [L., valedicere, valedictum, to say farewell; vale farewell (imperative of valere to be strong or well) + dicere to say. See Valiant, Diction.] A farewell; a bidding farewell. Donne.
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Valedictorian
Val`e*dic*to"ri*an (?), n. One who pronounces a valedictory address; especially, in American colleges, the student who pronounces the valedictory of the graduating class at the annual commencement, usually the student who ranks first in scholarship.
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Valedictory
Val`e*dic"to*ry (?), a. Bidding farewell; suitable or designed for an occasion of leave-taking; as, a valedictory oration.
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Valedictory
Val`e*dic"to*ry, n.; pl. Valedictories (&unr_;). A valedictory oration or address spoken at commencement in American colleges or seminaries by one of the graduating class, usually by the leading scholar.
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Valence
Va"lence (?), n. [From L. valens, -entis, p. pr. of valere to have power, to be strong. See Valiant.] (Chem.) The degree of combining power of an atom (or radical) as shown by the number of atoms of hydrogen (or of other monads, as chlorine, sodium, etc.) with which it will combine, or for which it can be substituted, or with which it can be compared; thus, an atom of hydrogen is a monad, and has a valence of one; the atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are respectively dyads, triads, and tetrads, and have a valence respectively of two, three, and four.
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&hand_; The valence of certain elements varies in different compounds. Valence in degree may extend as high as seven or eight, as in the cases of iodine and osmium respectively. The doctrine of valence has been of fundamental importance in distinguishing the equivalence from the atomic weight, and is an essential factor in explaining the chemical structures of compounds.
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Valencia
Va*len"ci*a (?), n. [Perhaps fr. Valence in France.] A kind of woven fabric for waistcoats, having the weft of wool and the warp of silk or cotton. [Written also valentia.]
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Valenciennes lace
Va*len`ci*ennes" lace" (?). [F.; -- so called after the town of Valenciennes.] A rich kind of lace made at Valenciennes, in France. Each piece is made throughout, ground and pattern, by the same person and with the same thread, the pattern being worked in the net.
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Valency
Val"en*cy (?), n.; pl. Valencies (&unr_;). (Chem.) (a) See Valence. (b) A unit of combining power; a so-called bond of affinity.
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Valentia
Va*len"ti*a (?), n. See Valencia.
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Valentine
Val"en*tine (?), n. 1. A sweetheart chosen on St. Valentine's Day.
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2. A letter containing professions of love, or a missive of a sentimental, comic, or burlesque character, sent on St. Valentine's Day.
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St. Valentine's Day, a day sacred to St. Valentine; the 14th of February. It was a very old notion, alluded to by Shakespeare, that on this day birds begin to mate. Hence, perhaps, arose the custom of sending love tokens at that time.
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Valentinian
Val`en*tin"i*an (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a school of Judaizing Gnostics in the second century; -- so called from Valentinus, the founder.
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Valeramide
Val`er*am"ide (?), n. [Valeric + amide.] (Chem.) The acid amide derivative of valeric acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance.
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Valerate
Val"er*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of valeric acid.
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Valerian
Va*le"ri*an (?), n. [LL. valeriana, perhaps from some person named Valerius, or fr. L. valere to be strong. powerful, on account of its medicinal virtues: cf. F. valériane.] (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Valeriana. The root of the officinal valerian (Valeriana officinalis) has a strong smell, and is much used in medicine as an antispasmodic.
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Greek valerian (Bot.), a plant (Polemonium caeruleum) with blue or white flowers, and leaves resembling those of the officinal valerian.
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Valerianaceous
Va*le`ri*an*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, plants of a natural order (Valerianaceae) of which the valerian is the type. The order includes also the corn salads and the oriental spikenard.
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Valerianate
Va*le"ri*an*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A valerate.
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Valerianic
Va*le`ri*an"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, valerian root; specifically, designating an acid which is usually called valeric acid.
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Valeric
Va*ler"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Valerianic; specifically, designating any one of three metameric acids, of which the typical one (called also inactive valeric acid), C4H9CO2H, is obtained from valerian root and other sources, as a corrosive, mobile, oily liquid, having a strong acid taste, and an odor of old cheese.
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Active valeric acid, a metameric variety which turns the plane of polarization to the right, although formed by the oxidation of a levorotatory amyl alcohol.
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Valeridine
Va*ler"i*dine (?), n. (Chem.) A base, C10H19N, produced by heating valeric aldehyde with ammonia. It is probably related to the conine alkaloids.
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Valerin
Val"er*in (?), n. [Valeric + glycerin.] (Chem.) A salt of valeric acid with glycerin, occurring in butter, dolphin oil, etc., and forming an oily liquid with a slightly unpleasant odor.
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Valeritrine
Va*ler"i*trine (?), n. [Valeric + tropine + -ine.] (Chem.) A base, C15H27N, produced together with valeridine, which it resembles.
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Valero-
Val"er*o-. (Chem.) A combining form (also used adjectively) indicating derivation from, or relation to, valerian or some of its products, as valeric acid; as in valerolactone, a colorless oily liquid produced as the anhydride of an hydroxy valeric acid.
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Valerone
Val"er*one (?), n. (Chem.) A ketone of valeric acid obtained as an oily liquid.
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Valeryl
Val"er*yl (?), n. [Valeric + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical C5H9O, regarded as the essential nucleus of certain valeric acid derivatives.
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Valerylene
Val`er*yl*ene (?), n. (Chem.) A liquid hydrocarbon, C5H8; -- called also pentine.
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Valet
Val"et (văl"&ebreve_;t or văl"&auptack_;; 277), n. [F. valet, OF. vallet, varlet, vaslet. See Varlet, and Vassal.] 1. A male waiting servant; a servant who attends on a gentleman's person; a body servant.
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2. (Man.) A kind of goad or stick with a point of iron.
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Valet de chambre (&unr_;) [F.], a body servant, or personal attendant.
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Valetudinarian
Val`e*tu`di*na"ri*an (?), a. [L. valetudinarius, from valetudo state of health, health, ill health, fr. valere to be strong or well: cf. F. valétudinaire. See Valiant.] Of infirm health; seeking to recover health; sickly; weakly; infirm.
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My feeble health and valetudinarian stomach. Coleridge.
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The virtue which the world wants is a healthful virtue, not a valetudinarian virtue. Macaulay.
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Valetudinarian
Val`e*tu`di*na"ri*an, n. A person of a weak or sickly constitution; one who is seeking to recover health.
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Valetudinarians must live where they can command and scold. Swift.
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Valetudinarianism
Val`e*tu`di*na"ri*an*ism (?), n. The condition of a valetudinarian; a state of feeble health; infirmity.
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Valetudinary
Val`e*tu"di*na*ry (?), a. Infirm; sickly; valetudinarian. -- Val`e*tu"di*na*ri*ness, n.
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It renders the habit of society dangerously valetudinary. Burke.
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Valetudinary
Val`e*tu"di*na*ry, n. A valetudinarian.
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Valetudinous
Val`e*tu"di*nous (?), a. Valetudinarian. [Obs.] “The valetudinous condition of King Edward.” Fuller.
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Valhalla
Val*hal"la (?), n. [Icel. valhöll, literally, hall of the slain; valr the slain (akin to AS. wæl, OHG. wal battlefield, wuol defeat, slaughter, AS. wōl pestilence) + höll a royal hall. See Hall, and cf. Walhalla.] [Written also walhalla.]
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1. (Scand. Myth.) The palace of immortality, inhabited by the souls of heroes slain in battle.
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2. Fig.: A hall or temple adorned with statues and memorials of a nation's heroes; specifically, the Pantheon near Ratisbon, in Bavaria, consecrated to the illustrious dead of all Germany.
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Valiancy
Valiance
{ Val"iance (?), Val"ian*cy (?), } n. [Cf. F. vaillance. See Valiant.] The quality or state of being valiant; bravery; valor. [Obs.] “His doughty valiance.” Spenser.
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Valiant
Val"iant (?), a. [OE. valiant, F. vaillant, OF. vaillant, valant, originally p. pr. of OF. & F. valoir to be worth, L. valere to be strong. See Wield, and cf. Avail, Convalesce, Equivalent, Prevail, Valid.]
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1. Vigorous in body; strong; powerful; as, a valiant fencer. [Obs.] Walton.
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2. Intrepid in danger; courageous; brave.
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A valiant and most expert gentleman. Shak.
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And Saul said to David . . . be thou valiant for me, and fight the Lord's battles. 1 Sam. xviii. 17.
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3. Performed with valor or bravery; heroic. “Thou bearest the highest name for valiant acts.” Milton.
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[The saints] have made such valiant confessions. J. H. Newman.
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-- Val"iant*ly, adv. -- Val"iant*ness, n.
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Valid
Val"id (?), a. [F. valide, L. validus strong, from valere to be strong. See Valiant.]
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1. Strong; powerful; efficient. [Obs.] “Perhaps more valid arms . . . may serve to better us.” Milton.
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2. Having sufficient strength or force; founded in truth; capable of being justified, defended, or supported; not weak or defective; sound; good; efficacious; as, a valid argument; a valid objection.
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An answer that is open to no valid exception. I. Taylor.
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3. (Law) Having legal strength or force; executed with the proper formalities; incapable of being rightfully overthrown or set aside; as, a valid deed; a valid covenant; a valid instrument of any kind; a valid claim or title; a valid marriage.
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Syn. -- Prevalent; available; efficacious; just; good; weighty; sufficient; sound; well-grounded.
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Validate
Val"i*date (?), v. t. [See Valid.] To confirm; to render valid; to give legal force to.
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The chamber of deputies . . . refusing to validate at once the election of an official candidate. London Spectator.
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Validation
Val`i*da"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. validation.] The act of giving validity. [R.] Knowles.
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Validity
Va*lid"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. validité, L. validitas strength.]
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1. The quality or state of being valid; strength; force; especially, power to convince; justness; soundness; as, the validity of an argument or proof; the validity of an objection.
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2. (Law) Legal strength, force, or authority; that quality of a thing which renders it supportable in law, or equity; as, the validity of a will; the validity of a contract, claim, or title.
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3. Value. [Obs.] “Rich validity.” Shak.
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Validly
Val"id*ly (?), adv. In a valid manner; so as to be valid.
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Validness
Val"id*ness, n. The quality or state of being valid.
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Valinch
Val"inch (?), n. [Cf. F. avaler to let down, drink up. Cf. Avalanche.] A tube for drawing liquors from a cask by the bunghole. [Written also velinche.]
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Valise
Va*lise" (?), n. [F. valise; cf. It. valigia, Sp. balija, LL. valisia, valesia; of uncertain origin, perhaps through (assumed) LL. vidulitia, from L. vidulus a leathern trunk; a knapsack.] A small sack or case, usually of leather, but sometimes of other material, for containing the clothes, toilet articles, etc., of a traveler; a traveling bag; a portmanteau.
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Valkyria
Val*kyr"i*a (?), n. [Icel. valkyrja (akin to AS. wælcyrie); valr the slain + kjōsa to choose. See Valhalla, and Choose.] (Scand. Myth.) One of the maidens of Odin, represented as awful and beautiful, who presided over battle and marked out those who were to be slain, and who also ministered at the feasts of heroes in Valhalla. Now commonly written Valkyrie. [Written also Valkyr, Valkyrie, Walkyrie and Walkyr.]
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Valkyrian
Val*kyr"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Valkyries; hence, relating to battle. “Ourself have often tried Valkyrian hymns.” Tennyson.
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Vallancy
Val*lan"cy (?), n. [From Valance.] A large wig that shades the face. [Obs.]
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Vallar
Val"lar (?), a. [L. vallaris.] Of or pertaining to a rampart.
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Vallar crown (Rom. Antiq.), a circular gold crown with palisades, bestowed upon the soldier who first surmounted the rampart and broke into the enemy's camp.
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Vallar
Val"lar, n. A vallar crown.
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Vallary
Val"la*ry (?), a. Same as Vallar.
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Vallation
Val*la"tion (?), n. [L. vallatio, fr. vallare to surround with a rampart, fr. vallum rampart. See Wall, n.] A rampart or intrenchment.
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Vallatory
Val"la*to*ry (?), a. Of or pertaining to a vallation; used for a vallation; as, vallatory reeds. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Vallecula
Val*lec"u*la (?), n.; pl. Valleculae (#). [NL., dim. fr. L. vallis, valles, a valley.]
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1. (Anat.) A groove; a fossa; as, the vallecula, or fossa, which separates the hemispheres of the cerebellum.
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2. (Bot.) One of the grooves, or hollows, between the ribs of the fruit of umbelliferous plants.
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Vallet's pills
Val`let's pills" (?). [From Dr. Vallet of Paris.] (Med.) Pills containing sulphate of iron and carbonate of sodium, mixed with saccharine matter; -- called also Vallet's mass.
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Valley
Val"ley (?), n.; pl. Valleys (#). [OE. vale, valeie, OF. valée, valede, F. vallée, LL. vallata, L. vallis, valles. See Vale.]
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1. The space inclosed between ranges of hills or mountains; the strip of land at the bottom of the depressions intersecting a country, including usually the bed of a stream, with frequently broad alluvial plains on one or both sides of the stream. Also used figuratively.
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The valley of the shadow of death. Ps. xxiii. 4.
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Sweet interchange
Of hill and valley, rivers, woods, and plains.
Milton.
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&hand_; Deep and narrow valleys with abrupt sides are usually the results of erosion by water, and are called gorges, ravines, canyons, gulches, etc.
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2. (Arch.) (a) The place of meeting of two slopes of a roof, which have their plates running in different directions, and form on the plan a reentrant angle. (b) The depression formed by the meeting of two slopes on a flat roof.
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Valley board (Arch.), a board for the reception of the lead gutter in the valley of a roof. The valley board and lead gutter are not usual in the United States. -- Valley rafter, or Valley piece (Arch.), the rafter which supports the valley. -- Valley roof (Arch.), a roof having one or more valleys. See Valley, 2, above.
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Vallum
Val"lum (?), n.; pl. L. Valla (#), E. Vallums (#). [L. See Wall.] (Rom. Antiq.) A rampart; a wall, as in a fortification.
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Valonia
Va*lo"ni*a (?), n. [It. vallonia, vallonea, fr. NGr. balania`, balanidia`, the holm oak, bala`ni, balani`di, an acorn, Gr. ba`lanos.]
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1. The acorn cup of two kinds of oak (Quercus macrolepis, and Quercus vallonea) found in Eastern Europe. It contains an abundance of tannin, and is much used by tanners and dyers.
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2. [Perhaps named from its resemblance to an acorn.] (Bot.) A genus of marine green algae, in which the whole frond consists of a single oval or cylindrical cell, often an inch in length.
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Valor
Val"or (?), n. [OE. valour, OF. valor, valur, valour, F. valeur, LL. valor, fr. L. valere to be strong, or worth. See Valiant.] [Written also valour.]
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1. Value; worth. [Obs.] “The valor of a penny.” Sir T. More.
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2. Strength of mind in regard to danger; that quality which enables a man to encounter danger with firmness; personal bravery; courage; prowess; intrepidity.
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For contemplation he and valor formed. Milton.
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When valor preys on reason,
It eats the sword it fights with.
Shak.
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Fear to do base, unworthy things is valor. B. Jonson.
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3. A brave man; a man of valor. [R.] Ld. Lytton.
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Syn. -- Courage; heroism; bravery; gallantry; boldness; fearlessness. See Courage, and Heroism.
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Valorization
Val`or*i*za"tion (?), n. [Pg. valorizacão.] Act or process of attempting to give an arbitrary market value or price to a commodity by governmental interference, as by maintaining a purchasing fund, making loans to producers to enable them to hold their products, etc.; -- used chiefly of such action by Brazil.
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Valorous
Val"or*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. valeureux, LL. valorosus.] Possessing or exhibiting valor; brave; courageous; valiant; intrepid. -- Val"or*ous*ly, adv.
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Valsalvian
Val*sal"vi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Valsalva, an Italian anatomist of the 17th century.
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Valsalvian experiment (Med.), the process of inflating the middle ear by closing the mouth and nostrils, and blowing so as to puff out the cheeks.
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Valuable
Val"u*a*ble (?), a. 1. Having value or worth; possessing qualities which are useful and esteemed; precious; costly; as, a valuable horse; valuable land; a valuable cargo.
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2. Worthy; estimable; deserving esteem; as, a valuable friend; a valuable companion.
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Valuable consideration (Law), an equivalent or compensation having value given for a thing purchased, as money, marriage, services, etc. Blackstone. Bouvier.
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Valuable
Val"u*a*ble, n. A precious possession; a thing of value, especially a small thing, as an article of jewelry; -- used mostly in the plural.
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The food and valuables they offer to the gods. Tylor.
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Valuableness
Val"u*a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being valuable.
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Valuably
Val"u*a*bly, adv. So as to be of value.
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Valuation
Val`u*a"tion (?), n. 1. The act of valuing, or of estimating value or worth; the act of setting a price; estimation; appraisement; as, a valuation of lands for the purpose of taxation.
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2. Value set upon a thing; estimated value or worth; as, the goods sold for more than their valuation.
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Since of your lives you set
So slight a valuation.
Shak.
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Valuator
Val"u*a`tor (?), n. One who assesses, or sets a value on, anything; an appraiser. Swift.
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Value
Val"ue (văl"ū), n. [OF. value, fr. valoir, p. p. valu, to be worth, fr. L. valere to be strong, to be worth. See Valiant.] 1. The property or aggregate properties of a thing by which it is rendered useful or desirable, or the degree of such property or sum of properties; worth; excellence; utility; importance.
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Ye are all physicians of no value. Job xiii. 4.
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Ye are of more value than many sparrows. Matt. x. 31.
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Caesar is well acquainted with your virtue,
And therefore sets this value on your life.
Addison.
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Before events shall have decided on the value of the measures. Marshall.
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2. (Trade & Polit. Econ.) Worth estimated by any standard of purchasing power, especially by the market price, or the amount of money agreed upon as an equivalent to the utility and cost of anything.
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An article may be possessed of the highest degree of utility, or power to minister to our wants and enjoyments, and may be universally made use of, without possessing exchangeable value. M'Culloch.
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Value is the power to command commodities generally. A. L. Chapin (Johnson's Cys.).
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Value is the generic term which expresses power in exchange. F. A. Walker.
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His design was not to pay him the value of his pictures, because they were above any price. Dryden.
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&hand_; In political economy, value is often distinguished as intrinsic and exchangeable. Intrinsic value is the same as utility or adaptation to satisfy the desires or wants of men. Exchangeable value is that in an article or product which disposes individuals to give for it some quantity of labor, or some other article or product obtainable by labor; as, pure air has an intrinsic value, but generally not an exchangeable value.
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3. Precise signification; import; as, the value of a word; the value of a legal instrument Mitford.
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4. Esteem; regard. Dryden.
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My relation to the person was so near, and my value for him so great Bp. Burnet.
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5. (Mus.) The relative length or duration of a tone or note, answering to quantity in prosody; thus, a quarter note [&unr_;] has the value of two eighth notes [&unr_;].
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6. In an artistical composition, the character of any one part in its relation to other parts and to the whole; -- often used in the plural; as, the values are well given, or well maintained.
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7. Valor. [Written also valew.] [Obs.] Spenser.
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8. (a) That property of a color by which it is distinguished as bright or dark; luminosity. (b) Degree of lightness as conditioned by the presence of white or pale color, or their opposites.
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9. (Math.) Any particular quantitative determination; as, a function's value for some special value of its argument.
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10. [pl.] The valuable ingredients to be obtained by treatment from any mass or compound; specif., the precious metals contained in rock, gravel, or the like; as, the vein carries good values; the values on the hanging walls.
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Value received, a phrase usually employed in a bill of exchange or a promissory note, to denote that a consideration has been given for it. Bouvier.
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Value
Val"ue (văl"ū), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Valued (văl"ūd); p. pr. & vb. n. Valuing.]
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1. To estimate the value, or worth, of; to rate at a certain price; to appraise; to reckon with respect to number, power, importance, etc.
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The mind doth value every moment. Bacon.
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The queen is valued thirty thousand strong. Shak.
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The king must take it ill,
That he's so slightly valued in his messenger.
Shak.
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Neither of them valued their promises according to rules of honor or integrity. Clarendon.
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2. To rate highly; to have in high esteem; to hold in respect and estimation; to appreciate; to prize; as, to value one for his works or his virtues.
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Which of the dukes he values most. Shak.
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3. To raise to estimation; to cause to have value, either real or apparent; to enhance in value. [Obs.]
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Some value themselves to their country by jealousies of the crown. Sir W. Temple.
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4. To be worth; to be equal to in value. [Obs.]
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The peace between the French and us not values
The cost that did conclude it.
Shak.
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Syn. -- To compute; rate; appraise; esteem; respect; regard; estimate; prize; appreciate.
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Valued
Val"ued (văl"ūd), a. Highly regarded; esteemed; prized; as, a valued contributor; a valued friend.
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Valued policy
Val"ued pol"i*cy. (Fire Insurance) A policy in which the value of the goods, property, or interest insured is specified; -- opposed to open policy.
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Valued-policy law
Valued-policy law. (Fire Insurance) A law requiring insurance companies to pay to the insured, in case of total loss, the full amount of the insurance, regardless of the actual value of the property at the time of the loss.
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Valueless
Val"ue*less, a. Being of no value; having no worth.
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Valuer
Val"u*er (?), n. One who values; an appraiser.
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Valure
Val"ure (?), n. Value. [Obs.] Ld. Berners.
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Valvar
Valval
{ Valv"al (?), Valv"ar (?) }, a. (Biol.) Valvular.
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Valvasor
Val"va*sor (?), n. (Feud. Law) See Vavasor.
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Valvata
Val*va"ta (?), n. [NL.; cf. L. valvatus having folding doors. See Valve.] (Zool.) A genus of small spiral fresh-water gastropods having an operculum.
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Valvate
Valv"ate (?), a. [L. valvatus having folding doors.]
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1. Resembling, or serving as, a valve; consisting of, or opening by, a valve or valves; valvular.
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2. (Bot.) (a) Meeting at the edges without overlapping; -- said of the sepals or the petals of flowers in aestivation, and of leaves in vernation. (b) Opening as if by doors or valves, as most kinds of capsules and some anthers.
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Valve
Valve (?), n. [L. valva the leaf, fold, or valve of a door: cf. F. valve.]
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1. A door; especially, one of a pair of folding doors, or one of the leaves of such a door.
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Swift through the valves the visionary fair
Repassed.
Pope.
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Heavily closed, . . . the valves of the barn doors. Longfellow.
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2. A lid, plug, or cover, applied to an aperture so that by its movement, as by swinging, lifting and falling, sliding, turning, or the like, it will open or close the aperture to permit or prevent passage, as of a fluid.
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&hand_; A valve may act automatically so as to be opened by the effort of a fluid to pass in one direction, and closed by the effort to pass in the other direction, as a clack valve; or it may be opened or closed by hand or by mechanism, as a screw valve, or a slide valve.
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3. (Anat.) One or more membranous partitions, flaps, or folds, which permit the passage of the contents of a vessel or cavity in one direction, but stop or retard the flow in the opposite direction; as, the ileocolic, mitral, and semilunar valves.
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4. (Bot.) (a) One of the pieces into which a capsule naturally separates when it bursts. (b) One of the two similar portions of the shell of a diatom. (c) A small portion of certain anthers, which opens like a trapdoor to allow the pollen to escape, as in the barberry.
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5. (Zool.) One of the pieces or divisions of bivalve or multivalve shells.
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Air valve, Ball valve, Check valve, etc. See under Air. Ball, Check, etc. -- Double-beat valve, a kind of balance valve usually consisting of a movable, open-ended, turban-shaped shell provided with two faces of nearly equal diameters, one above another, which rest upon two corresponding seats when the valve is closed. -- Equilibrium valve. (a) A balance valve. See under Balance. (b) A valve for permitting air, steam, water, etc., to pass into or out of a chamber so as to establish or maintain equal pressure within and without. -- Valve chest (Mach.), a chamber in which a valve works; especially (Steam Engine), the steam chest; -- called in England valve box, and valve casing. See Steam chest, under Steam. -- Valve face (Mach.), that part of the surface of a valve which comes in contact with the valve seat. -- Valve gear, or Valve motion (Steam Engine), the system of parts by which motion is given to the valve or valves for the distribution of steam in the cylinder. For an illustration of one form of valve gear, see Link motion. -- Valve seat. (Mach.) (a) The fixed surface on which a valve rests or against which it presses. (b) A part or piece on which such a surface is formed. -- Valve stem (Mach.), a rod attached to a valve, for moving it. -- Valve yoke (Mach.), a strap embracing a slide valve and connecting it to the valve stem.
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Valved
Valved (?), a. Having a valve or valves; valvate.
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Valvelet
Valve"let (?), n. A little valve; a valvule; especially, one of the pieces which compose the outer covering of a pericarp.
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Valve-shell
Valve"-shell` (?), n. (Zool.) Any fresh-water gastropod of the genus Valvata.
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Valvula
Val"vu*la (?), n.; pl. Valvulae (#). [NL., dim. fr. L. valva fold, valve of a door.] (Anat.) A little valve or fold; a valvelet; a valvule.
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Valvular
Valv"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. valvulaire.]
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1. Of or pertaining to a valve or valves; specifically (Med.), of or pertaining to the valves of the heart; as, valvular disease.
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2. Containing valves; serving as a valve; opening by valves; valvate; as, a valvular capsule.
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Valvule
Valv"ule (?), n. [Cf. F. valvule.]
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1. A little valve; a valvelet.
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2. (Zool.) A small valvelike process.
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Valylene
Val"yl*ene (?), n. [Valerian + -yl.] (Chem.) A volatile liquid hydrocarbon, C5H6, related to ethylene and acetylene, but possessing the property of unsaturation in the third degree. It is the only known member of a distinct series of compounds. It has a garlic odor.
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Vambrace
Vam"brace (?), n. [See Vantbrass.] (Anc. Armor) The piece designed to protect the arm from the elbow to the wrist.
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vamoose
va*moose" (vă*m&oomacr_;s"), v. i. & t. [Sp. vamos let us go.] To depart quickly; to depart from. [Written also vamos, and vamose.] [Slang, Eng. & U. S.]
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vamose
va*mose" (v&adot_;*mōs"), v. i. & t. [Sp. vamos let us go.] To vamoose; -- an older spelling and pronunciation variant. [Written also vamos, and vamoose.] [Slang, Eng. & U. S.]
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Vamp
Vamp (vămp), v. i. To advance; to travel. [Obs.]
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Vamp
Vamp, n. [OE. vampe, vaumpe, vauntpe, F. avantpied the forefoot, vamp; avant before, fore + pied foot, L. pes. See Advance, Van of an army, and Foot.] 1. The part of a boot or shoe above the sole and welt, and in front of the ankle seam; an upper.
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2. Any piece added to an old thing to give it a new appearance. See Vamp, v. t.
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3. (Music) A usually improvized Jazz accompaniment, consisting of simple chords in sucession.
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vamp
vamp, n. A woman who seduces men with her charm and wiles, in order to exploit them.
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Vamp
Vamp, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vamped (?; 215); p. pr. & vb. n. Vamping.] 1. To provide, as a shoe, with new upper leather; hence, to to piece, as any old thing, with a new part; to repair; to patch; -- often followed by up.
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I had never much hopes of your vamped play. Swift.
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2. To create with little skill; to concoct; to invent; -- usually with up; as, he vamped up an implausible excuse.
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vamp
vamp, v. t. & i. To seduce (a man) sexually for purpose of exploitation.
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Vamper
Vamp"er (?), n. 1. One who vamps; one who pieces an old thing with something new; a cobbler.
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2. Same as 2nd vamp, n.
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Vamper
Vamp"er, v. i. [Cf. Vaunt.] To swagger; to make an ostentatious show. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Jamieson.
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Vampire
Vam"pire (?), n. [F. vampire (cf. It. vampiro, G. & D. vampir), fr. Servian vampir.] [Written also vampyre.] 1. A blood-sucking ghost; a soul of a dead person superstitiously believed to come from the grave and wander about by night sucking the blood of persons asleep, thus causing their death. This superstition was once prevalent in parts of Eastern Europe, and was especially current in Hungary about the year 1730. The vampire was often said to have the ability to transform itself into the form of a bat, as presented in the novel depicting the legend of Dracula published by Bram Stoker in 1897, which has inspired several movies.
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The persons who turn vampires are generally wizards, witches, suicides, and persons who have come to a violent end, or have been cursed by their parents or by the church, Encyc. Brit.
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2. Fig.: One who lives by preying on others; an extortioner; a bloodsucker.
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3. (Zool.) Either one of two or more species of South American blood-sucking bats belonging to the genera Desmodus and Diphylla; also called vampire bat. These bats are destitute of molar teeth, but have strong, sharp cutting incisors with which they make punctured wounds from which they suck the blood of horses, cattle, and other animals, as well as man, chiefly during sleep. They have a caecal appendage to the stomach, in which the blood with which they gorge themselves is stored.
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4. (Zool.) Any one of several species of harmless tropical American bats of the genus Vampyrus, especially Vampyrus spectrum. These bats feed upon insects and fruit, but were formerly erroneously supposed to suck the blood of man and animals. Called also false vampire.
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Vampire bat (Zool.), a vampire, 3.
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Vampirism
Vam"pir*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. vampirisme.]
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1. Belief in the existence of vampires.
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2. The actions of a vampire; the practice of bloodsucking.
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3. Fig.: The practice of extortion. Carlyle.
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Vamplate
Vam"plate` (?), n. [F. avant before, fore + E. plate.] A round plate of iron on the shaft of a tilting spear, to protect the hand. [Written also vamplet.]
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Vamure
Va"mure (?), n. See Vauntmure. [Obs.]
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Van
Van (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. vanguard.] The front of an army; the first line or leading column; also, the front line or foremost division of a fleet, either in sailing or in battle.
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Standards and gonfalons, twixt van and rear,
Stream in the air.
Milton.
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Van
Van, n. [Cornish.] (Mining) A shovel used in cleansing ore.
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Van
Van, v. t. (Mining) To wash or cleanse, as a small portion of ore, on a shovel. Raymond.
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Van
Van, n. [Abbreviated from caravan.]
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1. A light wagon, either covered or open, used by tradesmen and others for the transportation of goods. [Eng.]
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2. A large covered wagon for moving furniture, etc., also for conveying wild beasts, etc., for exhibition.
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3. A closed railway car for baggage. See the Note under Car, 2. [Eng.]
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Van
Van, n. [L. vannus a van, or fan for winnowing grain: cf. F. van. Cf. Fan, Van a wing Winnow.]
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1. A fan or other contrivance, as a sieve, for winnowing grain.
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2. [OF. vanne, F. vanneau beam feather (cf. It. vanno a wing) fr. L. vannus. See Etymology above.] A wing with which the air is beaten. [Archaic] “[/Angels] on their plumy vans received him. ” Milton.
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He wheeled in air, and stretched his vans in vain;
His vans no longer could his flight sustain.
Dryden.
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Van
Van, v. t. [Cf. F. vanner to winnow, to fan. See Van a winnowing machine.] To fan, or to cleanse by fanning; to winnow. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Vanadate
Van"a*date (?), n. [Cf. F. vanadate.] (Chem.) A salt of vanadic acid. [Formerly also vanadiate.]
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Vanadic
Va*nad"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, vanadium; containing vanadium; specifically, designating those compounds in which vanadium has a relatively higher valence as contrasted with the vanadous compounds; as, vanadic oxide.
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Vanadic acid (Chem.), an acid analogous to phosphoric acid, not known in the free state but forming a well-known series of salts.
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Vanadinite
Va*nad"i*nite (?), n. (Min.) A mineral occurring in yellowish, brownish, and ruby-red hexagonal crystals. It consists of lead vanadate with a small proportion of lead chloride.
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Vanadious
Va*na"di*ous (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, vanadium; specifically, designating those compounds in which vanadium has a lower valence as contrasted with the vanadic compounds; as, vanadious acid. Usually written vanadous. [Sometimes written also vanadous.]
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Vanadite
Van"a*dite (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of vanadious acid, analogous to a nitrite or a phosphite.
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Vanadium
Va*na"di*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Icel. Vanadīs, a surname of the Scandinavian goddess Freya.] (Chem.) A rare element of the nitrogen-phosphorus group, found combined, in vanadates, in certain minerals, and reduced as an infusible, grayish-white metallic powder. It is intermediate between the metals and the non-metals, having both basic and acid properties. Symbol V (or Vd, rarely). Atomic weight 50.94 (C12=12.000).
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Vanadium bronze
Va*na"di*um bronze` (?). (Chem.) A yellow pigment consisting of a compound of vanadium.
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Vanadous
Van"a*dous (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to vanadium; obtained from vanadium; -- said of an acid containing one equivalent of vanadium and two of oxygen; specifically, designating those compounds in which vanadium has a lower valence as contrasted with the vanadic compounds; as, vanadous acid [Sometimes written also vanadious.].
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Vanadyl
Van"a*dyl (?), n. [Vanadium + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical VO, regarded as a characteristic residue of certain vanadium compounds.
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Van-courier
Van"-cou`ri*er (?), n. [F. avant-courrier. See Avant, Van of an army, and Courier, and cf. Avant-courier, Vaunt-courier.] One sent in advance; an avant-courier; a precursor.
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Vandal
Van"dal (?), n. [L. Vandalus, Vandalius; of Teutonic origin, and probably originally signifying, a wanderer. Cf. Wander.]
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1. (Anc. Hist.) One of a Teutonic race, formerly dwelling on the south shore of the Baltic, the most barbarous and fierce of the northern nations that plundered Rome in the 5th century, notorious for destroying the monuments of art and literature.
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2. Hence, one who willfully destroys or defaces any work of art or literature, or anything valluable.
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The Vandals of our isle,
Sworn foes to sense and law.
Cowper.
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Vandalic
Vandal
{ Van"dal (?), Van*dal"ic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to the Vandals; resembling the Vandals in barbarism and destructiveness.
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Vandalism
Van"dal*ism (?), n. The spirit or conduct of the Vandals; ferocious cruelty; hostility to the arts and literature, or willful destruction or defacement of any object of beauty or value.
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Vandyke
Van*dyke" (văn*dīk"), a. Of or pertaining to the style of Vandyke the painter; used or represented by Vandyke. “His Vandyke dress.” Macaulay. [Written also Vandyck.]
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Vandyke brown (Paint.), a pigment of a deep semitransparent brown color, supposed to be the color used by Vandyke in his pictures. -- Vandyke collar or Vandyke cape, a broad collar or cape of linen and lace with a deep pointed or scalloped edge, worn lying on the shoulders; -- so called from its appearance in pictures by Vandyke. -- Vandyke edge, an edge having ornamental triangular points.
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Vandyke
Van*dyke", prop. n. A picture by Vandyke. Also, a Vandyke collar, or a Vandyke edge. [Written also Vandyck.]
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Vandyke
Van*dyke", v. t. To fit or furnish with a Vandyke; to form with points or scallops like a Vandyke. [R.] [Written also Vandyck.]
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Vandyke beard
Van*dyke" beard`. A trim, pointed beard, such as those often seen in pictures by Vandyke.
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Vane
Vane (vān), n. [OE. & Prov. E. fane weathercock, banner, AS. fana a banner, flag; akin to D. vaan, G. fahne, OHG. fano cloth, gund fano flag, Icel. fāni, Sw. fana, Dan. fane, Goth. fana cloth, L. pannus, and perhaps to Gr. ph^nos a web, phni`on a bobbin, spool. Cf. Fanon, Pane a compartment, panel.]
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1. A contrivance attached to some elevated object for the purpose of showing which way the wind blows; a weathercock. It is usually a plate or strip of metal, or slip of wood, often cut into some fanciful form, and placed upon a perpendicular axis around which it moves freely.
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Aye undiscreet, and changing as a vane. Chaucer.
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2. Any flat, extended surface attached to an axis and moved by the wind; as, the vane of a windmill; hence, a similar fixture of any form moved in or by water, air, or other fluid; as, the vane of a screw propeller, a fan blower, an anemometer, etc.
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3. (Zool.) The rhachis and web of a feather taken together.
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4. One of the sights of a compass, quadrant, etc.
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Vane of a leveling staff. (Surv.) Same as Target, 3.
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Vanessa
Van*es"sa (văn*&ebreve_;s"s&adot_;), n. [Probably from Swift's poem of Cadenus and Vanessa. See Vanessa, in the Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of handsomely colored butterflies belonging to Vanessa and allied genera. Many of these species have the edges of the wings irregularly scalloped.
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Vanessian
Van*es"si*an (?), n. (Zool.) A vanessa.
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Vanfoss
Van"foss` (văn"f&obreve_;s`), n. [F. avant-fossé; avant before + fossé ditch. Cf. Fosse.] (Fort.) A ditch on the outside of the counterscarp, usually full of water.
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Vang
Vang (?), n. [D. vangen to catch, seize. See Fang.] (Naut.) A rope to steady the peak of a gaff.
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Vanglo
Van"glo (?), n. (Bot.) Benne (Sesamum orientale); also, its seeds; -- so called in the West Indies.
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Vanguard
Van"guard` (?), n. [For vantguard, avantguard, F. avant-garde; avant before, fore + garde guard. See Avant, Ab-,Ante-, and Guard, and cf. Advance, Vamp, Van of an army, Vaward.] (Mil.) The troops who march in front of an army; the advance guard; the van.
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Vanilla
Va*nil"la (?), n. [NL., fr. Sp. vainilla, dim. of Sp. vaina a sheath, a pod, L. vagina; because its grains, or seeds, are contained in little pods.]
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1. (Bot.) A genus of climbing orchidaceous plants, natives of tropical America.
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2. The long podlike capsules of Vanilla planifolia, and Vanilla claviculata, remarkable for their delicate and agreeable odor, for the volatile, odoriferous oil extracted from them; also, the flavoring extract made from the capsules, extensively used in confectionery, perfumery, etc.
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&hand_; As a medicine, vanilla is supposed to possess powers analogous to valerian, while, at the same time, it is far more grateful.
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Cuban vanilla, a sweet-scented West Indian composite shrub (Eupatorium Dalea). -- Vanilla bean, the long capsule of the vanilla plant. -- Vanilla grass. Same as Holy grass, under Holy.
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Vanillate
Va*nil"late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of vanillic acid.
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Vanillic
Va*nil"lic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, vanilla or vanillin; resembling vanillin; specifically, designating an alcohol and an acid respectively, vanillin being the intermediate aldehyde.
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Vanillin
Va*nil"lin (?), n. (Chem.) A white crystalline aldehyde having a burning taste and characteristic odor of vanilla. It is extracted from vanilla pods, and is also obtained by the decomposition of coniferin, and by the oxidation of eugenol.
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Vanilloes
Va*nil"loes (?), n. pl. An inferior kind of vanilla, the pods of Vanilla Pompona.
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Vanillyl
Va*nil"lyl (?), n. [Vanillic + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical characteristic of vanillic alcohol.
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Vaniloquence
Va*nil"o*quence (?), n. [L. vaniloquentia; vanus vain + loquentia talk, loqui to speak.] Vain or foolish talk. [Obs.]
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Vaniloquent
Va*nil"o*quent (?), a. Talking foolishly. [Obs.]
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Vanish
Van"ish (văn"&ibreve_;sh), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vanished (văn"&ibreve_;sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Vanishing.] [OE. vanissen, OF. vanir (in comp.): cf. OF. envanir, esvanir, esvanuïr, F. s'évanouir; fr. L. vanus empty, vain; cf. L. vanescere, evanescere, to vanish. See Vain, and cf. Evanescent,-ish.]
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1. To pass from a visible to an invisible state; to go out of sight; to disappear; to fade; as, vapor vanishes from the sight by being dissipated; a ship vanishes from the sight of spectators on land.
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The horse vanished . . . out of sight. Chaucer.
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Go; vanish into air; away! Shak.
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The champions vanished from their posts with the speed of lightning. Sir W. Scott.
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Gliding from the twilight past to vanish among realities. Hawthorne.
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2. To be annihilated or lost; to pass away. “All these delights will vanish.” Milton.
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Vanish
Van"ish (văn"&ibreve_;sh), n. (Phon.) The brief terminal part of a vowel or vocal element, differing more or less in quality from the main part; as, a as in ale ordinarily ends with a vanish of i as in ill, o as in old with a vanish of oo as in foot. Rush.
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&hand_; The vanish is included by Mr. Bell under the general term glide.
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Vanishing
Van"ish*ing (?), a. & n. from Vanish, v.
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Vanishing fraction (Math.), a fraction which reduces to the form 0/0 for a particular value of the variable which enters it, usually in consequence of the existence of a common factor in both terms of the fraction, which factor becomes 0 for this particular value of the variable. Math. Dict. -- Vanishing line (Persp.), the intersection of the parallel of any original plane and the picture; one of the lines converging to the vanishing point. -- Vanishing point (Persp.), the point to which all parallel lines in the same plane tend in the representation. Gwilt. -- Vanishing stress (Phon.), stress of voice upon the closing portion of a syllable. Rush.
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Vanishment
Van"ish*ment (?), n. A vanishing. [Obs.]
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Vanity
Van"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Vanities (#). [OE. vanite, F. vanité, L. vanitas, fr. vanus empty, vain. See Vain.]
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1. The quality or state of being vain; want of substance to satisfy desire; emptiness; unsubstantialness; unrealness; falsity.
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Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity. Eccl. i. 2.
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Here I may well show the vanity of that which is reported in the story of Walsingham. Sir J. Davies.
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2. An inflation of mind upon slight grounds; empty pride inspired by an overweening conceit of one's personal attainments or decorations; an excessive desire for notice or approval; pride; ostentation; conceit.
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The exquisitely sensitive vanity of Garrick was galled. Macaulay.
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3. That which is vain; anything empty, visionary, unreal, or unsubstantial; fruitless desire or effort; trifling labor productive of no good; empty pleasure; vain pursuit; idle show; unsubstantial enjoyment.
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Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher. Eccl. i. 2.
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Vanity possesseth many who are desirous to know the certainty of things to come. Sir P. Sidney.
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[Sin] with vanity had filled the works of men. Milton.
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Think not, when woman's transient breath is fled,
That all her vanities at once are dead;
Succeeding vanities she still regards.
Pope.
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4. One of the established characters in the old moralities and puppet shows. See Morality, n., 5.
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You . . . take vanity the puppet's part. Shak.
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5. same as dressing table.
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6. A cabinet built around a bathroom sink, usually with a countertop and sometimes drawers.
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Syn. -- Egotism; pride; emptiness; worthlessness; self-sufficiency. See Egotism, and Pride.
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Vanity box
Van"i*ty box. A small box, usually jeweled or of precious metal and worn on a chain, containing a mirror, powder puff, and other small toilet articles for a woman.
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Vanjas
Van"jas (?), n. (Zool.) The Australian pied crow shrike (Strepera graculina). It is glossy bluish black, with the under tail coverts and the tips and bases of the tail feathers white.
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Vanner
Van"ner (?), n. (Mining) A machine for concentrating ore. See Frue vanner.
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Vanner hawk
Van"ner hawk` (?). The kestrel. [Prov. Eng.]
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Vanning
Van"ning, n. (Mining) A process by which ores are washed on a shovel, or in a vanner.
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Vanquish
Van"quish (vă&nsmacr_;"kw&ibreve_;sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vanquished (vă&nsmacr_;"kw&ibreve_;sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Vanquishing.] [OE. venquishen, venquissen, venkisen, F. vaincre, pret. vainquis, OF. veintre, pret. venqui, venquis (cf. an OF. infin. vainquir), fr. L. vincere; akin to AS. wīg war, battle, wīgend a warrior, wīgan to contend, fight, OHG. wīgant a warrior, wīgan to fight, Icel. vīg battle, Goth. weihan to fight, contend. Cf. Convince, Evict, Invincible, Victor.] 1. To conquer, overcome, or subdue in battle, as an enemy. Hakluyt.
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They . . . vanquished the rebels in all encounters. Clarendon.
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2. Hence, to defeat in any contest; to get the better of; to put down; to refute.
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This bold assertion has been fully vanquished in a late reply to the Bishop of Meaux's treatise. Atterbury.
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For e'en though vanquished, he could argue still. Goldsmith.
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Syn. -- To conquer; surmount; overcome; confute; silence. See Conquer.
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Vanquish
Van"quish, n. (Far.) A disease in sheep, in which they pine away. [Written also vinquish.]
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Vanquishable
Van"quish*a*ble (?), a. That may be vanquished.
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Vanquisher
Van"quish*er (?), n. One who, or that which, vanquishes. Milton.
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Vanquishment
Van"quish*ment (?), n. The act of vanquishing, or the state of being vanquished. Bp. Hall.
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Vansire
Van"sire (?), n. [The native name: cf. F. vansire.] (Zool.) An ichneumon (Herpestes galera) native of Southern Africa and Madagascar. It is reddish brown or dark brown, grizzled with white. Called also vondsira, and marsh ichneumon.
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Vant
Vant (?), v. i. See Vaunt. [Obs.]
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Vantage
Van"tage (v&adot_;n"t&auptack_;j; 48), n. [Aphetic form of OE. avantage, fr. F. avantage. See Advantage.] 1. Superior or more favorable situation or opportunity; gain; profit; advantage. [R.]
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O happy vantage of a kneeling knee! Shak.
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2. A position offering a superior view of a scene or situation; -- used literally and figuratively; as, from the vantage of hindsight; also called vantage point.
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3. (Tennis) The first point scored after deuce; advantage{5}. [Brit.]
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&hand_; When the server wins this point, it is called vantage in; when the receiver, or striker out, wins, it is called vantage out.
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To have at vantage, to have the advantage of; to be in a more favorable condition than. “He had them at vantage, being tired and harassed with a long march.” Bacon. -- Vantage ground, superiority of state or place; the place or condition which gives one an advantage over another. “The vantage ground of truth.” Bacon.
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Vantage
Van"tage, v. t. To profit; to aid. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vantage game
Van"tage game. (Lawn Tennis) The first game after the set is deuce. See Set, n., 9.
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Vantage point
Vantage point. A point giving advantage; vantage ground.
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Vantbrass
Vantbrace
{ Vant"brace (v&adot_;nt"brās), Vant"brass (v&adot_;nt"br&adot_;s), } n. [F. avant fore + bras arm: cf. F. brassard armor for the arm, brace, forearm. Cf. Vambrace.] (Anc. Armor) Armor for the arm; vambrace. Milton.
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Vant-courier
Vant"-cou`ri*er (v&adot_;nt"k&oomacr_;`r&ibreve_;*&etilde_;r), n. An avant-courier. See Van-courier. [Obs.] Holland.
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Van't Hoff's law
Van't Hoff's law (?). [After J. H. van't Hoff, Dutch physical chemist.] (Phys. Chem.) The generalization that: when a system is in equilibrium, of the two opposed interactions the endothermic is promoted by raising the temperature, the exothermic by lowering it.
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Vanward
Van"ward (?), a. Being on, or towards, the van, or front. “The vanward frontier.” De Quincey.
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Vap
Vap (văp), n. [See Vapid.] That which is vapid, insipid, or lifeless; especially, the lifeless part of liquor or wine. [Obs.]
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In vain it is to wash a goblet, if you mean to put into it nothing but the dead lees and vap of wine. Jer. Taylor.
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Vapid
Vap"id (văp"&ibreve_;d), a. [L. vapidus having lost its life and spirit, vapid; akin to vappa vapid wine, vapor vapor. See Vapor.] Having lost its life and spirit; dead; spiritless; insipid; flat; dull; unanimated; as, vapid beer; a vapid speech; a vapid state of the blood.
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A cheap, bloodless reformation, a guiltless liberty, appear flat and vapid to their taste. Burke.
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-- Vap"id*ly (#), adv. -- Vap"id*ness, n.
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Vapidity
Va*pid"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vapid; vapidness.
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Vapor
Va"por (?), n. [OE. vapour, OF. vapour, vapor, vapeur, F. vapeur, L. vapor; probably for cvapor, and akin to Gr. &unr_; smoke, &unr_; to breathe forth, Lith. kvepti to breathe, smell, Russ. kopote fine soot. Cf. Vapid.] [Written also vapour.]
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1. (Physics) Any substance in the gaseous, or aeriform, state, the condition of which is ordinarily that of a liquid or solid.
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&hand_; The term vapor is sometimes used in a more extended sense, as identical with gas; and the difference between the two is not so much one of kind as of degree, the latter being applied to all permanently elastic fluids except atmospheric air, the former to those elastic fluids which lose that condition at ordinary temperatures. The atmosphere contains more or less vapor of water, a portion of which, on a reduction of temperature, becomes condensed into liquid water in the form of rain or dew. The vapor of water produced by boiling, especially in its economic relations, is called steam.
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Vapor is any substance in the gaseous condition at the maximum of density consistent with that condition. This is the strict and proper meaning of the word vapor. Nichol.
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2. In a loose and popular sense, any visible diffused substance floating in the atmosphere and impairing its transparency, as smoke, fog, etc.
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The vapour which that fro the earth glood [glided]. Chaucer.
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Fire and hail; snow and vapors; stormy wind fulfilling his word. Ps. cxlviii. 8.
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3. Wind; flatulence. [Obs.] Bacon.
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4. Something unsubstantial, fleeting, or transitory; unreal fancy; vain imagination; idle talk; boasting.
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For what is your life? It is even a vapor, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. James iv. 14.
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5. pl. An old name for hypochondria, or melancholy; the blues. “A fit of vapors.” Pope.
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6. (Pharm.) A medicinal agent designed for administration in the form of inhaled vapor. Brit. Pharm.
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Vapor bath. (a) A bath in vapor; the application of vapor to the body, or part of it, in a close place; also, the place itself. (b) (Chem.) A small metallic drying oven, usually of copper, for drying and heating filter papers, precipitates, etc.; -- called also air bath. A modified form is provided with a jacket in the outside partition for holding water, or other volatile liquid, by which the temperature may be limited exactly to the required degree. -- Vapor burner, a burner for burning a vaporized hydrocarbon. -- Vapor density (Chem.), the relative weight of gases and vapors as compared with some specific standard, usually hydrogen, but sometimes air. The vapor density of gases and vaporizable substances as compared with hydrogen, when multiplied by two, or when compared with air and multiplied by 28.8, gives the molecular weight. -- Vapor engine, an engine worked by the expansive force of a vapor, esp. a vapor other than steam.
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Vapor
Va"por, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vapored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vaporing.] [From Vapor, n.: cf. L. vaporare.] [Written also vapour.]
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1. To pass off in fumes, or as a moist, floating substance, whether visible or invisible, to steam; to be exhaled; to evaporate.
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2. To emit vapor or fumes. [R.]
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Running waters vapor not so much as standing waters. Bacon.
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3. To talk idly; to boast or vaunt; to brag.
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Poets used to vapor much after this manner. Milton.
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We vapor and say, By this time Matthews has beaten them. Walpole.
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Vapor
Va"por, v. t. To send off in vapor, or as if in vapor; as, to vapor away a heated fluid. [Written also vapour.]
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He'd laugh to see one throw his heart away,
Another, sighing, vapor forth his soul.
B. Jonson.
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Vaporability
Vap`o*ra*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vaporable.
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Vaporable
Vap"o*ra*ble (?), a. Capable of being converted into vapor by the agency of heat; vaporizable.
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Vaporate
Vap"o*rate (?), v. i. [L. vaporare, vaporatum. See Vapor.] To emit vapor; to evaporate. [R.]
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Vaporation
Vap`o*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. vaporation, L. vaporatio.] The act or process of converting into vapor, or of passing off in vapor; evaporation. [R.]
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Vapored
Va"pored (?), a. 1. Wet with vapors; moist.
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2. Affected with the vapors. See Vapor, n., 5.
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Vaporer
Va"por*er (?), n. One who vapors; a braggart.
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Vaporer moth. (Zool.) See Orgyia.
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Vapor galvanizing
Va"por gal"va*niz`ing. (Metal.) A process for coating metal (usually iron or steel) surfaces with zinc by exposing them to the vapor of zinc instead of, as in ordinary galvanizing, to molten zinc; -- called also Sherardizing. Vapor galvanizing is accomplished by heating the articles to be galvanized together with zinc dust in an air tight receptacle to a temperature of about 600° F., which is 188° below the melting point of zinc, or by exposing the articles to vapor from molten zinc in a separate receptacle, using hydrogen or other reducing gas to prevent oxidation.
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Vaporiferous
Vap`o*rif"er*ous (?), a. [L. vaporifer; vapor + ferre to bear.] Conveying or producing vapor.
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Vaporific
Vap`o*rif"ic (?), a. [L. vapor vapor + facere to make.] (Chem.) Producing vapor; tending to pass, or to cause to pass, into vapor; thus, volatile fluids are vaporific; heat is a vaporific agent.
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Vaporiform
Va*por"i*form (?), a. Existing in a vaporous form or state; as, steam is a vaporiform substance.
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Vaporimeter
Vap`o*rim"e*ter (?), n. [Vapor + -meter.] An instrument for measuring the volume or the tension of any vapor; specifically, an instrument of this sort used as an alcoholometer in testing spirituous liquors.
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Vaporing
Va"por*ing (?), a. Talking idly; boasting; vaunting. -- Va"por*ing*ly, adv.
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Vaporish
Va"por*ish, a. 1. Full of vapors; vaporous.
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2. Hypochondriacal; affected by hysterics; splenetic; peevish; humorsome.
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Pallas grew vap'rish once and odd. Pope.
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Vaporizable
Vap"o*ri`za*ble (văp"&ouptack_;*rī`z&adot_;*b'l or vā"p&etilde_;r*ī`z&adot_;*b'l; 110), a. Capable of being vaporized, or converted into vapor.
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Vaporization
Vap`o*ri*za"tion (văp`&ouptack_;*rī*z&adot_;"shŭn or vā`p&etilde_;r*ī*z&adot_;"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. vaporisation.] The act or process of vaporizing, or the state of being converted into vapor; the artificial formation of vapor; specifically, the conversion of water into steam, as in a steam boiler.
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Vaporize
Vap"o*rize (văp"&ouptack_;*rīz or vā"p&etilde_;r*īz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vaporized (-rīzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Vaporizing (-rī`z&ibreve_;ng).] [Cf. F. vaporiser.] To convert into vapor, as by the application of heat, whether naturally or artificially.
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Vaporizing surface. (Steam Boilers) See Evaporating surface, under Evaporate, v. t.
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Vaporize
Vap"o*rize, v. i. To pass off in vapor.
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Vaporizer
Vap"o*ri`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, vaporizes, or converts into vapor.
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Vaporose
Va"por*ose` (vā"p&etilde_;r*ōs`), a. Full of vapor; vaporous.
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Vaporous
Va"por*ous (vā"p&etilde_;r*ŭs`), a. [L. vaporosus: cf. F. vaporeux.]
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1. Having the form or nature of vapor. Holland.
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2. Full of vapors or exhalations. Shak.
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The warmer and more vaporous air of the valleys. Derham.
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3. Producing vapors; hence, windy; flatulent. Bacon.
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The food which is most vaporous and perspirable is the most easily digested. Arbuthnot.
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4. Unreal; unsubstantial; vain; whimsical.
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Such vaporous speculations were inevitable. Carlyle.
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Vaporousness
Va"por*ous*ness, n. The quality of being vaporous.
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Vapor tension
Vapor pressure
{ Vapor pressure or Vapor tension }. (Physics) The pressure or tension of a confined body of vapor of a chemical substance in equilibrium with the solid or liquid form of the substance. The pressure of a given saturated vapor is a function of the temperature only, and may be measured by introducing a small quantity of the substance into a barometer and noting the depression of the column of mercury.
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Vapory
Va"por*y (?), a. 1. Full of vapors; vaporous.
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2. Hypochondriacal; splenetic; peevish.
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Vapulation
Vap`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. vapulare to be flogged.] The act of beating or whipping. [Obs.]
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Vaquero
Va*que"ro (vä*k&auptack_;"r&ouptack_;), n. [Sp., cowherd, fr. vaca a cow, L. vacca. Cf. Vacher.] One who has charge of cattle, horses, etc.; a herdsman; a cowboy. [Southwestern U. S.]
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Vara
Va"ra (?), n. [Sp. See 1st Vare.] A Spanish measure of length equal to about one yard. The vara now in use equals 33.385 inches. Johnson's Cyc.
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Varan
Va"ran (?), n. [F.] (Zool.) The monitor. See Monitor, 3.
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Varangian
Va*ran"gi*an (?), n. One of the Northmen who founded a dynasty in Russia in the 9th century; also, one of the Northmen composing, at a later date, the imperial bodyguard at Constantinople.
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Varanus
Va*ra"nus (?), prop. n. [NL., fr. Ar. uaran, uaral; cf. F. varan, from the Arabic.] (Zool.) A genus of very large lizards native of Asia and Africa. It includes the monitors. See Monitor, 3.
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Vare
Vare (?), n. [Sp. vara staff, wand, L. vara forked pole.] A wand or staff of authority or justice. [Obs.]
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His hand a vare of justice did uphold. Dryden.
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Vare
Vare, n. (Zool.) A weasel. [Prov. Eng.]
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Vare widgeon (Zool.), a female or young male of the smew; a weasel duck; -- so called from the resemblance of the head to that of a vare, or weasel. [Prov. Eng.]
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Varec
Var"ec (?), n. [F. varech; of Teutonic origin. See Wrack seaweed, wreck.] The calcined ashes of any coarse seaweed used for the manufacture of soda and iodine; also, the seaweed itself; fucus; wrack.
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Vargueno
Var*gue"no (vär*gā"nō), n. [Said to be fr. Vargas, name of a village in Spain.] (Art) A decorative cabinet, of a form originating in Spain, the body being rectangular and supported on legs or an ornamental framework and the front opening downwards on hinges to serve as a writing desk.
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Vari
Va"ri (?), n. [Cf. F. vari.] (Zool.) The ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta) of Madagascar. Its long tail is annulated with black and white.
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Variability
Va`ri*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. variabilité.] 1. The quality or state of being variable; variableness.
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2. (Biol.) The power possessed by living organisms, both animal and vegetable, of adapting themselves to modifications or changes in their environment, thus possibly giving rise to ultimate variation of structure or function.
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Variable
Va"ri*a*ble (?), a. [L. variabilis: cf. F. variable.] 1. Having the capacity of varying or changing; capable of alternation in any manner; changeable; as, variable winds or seasons; a variable quantity.
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2. Liable to vary; too susceptible of change; mutable; fickle; unsteady; inconstant; as, the affections of men are variable; passions are variable.
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Lest that thy love prove likewise variable. Shak.
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His heart, I know, how variable and vain! Milton.
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Variable exhaust (Steam Eng.), a blast pipe with an adjustable opening. -- Variable quantity (Math.), a variable. -- Variable-rate mortgage (Finance), a mortgage whose percentage interest rate varies depending on some agreed standard, such as the prime rate; -- used often in financing the purchase of a home. Such a mortgage usually has a lower initial interest rate than a fixed-rate mortgage, and this permits buyers of a home to finance the purchase a house of higher price than would be possible with a fixed-rate loan. -- Variable stars (Astron.), fixed stars which vary in their brightness, usually in more or less uniform periods.
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Syn. -- Changeable; mutable; fickle; wavering; unsteady; versatile; inconstant.
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Variable
Va"ri*a*ble, n. 1. That which is variable; that which varies, or is subject to change.
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2. (Math.) A quantity which may increase or decrease; a quantity which admits of an infinite number of values in the same expression; a variable quantity; as, in the equation x2 - y2 = R2, x and y are variables.
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3. (Naut.) (a) A shifting wind, or one that varies in force. (b) pl. Those parts of the sea where a steady wind is not expected, especially the parts between the trade-wind belts.
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Independent variable (Math.), that one of two or more variables, connected with each other in any way whatever, to which changes are supposed to be given at will. Thus, in the equation x2 - y2 = R2, if arbitrary changes are supposed to be given to x, then x is the independent variable, and y is called a function of x. There may be two or more independent variables in an equation or problem. Cf. Dependent variable, under Dependent.
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Variableness
Va"ri*a*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being variable; variability. James i. 17.
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Variably
Va"ri*a*bly, adv. In a variable manner.
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Variance
Va"ri*ance (?), n. [L. variantia.] 1. The quality or state of being variant; change of condition; variation.
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2. Difference that produces dispute or controversy; disagreement; dissension; discord; dispute; quarrel.
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That which is the strength of their amity shall prove the immediate author of their variance. Shak.
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3. (Law) A disagreement or difference between two parts of the same legal proceeding, which, to be effectual, ought to agree, -- as between the writ and the declaration, or between the allegation and the proof. Bouvier.
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4. (Statistics) The expected value of the square of the deviation from the mean of a randomly distributed variable; the second moment about the mean. This is also the square of the standard deviation.
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At variance, in disagreement; in a state of dissension or controversy; at enmity. “What cause brought him so soon at variance with himself?” Milton.
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Variant
Va"ri*ant (?), a. [L. varians, p. pr. of variare to change: cf. F. variant. See Vary.] 1. Varying in form, character, or the like; variable; different; diverse.
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2. Changeable; changing; fickle. [Obs.]
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He is so variant, he abit [abides] nowhere. Chaucer.
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Variant
Va"ri*ant (?), n. [Cf. F. variante.] Something which differs in form from another thing, though really the same; as, a variant from a type in natural history; a variant of a story or a word.
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Variate
Va"ri*ate (?), v. t. & i. [L. variatus, p. p. of variare. See Vary.] To alter; to make different; to vary.
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Variation
Va`ri*a"tion (?), n. [OE. variatioun, F. variation, L. variatio. See Vary.] 1. The act of varying; a partial change in the form, position, state, or qualities of a thing; modification; alteration; mutation; diversity; deviation; as, a variation of color in different lights; a variation in size; variation of language.
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The essences of things are conceived not capable of any such variation. Locke.
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2. Extent to which a thing varies; amount of departure from a position or state; amount or rate of change.
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3. (Gram.) Change of termination of words, as in declension, conjugation, derivation, etc.
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4. (Mus.) Repetition of a theme or melody with fanciful embellishments or modifications, in time, tune, or harmony, or sometimes change of key; the presentation of a musical thought in new and varied aspects, yet so that the essential features of the original shall still preserve their identity.
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5. (Alg.) One of the different arrangements which can be made of any number of quantities taking a certain number of them together.
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Annual variation (Astron.), the yearly change in the right ascension or declination of a star, produced by the combined effects of the precession of the equinoxes and the proper motion of the star. -- Calculus of variations. See under Calculus. -- Variation compass. See under Compass. -- Variation of the moon (Astron.), an inequality of the moon's motion, depending on the angular distance of the moon from the sun. It is greater at the octants, and zero at the quadratures. -- Variation of the needle (Geog. & Naut.), the angle included between the true and magnetic meridians of a place; the deviation of the direction of a magnetic needle from the true north and south line; -- called also declination of the needle.
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Syn. -- Change; vicissitude; variety; deviation.
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Varicella
Var`i*cel"la (?), n. [NL., dim. of LL. variola smallpox.] (Med.) Chicken pox.
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Varices
Var"i*ces (?), n. pl. See Varix.
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Variciform
Va*ric"i*form (?), a. [Varix + -form.] (Med.) Resembling a varix.
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Varicocele
Var"i*co*cele (?), n. [Varix a dilated vein + Gr. &unr_; tumor: cf. F. varicocèle.] (Med.) A varicose enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord; also, a like enlargement of the veins of the scrotum.
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Varicose
Var"i*cose` (?; 277), a. [L. varicosus, from varix, -icis, a dilated vein; cf. varus bent, stretched, crooked.] 1. Irregularly swollen or enlarged; affected with, or containing, varices, or varicosities; of or pertaining to varices, or varicosities; as, a varicose nerve fiber; a varicose vein; varicose ulcers.
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2. (Med.) Intended for the treatment of varicose veins; -- said of elastic stockings, bandages, and the like.
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Varicosis
Var`i*cos"is (?), n. [NL. See Varix, and -osis.] (Med.) The formation of varices; varicosity.
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Varicosity
Var`i*cos"i*ty (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being varicose.
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2. An enlargement or swelling in a vessel, fiber, or the like; a varix; as, the varicosities of nerve fibers.
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Varicotomy
Var`i*cot"o*my (?), n. [See Varix; -tomy.] (Surg.) Excision of a varicosity.
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Varicous
Var"i*cous (?), a. Varicose. [Obs.]
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Varied
Va"ried (?), a. Changed; altered; various; diversified; as, a varied experience; varied interests; varied scenery. -- Va"ried*ly, adv.
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The varied fields of science, ever new. Cowper.
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Variegate
Va"ri*e*gate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Variegated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Variegating.] [L. variegatus, p. p. of variegare to variegate; varius various + agere to move, make. See Various, and Agent.] To diversify in external appearance; to mark with different colors; to dapple; to streak; as, to variegate a floor with marble of different colors.
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The shells are filled with a white spar, which variegates and adds to the beauty of the stone. Woodward.
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Variegated
Va"ri*e*ga`ted (?), a. Having marks or patches of different colors; as, variegated leaves, or flowers.
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Ladies like variegated tulips show. Pope.
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Variegation
Va`ri*e*ga"tion (?), n. The act of variegating or diversifying, or the state of being diversified, by different colors; diversity of colors.
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Varier
Va"ri*er (?), n. [From Vary.] A wanderer; one who strays in search of variety. [Poetic]
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Pious variers from the church. Tennyson.
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Varietal
Va*ri"e*tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a variety; characterizing a variety; constituting a variety, in distinction from an individual or species.
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Perplexed in determining what differences to consider as specific, and what as varietal. Darwin.
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Varietas
Va*ri"e*tas (?), n. [L.] A variety; -- used in giving scientific names, and often abbreviated to var.
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Variety
Va*ri"e*ty (?), n.; pl. Varieties (#). [L. varietas: cf. F. variété. See Various.]
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1. The quality or state of being various; intermixture or succession of different things; diversity; multifariousness.
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Variety is nothing else but a continued novelty. South.
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The variety of colors depends upon the composition of light. Sir I. Newton.
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For earth hath this variety from heaven. Milton.
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There is a variety in the tempers of good men. Atterbury.
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2. That which is various. Specifically: --
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(a) A number or collection of different things; a varied assortment; as, a variety of cottons and silks.
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He . . . wants more time to do that variety of good which his soul thirsts after. Law.
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(b) Something varying or differing from others of the same general kind; one of a number of things that are akin; a sort; as, varieties of wood, land, rocks, etc.
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(c) (Biol.) An individual, or group of individuals, of a species differing from the rest in some one or more of the characteristics typical of the species, and capable either of perpetuating itself for a period, or of being perpetuated by artificial means; hence, a subdivision, or peculiar form, of a species.
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&hand_; Varieties usually differ from species in that any two, however unlike, will generally propagate indefinitely (unless they are in their nature unfertile, as some varieties of rose and other cultivated plants); in being a result of climate, food, or other extrinsic conditions or influences, but generally by a sudden, rather than a gradual, development; and in tending in many cases to lose their distinctive peculiarities when the individuals are left to a state of nature, and especially if restored to the conditions that are natural to typical individuals of the species. Many varieties of domesticated animals and of cultivated plants have been directly produced by man.
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(d) In inorganic nature, one of those forms in which a species may occur, which differ in minor characteristics of structure, color, purity of composition, etc.
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&hand_; These may be viewed as variations from the typical species in its most perfect and purest form, or, as is more commonly the case, all the forms, including the latter, may rank as Varieties. Thus, the sapphire is a blue variety, and the ruby a red variety, of corundum; again, calcite has many Varieties differing in form and structure, as Iceland spar, dogtooth spar, satin spar, and also others characterized by the presence of small quantities of magnesia, iron, manganese, etc. Still again, there are varieties of granite differing in structure, as graphic granite, porphyritic granite, and other varieties differing in composition, as albitic granite, hornblendic, or syenitic, granite, etc.
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3. (Theaters) Such entertainment as in given in variety shows; the production of, or performance in, variety shows. [Cant]
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Geographical variety (Biol.), a variety of any species which is coincident with a geographical region, and is usually dependent upon, or caused by, peculiarities of climate. -- Variety hybrid (Biol.), a cross between two individuals of different varieties of the same species; a mongrel.
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Syn. -- Diversity; difference; kind. -- Variety, Diversity. A man has a variety of employments when he does many things which are not a mere repetition of the same act; he has a diversity of employments when the several acts performed are unlike each other, that is, diverse. In most cases, where there is variety there will be more or less of diversity, but not always. One who sells railroad tickets performs a great variety of acts in a day, while there is but little diversity in his employment.
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All sorts are here that all the earth yields!
Variety without end.
Milton.
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But see in all corporeal nature's scene,
What changes, what diversities, have been!
Blackmore.
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Variety show
Variety show. A stage entertainment, live or televised, of successive separate performances, usually songs, dances, acrobatic feats, dramatic sketches, exhibitions of trained animals, or any specialties. When performed live in a theater, it was often called a vaudeville show, but when television became a dominant form of entertainment live vaudeville performances almost completely ceased.
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Variety store
Variety store. a retail store selling a wide variety of items, especially of low price, as in a five and ten.
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Variform
Va"ri*form (?), a. [L. varius various + -form.] Having different shapes or forms.
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Variformed
Va"ri*formed (?), a. Formed with different shapes; having various forms; variform.
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Varify
Va"ri*fy (?), v. t. [L. varius various + -fy.] To make different; to vary; to variegate. [R.] Sylvester.
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Variola
Va*ri"o*la (?), n. [LL., fr. L. varius various. See Various.] (Med.) The smallpox.
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Variolar
Va*ri"o*lar (?), a. (Med.) Variolous.
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Variolation
Va`ri*o*la"tion (?), n. (Med.) Inoculation with smallpox.
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Variole
Va"ri*ole (?), n. [Cf. F. variole smallpox. See Variola.] 1. A foveola.
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2. (Geol.) A spherule of a variolite.
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Variolic
Va`ri*ol"ic (?), a. (Med.) Variolous.
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Variolite
Va"ri*o*lite (?), n. [L. varius various + -lite: cf. F. variolite.] (Geol.) A kind of diorite or diabase containing imbedded whitish spherules, which give the rock a spotted appearance.
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Variolitic
Va`ri*o*lit"ic (?), a. [From Variola.]
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1. Thickly marked with small, round specks; spotted.
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2. (Geol.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, variolite.
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Varioloid
Va"ri*o*loid (?; 277), a. [Variola + -oid: cf. F. varioloïde.] (Med.) Resembling smallpox; pertaining to the disease called varioloid.
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Varioloid
Va"ri*o*loid, n. [Cf. F. varioloïde. See Varioloid, a.] (Med.) The smallpox as modified by previous inoculation or vaccination.
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&hand_; It is almost always a milder disease than smallpox, and this circumstance, with its shorter duration, exhibits the salutary effects of previous vaccination or inoculation. Dunglison.
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Variolous
Va*ri"o*lous (?), a. [LL. variolosus, fr. variola the smallpox: cf. F. varioleux.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to the smallpox; having pits, or sunken impressions, like those of the smallpox; variolar; variolic.
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Variometer
Va`ri*om"e*ter (?), n. [L. varius various + -meter.] (Elec.) An instrument for comparing magnetic forces, esp. in the earth's magnetic field.
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Variorum
Va`ri*o"rum (?), a. [L., abbrev. fr. cum notis variorum with notes of various persons.] Containing notes by different persons; -- applied to a publication; as, a variorum edition of a book.
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Various
Va"ri*ous (?), a. [L. varius. Cf. Vair.]
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1. Different; diverse; several; manifold; as, men of various names; various occupations; various colors.
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So many and so various laws are given. Milton.
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A wit as various, gay, grave, sage, or wild. Byron.
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2. Changeable; uncertain; inconstant; variable.
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A man so various, that he seemed to be
Not one, but all mankind's epitome.
Dryden.
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The names of mixed modes . . . are very various. Locke.
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3. Variegated; diversified; not monotonous.
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A happy rural seat of various view. Milton.
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Variously
Va"ri*ous*ly, adv. In various or different ways.
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Variscite
Var"is*cite (?), n. [So called from Variscia in Germany.] (Min.) An apple-green mineral occurring in reniform masses. It is a hydrous phosphate of alumina.
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Varisse
Va*risse" (?), n. [Cf. F. varice varix. Cf. Varix.] (Far.) An imperfection on the inside of the hind leg in horses, different from a curb, but at the same height, and often growing to an unsightly size.
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Varix
Va"rix (vā"r&ibreve_;ks), n.; pl. Varices (văr"&ibreve_;*sēz). [L.]
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1. (Med.) A uneven, permanent dilatation of a vein.
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&hand_; Varices are owing to local retardation of the venous circulation, and in some cases to relaxation of the parietes of the veins. They are very common in the superficial veins of the lower limbs. Dunglison.
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2. (Zool.) One of the prominent ridges or ribs extending across each of the whorls of certain univalve shells.
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&hand_; The varices usually indicate stages of growth, each one showing a former position of the outer lip of the aperture.
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Vark
Vark (värk), n. [D. varken a pig.] (Zool.) The bush hog, or boshvark.
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Varlet
Var"let (?), n. [OF. varlet, vaslet, vallet, servant, young man, young noble, dim. of vassal. See Vassal, and cf. Valet.]
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1. A servant, especially to a knight; an attendant; a valet; a footman. [Obs.] Spenser. Tusser.
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2. Hence, a low fellow; a scoundrel; a rascal; as, an impudent varlet.
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What a brazen-faced varlet art thou ! Shak.
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3. In a pack of playing cards, the court card now called the knave, or jack. [Obs.]
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Varletry
Var"let*ry (?), n. [Cf. OF. valeterie the young unmarried nobles.] The rabble; the crowd; the mob.
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Shall they hoist me up,
And show me to the shouting varletry
Of censuring Rome.
Shak.
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Varnish
Var"nish (?), n. [OE. vernish, F. vernis, LL. vernicium; akin to F. vernir to varnish, fr. (assumed) LL. vitrinire to glaze, from LL. vitrinus glassy, fr. L. vitrum glass. See Vitreous.]
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1. A viscid liquid, consisting of a solution of resinous matter in an oil or a volatile liquid, laid on work with a brush, or otherwise. When applied the varnish soon dries, either by evaporation or chemical action, and the resinous part forms thus a smooth, hard surface, with a beautiful gloss, capable of resisting, to a greater or less degree, the influences of air and moisture.
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&hand_; According to the sorts of solvents employed, the ordinary kinds of varnish are divided into three classes: spirit, turpentine, and oil varnishes. Encyc. Brit
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2. That which resembles varnish, either naturally or artificially; a glossy appearance.
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The varnish of the holly and ivy. Macaulay.
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3. An artificial covering to give a fair appearance to any act or conduct; outside show; gloss.
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And set a double varnish on the fame
The Frenchman gave you.
Shak.
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Varnish tree (Bot.), a tree or shrub from the juice or resin of which varnish is made, as some species of the genus Rhus, especially Rhus vernicifera of Japan. The black varnish of Burmah is obtained from the Melanorrhœa usitatissima, a tall East Indian tree of the Cashew family. See Copal, and Mastic.
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Varnish
Var"nish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Varnished (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Varnishing.] [Cf. F. vernir, vernisser. See Varnish, n.]
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1. To lay varnish on; to cover with a liquid which produces, when dry, a hard, glossy surface; as, to varnish a table; to varnish a painting.
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2. To cover or conceal with something that gives a fair appearance; to give a fair coloring to by words; to gloss over; to palliate; as, to varnish guilt. “Beauty doth varnish age.” Shak.
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Close ambition, varnished o'er with zeal. Milton.
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Cato's voice was ne'er employed
To clear the guilty and to varnish crimes.
Addison.
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Varnisher
Var"nish*er (?), n. 1. One who varnishes; one whose occupation is to varnish.
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2. One who disguises or palliates; one who gives a fair external appearance. Pope.
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Varnishing
Var"nish*ing, n. The act of laying on varnish; also, materials for varnish.
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Varsity
Var"si*ty (?), n. 1. Colloquial contraction of University. [Brit.]
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2. the team with the best players of a school or club, being the main representative of the organization in competitive play between schools or organizations. In schools, contrasted with junior varsity. Also used attributively, as, the varsity football team.
[PJC]

Varsovienne
Var`so`vienne" (?), n. [F., prop. fem. of varsovien pertaining to Warsaw, fr. Varsovie Warsaw, Pol. Warszawa.] (a) A kind of Polish dance. (b) Music for such a dance or having its slow triple time characteristic strong accent beginning every second measure.
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Vartabed
Var"ta*bed (?), n. [Armen., a doctor, master, preceptor.] (Eccl.) A doctor or teacher in the Armenian church. Members of this order of ecclesiastics frequently have charge of dioceses, with episcopal functions.
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Varuna
Va*ru"na (v&adot_;*r&usuml_;"n&adot_;), n. [Skr. Varu&nsdot_;a.] (Hindu Myth.) The god of the waters; the Indian Neptune. He is regarded as regent of the west, and lord of punishment, and is represented as riding on a sea monster, holding in his hand a snaky cord or noose with which to bind offenders, under water.
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Varus
Va"rus (?), n. [NL., fr. L., bent, grown inwards.] (Med.) A deformity in which the foot is turned inward. See Talipes.
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Varvel
Var"vel (?), n. [F. vervelle.] In falconry, one of the rings secured to the ends of the jesses. [Written also vervel.]
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Varveled
Var"veled (?), a. Having varvels, or rings. [Written also varvelled, and vervelled.]
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&hand_; In heraldry, when the jesses attached to the legs of hawks hang loose, or have pendent ends with rings at the tips, the blazon is a hawk (or a hawk's leg) jessed and varveled.
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Vary
Va"ry (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Varied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Varying.] [OE. varien, F. varier, L. variare, fr. varius various. See Various, and cf. Variate.]
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1. To change the aspect of; to alter in form, appearance, substance, position, or the like; to make different by a partial change; to modify; as, to vary the properties, proportions, or nature of a thing; to vary a posture or an attitude; to vary one's dress or opinions.
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Shall we vary our device at will,
Even as new occasion appears?
Spenser.
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2. To change to something else; to transmute; to exchange; to alternate.
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Gods, that never change their state,
Vary oft their love and hate.
Waller.
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We are to vary the customs according to the time and country where the scene of action lies. Dryden.
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3. To make of different kinds; to make different from one another; to diversify; to variegate.
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God hath varied their inclinations. Sir T. Browne.
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God hath here
Varied his bounty so with new delights.
Milton.
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4. (Mus.) To embellish; to change fancifully; to present under new aspects, as of form, key, measure, etc. See Variation, 4.
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Vary
Va"ry (?), v. i. 1. To alter, or be altered, in any manner; to suffer a partial change; to become different; to be modified; as, colors vary in different lights.
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That each from other differs, first confess;
Next, that he varies from himself no less.
Pope.
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2. To differ, or be different; to be unlike or diverse; as, the laws of France vary from those of England.
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3. To alter or change in succession; to alternate; as, one mathematical quantity varies inversely as another.
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While fear and anger, with alternate grace,
Pant in her breast, and vary in her face.
Addison.
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4. To deviate; to depart; to swerve; -- followed by from; as, to vary from the law, or from reason. Locke.
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5. To disagree; to be at variance or in dissension; as, men vary in opinion.
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The rich jewel which we vary for. Webster (1623).
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Vary
Va"ry, n. Alteration; change. [Obs.] Shak.
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Varying
Va"ry*ing, a. & n. from Vary.
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Varying hare (Zool.), any hare or rabbit which becomes white in winter, especially the common hare of the Northern United States and Canada.
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Vas
Vas (?), n.; pl. Vasa (#). [L., a vessel. See Vase.] (Anat.) A vessel; a duct.
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Vas deferens; pl. Vasa deferentia. [L. vas vessel + deferens carrying down.] (Anat.) The excretory duct of a testicle; a spermatic duct.
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Vascular
Vas"cu*lar (?), a. [L. vasculum a small vessel, dim. of vas vessel: cf. F. vasculaire. See Vase, and cf. Vessel.]
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1. (Biol.) (a) Consisting of, or containing, vessels as an essential part of a structure; full of vessels; specifically (Bot.), pertaining to, or containing, special ducts, or tubes, for the circulation of sap. (b) Operating by means of, or made up of an arrangement of, vessels; as, the vascular system in animals, including the arteries, veins, capillaries, lacteals, etc. (c) Of or pertaining to the vessels of animal and vegetable bodies; as, the vascular functions.
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2. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the higher division of plants, that is, the phaenogamous plants, all of which are vascular, in distinction from the cryptogams, which to a large extent are cellular only.
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Vascular plants (Bot.), plants composed in part of vascular tissue, as all flowering plants and the higher cryptogamous plants, or those of the class Pteridophyta. Cf. Cellular plants, under Cellular. -- Vascular system (Bot.), the body of associated ducts and woody fiber; the fibrovascular part of plants. -- Vascular tissue (Bot.), vegetable tissue composed partly of ducts, or sap tubes. -- Water vascular system (Zool.), a system of vessels in annelids, nemerteans, and many other invertebrates, containing a circulating fluid analogous to blood, but not of the same composition. In annelids the fluid which they contain is usually red, but in some it is green, in others yellow, or whitish.
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Vascularity
Vas`cu*lar"i*ty (văs`k&uuptack_;*lăr"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n.; pl. Vascularities (văs`k&uuptack_;*lăr"&ibreve_;*t&ibreve_;z). (Biol.) The quality or state of being vascular.
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Vascularization
Vas`cu*lar*i*za"tion (văs`k&uuptack_;*l&etilde_;r*&ibreve_;*zā"shŭn), n. (Physiol.) The process of becoming vascular, or the condition of being vascular; as, the vascularization of cartilege.
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Vasculose
Vas"cu*lose` (?), n. (Bot.) One of the substances of which vegetable tissue is composed, differing from cellulose in respect to its solubility in certain media.
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Vasculum
Vas"cu*lum (?), n.; pl. Vascula (#). [L., a small vessel.] 1. (Bot.) Same as Ascidium, n., 1.
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2. A tin box, commonly cylindrical or flattened, used in collecting plants.
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Vase
Vase (vās or väz; 277), n. [F. vase; cf. Sp. & It. vaso; fr. L. vas, vasum. Cf. Vascular, Vessel.] 1. A vessel adapted for various domestic purposes, and anciently for sacrificial uses; especially, a vessel of antique or elegant pattern used for ornament; as, a porcelain vase; a gold vase; a Grecian vase. See Illust. of Portland vase, under Portland.
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No chargers then were wrought in burnished gold,
Nor silver vases took the forming mold.
Pope.
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2. (Arch.) (a) A vessel similar to that described in the first definition above, or the representation of one in a solid block of stone, or the like, used for an ornament, as on a terrace or in a garden. See Illust. of Niche. (b) The body, or naked ground, of the Corinthian and Composite capital; -- called also tambour, and drum.
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&hand_; Until the time of Walker (1791), vase was made to rhyme with base, case, etc., and it is still commonly so pronounced in the United States. Walker made it to rhyme with phrase, maze, etc. Of modern English practice, Mr. A. J. Ellis (1874) says: “Vase has four pronunciations in English: v&asuml_;z, which I most commonly say, is going out of use, väz I hear most frequently, vāz very rarely, and vās I only know from Cull's marking. On the analogy of case, however, it should be the regular sound.”
The Merriam-Webster's 10th Colletgiate Dictionary says: “U. S. oftenest vās; Canada usu. and U. S. also vāz; Canada also & U. S. sometimes väz.”
One wit has noted that “a väz is a vāz that costs more than $100.”, suggesting that the former is considered a higher-class pronunciation.

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3. (Bot.) The calyx of a plant.
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Vase clock
Vase clock. (Art) A clock whose decorative case has the general form of a vase, esp. one in which there is no ordinary dial, but in which a part of a vase revolves while a single stationary indicator serves as a hand.
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Vasectomy
Vas*ec"to*my (văs*&ebreve_;k"t&ouptack_;*m&ybreve_;), n. [Vas + -ecmoty.] (Surg.) Resection or excision of the vas deferens.
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Vaseline
Vas"e*line (?), n. [Said by the manufacturer to be derived from G. wasser water + Gr. 'e`laion olive oil.] A yellowish translucent substance, almost odorless and tasteless, obtained as a residue in the purification of crude petroleum, and consisting essentially of a mixture of several of the higher members of the paraffin series. It is used as an unguent, and for various purposes in the arts. See the Note under Petrolatum. [Written also vaselin.]
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Vase-shaped
Vase"-shaped` (?), a. Formed like a vase, or like a common flowerpot.
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Vasiform
Vas"i*form (?), a. [L. vas a vessel + -form.] (Biol.) Having the form of a vessel, or duct.
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Vasiform tissue (Bot.), tissue containing vessels, or ducts.
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Vasoconstrictor
Vas`o*con*strict"or (?), a. (Physiol.) Causing constriction of the blood vessels; as, the vasoconstrictor nerves, stimulation of which causes constriction of the blood vessels to which they go. These nerves are also called vasohypertonic.
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Vasoconstrictor
Vas`o*con*strict"or (?), n. (Medicine, Physiology) A substance which causes constriction of the blood vessels. Such substances are used in medicine to raise abnormally low blood pressure.
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Vasodentine
Vas`o*den"tine (?), n. [L. vas a vessel + E. dentine.] (Anat.) A modified form of dentine, which is permeated by blood capillaries; vascular dentine.
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Vasodilator
Vas`o*di*lat"or (?), a. [L. vas a vessel + dilator.] (Physiol.) Causing dilation or relaxation of the blood vessels; as, the vasodilator nerves, stimulation of which causes dilation of the blood vessels to which they go. These nerves are also called vaso-inhibitory, and vasohypotonic nerves, since their stimulation causes relaxation and rest.
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Vasodilator
Vas`o*di*lat"or (?), n. [L. vas a vessel + dilator.] (Medicine & Physiology) A substance which causes dilation of blood vessels.
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Vasoformative
Vas`o*form"a*tive (?), a. [L. vas a vessel + formative.] (Physiol.) Concerned in the development and formation of blood vessels and blood corpuscles; as, the vasoformative cells.
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Vasohypertonic
Vas`o*hy`per*ton"ic (?), a. [See Hyper-, and Tonic.] See Vasoconstrictor.
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Vasohypotonic
Vas`o*hy`po*ton"ic (?), a. [See Hypo-, and Tonic.] See Vasodilator.
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Vaso-inhibitory
Vas`o-in*hib"i*to*ry (?), a. (Physiol.) See Vasodilator.
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Vasomotor
Vas`o*mo"tor (?), a. [L. vas a vessel + motor that which moves fr. movere to move.] (Physiol.) Causing movement in the walls of vessels; as, the vasomotor mechanisms; the vasomotor nerves, a system of nerves distributed over the muscular coats of the blood vessels.
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Vasomotor center, the chief dominating or general center which supplies all the unstriped muscles of the arterial system with motor nerves, situated in a part of the medulla oblongata; a center of reflex action by the working of which afferent impulses are changed into efferent, -- vasomotor impulses leading either to dilation or constriction of the blood vessels.
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Vassal
Vas"sal (?), n. [F., fr. LL. vassallus, vassus; of Celtic origin; cf. W. & Corn. gwas a youth, page, servant, Arm. gwaz a man, a male. Cf. Valet, Varlet, Vavasor.]
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1. (Feud. Law) The grantee of a fief, feud, or fee; one who holds land of a superior, and who vows fidelity and homage to him; a feudatory; a feudal tenant. Burrill.
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2. A subject; a dependent; a servant; a bondman; a slave. “The vassals of his anger.” Milton.
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Rear vassal, the vassal of a vassal; an arriere vassal.
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Vassal
Vas"sal, a. Resembling a vassal; slavish; servile.
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The sun and every vassal star. Keble.
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Vassal
Vas"sal, v. t. To treat as a vassal; to subject to control; to enslave. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.
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Vassalage
Vas"sal*age (?), n. [OE. vassalage, F. vasselage, LL. vassallaticum.]
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1. The state of being a vassal, or feudatory.
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2. Political servitude; dependence; subjection; slavery; as, the Greeks were held in vassalage by the Turks.
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3. A territory held in vassalage. “The Countship of Foix, with six territorial vassalages.” Milman.
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4. Vassals, collectively; vassalry. [R.] Shak.
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5. Valorous service, such as that performed by a vassal; valor; prowess; courage. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Vassaless
Vas"sal*ess, n. A female vassal. [R.] Spenser.
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Vassalry
Vas"sal*ry (?), n. The body of vassals. [R.]
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Vast
Vast (v&adot_;st), a. [Compar. Vaster (v&adot_;st"&etilde_;r); superl. Vastest.] [L. vastus empty, waste, enormous, immense: cf. F. vaste. See Waste, and cf. Devastate.]
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1. Waste; desert; desolate; lonely. [Obs.]
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The empty, vast, and wandering air. Shak.
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2. Of great extent; very spacious or large; also, huge in bulk; immense; enormous; as, the vast ocean; vast mountains; the vast empire of Russia.
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Through the vast and boundless deep. Milton.
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3. Very great in numbers, quantity, or amount; as, a vast army; a vast sum of money.
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4. Very great in force; mighty; as, vast labor.
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5. Very great in importance; as, a subject of vast concern.
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Syn. -- Enormous; huge; immense; mighty.
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Vast
Vast, n. A waste region; boundless space; immensity. “The watery vast.” Pope.
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Michael bid sound
The archangel trumpet. Through the vast of heaven
It sounded.
Milton.
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Vastation
Vas*ta"tion (?), n. [L. vastatio, fr. vastare to lay waste, fr. vastus empty, waste.] A laying waste; waste; depopulation; devastation. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.
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Vastel
Vas"tel (?), n. See Wastel. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Vastidity
Vas*tid"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. OF. vastité, L. vastitas.] Vastness; immensity. [Obs.] “All the world's vastidity.” Shak.
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Vastitude
Vas"ti*tude (?), n. [L. vastitudo.] 1. Vastness; immense extent. [R.]
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2. Destruction; vastation. [Obs.] Joye.
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Vastity
Vast"i*ty (?), n. [L. vastitas.] Vastness. [Obs.]
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The huge vastity of the world. Holland.
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Vastly
Vast"ly, adv. To a vast extent or degree; very greatly; immensely. Jer. Taylor.
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Vastness
Vast"ness, n. The quality or state of being vast.
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Vasty
Vas"ty (?), a. [From Vast.] Vast; immense. [R.]
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I can call spirits from the vasty deep. Shak.
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Vasum
Va"sum (?), n. [L., a vase. See Vase.] (Zool.) A genus including several species of large marine gastropods having massive pyriform shells, with conspicuous folds on the columella.
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Vat
Vat (văt), n. [A dialectic form for fat, OE. fat, AS. fæt; akin to D. vat, OS. fat, G. fass, OHG. faz, Icel. & Sw. fat, Dan. fad, Lith. půdas a pot, and probably to G. fassen to seize, to contain, OHG. fazzōn, D. vatten. Cf. Fat a vat.]
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1. A large vessel, cistern, or tub, especially one used for holding liquors in an immature state, chemical preparations for dyeing, or for tanning, or for tanning leather, or the like.
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Let him produce his vats and tubs, in opposition to heaps of arms and standards. Addison.
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2. A measure for liquids, and also a dry measure; especially, a liquid measure in Belgium and Holland, corresponding to the hectoliter of the metric system, which contains 22.01 imperial gallons, or 26.4 standard gallons in the United States.
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&hand_; The old Dutch grain vat averaged 0.762 Winchester bushel. The old London coal vat contained 9 bushels. The solid-measurement vat of Amsterdam contains 40 cubic feet; the wine vat, 241.57 imperial gallons, and the vat for olive oil, 225.45 imperial gallons.
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3. (Metal.) (a) A wooden tub for washing ores and mineral substances in. (b) A square, hollow place on the back of a calcining furnace, where tin ore is laid to dry.
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4. (R. C. Ch.) A vessel for holding holy water.
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Vat
Vat (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vatted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vatting.] To put or transfer into a vat.
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Vatful
Vat"ful (?), n.; pl. Vatfuls (&unr_;). As much as a vat will hold; enough to fill a vat.
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Vatical
Vat"ic*al (?), a. [L. vates a prophet.] Of or pertaining to a prophet; prophetical. Bp. Hall.
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Vatican
Vat"i*can (?), n. [L. Vaticanus, mons, or collis, Vaticanus, the Vatican hill, in Rome, on the western bank of the Tiber: cf. F. Vatican, It. Vaticano.] A magnificent assemblage of buildings at Rome, near the church of St. Peter, including the pope's palace, a museum, a library, a famous chapel, etc.
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&hand_; The word is often used to indicate the papal authority.
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Thunders of the Vatican, the anathemas, or denunciations, of the pope.
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Vatican Council
Vat"i*can Coun"cil. (R. C. Ch.) The council held under Pope Pius IX. in Vatican at Rome, in 1870, which promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility.
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Vaticanism
Vat"i*can*ism (?), n. The doctrine of papal supremacy; extreme views in support of the authority of the pope; ultramontanism; -- a term used only by persons who are not Roman Catholics.
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Vaticanist
Vat"i*can*ist, n. One who strongly adheres to the papal authority; an ultramontanist.
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Vaticide
Vat"i*cide (?), n. [L. vates a prophet + caedere to kill.] The murder, or the murderer, of a prophet. “The caitiff vaticide.” Pope.
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Vaticinal
Va*tic"i*nal (?), a. [See Vaticinate.] Of or pertaining to prophecy; prophetic. T. Warton.
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Vaticinate
Va*tic"i*nate (?), v. i. & t. [L. vaticinatus, p. p. of vaticinari to prophesy, fr. vaticinus prophetical, fr. vates a prophet.] To prophesy; to foretell; to practice prediction; to utter prophecies.
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Vaticination
Va*tic`i*na"tion (?), n. [L. vaticinatio.] Prediction; prophecy.
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It is not a false utterance; it is a true, though an impetuous, vaticination. I. Taylor.
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Vaticinator
Va*tic"i*na`tor (?), n. [L.] One who vaticinates; a prophet.
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Vaticine
Vat"i*cine (?), n. [L. vaticinium.] A prediction; a vaticination. [Obs.] Holinshed.
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Vaudeville
Vaude"ville (?), n. [F., fr. Vau-de-vire, a village in Normandy, where Olivier Basselin, at the end of the 14th century, composed such songs.] [Written also vaudevil.]
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1. A kind of song of a lively character, frequently embodying a satire on some person or event, sung to a familiar air in couplets with a refrain; a street song; a topical song.
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2. A theatrical piece, usually a comedy, the dialogue of which is intermingled with light or satirical songs, set to familiar airs.
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The early vaudeville, which is the forerunner of the opera bouffe, was light, graceful, and piquant. Johnson's Cyc.
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3. a variety show when performed live in a theater (see above); as, to play in vaudeville; a vaudeville actor.
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Vaudois
Vau*dois" (vō*dwä"), n. sing. & pl. [F.] 1. An inhabitant, or the inhabitants, of the Swiss canton of Vaud.
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2. A modern name of the Waldenses.
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Vaudoux
Vau*doux" (?), n. & a. See Voodoo.
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Vault
Vault (v&asuml_;lt; see Note, below), n. [OE. voute, OF. voute, volte, F. voûte, LL. volta, for voluta, volutio, fr. L. volvere, volutum, to roll, to turn about. See Voluble, and cf. Vault a leap, Volt a turn, Volute.]
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1. (Arch.) An arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy.
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The long-drawn aisle and fretted vault. Gray.
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2. An arched apartment; especially, a subterranean room, used for storing articles, for a prison, for interment, or the like; a cell; a cellar. “Charnel vaults.” Milton.
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The silent vaults of death. Sandys.
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To banish rats that haunt our vault. Swift.
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3. The canopy of heaven; the sky.
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That heaven's vault should crack. Shak.
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4. [F. volte, It. volta, originally, a turn, and the same word as volta an arch. See the Etymology above.] A leap or bound. Specifically: -- (a) (Man.) The bound or leap of a horse; a curvet. (b) A leap by aid of the hands, or of a pole, springboard, or the like.
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&hand_; The l in this word was formerly often suppressed in pronunciation.
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Barrel vault, Cradle vault, Cylindrical vault, or Wagon vault (Arch.), a kind of vault having two parallel abutments, and the same section or profile at all points. It may be rampant, as over a staircase (see Rampant vault, under Rampant), or curved in plan, as around the apse of a church. -- Coved vault. (Arch.) See under 1st Cove, v. t. -- Groined vault (Arch.), a vault having groins, that is, one in which different cylindrical surfaces intersect one another, as distinguished from a barrel, or wagon, vault. -- Rampant vault. (Arch.) See under Rampant. -- Ribbed vault (Arch.), a vault differing from others in having solid ribs which bear the weight of the vaulted surface. True Gothic vaults are of this character. -- Vault light, a partly glazed plate inserted in a pavement or ceiling to admit light to a vault below.
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Vault
Vault (v&asuml_;lt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vaulted; p. pr. & vb. n. Vaulting.] [OE. vouten, OF. volter, vouter, F. voûter. See Vault an arch.]
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1. To form with a vault, or to cover with a vault; to give the shape of an arch to; to arch; as, to vault a roof; to vault a passage to a court.
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The shady arch that vaulted the broad green alley. Sir W. Scott.
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2. [See Vault, v. i.] To leap over; esp., to leap over by aid of the hands or a pole; as, to vault a fence.
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I will vault credit, and affect high pleasures. Webster (1623).
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Vault
Vault, v. i. [Cf. OF. volter, F. voltiger, It. voltare to turn. See Vault, n., 4.]
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1. To leap; to bound; to jump; to spring.
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Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself. Shak.
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Leaning on his lance, he vaulted on a tree. Dryden.
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Lucan vaulted upon Pegasus with all the heat and intrepidity of youth. Addison.
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2. To exhibit feats of tumbling or leaping; to tumble.
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Vaultage
Vault"age (?), n. Vaulted work; also, a vaulted place; an arched cellar. [Obs.] Shak.
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Vaulted
Vault"ed, a. 1. Arched; concave; as, a vaulted roof.
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2. Covered with an arch, or vault.
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3. (Bot.) Arched like the roof of the mouth, as the upper lip of many ringent flowers.
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Vaulter
Vault"er (?), n. One who vaults; a leaper; a tumbler. B. Jonson.
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Vaulting
Vault"ing, n. 1. The act of constructing vaults; a vaulted construction.
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2. Act of one who vaults or leaps.
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Vaulty
Vault"y (?), a. Arched; concave. [Obs.] “The vaulty heaven.” Shak.
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Vaunce
Vaunce (?), v. i. [See Advance.] To advance. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vaunt
Vaunt (vänt or v&asuml_;nt; 277), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vaunted; p. pr. & vb. n. Vaunting.] [F. vanter, LL. vanitare, fr. L. vanus vain. See Vain.] To boast; to make a vain display of one's own worth, attainments, decorations, or the like; to talk ostentatiously; to brag.
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Pride, which prompts a man to vaunt and overvalue what he is, does incline him to disvalue what he has. Gov. of Tongue.
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Vaunt
Vaunt, v. t. To boast of; to make a vain display of; to display with ostentation. In the latter sense, the term usually used is flaunt.
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Charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. 1 Cor. xiii. 4.
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My vanquisher, spoiled of his vaunted spoil. Milton.
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Vaunt
Vaunt, n. A vain display of what one is, or has, or has done; ostentation from vanity; a boast; a brag.
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The spirits beneath, whom I seduced
With other promises and other vaunts.
Milton.
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Vaunt
Vaunt, n. [F. avant before, fore. See Avant, Vanguard.] The first part. [Obs.] Shak.
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Vaunt
Vaunt, v. t. [See Avant, Advance.] To put forward; to display. [Obs.]Vaunted spear.” Spenser.
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And what so else his person most may vaunt. Spenser.
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Vaunt-courier
Vaunt"-cou`ri*er (?), n. See Van-courier. [Obs.] Shak.
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Vaunter
Vaunt"er (?), n. One who vaunts; a boaster.
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Vauntful
Vaunt"ful (?), a. Given to vaunting or boasting; vainly ostentatious; boastful; vainglorious.
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Vauntingly
Vaunt"ing*ly, adv. In a vaunting manner.
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Vauntmure
Vaunt"mure` (?), n. [F. avant-mur. See Vanguard, and Mure.] (Fort.) A false wall; a work raised in front of the main wall. [Written also vaimure, and vamure.] Camden.
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Vauquelinite
Vauque"lin*ite (?), n. [So called after the French chemist Vauquelin, who died in 1829: cf. F. vauquelinite.] (Min.) Chromate of copper and lead, of various shades of green.
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Vaut
Vaut (?), v. i. To vault; to leap. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vaut
Vaut, n. A vault; a leap. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vauty
Vaut"y (?), a. Vaulted. “The haughty vauty welkin.” [Obs.] Taylor (1611).
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Vavasor
Vav"a*sor (?), n. [OE. vavasour, OF. vavassor, vavassour, F. vavasseur, LL. vavassor, probably contr. from vassus vassorum vassal of the vassals. See Vassal.] (Feud. Law) The vassal or tenant of a baron; one who held under a baron, and who also had tenants under him; one in dignity next to a baron; a title of dignity next to a baron. Burrill. “A worthy vavasour.” Chaucer. [Also written vavasour, vavassor, valvasor, etc.]
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Vavasours subdivide again to vassals, exchanging land and cattle, human or otherwise, against fealty. Motley.
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Vavasory
Vav"a*so*ry (?), n. [F. vavassorie.] (Feud. Law) The quality or tenure of the fee held by a vavasor; also, the lands held by a vavasor.
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Vaward
Va"ward` (?), n. [For vanward, equivalent to vanguard. See Vanguard, Ward guard.] The fore part; van. [Obs.]
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Since we have the vaward of the day. Shak.
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Vaza parrot
Va"za par`rot (?). (Zool.) Any one of several species of parrots of the genus Coracopsis, native of Madagascar; -- called also vasa parrot.
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VCR
VCR (vē"sē*är`), n. a videocasette recorder. [acronym]
[PJC]

Veadar
Ve"a*dar (?), n. The thirteenth, or intercalary, month of the Jewish ecclesiastical calendar, which is added about every third year.
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Veal
Veal (vēl), n.[OE. veel, OF. veel, F. veau, L. vitellus, dim. of vitulus a calf; akin to E. wether. See Wether, and cf. Vellum, Vituline.] The flesh of a calf when killed and used for food.
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Vection
Vec"tion (?), n. [L. vectio, from vehere, vectum, to carry.] Vectitation. [Obs.]
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Vectitation
Vec`ti*ta"tion (?), n. [L. vectitatus borne about, fr. vectare, v. intens. fr. vehere, vectum, to carry.] The act of carrying, or state of being carried. [Obs.]
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Vector
Vec"tor (?), n. [L., a bearer, carrier. fr. vehere, vectum, to carry.] 1. Same as Radius vector.
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2. (Math.) A directed quantity, as a straight line, a force, or a velocity. Vectors are said to be equal when their directions are the same and their magnitudes equal. Cf. Scalar.
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&hand_; In a triangle, either side is the vector sum of the other two sides taken in proper order; the process finding the vector sum of two or more vectors is vector addition (see under Addition).
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Vecture
Vec"ture (?), n. [L. vectura, from vehere, vectum, to carry. Cf. Vettura, Voiture.] The act of carrying; conveyance; carriage. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Veda
Ve"da (vā"d&adot_;or vē"d&adot_;; 277), n. [Skr. vēda, properly, knowledge, from vid to know. See Wit.] The ancient sacred literature of the Hindus; also, one of the four collections, called Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, and Atharva-Veda, constituting the most ancient portions of that literature.
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&hand_; The language of the Vedas is usually called Vedic Sanskrit, as distinguished from the later and more settled form called classical Sanskrit.
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Vedanta
Ve*dan"ta (?), n. [Skr. Vēdanta.] A system of philosophy among the Hindus, founded on scattered texts of the Vedas, and thence termed the “Anta,” or end or substance. Balfour (Cyc. of India.)
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Vedantic
Ve*dan"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Vedas.
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Vedantist
Ve*dan"tist (?), n. One versed in the doctrines of the Vedantas.
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Veddahs
Ved"dahs (v&ebreve_;d"d&adot_;z), n. pl. (Ethnol.) A primitive people of Ceylon. [Written also Weddars.] Encyc Brit.
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Vedette
Ve*dette" (?), n. [F. vedette, It. vedetta, for veletta (influenced by vedere to see, L. videre), from It. veglia watch, L. vigilia. See Vigil.] A sentinel, usually on horseback, stationed on the outpost of an army, to watch an enemy and give notice of danger; a vidette.
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Vedic
Ve"dic (vā"d&ibreve_;k or vē"-), a. Of or pertaining to the Vedas or one of the Vedas. Max Müller)
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Vedro
Ve"dro (?), n. [Russ., pail.] A Russian liquid measure, equal to 3.249 gallons of U. S. standard measure, or 2.706 imperial gallons. McElrath.
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Veer
Veer (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Veered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Veering.] [F. virer (cf. Sp. virar, birar), LL. virare; perhaps fr. L. vibrare to brandish, vibrate (cf. Vibrate); or cf. L. viriae armlets, bracelets, viriola a little bracelet (cf. Ferrule). Cf. Environ.] To change direction; to turn; to shift; as, wind veers to the west or north. “His veering gait.” Wordsworth.
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And as he leads, the following navy veers. Dryden.
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an ordinary community which is hostile or friendly as passion or as interest may veer about. Burke.
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To veer and haul (Naut.), to vary the course or direction; -- said of the wind, which veers aft and hauls forward. The wind is also said to veer when it shifts with the sun.
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Veer
Veer, v. t. To direct to a different course; to turn; to wear; as, to veer, or wear, a vessel.
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To veer and haul (Naut.), to pull tight and slacken alternately. Totten. -- To veer away or To veer out (Naut.), to let out; to slacken and let run; to pay out; as, to veer away the cable; to veer out a rope.
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Veerable
Veer"a*ble (-&adot_;*b'l), a. Changeable; shifting; as, winds veerable to southwest. Dampier.
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Veering
Veer"ing, a. Shifting. -- Veer"ing*ly, adv.
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Veery
Veer"y (?), n. (Zool.) An American thrush (Turdus fuscescens) common in the Northern United States and Canada. It is light tawny brown above. The breast is pale buff, thickly spotted with brown. Called also Wilson's thrush.
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Sometimes I hear the veery's clarion. Thoreau.
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Vega
Ve"ga (vē"g&adot_;), n. (Astron.) [Ar. wāgi', properly, falling: cf. F. Wéga.] A brilliant star of the first magnitude, the brightest of those constituting the constellation Lyra.
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Vega
Ve"ga (?), n. [Sp.] An open tract of ground; a plain, esp. one which is moist and fertile, as those used for tobacco fields. [Sp. Amer. & Phil. Islands]
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vegan
ve"gan (vē"gŭn or vēj"ŭn), n. A vegetarian who does not eat any animal products, not even fish, eggs, or milk.
[PJC]

Vegetability
Veg`e*ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vegetable. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Vegetable
Veg`e*ta*ble (?), a. [F. végétable growing, capable of growing, formerly also, as a noun, a vegetable, from L. vegetabilis enlivening, from vegetare to enliven, invigorate, quicken, vegetus enlivened, vigorous, active, vegere to quicken, arouse, to be lively, akin to vigere to be lively, to thrive, vigil watchful, awake, and probably to E. wake, v. See Vigil, Wake, v.]
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1. Of or pertaining to plants; having the nature of, or produced by, plants; as, a vegetable nature; vegetable growths, juices, etc.
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Blooming ambrosial fruit
Of vegetable gold.
Milton.
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2. Consisting of, or comprising, plants; as, the vegetable kingdom.
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Vegetable alkali (Chem.), an alkaloid. -- Vegetable brimstone. (Bot.) See Vegetable sulphur, below. -- Vegetable butter (Bot.), a name of several kinds of concrete vegetable oil; as that produced by the Indian butter tree, the African shea tree, and the Pentadesma butyracea, a tree of the order Guttiferae, also African. Still another kind is pressed from the seeds of cocoa (Theobroma). -- Vegetable flannel, a textile material, manufactured in Germany from pine-needle wool, a down or fiber obtained from the leaves of the Pinus sylvestris. -- Vegetable ivory. See Ivory nut, under Ivory. -- Vegetable jelly. See Pectin. -- Vegetable kingdom. (Nat. Hist.) See the last Phrase, below. -- Vegetable leather. (a) (Bot.) A shrubby West Indian spurge (Euphorbia punicea), with leathery foliage and crimson bracts. (b) See Vegetable leather, under Leather. -- Vegetable marrow (Bot.), an egg-shaped gourd, commonly eight to ten inches long. It is noted for the very tender quality of its flesh, and is a favorite culinary vegetable in England. It has been said to be of Persian origin, but is now thought to have been derived from a form of the American pumpkin. -- Vegetable oyster (Bot.), the oyster plant. See under Oyster. -- Vegetable parchment, papyrine. -- Vegetable sheep (Bot.), a white woolly plant (Raoulia eximia) of New Zealand, which grows in the form of large fleecy cushions on the mountains. -- Vegetable silk, a cottonlike, fibrous material obtained from the coating of the seeds of a Brazilian tree (Chorisia speciosa). It is used for various purposes, as for stuffing cushions, and the like, but is incapable of being spun on account of a want of cohesion among the fibers. -- Vegetable sponge. See 1st Loof. -- Vegetable sulphur, the fine and highly inflammable spores of the club moss (Lycopodium clavatum); witch meal. -- Vegetable tallow, a substance resembling tallow, obtained from various plants; as, Chinese vegetable tallow, obtained from the seeds of the tallow tree. Indian vegetable tallow is a name sometimes given to piney tallow. -- Vegetable wax, a waxy excretion on the leaves or fruits of certain plants, as the bayberry.
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Vegetable kingdom (Nat. Hist.), that primary division of living things which includes all plants. The classes of the vegetable kingdom have been grouped differently by various botanists. The following is one of the best of the many arrangements of the principal subdivisions.
[1913 Webster] I. Phaenogamia (called also Phanerogamia). Plants having distinct flowers and true seeds. { 1. Dicotyledons (called also Exogens). -- Seeds with two or more cotyledons. Stems with the pith, woody fiber, and bark concentrically arranged. Divided into two subclasses: Angiosperms, having the woody fiber interspersed with dotted or annular ducts, and the seeds contained in a true ovary; Gymnosperms, having few or no ducts in the woody fiber, and the seeds naked. 2. Monocotyledons (called also Endogens). -- Seeds with single cotyledon. Stems with slender bundles of woody fiber not concentrically arranged, and with no true bark.}
[1913 Webster] II. Cryptogamia. Plants without true flowers, and reproduced by minute spores of various kinds, or by simple cell division. { 1. Acrogens. -- Plants usually with distinct stems and leaves, existing in two alternate conditions, one of which is nonsexual and sporophoric, the other sexual and oophoric. Divided into Vascular Acrogens, or Pteridophyta, having the sporophoric plant conspicuous and consisting partly of vascular tissue, as in Ferns, Lycopods, and Equiseta, and Cellular Acrogens, or Bryophyta, having the sexual plant most conspicuous, but destitute of vascular tissue, as in Mosses and Scale Mosses. 2. Thallogens. -- Plants without distinct stem and leaves, consisting of a simple or branched mass of cellular tissue, or reduced to a single cell. Reproduction effected variously. Divided into Algae, which contain chlorophyll or its equivalent, and which live upon air and water, and Fungi, which contain no chlorophyll, and live on organic matter. (Lichens are now believed to be fungi parasitic on included algae.}

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&hand_; Many botanists divide the Phaenogamia primarily into Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, and the latter into Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Others consider Pteridophyta and Bryophyta to be separate classes. Thallogens are variously divided by different writers, and the places for diatoms, slime molds, and stoneworts are altogether uncertain.
[1913 Webster] For definitions, see these names in the Vocabulary.

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Vegetable
Veg"e*ta*ble (?), n. 1. (Biol.) A plant. See Plant.
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2. A plant used or cultivated for food for man or domestic animals, as the cabbage, turnip, potato, bean, dandelion, etc.; also, the edible part of such a plant, as prepared for market or the table.
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3. A person who has permanently lost consciousness, due to damage to the brain, but remains alive; sometimes continued life requires support by machinery such as breathing tubes. Such a person is said to be in a vegetative state.
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&hand_; Vegetables and fruits are sometimes loosely distinguished by the usual need of cooking the former for the use of man, while the latter may be eaten raw; but the distinction often fails, as in the case of quinces, barberries, and other fruits, and lettuce, celery, and other vegetables. Tomatoes if cooked are vegetables, if eaten raw are fruits.
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Vegetal
Veg"e*tal (?), a. [F. végétal. See Vegetable.]
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1. Of or pertaining to vegetables, or the vegetable kingdom; of the nature of a vegetable; vegetable.
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All creatures vegetal, sensible, and rational. Burton.
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2. (Biol.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, that class of vital phenomena, such as digestion, absorption, assimilation, secretion, excretion, circulation, generation, etc., which are common to plants and animals, in distinction from sensation and volition, which are peculiar to animals.
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Vegetal
Veg"e*tal, n. [F.] A vegetable. [R.] B. Jonson.
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Vegetality
Veg`e*tal"i*ty (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being vegetal, or vegetable. [R.]
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2. (Biol.) The quality or state of being vegetal, or exhibiting those physiological phenomena which are common to plants and animals. See Vegetal, a., 2.
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Vegetarian
Veg`e*ta"ri*an (?), n. One who holds that vegetables and fruits are the only proper food for man. Strict vegetarians eat no meat, eggs, or milk, and are sometimes referred tro as vegans.
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Vegetarian
Veg`e*ta"ri*an, a. Of or pertaining to vegetarianism; as, a vegetarian diet.
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Vegetarianism
Veg`e*ta"ri*an*ism (?), n. The theory or practice of living upon vegetables and fruits.
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Vegetate
Veg"e*tate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vegetated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vegetating.] [L. vegetatus, p. p. of vegetare to enliven. See Vegetable.]
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1. To grow, as plants, by nutriment imbibed by means of roots and leaves; to start into growth; to sprout; to germinate.
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See dying vegetables life sustain,
See life dissolving vegetate again.
Pope.
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2. Fig.: To lead a life too low for an animate creature; to do nothing but eat and grow. Cowper.
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Persons who . . . would have vegetated stupidly in the places where fortune had fixed them. Jeffrey.
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3. (Med.) To grow exuberantly; to produce fleshy or warty outgrowths; as, a vegetating papule.
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Vegetation
Veg`e*ta"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. végétation, L. vegetatio an enlivening. See Vegetable.]
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1. The act or process of vegetating, or growing as a plant does; vegetable growth.
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2. The sum of vegetable life; vegetables or plants in general; as, luxuriant vegetation.
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3. (Med.) An exuberant morbid outgrowth upon any part, especially upon the valves of the heart.
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Vegetation of salts (Old Chem.), a crystalline growth of an arborescent form.
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Vegetative
Veg"e*ta*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. végétatif.]
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1. Growing, or having the power of growing, as plants; capable of vegetating.
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2. Having the power to produce growth in plants; as, the vegetative properties of soil.
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3. (Biol.) Having relation to growth or nutrition; partaking of simple growth and enlargement of the systems of nutrition, apart from the sensorial or distinctively animal functions; vegetal.
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-- Veg"e*ta*tive*ly, adv. -- Veg"e*ta*tive*ness, n.
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Vegete
Ve*gete" (?), a. [L. vegetus. See Vegetable.] Lively; active; sprightly; vigorous. [Obs.]
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Even her body was made airy and vegete. Jer. Taylor.
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Vegetism
Veg"e*tism (?), n. Vegetal state or characteristic.
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Vegetive
Veg"e*tive (?), a. [See Vegetate, and Vegetative.] Having the nature of a plant; vegetable; as, vegetive life. [R.] Tusser.
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Vegetive
Veg"e*tive, n. A vegetable. [Obs.]
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The blest infusions
That dwell in vegetives, in metals, stones.
Shak.
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Vegeto-animal
Veg"e*to-an"i*mal (?), a. (Biol.) Partaking of the nature both of vegetable and animal matter; -- a term sometimes applied to vegetable albumen and gluten, from their resemblance to similar animal products.
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Vegetous
Veg"e*tous (?), a. [L. vegetus. See Vegete.] Vigorous; lively; active; vegete. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Vehemence
Ve"he*mence (?), n. [L. vehementia: cf. F. véhémence.]
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1. The quality or state of being vehement; impetuous force; impetuosity; violence; fury; as, the vehemence of the wind; to speak with vehemence.
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2. Violent ardor; great heat; animated fervor; as, the vehemence of love, anger, or other passions.
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I . . . tremble at his vehemence of temper. Addison.
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Vehemency
Ve"he*men*cy (?), n. Vehemence. [R.]
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The vehemency of your affection. Shak.
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Vehement
Ve"he*ment (?), a. [L. vehemens, the first part of which is perhaps akin to vehere to carry, and the second mens mind: cf. F. véhément. Cf. Vehicle, and Mental.]
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1. Acting with great force; furious; violent; impetuous; forcible; mighty; as, a vehement wind; a vehement torrent; a vehement fire or heat.
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2. Very ardent; very eager or urgent; very fervent; passionate; as, a vehement affection or passion.Vehement instigation.” Shak.Vehement desire.” Milton.
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Syn. -- Furious; violent; raging; impetuous; passionate; ardent; eager; hot; fervid; burning.
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Vehemently
Ve"he*ment*ly, adv. In a vehement manner.
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Vehicle
Ve"hi*cle (?), n. [L. vehiculum, fr. vehere to carry; akin to E. way, wain. See Way, n., and cf. Convex, Inveigh, Veil, Vex.]
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1. That in or on which any person or thing is, or may be, carried, as a coach, carriage, wagon, cart, car, sleigh, bicycle, etc.; a means of conveyance; specifically, a means of conveyance upon land.
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2. That which is used as the instrument of conveyance or communication; as, matter is the vehicle of energy.
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A simple style forms the best vehicle of thought to a popular assembly. Wirt.
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3. (Pharm.) A substance in which medicine is taken.
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4. (Paint.) Any liquid with which a pigment is applied, including whatever gum, wax, or glutinous or adhesive substance is combined with it.
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&hand_; Water is used in fresco and in water-color painting, the colors being consolidated with gum arabic; size is used in distemper painting. In oil painting, the fixed oils of linseed, nut, and poppy, are used; in encaustic, wax is the vehicle. Fairholt.
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5. (Chem.) A liquid used to spread sensitive salts upon glass and paper for use in photography.
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Vehicled
Ve"hi*cled (?), a. Conveyed in a vehicle; furnished with a vehicle. M. Green.
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Vehicular
Ve*hic"u*lar (?), a. [L. vehicularis: cf. F. véhiculaire.] Of or pertaining to a vehicle; serving as a vehicle; as, a vehicular contrivance.
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Vehiculary
Ve*hic"u*la*ry (?), a. Vehicular.
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Vehiculate
Ve*hic"u*late, v. t. & i. To convey by means of a vehicle; to ride in a vehicle. Carlyle.
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Vehiculation
Ve*hic`u*la"tion (?), n. Movement of vehicles.
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Vehiculatory
Ve*hic"u*la*to*ry (?), a. Vehicular. Carlyle.
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Vehme
Vehm
{ ‖Vehm, ‖Vehme } (?), n.; pl. Vehme (#). [See Vehmgericht.] A vehmic court.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vehmgericht
Vehm"ge*richt (?), n.; pl. Vehmgerichte (#). [G. vefm, fehm criminal tribunal + gerichte court, judgment. Cf. Vehmic.] A vehmic court.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vehmic
Veh"mic (vē"m&ibreve_;k or vā"m&ibreve_;k; 277), a. [G. vehm, fehm, fehme, a secret tribunal of punishment, MHG. veime, veme: cf. F. vehmique.] Of, pertaining to, or designating, certain secret tribunals which flourished in Germany from the end of the 12th century to the middle of the 16th, usurping many of the functions of the governments which were too weak to maintain law and order, and inspiring dread in all who came within their jurisdiction. Encyc. Brit.
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Veil
Veil (vāl), n. [OE. veile, OF. veile, F. voile, L. velum a sail, covering, curtain, veil, probably fr. vehere to bear, carry, and thus originally, that which bears the ship on. See Vehicle, and cf. Reveal.] [Written also vail.]
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1. Something hung up, or spread out, to intercept the view, and hide an object; a cover; a curtain; esp., a screen, usually of gauze, crape, or similar diaphnous material, to hide or protect the face.
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The veil of the temple was rent in twain. Matt. xxvii. 51.
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She, as a veil down to the slender waist,
Her unadornéd golden tresses wore.
Milton.
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2. A cover; a disguise; a mask; a pretense.
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[I will] pluck the borrowed veil of modesty from the so seeming Mistress Page. Shak.
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3. (Bot.) (a) The calyptra of mosses. (b) A membrane connecting the margin of the pileus of a mushroom with the stalk; -- called also velum.
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4. (Eccl.) A covering for a person or thing; as, a nun's veil; a paten veil; an altar veil.
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5. (Zool.) Same as Velum, 3.
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To take the veil (Eccl.), to receive or be covered with, a veil, as a nun, in token of retirement from the world; to become a nun.
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Veil
Veil (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Veiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Veiling.] [Cf. OF. veler, F. voiler, L. velarc. See Veil, n.] [Written also vail.]
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1. To throw a veil over; to cover with a veil.
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Her face was veiled; yet to my fancied sight,
Love, sweetness, goodness, in her person shined.
Milton.
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2. Fig.: To invest; to cover; to hide; to conceal.
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To keep your great pretenses veiled. Shak.
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Veiled
Veiled (?), a. Covered by, or as by, a veil; hidden. “Words used to convey a veiled meaning.” Earle.
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Veiled plate
Veiled plate. (Photog.) A fogged plate.
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Veiling
Veil"ing (?), n. A veil; a thin covering; also, material for making veils.
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Veilless
Veil"less, a. Having no veil. Tennyson.
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Vein
Vein (?), n. [OE. veine, F. veine, L. vena.] 1. (Anat.) One of the vessels which carry blood, either venous or arterial, to the heart. See Artery, 2.
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2. (Bot.) One of the similar branches of the framework of a leaf.
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3. (Zool.) One of the ribs or nervures of the wings of insects. See Venation.
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4. (Geol. or Mining) A narrow mass of rock intersecting other rocks, and filling inclined or vertical fissures not corresponding with the stratification; a lode; a dike; -- often limited, in the language of miners, to a mineral vein or lode, that is, to a vein which contains useful minerals or ores.
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5. A fissure, cleft, or cavity, as in the earth or other substance. “Down to the veins of earth.” Milton.
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Let the glass of the prisms be free from veins. Sir I. Newton.
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6. A streak or wave of different color, appearing in wood, and in marble and other stones; variegation.
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7. A train of associations, thoughts, emotions, or the like; a current; a course; as, reasoning in the same vein.
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He can open a vein of true and noble thinking. Swift.
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8. Peculiar temper or temperament; tendency or turn of mind; a particular disposition or cast of genius; humor; strain; quality; also, manner of speech or action; as, a rich vein of humor; a satirical vein. Shak.
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Certain discoursing wits which are of the same veins. Bacon.
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Invoke the Muses, and improve my vein. Waller.
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Vein
Vein, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Veined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Veining.] To form or mark with veins; to fill or cover with veins. Tennyson.
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Veinal
Vein"al (?), a. Pertaining to veins; venous. [R.]
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Veined
Veined (?), a. 1. Full of veins; streaked; variegated; as, veined marble.Veined follies.” Ford.
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2. (Bot.) Having fibrovascular threads extending throughout the lamina; as, a veined leaf.
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Veinless
Vein"less (?), a. Having no veins; as, a veinless leaf.
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Veinlet
Vein"let (?), n. A small vein.
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Veinous
Vein"ous (?), a. Marked with veins; veined; veiny.
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The excellent old gentleman's nails are long and leaden, and his hands lean and veinous. Dickens.
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Vein quartz
Vein quartz. Quartz occurring as gangue in a vein.
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Veinstone
Vein"stone` (?), n. (Mining) The valueless nonmetalliferous mineral or rock material which surrounds the ores in a vein, as quartz, calcite, barite, fluor spar, etc.; gangue; matrix; -- called also veinstuff.
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Veiny
Vein"y (?), a. [From Vein: cf. F. veiné.] Full of veins; veinous; veined; as, veiny marble.
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Velar
Ve"lar (?), a. [See Velum.]
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1. Of or pertaining to a velum; esp. (Anat.) of or pertaining to the soft palate.
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2. (Phon.) Having the place of articulation on the soft palate; guttural; as, the velar consonants, such as k and hard g.
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Velarium
Ve*la"ri*um (?), n.; pl. Velaria (#). [L., a covering.] (Zool.) The marginal membrane of certain medusae belonging to the Discophora.
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Velate
Ve"late (?), a. [L. velatus, p. p. of velare to veil. See Veil.] (Bot.) Having a veil; veiled.
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Veldt
Veldt (?), n. [D. veld. Cf. Field, n.] A region or tract of land; esp., the open field, thinly forested or with bushes and shrubs; grass country. [South Africa]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Veldt sore
Veldt sore. (Med.) An infective sore mostly on the hands and feet, often contracted in walking on the veldt and apparently due to a specific microorganism.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vele
Vele (?), n. A veil. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Velella
Ve*lel"la (?), n. [NL., dim. from L. velum a veil, a sail.] (Zool.) Any species of oceanic Siphonophora belonging to the genus Velella.
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&hand_; These creatures are brilliantly colored and float at the surface of the sea. They have an oblong, disklike body, supported by a thin chitinous plate, from which rises a thin diagonal crest which acts as a sail. The feeding and reproductive zooids hang down from the under side of the disk.
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Veliferous
Ve*lif"er*ous (v&euptack_;*l&ibreve_;f"&etilde_;r*ŭs), a. [L. velifer; velum a sail + ferre to bear.] Carrying or bearing sails. [Obs.]Veliferous chariots.” Evelyn.
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Veliger
Vel"i*ger (v&ebreve_;l"&ibreve_;*j&etilde_;r), n. [NL., fr. L. velum a veil + gerere bear.] (Zool.) Any larval gastropod or bivalve mollusk in the stage when it is furnished with one or two ciliated membranes for swimming.
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Velitation
Vel`i*ta"tion (v&ebreve_;l`&ibreve_;*tā"shŭn), n. [L. velitatio, fr. velitari, velitatus, to skirmish, from veles, -itis, a light-armed soldier.] A dispute or contest; a slight contest; a skirmish. [R.] Sir M. Hale.
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After a short velitation we parted. Evelyn.
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Velivolant
Ve*liv"o*lant (?), a. [L. velivolans; velum a sail + volare to fly.] Flying with sails; passing under full sail. [R.]
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Vell
Vell (?), n. [Cf. L. vellus the skin of a sheep with the wool on it, a fleece, a hide or pelt, or E. fell a hide.] The salted stomach of a calf, used in making cheese; a rennet bag. [Prov. Eng.]
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Vell
Vell, v. i. [Cf. Vell, n.] To cut the turf from, as for burning. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.
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Velleity
Vel*le"i*ty (?), n. [F. velléité (cf. It. velleità), fr. L. velle to will, to be willing.] The lowest degree of desire; imperfect or incomplete volition. Locke.
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Vellet
Vel"let (?), n. Velvet. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vellicate
Vel"li*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vellicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vellicating.] [L. vellicatus, p. p. of vellicare to twitch, fr. vellere to pluck, pull.] To twitch; to cause to twitch convulsively.
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Convulsions, arising from something vellicating a nerve in its extremity, are not very dangerous. Arbuthnot.
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Vellicate
Vel"li*cate, v. i. To move spasmodically; to twitch; as, a nerve vellicates.
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Vellication
Vel`li*ca"tion (?), [L. vellicatio.] 1. The act of twitching, or of causing to twitch.
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2. (Med.) A local twitching, or convulsive motion, of a muscular fiber, especially of the face.
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Vellicative
Vel"li*ca*tive (?), a. Having the power of vellicating, plucking, or twitching; causing vellication.
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Vellon
Vel*lon" (?), n. [Sp.] A word occurring in the phrase real vellon. See the Note under 1st Real.
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Vellum
Vel"lum (?), n. [OE. velim, F. vélin, fr. L. vitulinus of a calf, fr. vitulus a calf. See Veal.] A fine kind of parchment, usually made from calfskin, and rendered clear and white, -- used as for writing upon, and for binding books.
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Vellum cloth, a fine kind of cotton fabric, made very transparent, and used as a tracing cloth.
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Vellumy
Vel"lum*y (?), a. Resembling vellum.
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Velocimeter
Vel`o*cim"e*ter (?), n. [L. velox, -ocis, rapid + -meter.] An apparatus for measuring speed, as of machinery or vessels, but especially of projectiles.
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Velocipede
Ve*loc"i*pede (?), n. [L. velox, -ocis, swift + pes, pedis, a foot. See Velocity, and Foot.] A light road carriage propelled by the feet of the rider. Originally it was propelled by striking the tips of the toes on the roadway, but commonly now by the action of the feet on a pedal or pedals connected with the axle of one or more of the wheels, and causing their revolution. They are made in many forms, with two, three, or four wheels. See Bicycle, and Tricycle.
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Velocipedist
Ve*loc"i*pe`dist (?), n. One who rides on a velocipede; a cyclist.
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Velocity
Ve*loc"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Velocities (#). [L. velocitas, from velox, -ocis, swift, quick; perhaps akin to volare to fly (see Volatile): cf. F. vélocité.]
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1. Quickness of motion; swiftness; speed; celerity; rapidity; as, the velocity of wind; the velocity of a planet or comet in its orbit or course; the velocity of a cannon ball; the velocity of light.
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&hand_; In such phrases, velocity is more generally used than celerity. We apply celerity to animals; as, a horse or an ostrich runs with celerity; but bodies moving in the air or in ethereal space move with greater or less velocity, not celerity. This usage is arbitrary, and perhaps not universal.
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2. (Mech.) Rate of motion; the relation of motion to time, measured by the number of units of space passed over by a moving body or point in a unit of time, usually the number of feet passed over in a second. See the Note under Speed.
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Angular velocity. See under Angular. -- Initial velocity, the velocity of a moving body at starting; especially, the velocity of a projectile as it leaves the mouth of a firearm from which it is discharged. -- Relative velocity, the velocity with which a body approaches or recedes from another body, whether both are moving or only one. -- Uniform velocity, velocity in which the same number of units of space are described in each successive unit of time. -- Variable velocity, velocity in which the space described varies from instant to instant, either increasing or decreasing; -- in the former case called accelerated velocity, in the latter, retarded velocity; the acceleration or retardation itself being also either uniform or variable. -- Virtual velocity. See under Virtual.
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&hand_; In variable velocity, the velocity, strictly, at any given instant, is the rate of motion at that instant, and is expressed by the units of space, which, if the velocity at that instant were continued uniform during a unit of time, would be described in the unit of time; thus, the velocity of a falling body at a given instant is the number of feet which, if the motion which the body has at that instant were continued uniformly for one second, it would pass through in the second. The scientific sense of velocity differs from the popular sense in being applied to all rates of motion, however slow, while the latter implies more or less rapidity or quickness of motion.
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Syn. -- Swiftness; celerity; rapidity; fleetness; speed.
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Velours
Ve*lours" (?), n. [F. See Velure.] One of many textile fabrics having a pile like that of velvet.
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Sauce veloute
Veloute
{ ‖Ve*lou`té" (?), n., or Sauce velouté (?) }. [F. velouté, lit., velvety.] (Cookery) A white sauce or stock made by boiling down ham, veal, beef, fowl, bouillon, etc., then adding soup stock, seasoning, vegetables, and thickening, and again boiling and straining.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Veltfare
Velt"fare (?), n. [See Fieldfare.] (Zool.) The fieldfare. [Prov. Eng.]
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Velum
Ve"lum (?), n.; pl. Vela (#). [L., an awning, a veil. See Veil.]
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1. (Anat.) A curtain or covering; -- applied to various membranous partitions, especially to the soft palate. See under Palate.
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2. (Bot.) (a) See Veil, n., 3 (b). (b) A thin membrane surrounding the sporocarps of quillworts Isoetes).
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3. (Zool.) A veil-like organ or part. Especially: (a) The circular membrane that partially incloses the space beneath the umbrella of hydroid medusae. (b) A delicate funnel-like membrane around the flagellum of certain Infusoria. See Illust. a of Protozoa.
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Velure
Vel"ure (?), n. [F. velours, OF. velous, from L. villosus hairy. See Velvet.] 1. Velvet. [Obs.] “A woman's crupper of velure.” Shak.
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2. A substance resembling velvet.
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Velutina
Vel`u*ti"na (?), n. [NL. See Velvet.] (Zool.) Any one of several species of marine gastropods belonging to Velutina and allied genera.
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Velutinous
Ve*lu"ti*nous (?), a. [It. velluto velvet. See Velvet.] (Bot.) Having the surface covered with a fine and dense silky pubescence; velvety; as, a velutinous leaf.
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Velverd
Vel"verd (?), n. The veltfare. [Prov. Eng.]
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Velveret
Vel`ver*et" (?), n. A kind of velvet having cotton back.
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Velvet
Vel"vet (?), n. [OE. velouette, veluet, velwet; cf. OF. velluau, LL. velluetum, vellutum, It. velluto, Sp. velludo; all fr. (assumed) LL. villutus shaggy, fr L. villus shaggy hair; akin to vellus a fleece, and E. wool. See Wool, and cf. Villous.]
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1. A silk fabric, having a short, close nap of erect threads. Inferior qualities are made with a silk pile on a cotton or linen back, or with other soft fibers such as nylon, acetate, or rayon.
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2. The soft and highly vascular deciduous skin which envelops and nourishes the antlers of deer during their rapid growth.
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3. Something likened to velvet{1} in being soft or luxurious; as, a lawn of velvet.
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Cotton velvet, an imitation of velvet, made of cotton. -- Velvet cork, the best kind of cork bark, supple, elastic, and not woody or porous. -- Velvet crab (Zool.), a European crab (Portunus puber). When adult the black carapace is covered with a velvety pile. Called also lady crab, and velvet fiddler. -- Velvet dock (Bot.), the common mullein. -- Velvet duck. (Zool.) (a) A large European sea duck, or scoter (Oidemia fusca). The adult male is glossy, velvety black, with a white speculum on each wing, and a white patch behind each eye. (b) The American whitewinged scoter. See Scoter. -- Velvet flower (Bot.), love-lies-bleeding. See under Love. -- Velvet grass (Bot.), a tall grass (Holcus lanatus) with velvety stem and leaves; -- called also soft grass. -- Velvet runner (Zool.), the water rail; -- so called from its quiet, stealthy manner of running. [Prov. Eng.] -- Velvet scoter. (Zool.) Same as Velvet duck, above. -- Velvet sponge. (Zool.) See under Sponge. -- in velvet having a coating of velvet{2} over the antlers; in the annual stage where the antlers are still growing; -- of deer.
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Velvet
Vel"vet, a. Made of velvet; soft and delicate, like velvet; velvety. “ The cowslip's velvet head.” Milton.
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Velvet
Vel"vet, v. i. To pain velvet. [R.] Peacham.
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Velvet
Vel"vet, v. t. To make like, or cover with, velvet. [R.]
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Velvetbreast
Vel"vet*breast` (?), n. (Zool.) The goosander. [Local, U. S.]
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Velveteen
Vel`vet*een" (?), n. [Cf. F. velvantine. See Velvet.] A kind of cloth, usually cotton, made in imitation of velvet; cotton velvet.
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Velveting
Vel"vet*ing (?), n. The fine shag or nap of velvet; a piece of velvet; velvet goods.
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Velvetleaf
Vel"vet*leaf` (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several plants which have soft, velvety leaves, as the Abutilon Avicennae, the Cissampelos Pareira, and the Lavatera arborea, and even the common mullein.
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Velvety
Vel"vet*y (?), a. Made of velvet, or like velvet; soft; smooth; delicate.
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Vena
Ve"na (?), n.; pl. Venae (#). [L. See Vein.] A vein.
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Vena cava; pl. Venae cavae. [L., literally, hollow vein.] (Anat.) Any one of the great systemic veins connected directly with the heart.-- Vena contracta. [L., literally, contracted vein.] (Hydraulics) The contracted portion of a liquid jet at and near the orifice from which it issues. -- Vena portae; pl. Venae portae. [L., literally, vein of the entrance.] (Anat.) The portal vein of the liver. See under Portal.
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Venada
Ve*na"da (?), n. [Cf. Sp. venado a deer, stag.] (Zool.) The pudu.
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Venal
Ve"nal (vē"n&aitalic_;l), a. [L. vena a vein.] Of or pertaining to veins; venous; as, venal blood. [R.]
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Venal
Ve"nal, a. [L. venalis, from venus sale; akin to Gr. 'w^nos price, Skr. vasna: cf. F. vénal.] Capable of being bought or obtained for money or other valuable consideration; made matter of trade or barter; held for sale; salable; mercenary; purchasable; hireling; as, venal services. “ Paid court to venal beauties.” Macaulay.
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The venal cry and prepared vote of a passive senate. Burke.
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Syn. -- Mercenary; hireling; vendible. -- Venal, Mercenary. One is mercenary who is either actually a hireling (as, mercenary soldiers, a mercenary judge, etc.), or is governed by a sordid love of gain; hence, we speak of mercenary motives, a mercenary marriage, etc. Venal goes further, and supposes either an actual purchase, or a readiness to be purchased, which places a person or thing wholly in the power of the purchaser; as, a venal press. Brissot played ingeniously on the latter word in his celebrated saying, “ My pen is venal that it may not be mercenary,” meaning that he wrote books, and sold them to the publishers, in order to avoid the necessity of being the hireling of any political party.
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Thus needy wits a vile revenue made,
And verse became a mercenary trade.
Dryden.
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This verse be thine, my friend, nor thou refuse
This, from no venal or ungrateful muse.
Pope.
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Venality
Ve*nal"i*ty (?), n. [L. venalitas: cf. F. vénalité.] The quality or state of being venal, or purchasable; mercenariness; prostitution of talents, offices, or services, for money or reward; as, the venality of a corrupt court; the venality of an official.
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Complaints of Roman venality became louder. Milton.
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Venally
Ve"nal*ly (?), adv. In a venal manner.
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Venantes
Ve*nan"tes (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. venans, p. pr. of venari to hunt.] (Zool.) The hunting spiders, which run after, or leap upon, their prey.
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Venary
Ven"a*ry (?), a. [LL. venarius, fr. L. venari, p. p. venatus, to hunt.] Of or, pertaining to hunting.
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Venatical
Venatic
{Ve*nat"ic (?), Ve*nat"ic*al (?), } a. [L. venaticus, fr. venatus hunting, fr. venari, p. p. venatus, to hunt.] Of or pertaining to hunting; used in hunting. [R.]Venatical pleasure.” Howell.
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Venatica
Ve*nat"i*ca (?), n. See Vinatico.
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Venation
Ve*na"tion (?), n. [L. vena a vein.] The arrangement or system of veins, as in the wing of an insect, or in the leaves of a plant. See Illust. in Appendix.
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Venation
Ve*na"tion, n. [L. venatio, fr. venari, p. p. venatus, to hunt. See Venison.] The act or art of hunting, or the state of being hunted. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Venatorial
Ven`a*to"ri*al (?), a. [L. venatorius.] Or or pertaining to hunting; venatic. [R.]
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Vend
Vend (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vended; p. pr. & vb. n. Vending.] [F. vendre, L. vendere, from venum dare; venus sale + dare to give. See 2d Venal, Date, time.] To transfer to another person for a pecuniary equivalent; to make an object of trade; to dispose of by sale; to sell; as, to vend goods; to vend vegetables.
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&hand_; Vend differs from barter. We vend for money; we barter for commodities. Vend is used chiefly of wares, merchandise, or other small articles, not of lands and tenements.
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Vend
Vend, n. 1. The act of vending or selling; a sale.
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2. The total sales of coal from a colliery. [Eng.]
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Vendace
Ven"dace (?), n. (Zool.) A European lake whitefish (Coregonus Willughbii, or Coregonus Vandesius) native of certain lakes in Scotland and England. It is regarded as a delicate food fish. Called also vendis.
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Vendee
Vend*ee" (?), n. The person to whom a thing is vended, or sold; -- the correlative of vendor.
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Vendemiaire
Ven`dé`miaire" (?), n. [F., fr. L. vindemia vintage.] The first month of the French republican calendar, dating from September 22, 1792.
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&hand_; This calendar was substituted for the ordinary calendar, dating from the Christian era, by a decree of the National Convention in 1793. The 22d of September, 1792, which had been fixed upon as the day of the foundation of the republic, was also the date of the new calendar. In this calendar, the year, which began at midnight of the day of the autumnal equinox, was divided into twelve months of thirty days, with five additional days for festivals, and every fourth year six. Each month was divided into three decades of ten days each, the week being abolished. The names of the months in their order were, Vendémiaire, Brumaire, Frimaire Nivose, Pluviose, Ventose, Germinal, Floréal, Prairial, Messidor, Thermidor (sometimes called Fervidor), and Fructidor. This calendar was abolished December 31, 1805, and the ordinary one restored January 1, 1806.
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Vender
Vend"er (?), n. [From Vend: cf. F. vendeur, OF. vendeor. Cf. Vendor.] One who vends; one who transfers the exclusive right of possessing a thing, either his own, or that of another as his agent, for a price or pecuniary equivalent; a seller; a vendor.
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Vendetta
Ven*det"ta (?), n. [It.] 1. A blood feud; private revenge for the murder of a kinsman.
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2. Any feud or contention that is bitter and prolonged; however, the deep enmity may be held by only one party to the dispute; as, the former Mayor nurtured a lifelong vendetta against the candidate who defeated him.
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Vendibility
Vend`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vendible, or salable.
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Vendible
Vend"i*ble (?), a. [L. vendibilis: cf. OF. vendible, F. vendable.] Capable of being vended, or sold; that may be sold; salable.
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The regulating of prices of things vendible. Bacon.
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&hand_; Vendible differs from marketable; the latter signifies proper or fit for market, according to the laws or customs of a place. Vendible has no reference to such legal fitness.
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Vendible
Vend"i*ble, n. Something to be sold, or offered for sale. -- Vend"i*ble*ness, n. -- Vend"i*bly, adv.
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Venditate
Ven"di*tate (?), v. t. [See Venditation.] To cry up. as if for sale; to blazon. [Obs.] Holland.
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Venditation
Ven`di*ta"tion (?), n. [L. venditatio, fr. venditare, venditatum, to offer again and again for sale, v. freq. of vendere. See Vend.] The act of setting forth ostentatiously; a boastful display. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Vendition
Ven*di"tion (v&ebreve_;n*d&ibreve_;sh"ŭn), n. [L. venditio: cf. F. vendition.] The act of vending, or selling; sale.
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Vendor
Vend"or (v&ebreve_;nd"&obreve_;r), n. [See Vender.] A vender; a seller; the correlative of vendee.
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Vendor's lien
Vend"or's lien. (Law) An implied lien (that is, one not created by mortgage or other express agreement) given in equity to a vendor of lands for the unpaid purchase money.
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Vends
Vends (?), n. pl. (Ethnol.) See Wends.
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Vendue
Ven*due" (?), n. [OF. vendue, from F. vendre, p. p. vendu, vendue, to sell.] A public sale of anything, by outcry, to the highest bidder; an auction. [Obsoles.]
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Vendue master, one who is authorized to sell any property by vendue; an auctioneer. [Obsoles.]
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Veneer
Ve*neer" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Veneered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Veneering.] [G. furnieren, fourniren, fr. F. fournir to furnish. See Furnish.] To overlay or plate with a thin layer of wood or other material for outer finish or decoration; as, to veneer a piece of furniture with mahogany. Used also figuratively.
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As a rogue in grain
Veneered with sanctimonious theory.
Tennyson.
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Veneer
Ve*neer", n. [Cf. G. furnier or fournier. See Veneer, v. t.] A thin leaf or layer of a more valuable or beautiful material for overlaying an inferior one, especially such a thin leaf of wood to be glued to a cheaper wood; hence, external show; gloss; false pretense.
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Veneer moth (Zool.), any moth of the genus Chilo; -- so called because the mottled colors resemble those of veneering.
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Veneering
Ve*neer"ing, n. 1. The act or art of one who veneers.
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2. Thin wood or other material used as a veneer.
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Venefical
Ve*nef"ic*al (?), a. [L. veneficus.] Veneficial. [Obs.]Venefical instruments.” B. Jonson.
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Venefice
Ven"e*fice (?), n. [L. veneficium, fr. veneficus poisoning; venenum poison + facere to make: cf. F. vénéfice.] The act or practice of poisoning. [Obs.]
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Veneficious
Veneficial
{ Ven`e*fi"cial (?), Ven`e*fi"cious (?), } a. Acting by poison; used in poisoning or in sorcery. [Obs.] “An old veneficious practice.” Sir T. Browne. -- Ven`e*fi"cious*ly, adv. [Obs.]
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Venemous
Ven"e*mous (?), a. Venomous. [Obs.]
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Venenate
Ven"e*nate (?), v. t. [L. venenatus, p. p. venenare to poison, from venenum poison. Cf. Venom.] To poison; to infect with poison. [R.] Harvey.
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Venenate
Ven"e*nate (?), a. Poisoned. Woodward.
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Venenation
Ven`e*na"tion (?), n. 1. The act of poisoning.
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2. Poison; venom. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Venene
Ve*nene" (?), a. Poisonous; venomous. [Obs.]
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Venenose
Ven"e*nose` (?), a. [L. venenosus, fr. venenum poison. Cf. Venomous.] Poisonous. [Obs.]
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Venerability
Ven`er*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being venerable; venerableness. Dr. H. More.
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Venerable
Ven"er*a*ble (?), a. [L. venerabilis: cf. F. vénérable.] 1. Capable of being venerated; worthy of veneration or reverence; deserving of honor and respect; -- generally implying an advanced age; as, a venerable magistrate; a venerable parent.
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He was a man of eternal self-sacrifice, and that is always venerable. De Quincey.
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Venerable men! you have come down to us from a former generation. D. Webster.
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2. Rendered sacred by religious or other associations; that should be regarded with awe and treated with reverence; as, the venerable walls of a temple or a church.
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&hand_; This word is employed in the Church of England as a title for an archdeacon. In the Roman Catholic Church, venerable is applied to those who have attained to the lowest of the three recognized degrees of sanctity, but are not among the beatified, nor the canonized.
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-- Ven"er*a*ble*ness, n. -- Ven"er*a*bly, adv.
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Veneracea
Ven`e*ra"ce*a (?), prop. n. pl. [NL. See Venus.] (Zool.) An extensive tribe of bivalve mollusks of which the genus Venus is the type. The shells are usually oval, or somewhat heartshaped, with a conspicuous lunule. See Venus.
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Venerate
Ven"er*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Venerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Venerating.] [L. veneratus, p. p. of venerari to venerate; akin to Venus Venus, Skr. van to like, to wish, and E. winsome. See Winsome.] To regard with reverential respect; to honor with mingled respect and awe; to reverence; to revere; as, we venerate parents and elders.
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And seemed to venerate the sacred shade. Dryden.
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I do not know a man more to be venerated for uprightness of heart and loftiness of genius. Sir W. Scott.
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Syn. -- To reverence; revere; adore; respect.
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Veneration
Ven`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. veneratio: cf. F. vénération.] The act of venerating, or the state of being venerated; the highest degree of respect and reverence; respect mingled with awe; a feeling or sentiment excited by the dignity, wisdom, or superiority of a person, by sacredness of character, by consecration to sacred services, or by hallowed associations.
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We find a secret awe and veneration for one who moves about us in a regular and illustrious course of virtue. Addison.
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Syn. -- Awe; reverence; respect. See Reverence.
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Venerator
Ven"er*a`tor (?), n. [L.] One who venerates. Jer. Taylor
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Venereal
Ve*ne"re*al (?), a. [L. venereus, venerius, fr. Venus, Veneris, Venus, the goddess of love. See Venerate.] 1. Of or pertaining to venery, or sexual love; relating to sexual intercourse.
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Into the snare I fell
Of fair, fallacious looks, venereal trains,
Softened with pleasure and voluptuous life.
Milton.
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2. (Med.) (a) Arising from sexual intercourse; as, a venereal disease; venereal virus or poison. (b) Adapted to the cure of venereal diseases; as, venereal medicines.
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3. Adapted to excite venereal desire; aphrodisiac.
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4. Consisting of, or pertaining to, copper, formerly called by chemists Venus. [Obs.] Boyle.
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Venereal
Ve*ne"re*al, n. (Med.) The venereal disease; syphilis.
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Venerean
Ve*ne"re*an (?), a. [Cf. F. vénérien.] Devoted to the offices of Venus, or love; venereal. [Obs.] “I am all venerean in feeling.” Chaucer.
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Venereous
Ve*ne"re*ous (?), a. [L. venereus.] 1. Venereal; exciting lust; aphrodisiac. [Obs.]
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2. Lustful; lascivious; libidinous. [R.] Derham.
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Venerous
Ven"er*ous (?), a. Venereous. [Obs.] Burton.
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Venery
Ven"er*y (?), n. [L. Venus, Veneris, the goddess of love.] Sexual love; sexual intercourse; coition.
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Contentment, without the pleasure of lawful venery, is continence; of unlawful, chastity. Grew.
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Venery
Ven"er*y, n. [OE. venerie, F. vénerie, fr. OF. vener to hunt, L. venari. See Venison.] The art, act, or practice of hunting; the sports of the chase. “Beasts of venery and fishes.” Sir T. Browne.
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I love hunting and venery. Chaucer.
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Venesection
Ve`ne*sec"tion (?), n. [NL. venaesectio; L. vena vein + sectio section.] (Med.) The act or operation of opening a vein for letting blood; bloodletting; phlebotomy.
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Venetian
Ve*ne"tian (?), a. [Cf. It. Veneziano, L. Venetianus.] Of or pertaining to Venice in Italy.
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Venetian blind, a blind for windows, doors, etc., made of thin slats, either fixed at a certain angle in the shutter, or movable, and in the latter case so disposed as to overlap each other when closed, and to show a series of open spaces for the admission of air and light when in other positions. -- Venetian carpet, an inexpensive carpet, used for passages and stairs, having a woolen warp which conceals the weft; the pattern is therefore commonly made up of simple stripes. -- Venetian chalk, a white compact talc or steatite, used for marking on cloth, etc. -- Venetian door (Arch.), a door having long, narrow windows or panes of glass on the sides. -- Venetian glass, a kind of glass made by the Venetians, for decorative purposes, by the combination of pieces of glass of different colors fused together and wrought into various ornamental patterns. -- Venetian red, a brownish red color, prepared from sulphate of iron; -- called also scarlet ocher. -- Venetian soap. See Castile soap, under Soap. -- Venetian sumac (Bot.), a South European tree (Rhus Cotinus) which yields the yellow dyewood called fustet; -- also called smoke tree. -- Venetian window (Arch.), a window consisting of a main window with an arched head, having on each side a long and narrow window with a square head.
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Venetian
Ve*ne"tian, n. 1. A native or inhabitant of Venice.
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2. pl. Galligaskins. [Obs.]
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3. A Venetian blind. [Colloq.]
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Venew
Ven"ew (?), n. [F. venue, lit., an arrival, from venir, p. p. venu, venue, to come. See Venue.] A bout, or turn, as at fencing; a thrust; a hit; a veney. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Veney
Ven"ey (?; 277), n. [Cf. Venew or Visne.] A bout; a thrust; a venew. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.
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Three veneys for a dish of stewed prunes. Shak.
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Venge
Venge (?), v. t. [F. venger. See Vengeance.] To avenge; to punish; to revenge. [Obs.] See Avenge, and Revenge. Chaucer. “To venge me, as I may.” Shak.
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Vengeable
Venge"a*ble (?), a. Revengeful; deserving revenge. [Obs.] Spenser. -- Venge"a*bly, adv. [Obs.]
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Vengeance
Venge"ance (?), n. [F. vengeance, fr. venger to avenge, L. vindicare to lay claim to, defend, avenge, fr. vindex a claimant, defender, avenger, the first part of which is of uncertain origin, and the last part akin to dicere to say. See Diction, and cf. Avenge, Revenge, Vindicate.] 1. Punishment inflicted in return for an injury or an offense; retribution; -- often, in a bad sense, passionate or unrestrained revenge.
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To me belongeth vengeance and recompense. Deut. xxxii. 35.
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To execute fierce vengeance on his foes. Milton.
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2. Harm; mischief. [Obs.] Shak.
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What a vengeance, or What the vengeance, what! -- emphatically. [Obs.] “But what a vengeance makes thee fly!” Hudibras.What the vengeance! Could he not speak 'em fair?” Shak. -- With a vengeance, (a) with great violence; as, to strike with a vengeance. [Colloq.] (b) with even greater intensity; as, to return one's insult with a vengeance.
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Vengeancely
Venge"ance*ly, adv. Extremely; excessively. [Obs.] “He loves that vengeancely.” Beau. & Fl.
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Vengeful
Venge"ful (?), a. Vindictive; retributive; revengeful.Vengeful ire.” Milton. -- Venge"ful*ly, adv.
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Vengement
Venge"ment (?), n. [OF. vengement.] Avengement; penal retribution; vengeance. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Venger
Ven"ger (?), n. An avenger. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Veniable
Ve"ni*a*ble (?), a. [L. veniabilis, fr. venia forgiveness, pardon.] Venial; pardonable. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne. -- Ve"ni*a*bly, adv. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Venial
Ve"ni*al (?), a. [OF. venial, F. véniel, L. venialis, from venia forgiveness, pardon, grace, favor, kindness; akin to venerari to venerate. See Venerate.] 1. Capable of being forgiven; not heinous; excusable; pardonable; as, a venial fault or transgression.
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So they do nothing, 't is a venial slip. Shak.
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2. Allowed; permitted. [Obs.] “Permitting him the while venial discourse unblamed.” Milton.
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Venial sin (R. C. Theol.), a sin which weakens, but does not wholly destroy, sanctifying grace, as do mortal, or deadly, sins.
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-- Ve"ni*al*ly, adv. -- Ve"ni*al*ness, n. Bp. Hall.
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Veniality
Ve`ni*al"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being venial; venialness. Jer. Taylor.
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Venin
Ven"in (?), n. [L. venenum poison.] (Physiol. Chem.) A toxic substance contained in the venom of poisonous snakes; also, a (supposedly identical) toxic substance obtained by the cleavage of an albumose.
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Venire facias
Ve*ni"re fa"ci*as (?). [L., make, or cause, to come.] (Law) (a) A judicial writ or precept directed to the sheriff, requiring him to cause a certain number of qualified persons to appear in court at a specified time, to serve as jurors in said court. (b) A writ in the nature of a summons to cause the party indicted on a penal statute to appear. Called also venire.
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Venison
Ven"i*son (?; 277), n. [OE. veneison, veneson, venison, OF. veneison, F. venaison, L. venatio hunting, the chase, game, fr. venari, p. p. venatus, to hunt; perhaps akin to OHG. weidinōn, weidenen, to pasture, to hunt, G. weide pasturage. Cf. Gain to acquire, Venation.] 1. Beasts of the chase. [Obs.] Fabyan.
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2. Formerly, the flesh of any of the edible beasts of the chase, also of game birds; now, the flesh of animals of the deer kind exclusively.
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Venite
Ve*ni"te (?), n. [L., come, imperative 2d person pl. So called from its opening word in the Latin version.] (Eccl.) The 95th Psalm, which is said or sung regularly in the public worship of many churches. Also, a musical composition adapted to this Psalm.
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Venom
Ven"om (?), n. [OE. venim, OF. venim, venin, F. venin, L. venenum. Cf. Venenate.] 1. Matter fatal or injurious to life; poison; particularly, the poisonous matter which certain animals, such as serpents, scorpions, bees, etc., secrete in a state of health, and communicate by biting or stinging.
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Or hurtful worm with cankered venom bites. Milton.
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2. Spite; malice; malignity; evil quality. Chaucer. “The venom of such looks.” Shak.
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Syn. -- Venom; virus; bane. See Poison.
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Venom
Ven"om, v. t. [OE. venimen, OF. venimer, L. venenare. See Venom, n.] To infect with venom; to envenom; to poison. [R.]Venomed vengeance.” Shak.
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Venomous
Ven"om*ous (?), a. [OE. venemous, venimous, F. venimeux, L. venenosus, fr. venenum poison. See Venom, and cf. Venenose.] 1. Full of venom; noxious to animal life; poisonous; as, the bite of a serpent may be venomous.
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2. (Zool.) Having a poison gland or glands for the secretion of venom, as certain serpents and insects.
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3. Noxious; mischievous; malignant; spiteful; as, a venomous progeny; a venomous writer.
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Venomous snake (Zool.), any serpent which has poison glands and fangs, whether dangerous to man or not. These serpents constitute two tribes, the viperine serpents, or Solenoglypha, and the cobralike serpents, or Proteroglypha. The former have perforated, erectile fangs situated in the front part of the upper jaw, and are without ordinary teeth behind the fangs; the latter have permanently erect and grooved fangs, with ordinary maxillary teeth behind them.
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-- Ven"om*ous*ly, adv. -- Ven"om*ous*ness, n.
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Venose
Ve*nose" (?), a. [See Venous.] Having numerous or conspicuous veins; veiny; as, a venose frond.
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Venosity
Ve*nos"i*ty (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being venous.
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2. (Med.) A condition in which the circulation is retarded, and the entire mass of blood is less oxygenated than it normally is.
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Venous
Ven"ous (?), a. [L. venosus, from vena a vein. See Vein.] 1. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a vein or veins; as, the venous circulation of the blood.
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2. Contained in the veins, or having the same qualities as if contained in the veins, that is, having a dark bluish color and containing an insufficient amount of oxygen so as no longer to be fit for oxygenating the tissues; -- said of the blood, and opposed to arterial.
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3. Marked with veins; veined; as, a venous leaf.
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Venous leaf (Bot.), a leaf having vessels branching, or variously divided, over its surface. -- Venous hum (Med.), a humming sound, or bruit, heard during auscultation of the veins of the neck in anaemia. -- Venous pulse (Physiol.), the pulse, or rhythmic contraction, sometimes seen in a vein, as in the neck, when there is an obstruction to the passage of blood from the auricles to the ventricles, or when there is an abnormal rigidity in the walls of the greater vessels. There is normally no pulse in a vein.
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Vent
Vent (v&ebreve_;nt), n. [F. vente, fr. L. vendere, -itum, to sell; perh. confused with E. vent an opening. See Vend.] Sale; opportunity to sell; market. [Obs.] Shelton.
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There is no vent for any commodity but of wool. Sir W. Temple.
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Vent
Vent, v. t. To sell; to vend. [Obs.]
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Therefore did those nations vent such spice. Sir W. Raleigh.
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Vent
Vent, n. [Sp. venta a poor inn, sale, market. See Vent sale.] A baiting place; an inn. [Obs.]
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Vent
Vent, v. i. [Cf. F. venter to blow, vent wind (see Ventilate); but prob influenced by E. vent an opening.] To snuff; to breathe or puff out; to snort. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vent
Vent (v&ebreve_;nt), n. [OE. fent, fente, a slit, F. fente a slit, cleft, fissure, from fendre to split, L. findere; but probably confused with F. vent wind, L. ventus. See Fissure, and cf. Vent to snuff.] 1. A small aperture; a hole or passage for air or any fluid to escape; as, the vent of a cask; the vent of a mold; a volcanic vent.
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Look, how thy wounds do bleed at many vents. Shak.
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Long 't was doubtful, both so closely pent,
Which first should issue from the narrow vent.
Pope.
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2. Specifically: --
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(a) (Zool.) The anal opening of certain invertebrates and fishes; also, the external cloacal opening of reptiles, birds, amphibians, and many fishes.
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(b) (Gun.) The opening at the breech of a firearm, through which fire is communicated to the powder of the charge; touchhole.
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(c) (Steam Boilers) Sectional area of the passage for gases divided by the length of the same passage in feet.
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3. Fig.: Opportunity of escape or passage from confinement or privacy; outlet.
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4. Emission; escape; passage to notice or expression; publication; utterance.
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Without the vent of words. Milton.
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Thou didst make tolerable vent of thy travel. Shak.
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To give vent to, to suffer to escape; to let out; to pour forth; as, to give vent to anger. -- To take vent, to escape; to be made public. [R.] -- Vent feather (Zool.), one of the anal, or crissal, feathers of a bird. -- Vent field (Gun.), a flat raised surface around a vent. -- Vent piece. (Gun.) (a) A bush. See 4th Bush, n., 2. (b) A breech block.
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Vent
Vent, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vented; p. pr. & vb. n. Venting.] 1. To let out at a vent, or small aperture; to give passage or outlet to.
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2. To suffer to escape from confinement; to let out; to utter; to pour forth; as, to vent passion or complaint.
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The queen of heaven did thus her fury vent. Dryden.
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3. To utter; to report; to publish. [Obs.]
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By mixing somewhat true to vent more lies. Milton.
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Thou hast framed and vented very curious orations. Barrow.
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4. To scent, as a hound. [Obs.] Turbervile.
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5. To furnish with a vent; to make a vent in; as, to vent. a mold.
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Ventage
Vent"age (v&ebreve_;nt"&auptack_;j), n. A small hole, as the stop in a flute; a vent. Shak.
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Ventail
Vent"ail (v&ebreve_;nt"āl), n. [OF. ventaille, F. ventail. See Ventilate, and cf. Aventail.] That part of a helmet which is intended for the admission of air, -- sometimes in the visor. Spenser.
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Her ventail up so high that he descried
Her goodly visage and her beauty's pride.
Fairfax.
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Venter
Vent"er (?), n. One who vents; one who utters, reports, or publishes. [R.] Barrow.
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Venter
Vent"er (?), n. [L.] 1. (Anat.) (a) The belly; the abdomen; -- sometimes applied to any large cavity containing viscera. (b) The uterus, or womb. (c) A belly, or protuberant part; a broad surface; as, the venter of a muscle; the venter, or anterior surface, of the scapula.
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2. (Zool.) The lower part of the abdomen in insects.
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3. (Rom. & O. E. Law) A pregnant woman; a mother; as, A has a son B by one venter, and a daughter C by another venter; children by different venters.
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Venthole
Vent"hole (?), n. A touchhole; a vent.
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Ventiduct
Ven"ti*duct (?), n. [L. ventus wind + ductus a leading, conduit, fr. ducere, ductum, to lead.] A passage for wind or air; a passage or pipe for ventilating apartments. Gwilt.
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Ventilate
Ven"ti*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ventilated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ventilating.] [L. ventilatus, p. p. of ventilare to toss, brandish in the air, to fan, to winnow, from ventus wind; akin to E. wind. See Wind rushing air.] 1. To open and expose to the free passage of air; to supply with fresh air, and remove impure air from; to air; as, to ventilate a room; to ventilate a cellar; to ventilate a mine.
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2. To provide with a vent, or escape, for air, gas, etc.; as, to ventilate a mold, or a water-wheel bucket.
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3. To change or renew, as the air of a room. Harvey.
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4. To winnow; to fan; as, to ventilate wheat.
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5. To sift and examine; to bring out, and subject to penetrating scrutiny; to expose to examination and discussion; as, to ventilate questions of policy. Ayliffe.
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6. To give vent to; to utter; to make public.
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Macaulay took occasion to ventilate one of those startling, but not very profound, paradoxes. J. C. Shairp.
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Ventilation
Ven`ti*la"tion (?), n. [L. ventilatio: cf. F. ventilation.] 1. The act of ventilating, or the state of being ventilated; the art or process of replacing foul air by that which is pure, in any inclosed place, as a house, a church, a mine, etc.; free exposure to air.
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Insuring, for the laboring man, better ventilation. F. W. Robertson.
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2. The act of refrigerating, or cooling; refrigeration; as, ventilation of the blood. [Obs.] Harvey.
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3. The act of fanning, or winnowing, for the purpose of separating chaff and dust from the grain.
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4. The act of sifting, and bringing out to view or examination; free discussion; public exposure.
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The ventilation of these points diffused them to the knowledge of the world. Bp. Hall.
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5. The act of giving vent or expression.Ventilation of his thoughts.” Sir H. Wotton.
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Ventilative
Ven"ti*la*tive (?), a. Of or pertaining to ventilation; adapted to secure ventilation; ventilating; as, ventilative apparatus.
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Ventilator
Ven"ti*la`tor (?), n. [Cf. F. ventilateur, L. ventilator a winnower.] A contrivance for effecting ventilation; especially, a contrivance or machine for drawing off or expelling foul or stagnant air from any place or apartment, or for introducing that which is fresh and pure.
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Ventose
Ven*tose" (?), n. A ventouse. [Obs.] Holland.
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Ventose
Ven*tose", a. [L. ventosus windy. See Ventilate.] Windy; flatulent. Richardson (Dict.).
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Ventose
Ven`tose" (?), n. [F. ventôse. See Ventose, a.] The sixth month of the calendar adopted by the first French republic. It began February 19, and ended March 20. See Vendémiaire.
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Ventosity
Ven*tos"i*ty (?), n. [L. ventositas: cf. F. ventosité. See Ventose, n.] Quality or state of being ventose; windiness; hence, vainglory; pride. Bacon.
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Ventouse
Ven"touse (?), n. [F.] A cupping glass. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Ventouse
Ven"touse, v. t. & i. To cup; to use a cupping glass. [Obs.] [Written also ventuse.] Chaucer.
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Ventrad
Ven"trad (?), adv. [L. venter belly + ad to.] (Anat.) Toward the ventral side; on the ventral side; ventrally; -- opposed to dorsad.
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Ventral
Ven"tral (?), a. [L. ventralis, fr. venter the belly; perhaps akin to G. wanst: cf. F. ventral.] 1. (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or situated near, the belly, or ventral side, of an animal or of one of its parts; hemal; abdominal; as, the ventral fin of a fish; the ventral root of a spinal nerve; -- opposed to dorsal.
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2. (Bot.) (a) Of or pertaining to that surface of a carpel, petal, etc., which faces toward the center of a flower. (b) Of or pertaining to the lower side or surface of a creeping moss or other low flowerless plant. Opposed to dorsal.
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Ventral fins (Zool.), the posterior pair of fins of a fish. They are often situated beneath the belly, but sometimes beneath the throat. -- Ventral segment. (Acoustics) See Loop, n., 5.
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Ventricle
Ven"tri*cle (?), n. [L. ventriculus the stomach, a ventricle, dim. of venter the belly: cf. F. ventricule. See Ventral.] 1. (Anat.) A cavity, or one of the cavities, of an organ, as of the larynx or the brain; specifically, the posterior chamber, or one of the two posterior chambers, of the heart, which receives the blood from the auricle and forces it out from the heart. See Heart.
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&hand_; The principal ventricles of the brain are the fourth in the medulla, the third in the midbrain, the first and second, or lateral, ventricles in the cerebral hemispheres, all of which are connected with each other, and the fifth, or pseudocœle, situated between the hemispheres, in front of, or above, the fornix, and entirely disconnected with the other cavities. See Brain, and Cœlia.
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2. The stomach. [Obs.]
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Whether I will or not, while I live, my heart beats, and my ventricle digests what is in it. Sir M. Hale.
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3. Fig.: Any cavity, or hollow place, in which any function may be conceived of as operating.
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These [ideas] are begot on the ventricle of memory. Shak.
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Ventricous
Ventricose
{ Ven"tri*cose` (?), Ven"tri*cous (?), } a. [NL. ventricosus, fr. L. venter belly.] (Nat. Hist.) Swelling out on one side or unequally; bellied; ventricular; as, a ventricose corolla.
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Ventricose shell. (Zool.) (a) A spiral shell having the body whorls rounded or swollen in the middle. (b) A bivalve shell in which the valves are strongly convex.
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Ventricular
Ven*tric"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. ventriculaire.] Of or pertaining to a ventricle; bellied.
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Ventriculite
Ven*tric"u*lite (?), n. [See Ventriculus.] (Paleon.) Any one of numerous species of siliceous fossil sponges belonging to Ventriculites and allied genera, characteristic of the Cretaceous period.
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&hand_; Many of them were shaped like vases, others like mushrooms. They belong to the hexactinellids, and are allied to the Venus's basket of modern seas.
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Ventriculous
Ven*tric"u*lous (?), a. [L. ventriculosus of the belly.] Somewhat distended in the middle; ventricular.
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Ventriculus
Ven*tric"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Ventriculi (#). [L., belly, dim. fr. venter belly.] (Zool.) (a) One of the stomachs of certain insects. (b) The body cavity of a sponge.
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Ventrilocution
Ven`tri*lo*cu"tion (?), n. [See Ventriloquous.] Ventriloquism.
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Ventriloquial
Ven`tri*lo"qui*al (?), a. Ventriloquous.
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Ventriloquism
Ven*tril"o*quism (?), n. [See Ventriloquous.] The act, art, or practice of speaking in such a manner that the voice appears to come, not from the person speaking, but from some other source, as from a dummy held by the ventriloquist, from the opposite side of the room, from the cellar, etc.
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Ventriloquist
Ven*tril"o*quist (?), n. One who practices, or is skilled in, ventriloquism.
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Ventriloquist monkey (Zool.), the onappo; -- so called from the character of its cry.
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Ventriloquize
Ven*tril"o*quize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ventriloquized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ventriloquizing.] To practice ventriloquism; to speak like a ventriloquist.
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Ventriloquous
Ven*tril"o*quous (?), a. [L. ventriloquus a ventriloquist; venter the belly + loqui, p. p. locutus, to speak. See Ventral, and Loquacious.] Of or pertaining to a ventriloquist or ventriloquism.
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Ventriloquy
Ven*tril"o*quy (?), n. [Cf. F. ventriloquie.] Same as Ventriloquism.
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Ventrimeson
Ven`tri*mes"on (?), n. [NL. See Venter, and Meson.] (Anat.) See Meson.
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Ventro-
Ven"tro- (&unr_;). [L. venter belly.] A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the abdomen; also, connection with, relation to, or direction toward, the ventral side; as, ventrolateral; ventro-inguinal.
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Ventro-inguinal
Ven`tro-in"gui*nal (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining both to the abdomen and groin, or to the abdomen and inguinal canal; as, ventro-inguinal hernia.
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Venture
Ven"ture (?; 135), n. [Aphetic form of OE. aventure. See Adventure.] 1. An undertaking of chance or danger; the risking of something upon an event which can not be foreseen with certainty; a hazard; a risk; a speculation.
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I, in this venture, double gains pursue. Dryden.
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2. An event that is not, or can not be, foreseen; an accident; chance; hap; contingency; luck. Bacon.
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3. The thing put to hazard; a stake; a risk; especially, something sent to sea in trade.
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My ventures are not in one bottom trusted. Shak.
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At a venture, at hazard; without seeing the end or mark; without foreseeing the issue; at random.
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A certain man drew a bow at a venture. 1 Kings xxii. 34.
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A bargain at a venture made. Hudibras.
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&hand_; The phrase at a venture was originally at aventure, that is, at adventure.
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Venture
Ven"ture, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ventured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Venturing.] 1. To hazard one's self; to have the courage or presumption to do, undertake, or say something; to dare. Bunyan.
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2. To make a venture; to run a hazard or risk; to take the chances.
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Who freights a ship to venture on the seas. J. Dryden, Jr.
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To venture at, or To venture on or To venture upon, to dare to engage in; to attempt without any certainty of success; as, it is rash to venture upon such a project. “When I venture at the comic style.” Waller.
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Venture
Ven"ture, v. t. 1. To expose to hazard; to risk; to hazard; as, to venture one's person in a balloon.
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I am afraid; and yet I'll venture it. Shak.
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2. To put or send on a venture or chance; as, to venture a horse to the West Indies.
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3. To confide in; to rely on; to trust. [R.]
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A man would be well enough pleased to buy silks of one whom he would not venture to feel his pulse. Addison.
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Venturer
Ven"tur*er (?), n. 1. One who ventures, or puts to hazard; an adventurer. Beau. & Fl.
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2. A strumpet; a prostitute. [R.] J. Webster (1607).
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Venturesome
Ven"ture*some (?), a. Inclined to venture; not loth to run risk or danger; venturous; bold; daring; adventurous; as, a venturesome boy or act. -- Ven"ture*some*ly, adv. -- Ven"ture*some*ness, n.
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Venturine
Ven"tur*ine (?), n. [Cf. Aventurine.] (Japanning) Gold powder for covering varnished surfaces.
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Venturous
Ven"tur*ous (?), a. [Aphetic form of OE. aventurous. See Adventurous, Venture, n.] Daring; bold; hardy; fearless; venturesome; adventurous; as, a venturous soldier. Spenser.
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This said, he paused not, but with venturous arm
He plucked, he tasted.
Milton.
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-- Ven"tur*ous*ly, adv. -- Ven"tur*ous*ness, n.
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Ventuse
Ven"tuse (?), v. t. & i. See Ventouse. [Obs.]
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Venue
Ven"ue (v&ebreve_;n"&uuptack_;), n. [F. venue a coming, arrival, fr. venir to come, L. venire; hence, in English, the place whither the jury are summoned to come. See Come, and cf. Venew, Veney.] 1. (Law) A neighborhood or near place; the place or county in which anything is alleged to have happened; also, the place where an action is laid.
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The twelve men who are to try the cause must be of the same venue where the demand is made. Blackstone.
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&hand_; In certain cases, the court has power to change the venue, which is to direct the trial to be had in a different county from that where the venue is laid.
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2. A bout; a hit; a turn. See Venew. [R.]
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To lay a venue (Law), to allege a place.
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Venule
Ven"ule (v&ebreve_;n"&uuptack_;l), n. [L. venula, dim. from vena vein.] A small vein; a veinlet; specifically (Zool.), one of the small branches of the veins of the wings in insects.
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Venulose
Ven"u*lose` (?), a. Full of venules, or small veins.
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Venus
Ve"nus (vē"nŭs), n. [L. Venus, -eris, the goddess of love, the planet Venus.] 1. (Class. Myth.) The goddess of beauty and love, that is, beauty or love deified.
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2. (Anat.) One of the planets, the second in order from the sun, its orbit lying between that of Mercury and that of the Earth, at a mean distance from the sun of about 67,000,000 miles. Its diameter is 7,700 miles, and its sidereal period 224.7 days. As the morning star, it was called by the ancients Lucifer; as the evening star, Hesperus.
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3. (Alchem.) The metal copper; -- probably so designated from the ancient use of the metal in making mirrors, a mirror being still the astronomical symbol of the planet Venus. [Archaic]
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4. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of marine bivalve shells of the genus Venus or family Veneridae. Many of these shells are large, and ornamented with beautiful frills; others are smooth, glossy, and handsomely colored. Some of the larger species, as the round clam, or quahog, are valued for food.
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Venus's basin (Bot.), the wild teasel; -- so called because the connate leaf bases form a kind of receptacle for water, which was formerly gathered for use in the toilet. Also called Venus's bath. -- Venus's basket (Zool.), an elegant, cornucopia-shaped, hexactinellid sponge (Euplectella speciosa) native of the East Indies. It consists of glassy, transparent, siliceous fibers interwoven and soldered together so as to form a firm network, and has long, slender, divergent anchoring fibers at the base by means of which it stands erect in the soft mud at the bottom of the sea. Called also Venus's flower basket, and Venus's purse. -- Venus's comb. (a) (Bot.) Same as Lady's comb. (b) (Zool.) A species of Murex (Murex tenuispinus). It has a long, tubular canal, with a row of long, slender spines along both of its borders, and rows of similar spines covering the body of the shell. Called also Venus's shell. -- Venus's fan (Zool.), a common reticulated, fanshaped gorgonia (Gorgonia flabellum) native of Florida and the West Indies. When fresh the color is purple or yellow, or a mixture of the two. -- Venus's flytrap. (Bot.) See Flytrap, 2. -- Venus's girdle (Zool.), a long, flat, ribbonlike, very delicate, transparent and iridescent ctenophore (Cestum Veneris) which swims in the open sea. Its form is due to the enormous development of two spheromeres. See Illust. in Appendix. -- Venus's hair (Bot.), a delicate and graceful fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) having a slender, black and shining stem and branches. -- Venus's hair stone (Min.), quartz penetrated by acicular crystals of rutile. -- Venus's looking-glass (Bot.), an annual plant of the genus Specularia allied to the bellflower; -- also called lady's looking-glass. -- Venus's navelwort (Bot.), any one of several species of Omphalodes, low boraginaceous herbs with small blue or white flowers. -- Venus's pride (Bot.), an old name for Quaker ladies. See under Quaker. -- Venus's purse. (Zool.) Same as Venus's basket, above. -- Venus's shell. (Zool.) (a) Any species of Cypraea; a cowrie. (b) Same as Venus's comb, above. (c) Same as Venus, 4. -- Venus's slipper. (a) (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Cypripedium. See Lady's slipper. (b) (Zool.) Any heteropod shell of the genus Carinaria. See Carinaria.
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Venust
Ve*nust" (v&euptack_;*nŭst"), a. [L. venustus, from Venus the goddess of love.] Beautiful. [R.] E. Waterhouse.
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Veracious
Ve*ra"cious (?), a. [L. verax, -acis, fr. verus true. See Very.] 1. Observant of truth; habitually speaking truth; truthful; as, veracious historian.
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The Spirit is most perfectly and absolutely veracious. Barrow.
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2. Characterized by truth; true; not false; as, a veracious account or narrative.
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The young, ardent soul that enters on this world with heroic purpose, with veracious insight, will find it a mad one. Carlyle.
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Veraciously
Ve*ra"cious*ly, adv. In a veracious manner.
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Veracity
Ve*rac"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. véracité.] The quality or state of being veracious; habitual observance of truth; truthfulness; truth; as, a man of veracity.
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Veranda
Ve*ran"da (?), n. [A word brought by the English from India; of uncertain origin; cf. Skr. vara&nsdot_;&dsdot_;a, Pg. varanda, Sp. baranda, Malay baranda.] (Arch.) An open, roofed gallery or portico, adjoining a dwelling house, forming an out-of-door sitting room. See Loggia.
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The house was of adobe, low, with a wide veranda on the three sides of the inner court. Mrs. H. H. Jackson.
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Veratralbine
Ver`a*tral"bine (?), n. (Chem.) A yellowish amorphous alkaloid extracted from the rootstock of Veratrum album.
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Veratrate
Ve*ra"trate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of veratric acid.
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Veratria
Ve*ra"tri*a (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) Veratrine.
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Veratric
Ve*ra"tric (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, plants of the genus Veratrum.
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Veratric acid (Chem.), an acid occurring, together with veratrine, in the root of white hellebore (Veratrum album), and in sabadilla seed; -- extracted as a white crystalline substance which is related to protocatechuic acid.
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Veratrina
Ver`a*tri"na (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) Same as Veratrine.
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Veratrine
Ve*ra"trine (?; 277), n. [Cf. F. vératrine. See Veratrum.] (Chem.) A poisonous alkaloid obtained from the root of hellebore (Veratrum) and from sabadilla seeds as a white crystalline powder, having an acrid, burning taste. It is sometimes used externally, as in ointments, in the local treatment of neuralgia and rheumatism. Called also veratria, and veratrina.
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Veratrol
Ve*ra"trol (?), n. [Veratric + ol.] (Chem.) A liquid hydrocarbon obtained by the decomposition of veratric acid, and constituting the dimethyl ether of pyrocatechin.
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Veratrum
Ve*ra"trum (?), prop. n. [L. veratrum hellebore.] (Bot.) A genus of coarse liliaceous herbs having very poisonous qualities.
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&hand_; Veratrum album of Europe, and Veratrum viride of America, are both called hellebore. They grow in wet land, have large, elliptical, plicate leaves in three vertical ranks, and bear panicles of greenish flowers.
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Verb
Verb (?), n. [F. verbe, L. verbum a word, verb. See Word.] 1. A word; a vocable. [Obs.] South.
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2. (Gram.) A word which affirms or predicates something of some person or thing; a part of speech expressing being, action, or the suffering of action.
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&hand_; A verb is a word whereby the chief action of the mind [the assertion or the denial of a proposition] finds expression. Earle.
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Active verb, Auxiliary verb, Neuter verb, etc. See Active, Auxiliary, Neuter, etc.
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Verbal
Ver"bal (?), a. [F., fr. L. verbalis. See Verb.] 1. Expressed in words, whether spoken or written, but commonly in spoken words; hence, spoken; oral; not written; as, a verbal contract; verbal testimony.
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Made she no verbal question? Shak.
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We subjoin an engraving . . . which will give the reader a far better notion of the structure than any verbal description could convey to the mind. Mayhew.
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2. Consisting in, or having to do with, words only; dealing with words rather than with the ideas intended to be conveyed; as, a verbal critic; a verbal change.
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And loses, though but verbal, his reward. Milton.
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Mere verbal refinements, instead of substantial knowledge. Whewell.
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3. Having word answering to word; word for word; literal; as, a verbal translation.
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4. Abounding with words; verbose. [Obs.] Shak.
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5. (Gram.) Of or pertaining to a verb; as, a verbal group; derived directly from a verb; as, a verbal noun; used in forming verbs; as, a verbal prefix.
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Verbal inspiration. See under Inspiration. -- Verbal noun (Gram.), a noun derived directly from a verb or verb stem; a verbal. The term is specifically applied to infinitives, and nouns ending in -ing, esp. to the latter. See Gerund, and -ing, 2. See also, Infinitive mood, under Infinitive.
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Verbal
Ver"bal, n. (Gram.) A noun derived from a verb.
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Verbalism
Ver"bal*ism (?), n. Something expressed verbally; a verbal remark or expression.
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Verbalist
Ver"bal*ist, n. A literal adherent to, or a minute critic of, words; a literalist.
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Verbality
Ver*bal"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being verbal; mere words; bare literal expression. [R.] “More verbality than matter.” Bp. Hall.
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Verbalization
Ver`bal*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of verbalizing, or the state of being verbalized.
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Verbalize
Ver"bal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Verbalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Verbalizing (?).] [Cf. F. verbaliser.] 1. To convert into a verb; to verbify.
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2. To express in words.
[PJC]

Verbalize
Ver"bal*ize, v. i. To be verbose.
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Verbally
Ver"bal*ly, adv. 1. In a verbal manner; orally.
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2. Word for word; verbatim. Dryden.
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Verbarian
Ver*ba"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to words; verbal. [R.] Coleridge.
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Verbarian
Ver*ba"ri*an, n. One who coins words; a neologist. [R.]
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Southey gives himself free scope as a verbarian. Fitzed. Hall.
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Verbarium
Ver*ba"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. verbum word.] A game in word making. See Logomachy, 2.
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Verbatim
Ver*ba"tim (?), adv. [LL., fr. L. verbum word.] Word for word; in the same words; verbally; as, to tell a story verbatim as another has related it.
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Verbatim et literatim [LL.], word for word, and letter for letter.
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Verbena
Ver*be"na (?), n. [L. See Vervain.] (Bot.) A genus of herbaceous plants of which several species are extensively cultivated for the great beauty of their flowers; vervain.
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&hand_; Verbena, or vervain, was used by the Greeks, the Romans, and the Druids, in their sacred rites. Brewer.
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Essence of verbena, Oil of verbena, a perfume prepared from the lemon verbena; also, a similar perfume properly called grass oil. See Grass oil, under Grass. -- Lemon verbena, or Sweet verbena, a shrubby verbenaceous plant (Lippia citriodora), with narrow leaves which exhale a pleasant, lemonlike fragrance when crushed.
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Verbenaceous
Ver`be*na"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order (Verbenaceae) of gamopetalous plants of which Verbena is the type. The order includes also the black and white mangroves, and many plants noted for medicinal use or for beauty of bloom.
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Verbenate
Ver"be*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Verbenated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Verbenating.] [L. verbenatus crowned with a wreath of sacred boughs. See Verbena.] To strew with verbena, or vervain, as in ancient sacrifices and rites.
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Verberate
Ver"ber*ate (?), v. t. [L. verberatus, p. p. of verberare to beat, from verber a lash, a whip.] To beat; to strike. [Obs.] “The sound . . . rebounds again and verberates the skies.” Mir. for Mag.
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Verberation
Ver`ber*a"tion (?), n. [L. verberatio: cf. F. verbération.] 1. The act of verberating; a beating or striking. Arbuthnot.
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2. The impulse of a body, which causes sound. [R.]
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Verbiage
Ver"bi*age (?; 48), n. [F. verbiage, from OF. verbe a word. See Verb.] The use of many words without necessity, or with little sense; a superabundance of words; verbosity; wordiness.
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Verbiage may indicate observation, but not thinking. W. Irving.
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This barren verbiage current among men. Tennyson.
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Verbify
Verb"i*fy (?), v. t. [Verb + -fy.] To make into a verb; to use as a verb; to verbalize. [R.] Earle.
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Verbigerate
Ver*big"er*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. verbigerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. verbigerating (?).] [L. verbigerate, -atum, to talk.] 1. To talk; chat. [Obs.]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. (Med.) To repeat a word or sentence, in speaking or writing, without wishing to do so or in spite of efforts to cease. -- Ver*big`er*a"tion (#), n.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Verbose
Ver*bose" (?), a. [L. verbosus, from verbum a word. See Verb.] Abounding in words; using or containing more words than are necessary; tedious by a multiplicity of words; prolix; wordy; as, a verbose speaker; a verbose argument.
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Too verbose in their way of speaking. Ayliffe.
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-- Ver*bose"ly, adv. -- Ver*bose"ness, n.
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Verbosity
Ver*bos"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Verbosities (#). [L. verbositas: cf. F. verbosité.] The quality or state of being verbose; the use of more words than are necessary; prolixity; wordiness; verbiage.
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The worst fault, by far, is the extreme diffuseness and verbosity of his style. Jeffrey.
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Verd
Verd (?), n. [See Vert, Verdant.] 1. (Eng. Forest Law) (a) The privilege of cutting green wood within a forest for fuel. (b) The right of pasturing animals in a forest. Burrill.
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2. Greenness; freshness. [Obs.] Nares.
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Verdancy
Ver"dan*cy (?), n. The quality or state of being verdant.
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Verdant
Ver"dant (?), a. [F. verdoyant, p. pr. of verdoyer to be verdant, to grow green, OF. verdoier, verdeier, fr. verd, vert, green, fr. L. viridis green, fr. virere to be green: cf. OF. verdant verdant, L. viridans, p. pr. of viridare to make green. Cf. Farthingale, Verjuice, Vert.] 1. Covered with growing plants or grass; green; fresh; flourishing; as, verdant fields; a verdant lawn.
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Let the earth
Put forth the verdant grass.
Milton.
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2. Unripe in knowledge or judgment; unsophisticated; raw; green; as, a verdant youth. [Colloq.]
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Verd antique
Verd` an*tique" (?). [F. vert antique a kind of marble; verd, vert, green + antique ancient: cf. It. verde antico.] (Min.) (a) A mottled-green serpentine marble. (b) A green porphyry called oriental verd antique.
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Verdantly
Ver"dant*ly (?), adv. In a verdant manner.
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Verderor
Verderer
{ Ver"der*er (?), Ver"der*or (?), } n. [F. verdier, LL. viridarius, fr. L. viridis green.] (Eng. Forest Law) An officer who has the charge of the king's forest, to preserve the vert and venison, keep the assizes, view, receive, and enroll attachments and presentments of all manner of trespasses. Blackstone.
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Verdict
Ver"dict (?), n. [OE. verdit, OF. verdit, veirdit, LL. verdictum, veredictum; L. vere truly (fr. verus true) + dictum a saying, a word, fr. dicere, dictum, to say. See Very, and Dictum.] 1. (Law) The answer of a jury given to the court concerning any matter of fact in any cause, civil or criminal, committed to their examination and determination; the finding or decision of a jury on the matter legally submitted to them in the course of the trial of a cause.
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&hand_; The decision of a judge or referee, upon an issue of fact, is not called a verdict, but a finding, or a finding of fact. Abbott.
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2. Decision; judgment; opinion pronounced; as, to be condemned by the verdict of the public.
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These were enormities condemned by the most natural verdict of common humanity. South.
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Two generations have since confirmed the verdict which was pronounced on that night. Macaulay.
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Verdigris
Ver"di*gris (?), n. [F. vert-de-gris, apparently from verd, vert, green + de of + gris gray, but really a corruption of LL. viride aeris (equivalent to L. aerugo), from L. viridis green + aes, aeris, brass. See Verdant, and 2d Ore.] 1. (Chem.) A green poisonous substance used as a pigment and drug, obtained by the action of acetic acid on copper, and consisting essentially of a complex mixture of several basic copper acetates.
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2. The green rust formed on copper. [Colloq.]
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&hand_; This rust is a carbonate of copper, and should not be confounded with true verdigris. U. S. Disp.
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Blue verdigris (Chem.), a verdigris having a blue color, used as a pigment, etc. -- Distilled verdigris (Old Chem.), an acid copper acetate; -- so called because the acetic acid used in making it was obtained from distilled vinegar. -- Verdigris green, clear bluish green, the color of verdigris.
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Verdigris
Ver"di*gris, v. t. To cover, or coat, with verdigris. [R.] “An old verdigrised brass bugle.” Hawthorne.
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Verdin
Ver"din (?), n. [Cf. Sp. verdino bright green, F. verdin the yellow-hammer.] (Zool.) A small yellow-headed bird (Auriparus flaviceps) of Lower California, allied to the titmice; -- called also goldtit.
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Verdine
Ver"dine (?), n. [F. verd, vert, green.] (Chem.) A commercial name for a green aniline dye.
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Verdingale
Ver"din*gale (?), n. See Farthingale. [Spelled also verdingall.] [Obs.]
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Verdit
Ver"dit (?), n. Verdict. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Verditer
Ver"di*ter (?), n. [F. vert-de-terre, literally, green of earth.] (Chem.) (a) Verdigris. [Obs.] (b) Either one of two pigments (called blue verditer, and green verditer) which are made by treating copper nitrate with calcium carbonate (in the form of lime, whiting, chalk, etc.) They consist of hydrated copper carbonates analogous to the minerals azurite and malachite.
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Verditer blue, a pale greenish blue color, like that of the pigment verditer.
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Verditure
Ver"di*ture (?; 135), n. [Cf. Verditer.] The faintest and palest green.
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Verdoy
Ver"doy (?), a. [F. verdoyer to become green. See Verdant.] (Her.) Charged with leaves, fruits, flowers, etc.; -- said of a border.
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Verdure
Ver"dure (?), n. [F., fr. L. viridis green. See Verdant.] Green; greenness; freshness of vegetation; as, the verdure of the meadows in June.
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A wide expanse of living verdure, cultivated gardens, shady groves, fertile cornfields, flowed round it like a sea. Motley.
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Verdured
Ver"dured (?), a. Covered with verdure. Poe.
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Verdureless
Ver"dure*less (?), a. Destitute of verdure.
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Verdurous
Ver"dur*ous (?), a. Covered with verdure; clothed with the fresh green of vegetation; verdured; verdant; as, verdurous pastures. Milton.
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Verecund
Ver"e*cund (?), a. [L. verecundus, fr. vereri to feel awe.] Bashful; modest. [Obs.]
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Verecundious
Ver`e*cun"di*ous (?), a. Verecund. [Obs.]Verecundious generosity.” Sir H. Wotton.
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Verecundity
Ver`e*cun"di*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being verecund; modesty. [Obs.]
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Verein
Ver*ein" (?), n. [G.] A union, association, or society; -- used in names of German organizations.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Veretillum
Ver`e*til"lum (?), n. [L., dim. of veretrum the private parts.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of club-shaped, compound Alcyonaria belonging to Veretillum and allied genera, of the tribe Pennatulacea. The whole colony can move about as if it were a simple animal.
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Vergaloo
Vergalieu
{ Ver"ga*lieu, Ver"ga*loo } (v&etilde_;r"g&adot_;*l&oomacr_;), n. [Cf. Virgouleuse.] (Bot.) See Virgalieu.
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Verge
Verge (v&etilde_;rj), n. [F. verge, L. virga; perhaps akin to E. wisp.] 1. A rod or staff, carried as an emblem of authority; as, the verge, carried before a dean.
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2. The stick or wand with which persons were formerly admitted tenants, they holding it in the hand, and swearing fealty to the lord. Such tenants were called tenants by the verge. [Eng.]
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3. (Eng. Law) The compass of the court of Marshalsea and the Palace court, within which the lord steward and the marshal of the king's household had special jurisdiction; -- so called from the verge, or staff, which the marshal bore.
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4. A virgate; a yardland. [Obs.]
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5. A border, limit, or boundary of a space; an edge, margin, or brink of something definite in extent.
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Even though we go to the extreme verge of possibility to invent a supposition favorable to it, the theory . . . implies an absurdity. J. S. Mill.
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But on the horizon's verge descried,
Hangs, touched with light, one snowy sail.
M. Arnold.
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6. A circumference; a circle; a ring.
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The inclusive verge
Of golden metal that must round my brow.
Shak.
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7. (Arch.) (a) The shaft of a column, or a small ornamental shaft. Oxf. Gloss. (b) The edge of the tiling projecting over the gable of a roof. Encyc. Brit.
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8. (Horol.) The spindle of a watch balance, especially one with pallets, as in the old vertical escapement. See under Escapement.
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9. (Hort.) (a) The edge or outside of a bed or border. (b) A slip of grass adjoining gravel walks, and dividing them from the borders in a parterre.
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10. The penis.
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11. (Zool.) The external male organ of certain mollusks, worms, etc. See Illustration in Appendix.
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Syn. -- Border; edge; rim; brim; margin; brink.
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Verge
Verge (v&etilde_;rj), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Verged (v&etilde_;rjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Verging (v&etilde_;r"j&ibreve_;ng).] [L. vergere to bend, turn, incline; cf. Skr. v&rsdot_;j to turn.] 1. To border upon; to tend; to incline; to come near; to approach.
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2. To tend downward; to bend; to slope; as, a hill verges to the north.
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Our soul, from original instinct, vergeth towards him as its center. Barrow.
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I find myself verging to that period of life which is to be labor and sorrow. Swift.
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Vergeboard
Verge"board` (?), n. [Verge + board. Cf. Bargeboard.] (Arch.) The ornament of woodwork upon the gable of a house, used extensively in the 15th century. It was generally suspended from the edge of the projecting roof (see Verge, n., 4), and in a position parallel to the gable wall. Called also bargeboard.
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Vergency
Ver"gen*cy (?), n. 1. The act of verging or approaching; tendency; approach. [R.]
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2. (Opt.) The reciprocal of the focal distance of a lens, used as measure of the divergence or convergence of a pencil of rays. [R.] Humphrey Lloyd.
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Verger
Ver"ger (?), n. [F. verger, from verge a rod. See 1st Verge.] One who carries a verge, or emblem of office. Specifically: --
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(a) An attendant upon a dignitary, as on a bishop, a dean, a justice, etc. [Eng.] Strype.
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(b) The official who takes care of the interior of a church building.
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Verger
Ver"ger, n. [F.] A garden or orchard. [Obs.]
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Vergette
Ver`get`té" (?), a. [Cf. F. vergeté.] Divided by pallets, or pales; paly. W. Berry.
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Vergette
Ver*gette" (?), n. (Her.) A small pale.
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Veridical
Ve*rid"ic*al (?), a. [L. veridicus; verus true + dicere to say, tell.] Truth-telling; truthful; veracious. [R.] Carlyle.
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Verifiable
Ver"i*fi`a*ble (?), a. Capable of being verified; confirmable. Bp. Hall.
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Verification
Ver`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. vérification.] 1. The act of verifying, or the state of being verified; confirmation; authentication.
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2. (Law) (a) Confirmation by evidence. (b) A formal phrase used in concluding a plea.
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Verification of an equation (Math.), the operation of testing the equation of a problem, to see whether it expresses truly the conditions of the problem. Davies & Peck. (Math. Dict.)
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Verificative
Ver"i*fi*ca*tive (?), a. Serving to verify; verifying; authenticating; confirming.
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Verifier
Ver"i*fi`er (?), n. One who, or that which, verifies.
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Verify
Ver"i*fy (v&ebreve_;r"&ibreve_;*fī), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Verified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Verifying.] [F. vérifier, LL. verificare, from L. verus true + -ficare to make. See Very, and -fy.] 1. To prove to be true or correct; to establish the truth of; to confirm; to substantiate.
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This is verified by a number of examples. Bacon.
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So shalt thou best fulfill, best verify.
The prophets old, who sung thy endless reign.
Milton.
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2. To confirm or establish the authenticity of by examination or competent evidence; to authenticate; as, to verify a written statement; to verify an account, a pleading, or the like.
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To verify our title with their lives. Shak.
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3. To maintain; to affirm; to support. [Obs.] Shak.
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Veriloquent
Ve*ril"o*quent (?), a. [L. verus true + loquens speaking.] Speaking truth; truthful. [Obs.]
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Verily
Ver"i*ly (?), adv. [From Very.] In very truth; beyond doubt or question; in fact; certainly. Bacon.
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Trust in the Lord and do good; so shalt thou dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed. Ps. xxxvii. 3.
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Verine
Ver"ine (?), n. [Contr. from veratrine.] (Chem.) An alkaloid obtained as a yellow amorphous substance by the decomposition of veratrine.
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Verisimilar
Ver`i*sim"i*lar (?), a. [L. verisimilis; verus true + similis like, similar. See Very, and Similar.] Having the appearance of truth; probable; likely. “How verisimilar it looks.” Carlyle.
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Verisimilitude
Ver`i*si*mil"i*tude (?), n. [L. verisimilitudo: cf. OF. verisimilitude. See Verisimilar.] The quality or state of being verisimilar; the appearance of truth; probability; likelihood.
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Verisimilitude and opinion are an easy purchase; but true knowledge is dear and difficult. Glanvill.
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All that gives verisimilitude to a narrative. Sir. W. Scott.
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Verisimility
Ver`i*si*mil"i*ty (?), n. Verisimilitude. [Obs.]
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The verisimility or probable truth. Sir T. Browne.
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Verisimilous
Ver`i*sim"i*lous (?), a. Verisimilar. [Obs.]
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Veritable
Ver"i*ta*ble (?), a. [F. véritable. See Verity.] Agreeable to truth or to fact; actual; real; true; genuine. “The veritable Deity.” Sir W. Hamilton. -- Ver"i*ta*bly, adv.
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Veritas
Ver"i*tas (?), n. [Cf. F. véritas. See Verity.] The Bureau Veritas. See under Bureau.
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Verity
Ver"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Verities (#). [F. vérité, L. veritas, fr. verus true. See Very.] 1. The quality or state of being true, or real; consonance of a statement, proposition, or other thing, with fact; truth; reality. “The verity of certain words.” Shak.
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It is a proposition of eternal verity, that none can govern while he is despised. South.
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2. That which is true; a true assertion or tenet; a truth; a reality.
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Mark what I say, which you shall find
By every syllable a faithful verity.
Shak.
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Verjuice
Ver"juice` (?), n. [OE. vergeous, F. verjus, that is, the juice of green fruits; verd, vert, green + jus juice. See Verdant, and Juice.] 1. The sour juice of crab apples, of green or unripe grapes, apples, etc.; also, an acid liquor made from such juice.
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2. Tartness; sourness, as of disposition.
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Vermeil
Ver"meil (?), n. [F., vermilion, fr. LL. vermiculus, fr. L. vermiculus a little worm, the coccus Indicus, from vermis a worm. See Worm, and cf. Vermicule.] 1. Vermilion; also, the color of vermilion, a bright, beautiful red. [Poetic & R.]
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In her cheeks the vermeill red did show
Like roses in a bed of lilies shed.
Spenser.
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2. Silver gilt or gilt bronze.
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3. A liquid composition applied to a gilded surface to give luster to the gold. Knight.
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Vermeologist
Ver`me*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of vermes, or worms; a helminthologist.
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Vermeology
Ver`me*ol"o*gy (?), n. [L. vermes worms + -logy.] (Zool.) A discourse or treatise on worms; that part of Zoology which treats of worms; helminthology. [R.]
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Vermes
Ver"mes (?), n. pl. [L. vermes, pl. of vermis a worm.] (Zool.) (a) An extensive artificial division of the animal kingdom, including the parasitic worms, or helminths, together with the nemerteans, annelids, and allied groups. By some writers the branchiopods, the bryzoans, and the tunicates are also included. The name was used in a still wider sense by Linnaeus and his followers. (b) A more restricted group, comprising only the helminths and closely allied orders.
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Vermetid
Ver"me*tid (?), n. (Zool.) Any species of vermetus.
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Vermetus
Ver*me"tus (?), n. [NL., from L. vermis worm.] (Zool.) Any one of many species of marine gastropods belonging to Vermetus and allied genera, of the family Vermetidae. Their shells are regularly spiral when young, but later in life the whorls become separate, and the shell is often irregularly bent and contorted like a worm tube.
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Vermicelli
Ver`mi*cel"li (?), n. [It., pl. of vermicello, literally, a little worm, dim. of verme a worm, L. vermis. See Worm, and cf. Vermicule, Vermeil.] The flour of a hard and small-grained wheat made into dough, and forced through small cylinders or pipes till it takes a slender, wormlike form, whence the Italian name. When the paste is made in larger tubes, it is called macaroni.
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Vermicide
Ver"mi*cide (?), n. [L. vermis a worm + caedere to kill.] A medicine which destroys intestinal worms; a worm killer. Pereira.
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Vermicious
Ver*mi"cious (?), a. [L. vermis a worm.] Of or pertaining to worms; wormy.
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Vermicular
Ver*mic"u*lar (?), a. [L. vermiculus a little worm, dim. of vermis a worm: cf. F. vermiculaire. See Vermicelli.] Of or pertaining to a worm or worms; resembling a worm; shaped like a worm; especially, resembling the motion or track of a worm; as, the vermicular, or peristaltic, motion of the intestines. See Peristaltic. “A twisted form vermicular.” Cowper.
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Vermicular work. See under Vermiculated.
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Vermiculate
Ver*mic"u*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vermiculated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vermiculating.] [L. vermiculatus inlaid so as to resemble the tracks of worms, p. p. of vermiculari to be full of worms, vermiculus a little worm. See Vermicular.] To form or work, as by inlaying, with irregular lines or impressions resembling the tracks of worms, or appearing as if formed by the motion of worms.
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Vermiculate
Ver*mic"u*late (?), a. 1. Wormlike in shape; covered with wormlike elevations; marked with irregular fine lines of color, or with irregular wavy impressed lines like worm tracks; as, a vermiculate nut.
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2. Crawling or creeping like a worm; hence, insinuating; sophistical.Vermiculate questions.” Bacon.Vermiculate logic.” R. Choate.
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Vermiculated
Ver*mic"u*la`ted (?), a. Made or marked with irregular wavy lines or impressions; vermiculate.
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Vermiculated work, or Vermicular work (Arch.), rustic work so wrought as to have the appearance of convoluted worms, or of having been eaten into by, or covered with tracks of, worms. Gwilt.
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Vermiculation
Ver*mic`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. vermiculatio a being worm-eaten.] 1. The act or operation of moving in the manner of a worm; continuation of motion from one part to another; as, the vermiculation, or peristaltic motion, of the intestines.
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2. The act of vermiculating, or forming or inlaying so as to resemble the motion, track, or work of a worm.
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3. Penetration by worms; the state of being wormeaten.
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4. (Zool.) A very fine wavy crosswise color marking, or a patch of such markings, as on the feathers of birds.
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Vermicule
Ver"mi*cule (?), n. [L. vermiculus, dim. of vermis a worm. See Vermicular.] A small worm or insect larva; also, a wormlike body. [R.] Derham.
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Vermiculite
Ver*mic"u*lite (?), n. [L. vermiculus, dim. of vermis worm.] (Min.) A group of minerals having, a micaceous structure. They are hydrous silicates, derived generally from the alteration of some kind of mica. So called because the scales, when heated, open out into wormlike forms.
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Vermiculous
Vermiculose
{ Ver*mic"u*lose` (?), Ver*mic"u*lous (?), } a. [L. vermiculosus. See Vermicule.] Containing, or full of, worms; resembling worms.
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Vermiform
Ver"mi*form (?), a. [L. vermis a worm + -form.] Resembling a worm in form or motions; vermicular; as, the vermiform process of the cerebellum.
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Vermiform appendix (Anat.), a slender blind process of the caecum in man and some other animals; -- called also vermiform appendage, and vermiform process. Small solid bodies, such as grape seeds or cherry stones, sometimes lodge in it, causing serious, or even fatal, inflammation. See Illust. under Digestion.
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Vermiformia
Ver`mi*for"mi*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zool.) A tribe of worms including Phoronis. See Phoronis.
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Vermifugal
Ver*mif"u*gal (?), a. [L. vermis a worm + fugare to drive away, fr. fugere to flee. See Worm, and Fugitive.] (Med.) Tending to prevent, destroy, or expel, worms or vermin; anthelmintic.
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Vermifuge
Ver"mi*fuge (?), n. [Cf. F. vermifuge. See Vermifugal.] (Med.) A medicine or substance that expels worms from animal bodies; an anthelmintic.
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Vermil
Ver"mil (?), n. See Vermeil. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vermilinguia
Ver`mi*lin"gui*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. vermis worm + lingua tongue.] [Called also Vermilingues.] (Zool.) (a) A tribe of edentates comprising the South American ant-eaters. The tongue is long, slender, exsertile, and very flexible, whence the name. (b) A tribe of Old World lizards which comprises the chameleon. They have long, flexible tongues.
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Vermilion
Ver*mil"ion (?), n. [F. vermillon. See Vermeil.] 1. (Chem.) A bright red pigment consisting of mercuric sulphide, obtained either from the mineral cinnabar or artificially. It has a fine red color, and is much used in coloring sealing wax, in printing, etc.
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&hand_; The kermes insect has long been used for dyeing red or scarlet. It was formerly known as the worm dye, vermiculus, or vermiculum, and the cloth was called vermiculatia. Hence came the French vermeil for any red dye, and hence the modern name vermilion, although the substance it denotes is very different from the kermes, being a compound of mercury and sulphur. R. Hunt.
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2. Hence, a red color like the pigment; a lively and brilliant red; as, cheeks of vermilion.
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Vermilion
Ver*mil"ion, v. t. To color with vermilion, or as if with vermilion; to dye red; to cover with a delicate red.
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Vermily
Ver"mi*ly (?), n. Vermeil. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vermin
Ver"min (?), n. sing. & pl.; used chiefly as plural. [OE. vermine, F. vermine, from L. vermis a worm; cf. LL. vermen a worm, L. verminosus full of worms. See Vermicular, Worm.] 1. An animal, in general. [Obs.]
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Wherein were all manner of fourfooted beasts of the earth, and vermin, and worms, and fowls. Acts x. 12. (Geneva Bible).
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This crocodile is a mischievous fourfooted beast, a dangerous vermin, used to both elements. Holland.
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2. A noxious or mischievous animal; especially, noxious little animals or insects, collectively, as squirrels, rats, mice, worms, flies, lice, bugs, etc. “Cruel hounds or some foul vermin.” Chaucer.
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Great injuries these vermin, mice and rats, do in the field. Mortimer.
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They disdain such vermin when the mighty boar of the forest . . . is before them. Burke.
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3. Hence, in contempt, noxious human beings.
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You are my prisoners, base vermin. Hudibras.
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Verminate
Ver"mi*nate (?), v. i. [L. verminare to have worms, fr. vermis a worm.] To breed vermin.
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Vermination
Ver`mi*na"tion (?), n. [L. verminatio the worms, a disease of animals, a crawling, itching pain.] 1. The generation or breeding of vermin. Derham.
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2. A griping of the bowels.
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Verminly
Ver"min*ly (?), a. & adv. Resembling vermin; in the manner of vermin. [Obs.] Gauden.
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Verminous
Ver"min*ous (?), a. [L. verminosus, fr. vermis a worm: cf. F. vermineux.] 1. Tending to breed vermin; infested by vermin.
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Some . . . verminous disposition of the body. Harvey.
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2. Caused by, or arising from the presence of, vermin; as, verminous disease.
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Verminously
Ver"min*ous*ly, adv. In a verminous manner.
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Vermiparous
Ver*mip"a*rous (?), a. [L. vermis a worm + parere to bring forth.] Producing or breeding worms.Vermiparous animals.” Sir T. Browne.
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Vermivorous
Ver*miv"o*rous (?), a. [L. vermis a worm + vorare to devour: cf. F. vermivore.] (Zool.) Devouring worms; feeding on worms; as, vermivorous birds.
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Vermuth
Ver"muth (?), n. [F. vermout.] A liqueur made of white wine, absinthe, and various aromatic drugs, used to excite the appetite. [Written also vermouth.]
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Vernacle
Ver"na*cle (?), n. See Veronica, 1. [Obs.]
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Vernacular
Ver*nac"u*lar (?), a. [L. vernaculus born in one's house, native, fr. verna a slave born in his master's house, a native, probably akin to Skr. vas to dwell, E. was.] Belonging to the country of one's birth; one's own by birth or nature; native; indigenous; -- now used chiefly of language; as, English is our vernacular language. “A vernacular disease.” Harvey.
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His skill in the vernacular dialect of the Celtic tongue. Fuller.
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Which in our vernacular idiom may be thus interpreted. Pope.
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Vernacular
Ver*nac"u*lar, n. The vernacular language; one's mother tongue; often, the common forms of expression in a particular locality, opposed to literary or learned forms.
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Vernacularism
Ver*nac"u*lar*ism (?), n. A vernacular idiom.
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Vernacularization
Ver*nac"u*lar*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of making vernacular, or the state of being made vernacular. Fitzed. Hall.
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Vernacularly
Ver*nac"u*lar*ly (?), adv. In a vernacular manner; in the vernacular. Earle.
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Vernaculous
Ver*nac"u*lous (?), a. [L. vernaculus. See Vernacular.] 1. Vernacular. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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2. [L. vernaculi, pl., buffoons, jesters.] Scoffing; scurrilous. [A Latinism. Obs.] “Subject to the petulancy of every vernaculous orator.” B. Jonson.
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Vernage
Ver"nage (v&etilde_;r"n&auptack_;j), n. [It. vernaccia.] A kind of sweet wine from Italy. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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vernal
ver"nal (v&etilde_;r"n&aitalic_;l), a. [L. vernalis, fr. vernus vernal, ver spring; akin to Gr. 'e`ar, Skr. vasanta, Icel. vār, and E. Easter, east.] 1. Of or pertaining to the spring; appearing in the spring; as, vernal bloom.
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And purple all the ground with vernal flowers. Milton.
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2. Fig.: Belonging to youth, the spring of life.
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When after the long vernal day of life. Thomson.
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And seems it hard thy vernal years
Few vernal joys can show?
Keble.
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Vernal equinox (Astron.), the point of time in each year when the sun crosses the equator when proceeding northward, about March 21, when day and night are of approximately equal duration. The beginning of the Spring season. -- Vernal grass (Bot.), a low, soft grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), producing in the spring narrow spikelike panicles, and noted for the delicious fragrance which it gives to new-mown hay; -- also called sweet vernal grass. See Illust. in Appendix. -- Vernal signs (Astron.), the signs, Aries, Taurus, and Gemini, in which the sun appears between the vernal equinox and summer solstice.
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Vernant
Ver"nant (v&etilde_;r"n&aitalic_;nt), a. [L. vernans, p. pr. vernare to flourish, from ver spring.] Flourishing, as in spring; vernal. [Obs.]Vernant flowers.” Milton.
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Vernate
Ver"nate (?), v. i. [See Vernant.] To become young again. [Obs.]
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Vernation
Ver*na"tion (?), n. [F. vernation: cf. L. vernatio the sloughing of the skin of snakes.] (Bot.) The arrangement of the leaves within the leaf bud, as regards their folding, coiling, rolling, etc.; prefoliation.
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Verner's law
Ver"ner's law (?). (Philol.) A statement, propounded by the Danish philologist Karl Verner in 1875, which explains certain apparent exceptions to Grimm's law by the original position of the accent. Primitive Indo-European k, t, p, became first in Teutonic h, th, f, and appear without further change in old Teutonic, if the accent rested on the preceding syllable; but these sounds became voiced and produced g, d, b, if the accent was originally on a different syllable. Similarly s either remained unchanged, or it became z and later r. Example: Skt. saptā (accent on ultima), Gr. 'e`pta, Gothic sibun (seven). Examples in English are dead by the side of death, to rise and to rear.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vernicle
Ver"ni*cle (?), n. A Veronica. See Veronica, 1. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.
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A vernicle had he sowed upon his cap. Chaucer.
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Vernicose
Ver"ni*cose` (?), a. [See Varnish.] (Bot.) Having a brilliantly polished surface, as some leaves.
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Vernier
Ver"ni*er (?), n. [So named after the inventor, Pierre Vernier.] A short scale made to slide along the divisions of a graduated instrument, as the limb of a sextant, or the scale of a barometer, for indicating parts of divisions. It is so graduated that a certain convenient number of its divisions are just equal to a certain number, either one less or one more, of the divisions of the instrument, so that parts of a division are determined by observing what line on the vernier coincides with a line on the instrument.
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Vernier calipers, Vernier gauge, a gauge with a graduated bar and a sliding jaw bearing a vernier, used for accurate measurements. -- Vernier compass, a surveyor's compass with a vernier for the accurate adjustment of the zero point in accordance with magnetic variation. -- Vernier transit, a surveyor's transit instrument with a vernier compass.
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Vernile
Ver"nile (?), a. [L. vernilis servile. See Vernacular.] Suiting a slave; servile; obsequious. [R.]
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The example . . . of vernile scurrility. De Quincey.
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Vernility
Ver*nil"i*ty (?), n. [L. vernilitas.] Fawning or obsequious behavior; servility. [R.] Bailey.
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Vernine
Ver"nine (?), n. [Vernal + -ine.] (Chem.) An alkaloid extracted from the shoots of the vetch, red clover, etc., as a white crystalline substance.
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Vernish
Ver"nish (?), n. & v. Varnish. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Vernonin
Ver"no*nin (?), n. (Chem.) A glucoside extracted from the root of a South African plant of the genus Vernonia, as a deliquescent powder, and used as a mild heart tonic.
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Veronese
Ver`o*nese" (?), a. [It. Veronese.] Of or pertaining to Verona, in Italy. -- n. sing. & pl. A native of Verona; collectively, the people of Verona.
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Veronica
Ve*ron"i*ca (?), n. [LL.; -- so called from Veronica, a woman who, according to an old legend, as Christ was carrying the cross, wiped his face with a cloth, which received an impression of his countenance; Veronica is fr. MGr. Beroni`kh, fr. Macedonian Bereni`kh, for Gr. Fereni`kh, literally, carrying off victory, victorious.] 1. A portrait or representation of the face of our Savior on the alleged handkerchief of Saint Veronica, preserved at Rome; hence, a representation of this portrait, or any similar representation of the face of the Savior. Formerly called also Vernacle, and Vernicle.
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2. (Bot.) A genus of scrophulariaceous plants; the speedwell. See Speedwell.
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&hand_; Several herbaceous species are common in both Europe and America, most of which have small blue flowers. A few shrubby species from New Zealand are sometimes found in cultivation.
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Verray
Ver"ray (?), a. Very; true. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Verrayment
Ver"ray*ment (?), adv. [OF. veraiement. See Very.] Verily; truly. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Verrel
Ver"rel (?), n. See Ferrule. [Obs.]
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Verriculate
Ver*ric"u*late (?), a. [L. verriculum a net, seine.] (Zool.) Having thickset tufts of parallel hairs, bristles, or branches.
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Verruca
Ver*ru"ca (?), n.; pl. Verrucae (#). [L. Cf. Verrugas.] 1. (Med.) A wart.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. (Zool.) A wartlike elevation or roughness.
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Verruciform
Ver*ru"ci*form (?), a. [L. verruca wart + -form.] Shaped like a wart or warts.
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Verrucose
Ver"ru*cose` (?), a. [L. verrucosus, fr. verruca a wart.] Covered with wartlike elevations; tuberculate; warty; verrucous; as, a verrucose capsule.
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Verrucous
Ver"ru*cous (?), a. Verrucose.
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Verruculose
Ver*ru"cu*lose` (?), a. [L. verrucula, dim. of verruca a wart.] Minutely verrucose; as, a verruculose leaf or stalk.
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Verrugas
Ver*ru"gas (?), n. [Sp., warts. Cf. Verruca.] (Med.) An endemic disease occurring in the Andes in Peru, characterized by warty tumors which ulcerate and bleed. It is probably due to a special bacillus, and is often fatal.
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Vers
Vers (?), n. sing. & pl. A verse or verses. See Verse, n. [Obs.] “Ten vers or twelve.” Chaucer.
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Versability
Ver`sa*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being versable. [R.] Sterne
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Versable
Ver"sa*ble (?), a. [L. versabilis: cf. F. versable. See Versatile.] Capable of being turned. [R.]
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Versableness
Ver"sa*ble*ness, n. Versability. [R.]
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Versal
Ver"sal (?), a. Universal. [Obs. or Colloq.] Shak.
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Versant
Ver"sant (?), a. [L. versans, p. pr. of versare to turn about frequently, to turn over in the mind, to meditate. See Versatile.] Familiar; conversant. [R.]
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Men not versant with courts of justice. Sydney Smith.
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Versant
Ver"sant, n. [F.] The slope of a side of a mountain chain; hence, the general slope of a country; aspect.
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Versatile
Ver"sa*tile (?), a. [L. versatilis, fr. versare to turn around, v. freq. of vertere: cf. F. versatile. See Verse.] 1. Capable of being turned round. Harte.
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2. Liable to be turned in opinion; changeable; variable; unsteady; inconstant; as, a versatile disposition.
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3. Turning with ease from one thing to another; readily applied to a new task, or to various subjects; many-sided; as, versatile genius; a versatile politician.
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Conspicuous among the youths of high promise . . . was the quick and versatile [Charles] Montagu. Macaulay.
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4. (Nat. Hist.) Capable of turning; freely movable; as, a versatile anther, which is fixed at one point to the filament, and hence is very easily turned around; a versatile toe of a bird.
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-- Ver"sa*tile*ly, adv. -- -- Ver"sa*tile*ness, n.
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Versatility
Ver`sa*til"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. versatilité.] The quality or state of being versatile; versatileness.
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Vers de societe
Vers` de so`cié`té" (?). [F.] See Society verses, under Society.
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Verse
Verse (v&etilde_;rs), n. [OE. vers, AS. fers, L. versus a line in writing, and, in poetry, a verse, from vertere, versum, to turn, to turn round; akin to E. worth to become: cf. F. vers. See Worth to become, and cf. Advertise, Averse, Controversy, Convert, Divers, Invert, Obverse, Prose, Suzerain, Vortex.] 1. A line consisting of a certain number of metrical feet (see Foot, n., 9) disposed according to metrical rules.
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&hand_; Verses are of various kinds, as hexameter, pentameter, tetrameter, etc., according to the number of feet in each. A verse of twelve syllables is called an Alexandrine. Two or more verses form a stanza or strophe.
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2. Metrical arrangement and language; that which is composed in metrical form; versification; poetry.
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Such prompt eloquence
Flowed from their lips in prose or numerous verse.
Milton.
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Virtue was taught in verse. Prior.
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Verse embalms virtue. Donne.
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3. A short division of any composition. Specifically: --
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(a) A stanza; a stave; as, a hymn of four verses.
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&hand_; Although this use of verse is common, it is objectionable, because not always distinguishable from the stricter use in the sense of a line.
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(b) (Script.) One of the short divisions of the chapters in the Old and New Testaments.
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&hand_; The author of the division of the Old Testament into verses is not ascertained. The New Testament was divided into verses by Robert Stephens [or Estienne], a French printer. This arrangement appeared for the first time in an edition printed at Geneva, in 1551.
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(c) (Mus.) A portion of an anthem to be performed by a single voice to each part.
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4. A piece of poetry. “This verse be thine.” Pope.
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Blank verse, poetry in which the lines do not end in rhymes. -- Heroic verse. See under Heroic.
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Verse
Verse, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Versed (v&etilde_;rst); p. pr. & vb. n. Versing.] To tell in verse, or poetry. [Obs.]
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Playing on pipes of corn and versing love. Shak.
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Verse
Verse, v. i. To make verses; to versify. [Obs.]
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It is not rhyming and versing that maketh a poet. Sir P. Sidney.
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Versed
Versed (v&etilde_;rst), a. [Cf. F. versé, L. versatus, p. p. of versari to turn about frequently, to turn over, to be engaged in a thing, passive of versare. See Versant, a.] Acquainted or familiar, as the result of experience, study, practice, etc.; skilled; practiced; knowledgeable; expert.
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Deep versed in books and shallow in himself. Milton.
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Opinions . . . derived from studying the Scriptures, wherein he was versed beyond any person of his age. Southey.
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These men were versed in the details of business. Macaulay.
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Versed
Versed, a. [L. versus turned, p. p. vertere. See 1st Versed.] (Math.) Turned.
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Versed sine. See under Sine, and Illust. of Functions.
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Verseman
Verse"man (v&etilde_;rs"m&aitalic_;n), n. Same as Versemonger. Prior.
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Versemonger
Verse"mon`ger (v&etilde_;rs"mŭ&nsmacr_;`g&etilde_;r), n. A writer of verses; especially, a writer of commonplace poetry; a poetaster; a rhymer; -- used humorously or in contempt.
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Verser
Vers"er (v&etilde_;rs"&etilde_;r), n. A versifier. B. Jonson.
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Verset
Vers"et (v&etilde_;rs"&ebreve_;t), n. [F.] A verse. [Obs.] Milton.
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Versicle
Ver"si*cle (?), n. [L. versiculus, dim. of versus. See Verse.] A little verse; especially, a short verse or text said or sung in public worship by the priest or minister, and followed by a response from the people.
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The psalms were in number fifteen, . . . being digested into versicles. Strype.
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Versicolored
Versicolor
{ Ver"si*col`or (?), Ver"si*col`ored (?), } a. [L. versicolor; versare to change + color color.] Having various colors; changeable in color.Versicolor, sweet-smelling flowers.” Burton.
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Versicular
Ver*sic"u*lar (?), a. [See Versicle.] Of or pertaining to verses; designating distinct divisions of a writing.
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Versification
Ver`si*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. versificatio: cf. F. versification.] The act, art, or practice, of versifying, or making verses; the construction of poetry; metrical composition.
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Versificator
Ver"si*fi*ca`tor (?), n. [L.] A versifier. [R.] “The best versificator next Virgil.” Dryden.
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Versifier
Ver"si*fi`er (?), n. 1. One who versifies, or makes verses; as, not every versifier is a poet. Dryden.
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2. One who converts into verse; one who expresses in verse the ideas of another written in prose; as, Dr. Watts was a versifier of the Psalms.
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Versify
Ver"si*fy (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Versified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Versifying (?).] [OE. versifien, F. versifier, L. versificare; versus a verse + -ficare to make. See Verse, and -fy.] To make verses.
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I'll versify in spite, and do my best. Dryden.
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Versify
Ver"si*fy, v. t. 1. To relate or describe in verse; to compose in verse.
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I'll versify the truth, not poetize. Daniel.
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2. To turn into verse; to render into metrical form; as, to versify the Psalms. Chaucer.
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Version
Ver"sion (?), n. [F., from L. vertere, versum, to turn, to change, to translate. See Verse.] 1. A change of form, direction, or the like; transformation; conversion; turning.
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The version of air into water. Bacon.
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2. (Med.) A condition of the uterus in which its axis is deflected from its normal position without being bent upon itself. See Anteversion, and Retroversion.
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3. The act of translating, or rendering, from one language into another language.
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4. A translation; that which is rendered from another language; as, the Common, or Authorized, Version of the Scriptures (see under Authorized); the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament.
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5. An account or description from a particular point of view, especially as contrasted with another account; as, he gave another version of the affair.
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Versionist
Ver"sion*ist, n. One who makes or favors a version; a translator. [R.]
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Verso
Ver"so (?), n. [L. versus, p. p. of vertere to turn: cf. F. verso.] (Print.) The reverse, or left-hand, page of a book or a folded sheet of paper; -- opposed to recto.
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Versor
Ver"sor (?), n. [NL., fr. L. vertere, versus, to turn. See Version.] (Geom.) The turning factor of a quaternion.
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&hand_; The change of one vector into another is considered in quaternions as made up of two operations; 1st, the rotation of the first vector so that it shall be parallel to the second; 2d, the change of length so that the first vector shall be equal to the second. That which expresses in amount and kind the first operation is a versor, and is denoted geometrically by a line at right angles to the plane in which the rotation takes place, the length of this line being proportioned to the amount of rotation. That which expresses the second operation is a tensor. The product of the versor and tensor expresses the total operation, and is called a quaternion. See Quaternion.
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Quadrantal versor. See under Quadrantal.
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Verst
Verst (?), n. [Russ. versta: cf. F. verste.] A Russian measure of length containing 3,500 English feet. [Written also werst.]
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Versual
Ver"su*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a verse.
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Versus
Ver"sus (?), prep. [L., toward, turned in the direction of, from vertere, versum, to turn. See Verse.] Against; as, John Doe versus Richard Roe; -- chiefly used in legal language, and abbreviated to v. or vs.
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Versute
Ver*sute" (?), a. [L. versutus, fr. vertere, versum, to turn.] Crafty; wily; cunning; artful. [R.]
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Vert
Vert (?), n. [F., green, from L. viridis. See Verdant, and cf. Verd.] 1. (Eng. Forest Law) (a) Everything that grows, and bears a green leaf, within the forest; as, to preserve vert and venison is the duty of the verderer. (b) The right or privilege of cutting growing wood.
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2. (Her.) The color green, represented in a drawing or engraving by parallel lines sloping downward toward the right.
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Verteber
Ver"te*ber (v&etilde_;r"t&euptack_;*b&etilde_;r), n. A vertebra. [Obs.]
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Vertebra
Ver"te*bra (v&etilde_;r"t&euptack_;*br&adot_;), n.; pl. Vertebrae (#). [L. vertebra, fr. vertere to turn, change. See Verse.]
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1. (Anat.) One of the serial segments of the spinal column.
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&hand_; In many fishes the vertebrae are simple cartilaginous disks or short cylinders, but in the higher vertebrates they are composed of many parts, and the vertebrae in different portions of the same column vary very greatly. A well-developed vertebra usually consists of a more or less cylindrical and solid body, or centrum, which is surmounted dorsally by an arch, leaving an opening which forms a part of the canal containing the spinal cord. From this dorsal, or neural, arch spring various processes, or apophyses, which have received special names: a dorsal, or neural, spine, spinous process, or neurapophysis, on the middle of the arch; two anterior and two posterior articular processes, or zygapophyses; and one or two transverse processes on each side. In those vertebrae which bear well-developed ribs, a tubercle near the end of the rib articulates at a tubercular facet on the transverse process (diapophysis), while the end, or head, of the rib articulates at a more ventral capitular facet which is sometimes developed into a second, or ventral, transverse process (parapophysis). In vertebrates with well-developed hind limbs, the spinal column is divided into five regions in each of which the vertebrae are specially designated: those vertebrae in front of, or anterior to, the first vertebra which bears ribs connected with the sternum are cervical; all those which bear ribs and are back of the cervicals are dorsal; the one or more directly supporting the pelvis are sacral and form the sacrum; those between the sacral and dorsal are lumbar; and all those back of the sacral are caudal, or coccygeal. In man there are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve dorsal, five lumbar, five sacral, and usually four, but sometimes five and rarely three, coccygeal.
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2. (Zool.) One of the central ossicles in each joint of the arms of an ophiuran.
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Vertebral
Ver"te*bral (v&etilde_;r"t&euptack_;*br&aitalic_;l), a. [Cf. F. vertébral.] 1. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a vertebra, vertebrae, or the vertebral column; spinal; rachidian.
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2. Vertebrate.
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Vertebral
Ver"te*bral, n. (Zool.) A vertebrate. [R.]
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Vertebrally
Ver"te*bral*ly, adv. (Anat.) At or within a vertebra or vertebrae; -- distinguished from interverterbrally.
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Vertebrarterial
Ver`te*brar*te"ri*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a vertebra or vertebrae and an artery; -- said of the foramina in the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae and of the canal which they form for the vertebral artery and vein.
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Vertebrata
Ver`te*bra"ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zool.) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, comprising all animals that have a backbone composed of bony or cartilaginous vertebrae, together with Amphioxus in which the backbone is represented by a simple undivided notochord. The Vertebrata always have a dorsal, or neural, cavity above the notochord or backbone, and a ventral, or visceral, cavity below it. The subdivisions or classes of Vertebrata are Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Pisces, Marsipobranchia, and Leptocardia.
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Vertebrate
Ver"te*brate (?), n. (Zool.) One of the Vertebrata.
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Vertebrated
Vertebrate
{ Ver"te*brate (?), Ver"te*bra`ted (?), } a. [L. vertebratus.] 1. (Anat.) Having a backbone, or vertebral column, containing the spinal marrow, as man, quadrupeds, birds, amphibia, and fishes.
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2. (Bot.) Contracted at intervals, so as to resemble the spine in animals. Henslow.
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3. (Zool.) Having movable joints resembling vertebrae; -- said of the arms of ophiurans.
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4. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Vertebrata; -- used only in the form vertebrate.
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Vertebre
Ver"te*bre (?), n. (Anat.) A vertebra. [Obs.]
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Vertebro-
Ver"te*bro- (?). A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, a vertebra, vertebrae, or the vertebral column; as in vertebrocostal.
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Vertebro-iliac
Ver"te*bro-il"i*ac (?), a. (Anat.) Iliolumbar.
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Vertex
Ver"tex (?), n.; pl. E. Vertexes (#), L. Vertices (#). [L. vertex, -icis, a whirl, top of the head, top, summit, from vertere to turn. See Verse, and cf. Vortex.] A turning point; the principal or highest point; top; summit; crown; apex. Specifically: --
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(a) (Anat.) The top, or crown, of the head.
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(b) (Astron.) The zenith, or the point of the heavens directly overhead.
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(c) (Math.) The point in any figure opposite to, and farthest from, the base; the terminating point of some particular line or lines in a figure or a curve; the top, or the point opposite the base.
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&hand_; The principal vertex of a conic section is, in the parabola, the vertex of the axis of the curve: in the ellipse, either extremity of either axis, but usually the left-hand vertex of the transverse axis; in the hyperbola, either vertex, but usually the right-hand vertex of the transverse axis.
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Vertex of a curve (Math.), the point in which the axis of the curve intersects it. -- Vertex of an angle (Math.), the point in which the sides of the angle meet. -- Vertex of a solid, or Vertex of a surface of revolution (Math.), the point in which the axis pierces the surface.
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Vertical
Ver"ti*cal (?), a. [Cf. F. vertical. See Vertex.]
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1. Of or pertaining to the vertex; situated at the vertex, or highest point; directly overhead, or in the zenith; perpendicularly above one.
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Charity . . . is the vertical top of all religion. Jer. Taylor.
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2. Perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; upright; plumb; as, a vertical line.
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Vertical angle (Astron. & Geod.), an angle measured on a vertical circle, called an angle of elevation, or altitude, when reckoned from the horizon upward, and of depression when downward below the horizon. -- Vertical anthers (Bot.), such anthers as stand erect at the top of the filaments. -- Vertical circle (Astron.), an azimuth circle. See under Azimuth. -- Vertical drill, an upright drill. See under Upright. -- Vertical fire (Mil.), the fire, as of mortars, at high angles of elevation. -- Vertical leaves (Bot.), leaves which present their edges to the earth and the sky, and their faces to the horizon, as in the Australian species of Eucalyptus. -- Vertical limb, a graduated arc attached to an instrument, as a theodolite, for measuring vertical angles. -- Vertical line. (a) (Dialing) A line perpendicular to the horizon. (b) (Conic Sections) A right line drawn on the vertical plane, and passing through the vertex of the cone. (c) (Surv.) The direction of a plumb line; a line normal to the surface of still water. (d) (Geom., Drawing, etc.) A line parallel to the sides of a page or sheet, in distinction from a horizontal line parallel to the top or bottom. -- Vertical plane. (a) (Conic Sections) A plane passing through the vertex of a cone, and through its axis. (b) (Projections) Any plane which passes through a vertical line. (c) (Persp.) The plane passing through the point of sight, and perpendicular to the ground plane, and also to the picture. -- Vertical sash, a sash sliding up and down. Cf. French sash, under 3d Sash. -- Vertical steam engine, a steam engine having the crank shaft vertically above or below a vertical cylinder.
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Vertical
Ver"ti*cal, n. 1. Vertical position; zenith. [R.]
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2. (Math.) A vertical line, plane, or circle.
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Prime vertical, Prime vertical dial. See under Prime, a.
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Verticality
Ver`ti*cal"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vertical; verticalness. [R.]
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The different points of the verticality. Sir T. Browne.
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Vertically
Ver"ti*cal*ly (?), adv. In a vertical manner, position, or direction; perpendicularly; as, to look down vertically; to raise a thing vertically.
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Verticalness
Ver"ti*cal*ness, n. Quality or state of being vertical.
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Verticil
Ver"ti*cil (?), n. [L. verticillus, dim. of vertex a whirl: cf. F. verticille. See Vertex.] (Bot.) A circle either of leaves or flowers about a stem at the same node; a whorl. [Written also verticel.]
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Verticillaster
Ver`ti*cil*las"ter (?), a. [NL., fr. L. verticillus a whirl + aster a star.] (Bot.) A whorl of flowers apparently of one cluster, but composed of two opposite axillary cymes, as in mint. See Illust. of Whorl.
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Verticillated
Verticillate
{ Ver*tic"il*late (?; 277), Ver*tic"il*la`ted (?), } a. [See Verticil.] (Bot. & Zool.) Arranged in a transverse whorl or whorls like the rays of a wheel; as, verticillate leaves of a plant; a verticillate shell.
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Verticillus
Ver`ti*cil"lus (?), n. [L., a whirl.] (Bot.) A whorl; a verticil.
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Verticity
Ver*tic"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. verticité. See Vertex.] The quality or power of turning; revolution; rotation. [R.] Locke.
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I hardly believe he hath from elder times unknown the verticity of the loadstone. Sir T. Browne.
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Verticle
Ver"ti*cle (?), n. [L. verticula a joint.] An axis; a hinge; a turning point. E. Waterhouse.
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Vertiginate
Ver*tig"i*nate (?), a. Turned round; giddy. [R.] Coleridge.
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Vertiginous
Ver*tig"i*nous (?), a. [L. vertiginosus, fr. vertigo a whirling around, giddiness: cf. F. vertigineux. See Vertigo.] 1. Turning round; whirling; rotary; revolving; as, a vertiginous motion.
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Some vertiginous whirl of fortune. De Quincey.
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2. Affected with vertigo; giddy; dizzy.
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They [the angels] grew vertiginous, and fell from the battlements of heaven. Jer. Taylor.
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-- Ver*tig"i*nous*ly, adv. -- Ver*tig"i*nous*ness, n.
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Vertigo
Ver"ti*go (?; 277), n.; pl. E. Vertigoes (#), L. Vertigines (#). [L., fr. vertere to turn. See Verse.] 1. (Med.) Dizziness or swimming of the head; an affection of the head in which objects, though stationary, appear to move in various directions, and the person affected finds it difficult to maintain an erect posture; giddiness. Quain.
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2. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small land snails belonging to the genus Vertigo, having an elongated or conical spiral shell and usually teeth in the aperture.
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Vertilinear
Ver`ti*lin"e*ar (?), a. [Vertical + linear.] Straight; rectilinear. [R.]
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Vertu
Ver"tu (?), n. 1. Virtue; power. See Virtue. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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2. See Virtu.
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Vertuous
Ver"tu*ous (?), a. Virtuous; powerful. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Verumontanum
Ver`u*mon*ta"num (?), n. [NL.] (Anat.) An elevation, or crest, in the wall of the urethra where the seminal ducts enter it.
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&hand_; This is sometimes written veru montanum.
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Vervain
Ver"vain (?), n. [OE. verveine, F. verveine, fr. L. verbena, pl. verbenae sacred boughs of laurel, olive, or myrtle, a class of plants; cf. verbenaca vervain. Cf. Verbena.] (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Verbena.
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Vervain mallow (Bot.), a species of mallow (Malva Alcea) with rose-colored flowers.
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Verve
Verve, n. [F.] Excitement of imagination such as animates a poet, artist, or musician, in composing or performing; rapture; enthusiasm; spirit; energy.
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Vervel
Ver"vel (?), n. See Varvel.
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Vervet
Ver"vet (?), n. (Zool.) A South African monkey (Cercopithecus pygerythrus syn. Cercopithecus Lelandii). The upper parts are grayish green, finely specked with black. The cheeks and belly are reddish white.
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Very
Ver"y (v&ebreve_;r"&ybreve_;), a. [Compar. Verier (v&ebreve_;r"&ibreve_;*&etilde_;r); superl. Veriest.] [OE. verai, verray, OF. verai, vrai, F. vrai, (assumed) LL. veracus, for L. verax true, veracious, fr. verus true; akin to OHG. & OS. wār, G. wahr, D. waar; perhaps originally, that is or exists, and akin to E. was. Cf. Aver, v. t., Veracious, Verdict, Verity.] True; real; actual; veritable.
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Whether thou be my very son Esau or not. Gen. xxvii. 21.
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He that covereth a transgression seeketh love; but he that repeateth a matter separateth very friends. Prov. xvii. 9.
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The very essence of truth is plainness and brightness. Milton.
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I looked on the consideration of public service or public ornament to be real and very justice. Burke.
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&hand_; Very is sometimes used to make the word with which it is connected emphatic, and may then be paraphrased by same, self-same, itself, and the like. “The very hand, the very words.” Shak. “The very rats instinctively have quit it.” Shak. “Yea, there where very desolation dwells.” Milton. Very is used occasionally in the comparative degree, and more frequently in the superlative. “Was not my lord the verier wag of the two?” Shak. “The veriest hermit in the nation.” Pope. “He had spoken the very truth, and transformed it into the veriest falsehood.” Hawthorne.
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Very Reverend. See the Note under Reverend.
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Very
Ver"y (v&ebreve_;r"&ybreve_;), adv. In a high degree; to no small extent; exceedingly; excessively; extremely; as, a very great mountain; a very bright sun; a very cold day; the river flows very rapidly; he was very much hurt.
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Very night signals
Very's night signals
{ Ver"y's night signals, or Ver"y night signals } (?). [After Lieut. Samuel W. Very, who invented the system in 1877.] (Naut.) A system of signaling in which balls of red and green fire are fired from a pistol, the arrangement in groups denoting numbers having a code significance. The pistol used to fire the signal flare is called a Very pistol.
[Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Vesbium
Ves"bi*um (?), n. [NL., from L. Vesuvius, contr. Vesbius, Vesuvius.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of which little is known. It is said by Scacchi to have been extracted from a yellowish incrustation from the cracks of a Vesuvian lava erupted in 1631. It is not a recognized element. Actual identity?
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Vese
Vese (vēz), n. [Cf. Feese, n.] Onset; rush; violent draught or wind. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Vesica
Ve*si"ca (?), n. [L.] A bladder.
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Vesica piscis. [L., fish bladder.] (Eccl. Art) A glory, or aureole, of oval shape, or composed of two arcs of circles usually represented as surrounding a divine personage. More rarely, an oval composed of two arcs not representing a glory; a solid oval, etc.
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Vesical
Ves"i*cal (?), a. [L. vesica bladder.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder. Dunglison.
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Vesicant
Ves"i*cant (?), n. [L. vesica blister: cf. F. vésicant.] (Med.) A vesicatory.
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Vesicate
Ves"i*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vesicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vesicating.] [See Vesicant.] (Med.) To raise little bladders or blisters upon; to inflame and separate the cuticle of; to blister. Wiseman.
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Vesication
Ves`i*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. vésication.] (Med.) The process of vesicating, or of raising blisters.
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Vesicatory
Ves"i*ca*to*ry (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. vésicatoire.] (Med.) Tending, or having power, to raise a blister. -- n. A blistering application or plaster; a vesicant; an epispastic.
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Vesicle
Ves"i*cle (?), n. [L. vesicula, dim. of vesica a bladder, blister; akin to Skr. vasti bladder: cf. F. vésicule.] A bladderlike vessel; a membranous cavity; a cyst; a cell. Specifically: --
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(a) (Bot.) A small bladderlike body in the substance of a vegetable, or upon the surface of a leaf.
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(b) (Med.) A small, and more or less circular, elevation of the cuticle, containing a clear watery fluid.
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(c) (Anat.) A cavity or sac, especially one filled with fluid; as, the umbilical vesicle.
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(d) (Zool.) A small convex hollow prominence on the surface of a shell or a coral.
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(e) (Geol.) A small cavity, nearly spherical in form, and usually of the size of a pea or smaller, such as are common in some volcanic rocks. They are produced by the liberation of watery vapor in the molten mass.
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Vesico-
Ves"i*co- (?). A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the bladder; as in vesicoprostatic, vesicovaginal.
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Vesicoprostatic
Ves`i*co*pro*stat"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder and the prostate gland.
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Vesicouterine
Ves`i*co*u"ter*ine (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder and the uterus.
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Vesicovaginal
Ves`i*co*vag"i*nal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder and the vagina.
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Vesicula
Ve*sic"u*la (?), n.; pl. Vesiculae . [L., dim. of vesica.] (Anat. & Med.) A vesicle.
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Vesicular
Ve*sic"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. vésiculaire.] 1. Of or pertaining to vesicles; esp., of or pertaining to the air vesicles, or air cells, of the lungs; as, vesicular breathing, or normal breathing, in which the air enters freely the air vesicles of the lungs.
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2. Containing, or composed of, vesicles or vesiclelike structures; covered with vesicles or bladders; vesiculate; as, a vesicular coral; vesicular lava; a vesicular leaf.
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3. Having the form or structure of a vesicle; as, a vesicular body.
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Vesicular column (Anat.), a series of nerve cells forming one of the tracts distinguished in the spinal cord; -- also called the ganglionic column. -- Vesicular emphysema (Med.), emphysema of the lungs, in which the air vesicles are distended and their walls ruptured. -- Vesicular murmur (Med.), the sound, audible on auscultation of the chest, made by the air entering and leaving the air vesicles of the lungs in respiration.
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Vesicularia
Ve*sic`u*la"ri*a (?), n. [NL. See Vesicle.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of marine Bryozoa belonging to Vesicularia and allied genera. They have delicate tubular cells attached in clusters to slender flexible stems.
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Vesiculata
Ve*sic`u*la"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Vesicle.] (Zool.) The campanularian medusae.
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Vesiculate
Ve*sic"u*late (?), a. Bladdery; full of, or covered with, bladders; vesicular.
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Vesiculate
Ve*sic"u*late (?), v. t. To form vesicles in, as lava.
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Vesiculation
Ve*sic`u*la"tion (?), n. (Geol.) The state of containing vesicles, or the process by which vesicles are formed.
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Vesiculitis
Ve*sic`u*li"tis (?), n. [NL.; vesicula + -itis.] Inflammation of a vesicle.
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Vesiculous
Vesiculose
{ Ve*sic"u*lose` (?), Ve*sic"u*lous (?), } a. [L. vesiculosus: cf. F. vésiculeux.] Bladdery; vesicular; vesiculate; composed of vesicles; covered with vesicles; as, a vesiculose shell.
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Vespa
Ves"pa (v&ebreve_;s"p&adot_;), prop. n. [L., wasp.] (Zool.) A genus of Hymenoptera including the common wasps and hornets.
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Vesper
Ves"per (v&ebreve_;s"p&etilde_;r), n. [L., the evening, the evening star, the west; akin to Gr. "e`speros, "espe`ra, and perhaps to E. west. Cf. Hesperian, Vespers.] The evening star; Hesper; Venus, when seen after sunset; hence, the evening. Shak.
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Vesper
Ves"per, a. Of or pertaining to the evening, or to the service of vespers; as, a vesper hymn; vesper bells.
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Vesper sparrow, the grass finch. See under Grass.
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Vesperal
Ves"per*al (?), a. Vesper; evening. [R.]
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Vespers
Ves"pers (?), n. pl. [OF. vespres, F. vêpres, LL. vesperae, fr. L. vespera evening. See Vesper, n.] (R. C. Ch.) (a) One of the little hours of the Breviary. (b) The evening song or service.
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Sicilian vespers. See under Sicilian, a.
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Vespertilio
Ves`per*til"i*o (?), n. [L., a bat.] (Zool.) A genus of bats including some of the common small insectivorous species of North America and Europe.
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Vespertiliones
Ves`per*til`i*o"nes (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zool.) A tribe of bats including the common insectivorous bats of America and Europe, belonging to Vespertilio and allied genera. They lack a nose membrane.
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Vespertilionine
Ves`per*til`i*o"nine (?), a. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Vespertiliones.
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Vespertinal
Ves"per*ti`nal (?), a. Vespertine. Lowell.
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Vespertine
Ves"per*tine (?), a. [L. vespertinus. See Vesper.] 1. Of or pertaining to the evening; happening or being in the evening. Gray.
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2. (Bot.) Blossoming in the evening.
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Vespiary
Ves"pi*a*ry (?), n. [L. vespa a wasp.] A nest, or habitation, of insects of the wasp kind.
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Vespillo
Ves*pil"lo (?), n.; pl. Vespilloes (#). [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) One who carried out the dead bodies of the poor at night for burial.
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Like vespilloes or grave makers. Sir T. Browne.
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Vessel
Ves"sel, n. [OF. vessel, veissel, vaissel, vaissiel, F. vaisseau, fr. L. vascellum, dim. of vasculum, dim. of vas a vessel. Cf. Vascular, Vase.] 1. A hollow or concave utensil for holding anything; a hollow receptacle of any kind, as a hogshead, a barrel, a firkin, a bottle, a kettle, a cup, a bowl, etc.
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[They drank] out of these noble vessels. Chaucer.
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2. A general name for any hollow structure made to float upon the water for purposes of navigation; especially, one that is larger than a common rowboat; as, a war vessel; a passenger vessel.
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[He] began to build a vessel of huge bulk. Milton.
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3. Fig.: A person regarded as receiving or containing something; esp. (Script.), one into whom something is conceived as poured, or in whom something is stored for use; as, vessels of wrath or mercy.
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He is a chosen vessel unto me. Acts ix. 15.
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[The serpent] fit vessel, fittest imp of fraud, in whom
To enter.
Milton.
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4. (Anat.) Any tube or canal in which the blood or other fluids are contained, secreted, or circulated, as the arteries, veins, lymphatics, etc.
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5. (Bot.) A continuous tube formed from superposed large cylindrical or prismatic cells (tracheae), which have lost their intervening partitions, and are usually marked with dots, pits, rings, or spirals by internal deposition of secondary membranes; a duct.
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Acoustic vessels. See under Acoustic. -- Weaker vessel, a woman; -- now applied humorously. “Giving honor unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel.” 1 Peter iii. 7. “You are the weaker vessel.” Shak.
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Vessel
Ves"sel, v. t. To put into a vessel. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Vesselful
Ves"sel*ful (?), n.; pl. Vesselfuls (&unr_;). As much as a vessel will hold; enough to fill a vessel.
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Vessets
Vesses
{ Ves"ses (?), Ves"sets (?), } n. A kind of worsted; also, a worsted cloth. [Prov. Eng.]
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Vessignon
Vessicnon
{ Ves"sic*non (?), Ves"sig*non (?), } n. [F. vessigon, fr. L. vesica a bladder, blister.] (Far.) A soft swelling on a horse's leg; a windgall.
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Vest
Vest (v&ebreve_;st), n. [L. vestis a garment, vesture; akin to Goth. wasti, and E. wear: cf. F. veste. See Wear to carry on the person, and cf. Divest, Invest, Travesty.]
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1. An article of clothing covering the person; an outer garment; a vestment; a dress; a vesture; a robe.
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In state attended by her maiden train,
Who bore the vests that holy rites require.
Dryden.
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2. Any outer covering; array; garb.
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Not seldom clothed in radiant vest
Deceitfully goes forth the morn.
Wordsworth.
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3. Specifically, a waistcoat, or sleeveless body garment, for men, worn under the coat.
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Syn. -- Garment; vesture; dress; robe; vestment; waistcoat. -- Vest, Waistcoat. In England, the original word waistcoat is generally used for the body garment worn over the shirt and immediately under the coat. In the United States this garment is commonly called a vest, and the waistcoat is often improperly given to an under-garment.
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Vest
Vest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vested; p. pr. & vb. n. Vesting.] [Cf. L. vestire, vestitum, OF. vestir, F. vêtir. See Vest, n.] 1. To clothe with, or as with, a vestment, or garment; to dress; to robe; to cover, surround, or encompass closely.
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Came vested all in white, pure as her mind. Milton.
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With ether vested, and a purple sky. Dryden.
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2. To clothe with authority, power, or the like; to put in possession; to invest; to furnish; to endow; -- followed by with before the thing conferred; as, to vest a court with power to try cases of life and death.
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Had I been vested with the monarch's power. Prior.
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3. To place or give into the possession or discretion of some person or authority; to commit to another; -- with in before the possessor; as, the power of life and death is vested in the king, or in the courts.
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Empire and dominion was [were] vested in him. Locke.
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4. To invest; to put; as, to vest money in goods, land, or houses. [R.]
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5. (Law) To clothe with possession; as, to vest a person with an estate; also, to give a person an immediate fixed right of present or future enjoyment of; as, an estate is vested in possession. Bouvier.
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Vest
Vest (v&ebreve_;st), v. i. To come or descend; to be fixed; to take effect, as a title or right; -- followed by in; as, upon the death of the ancestor, the estate, or the right to the estate, vests in the heir at law.
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Vesta
Ves"ta (v&ebreve_;s"t&adot_;), n. [L. Vesta, akin to Gr. "Esti`a Vesta, "esti`a the hearth of the house, and perhaps to Skr. ush to burn (see East), or perhaps to Skr. vas to dwell, and E. was.] 1. (Rom. Myth.) One of the great divinities of the ancient Romans, identical with the Greek Hestia. She was a virgin, and the goddess of the hearth; hence, also, of the fire on it, and the family round it.
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2. (Astron.) An asteroid, or minor planet, discovered by Olbers in 1807.
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3. A wax friction match. Simmonds.
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Vestal
Ves"tal (?), a. [L. Vestalis belonging to Vesta, vestal. See Vesta.] Of or pertaining to Vesta, the virgin goddess of the hearth; hence, pure; chaste.
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Vestal
Ves"tal, n. [L. Vestalis (sc. virgo): cf. F. vestale. See Vestal, a.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) A virgin consecrated to Vesta, and to the service of watching the sacred fire, which was to be perpetually kept burning upon her altar.
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&hand_; The Vestals were originally four, but afterward six, in number. Their term of service lasted thirty years, the period of admission being from the sixth to the tenth year of the candidate's age.
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2. A virgin; a woman pure and chaste; also, a nun.
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How happy is the blameless vestal's lot! Pope.
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Vestales
Ves*ta"les (?), n. pl. [NL. See Vestal.] (Zool.) A group of butterflies including those known as virgins, or gossamer-winged butterflies.
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Vested
Vest"ed (?), a. 1. Clothed; robed; wearing vestments. “The vested priest.” Milton.
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2. (Law) Not in a state of contingency or suspension; fixed; as, vested rights; vested interests.
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Vested legacy (Law), a legacy the right to which commences in praesenti, and does not depend on a contingency; as, a legacy to one to be paid when he attains to twenty-one years of age is a vested legacy, and if the legatee dies before the testator, his representative shall receive it. Blackstone. -- Vested remainder (Law), an estate settled, to remain to a determined person, after the particular estate is spent. Blackstone. Kent.
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Vested interest
Vest"ed interest. 1. a special personal interest, usually financial, in an existing system, law, or institution, which hinders a person from making objective decisions regarding that system, law, or institution. A vested interest may be one which benefits a relative, or, in an extended sense, one which defends a person's own reputation or previously expressed views.
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2. a right given to an employee by a pension plan, which cannot be taken away.
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3. pl. the persons, corporations, or other groups which benefit most (usually financially) from the existing system of institutions, laws, and customs.
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Vested school
Vest"ed school. In Ireland, a national school which has been built by the aid of grants from the board of Commissioners of National Education and is secured for educational purposes by leases to the commissioners themselves, or to the commissioners and the trustees.
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Vestiarian
Ves`ti*a"ri*an (?), a. [See Vestiary.] Of or pertaining to a vestiary or vestments.
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Vestiary
Ves"ti*a*ry (?), n. [L. vestiarium. See Vestry.] A wardrobe; a robing room; a vestry. Fuller.
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Vestiary
Ves"ti*a*ry, a. Pertaining to clothes, or vestments.
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Vestibular
Ves*tib"u*lar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a vestibule; like a vestibule.
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Vestibule
Ves"ti*bule (?), n. [L. vestibulum, of uncertain origin: cf. F. vestibule.] The porch or entrance into a house; a hall or antechamber next the entrance; a lobby; a porch; a hall.
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Vestibule of the ear. (Anat.) See under Ear. -- Vestibule of the vulva (Anat.), a triangular space between the nymphae, in which the orifice of the urethra is situated. -- Vestibule train (Railroads), a train of passenger cars having the space between the end doors of adjacent cars inclosed, so as to admit of leaving the doors open to provide for intercommunication between all the cars.
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Syn. -- Hall; passage. -- Vestibule, Hall, Passage. A vestibule is a small apartment within the doors of a building. A hall is the first large apartment beyond the vestibule, and, in the United States, is often long and narrow, serving as a passage to the several apartments. In England, the hall is generally square or oblong, and a long, narrow space of entrance is called a passage, not a hall, as in America. Vestibule is often used in a figurative sense to denote a place of entrance. “The citizens of Rome placed the images of their ancestors in the vestibules of their houses.” Bolingbroke
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Vestibule
Ves"ti*bule (?), v. t. To furnish with a vestibule or vestibules. Brander Matthews.
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Vestibuled train
Vestibuled train. (Railroad) Same as Vestibule train, under Vestibule.
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Vestibulum
Ves*tib"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Vestibula (#). [L., vestibule.] (Zool.) A cavity into which, in certain bryozoans, the esophagus and anus open.
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Vestigate
Ves"ti*gate (?), v. t. [L. vestigatus, p. p. of vestigare. See Vestige.] To investigate. [Obs.]
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Vestige
Ves"tige (?), n. [F., from L. vestigium footprint, trace, sign; the last part (-stigium) is probably akin to E. sty, v. i. Cf. Investigate.] 1. The mark of the foot left on the earth; a track or footstep; a trace; a sign; hence, a faint mark or visible sign left by something which is lost, or has perished, or is no longer present; remains; as, the vestiges of ancient magnificence in Palmyra; vestiges of former population.
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What vestiges of liberty or property have they left? Burke.
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Ridicule has followed the vestiges of Truth, but never usurped her place. Landor.
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2. (Biol.) A small, degenerate, or imperfectly developed part or organ which has been more fully developed in some past generation.
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Syn. -- Trace; mark; sign; token. -- Vestige, Trace. These words agree in marking some indications of the past, but differ to some extent in their use and application. Vestige is used chiefly in a figurative sense, for the remains of something long passed away; as, the vestiges of ancient times; vestiges of the creation. A trace is literally something drawn out in a line, and may be used in this its primary sense, or figuratively, to denote a sign or evidence left by something that has passed by, or ceased to exist. Vestige usually supposes some definite object of the past to be left behind; while a trace may be a mere indication that something has been present or is present; as, traces of former population; a trace of poison in a given substance.
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Vestigial
Ves*tig"i*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a vestige or remnant; like a vestige.
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Vesting
Vest"ing (?), n. Cloth for vests; a vest pattern.
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Vestiture
Ves"ti*ture (?; 135), n. [See Vesture.] Investiture. [R.]
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Vestlet
Vest"let (?), n. [Dim. of vest.] (Zool.) Any one of several species of actinians belonging to the genus Cerianthus. These animals have a long, smooth body tapering to the base, and two separate circles of tentacles around the mouth. They form a tough, flexible, feltlike tube with a smooth internal lining, in which they dwell, whence the name.
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Vestment
Vest"ment (?), n. [OE. vestement, vestiment, OF. vestement, vestiment, F. vêtement, fr. L. vestimentum, fr. vestire to clothe, fr. vestis a garment, clothing. See Vest.] A covering or garment; some part of clothing or dress; specifically (Eccl.), any priestly garment. “Royal vestiment.” Chaucer. “Priests in holy vestments.” Shak.
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The sculptor could not give vestments suitable to the quality of the persons represented. Dryden.
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Vestry
Ves"try (?), n.; pl. Vestries (#). [OE. vestrye, F. vestiaire, L. vestiarium, fr. vestiarius belonging to clothes, fr. vestis a garment. See Vest, n., and cf. Vestiary.] 1. A room appendant to a church, in which sacerdotal vestments and sacred utensils are sometimes kept, and where meetings for worship or parish business are held; a sacristy; -- formerly called revestiary.
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He said unto him that was over the vestry, Bring forth vestments for all the worshipers of Baal. 2 Kings x. 22.
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2. (Ch. of Eng.) A parochial assembly; an assembly of persons who manage parochial affairs; -- so called because usually held in a vestry.
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3. (Prot. Epis. Ch.) A body, composed of wardens and vestrymen, chosen annually by a parish to manage its temporal concerns.
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Metropolitan vestry, in the city of London, and certain specified parishes and places in England, a body composed of householders who pay poor rates. Its duties include the repair of churches, care of highways, the appointment of certain officers, etc. -- Select vestry, a select number of persons chosen in large and populous English parishes to represent and manage the concerns of the parish for one year. Mozley & W. -- Vestry board (Ch. of Eng.), a vestry. See def. 2, above. -- Vestry clerk, an officer chosen by the vestry, who keeps a record of its proceedings; also, in England, one who keeps the parish accounts and books. -- Vestry meeting, the meeting of a vestry or vestry board; also, a meeting of a parish held in a vestry or other place.
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Vestryman
Ves"try*man (?), n.; pl. Vestrymen (&unr_;). A member of a vestry; especially (Prot. Epis. Ch.), a member other than a warden. See Vestry.
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Vesture
Ves"ture (?; 135), n. [OF. vesture, vesteure, F. vêture, LL. vestitura, from L. vestire to clothe, dress. See Vest, v. t., and cf. Vestiture.] 1. A garment or garments; a robe; clothing; dress; apparel; vestment; covering; envelope. Piers Plowman.
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Approach, and kiss her sacred vesture's hem. Milton.
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Rocks, precipices, and gulfs, appareled with a vesture of plants. Bentley.
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There polished chests embroidered vestures graced. Pope.
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2. (O. Eng. Law) (a) The corn, grass, underwood, stubble, etc., with which land was covered; as, the vesture of an acre. (b) Seizin; possession.
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Vestured
Ves"tured (?), a. Covered with vesture or garments; clothed; enveloped.
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We be vestured with poor cloth. Ld. Berners.
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Vesuvian
Ve*su"vi*an (?), a. [Cf. F. Vésuvien, It. Vesuviano.] Of or pertaining to Vesuvius, a volcano near Naples.
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Vesuvian
Ve*su"vi*an, n. [G. vesuvian. See Vesuvian, a.] 1. (Min.) Vesuvianite.
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2. A kind of match or fusee for lighting cigars, etc.
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Vesuvianite
Ve*su"vi*an*ite (?), n. (Min.) A mineral occurring in tetragonal crystals, and also massive, of a brown to green color, rarely sulphur yellow and blue. It is a silicate of alumina and lime with some iron magnesia, and is common at Vesuvius. Also called idocrase.
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Vesuvine
Ve*su"vine (?), n. A trade name for a brown dyestuff obtained from certain basic azo compounds of benzene; -- called also Bismarck brown, Manchester brown, etc.
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Vetch
Vetch (v&ebreve_;ch), n. [Also fitch; OE. ficche, feche, for veche, OF. veche, vecce, vesche, vesce, F. vesce, fr. L. vicia.] (Bot.) Any leguminous plant of the genus Vicia, some species of which are valuable for fodder. The common species is Vicia sativa.
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&hand_; The name is also applied to many other leguminous plants of different genera; as the chichling vetch, of the genus Lathyrus; the horse vetch, of the genus Hippocrepis; the kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria); the milk vetch, of the genus Astragalus; the licorice vetch, or wild licorice (Abrus precatorius).
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Vetchling
Vetch"ling (v&ebreve_;ch"l&ibreve_;ng), n. [Vetch + -ling.] (Bot.) Any small leguminous plant of the genus Lathyrus, especially Lathyrus Nissolia.
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Vetchy
Vetch"y (?), a. 1. Consisting of vetches or of pea straw. “A vetchy bed.” Spenser.
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2. Abounding with vetches.
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Veteran
Vet"er*an (v&ebreve_;t"&etilde_;r*&aitalic_;n), a. [L. veteranus, from vetus, veteris, old; akin to Gr. 'e`tos year, Skr. vatsara. See Wether.] Long exercised in anything, especially in military life and the duties of a soldier; long practiced or experienced; as, a veteran officer or soldier; veteran skill.
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The insinuating eloquence and delicate flattery of veteran diplomatists and courtiers. Macaulay.
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Veteran
Vet"er*an (v&ebreve_;t"&etilde_;r*&aitalic_;n), n. [L. veteranus (sc. miles): cf. F. vétéran.] One who has been long exercised in any service or art, particularly in war; one who has had much experience, or has grown old or decrepit in service.
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Ensigns that pierced the foe's remotest lines,
The hardy veteran with tears resigns.
Addison.
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&hand_; In the United States, during the civil war, soldiers who had served through one term of enlistment and had reenlisted were specifically designated veterans.
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Veteranize
Vet"er*an*ize (v&ebreve_;t"&etilde_;r*&aitalic_;n*īz), v. i. To reenlist for service as a soldier. [U. S.] Gen. W. T. Sherman.
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veterinarian
vet`er*i*na"ri*an (v&ebreve_;t`&etilde_;r*&ibreve_;*nā"r&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;n), n. [L. veterinarius. See Veterinary.] One skilled in the treatment of diseases of cattle or domestic animals; a veterinary surgeon. Often abbreviated to vet.
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Veterinary
Vet"er*i*na*ry (v&ebreve_;t"&etilde_;r*&ibreve_;*n&auptack_;*r&ybreve_;), a. [L. veterinarius of or belonging to beasts of burden and draught, fr. veterinus, probably originally, of or pertaining to yearlings: cf. F. vétérinaire. See Veteran, Wether.] Of or pertaining to the art of healing or treating the diseases of domestic animals, as oxen, horses, sheep, various pets, etc.; as, a veterinary writer or school.
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Vetiver
Vet"i*ver (?), n. (Bot.) An East Indian grass (Andropogon muricatus); also, its fragrant roots which are much used for making mats and screens. Also called kuskus, and khuskhus. [Sometimes written vetivert, and vitivert.]
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Veto
Ve"to (vē"t&ouptack_;), n.; pl. Vetoes (vē"tōz). [L. veto I forbid.]
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1. An authoritative prohibition or negative; a forbidding; an interdiction.
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This contemptuous veto of her husband's on any intimacy with her family. G. Eliot.
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2. Specifically: --
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(a) A power or right possessed by one department of government to forbid or prohibit the carrying out of projects attempted by another department; especially, in a constitutional government, a power vested in the chief executive to prevent the enactment of measures passed by the legislature. Such a power may be absolute, as in the case of the Tribunes of the People in ancient Rome, or limited, as in the case of the President of the United States. Called also the veto power.
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(b) The exercise of such authority; an act of prohibition or prevention; as, a veto is probable if the bill passes.
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(c) A document or message communicating the reasons of the executive for not officially approving a proposed law; -- called also veto message. [U. S.]
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&hand_; Veto is not a term employed in the Federal Constitution, but seems to be of popular use only. Abbott.
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Veto
Ve"to, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vetoed (vē"tōd); p. pr. & vb. n. Vetoing.] To prohibit; to negative; also, to refuse assent to, as a legislative bill, and thus prevent its enactment; as, to veto an appropriation bill.
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Vetoist
Ve"to*ist, n. One who uses, or sustains the use of, the veto.
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Vettura
Vet*tu"ra (?), n.; pl. Vetture (#). [It. vettura, fr. L. vectura conveyance. Cf. Vecture.] An Italian four-wheeled carriage, esp. one let for hire; a hackney coach.
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Vetturino
Vet`tu*ri"no (?), n.; pl. Vetturini (#). [It.] 1. One who lets or drives a vettura.
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2. A vettura.
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Vetust
Ve*tust" (?), a. [L. vetustus old, ancient.] Venerable from antiquity; ancient; old. [Obs.]
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Vex
Vex (v&ebreve_;ks), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vexed (v&ebreve_;kst); p. pr. & vb. n. Vexing.] [F. vexer, L. vexare, vexatum, to vex, originally, to shake, toss, in carrying, v. intens. fr. vehere, vectum, to carry. See Vehicle.] 1. To toss back and forth; to agitate; to disquiet.
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White curl the waves, and the vexed ocean roars. Pope.
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2. To make angry or annoyed by little provocations; to irritate; to plague; to torment; to harass; to afflict; to trouble; to tease. “I will not vex your souls.” Shak.
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Ten thousand torments vex my heart. Prior.
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3. To twist; to weave. [R.]
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Some English wool, vexed in a Belgian loom. Dryden.
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Syn. -- See Tease.
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Vex
Vex, v. i. To be irritated; to fret. [R.] Chapman.
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Vexation
Vex*a"tion (?), n. [L. vexatio: cf. F. vexation.] 1. The act of vexing, or the state of being vexed; agitation; disquiet; trouble; irritation.
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Passions too violent . . . afford us nothing but vexation and pain. Sir W. Temple.
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Those who saw him after a defeat looked in vain for any trace of vexation. Macaulay.
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2. The cause of trouble or disquiet; affliction.
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Your children were vexation to your youth. Shak.
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3. A harassing by process of law; a vexing or troubling, as by a malicious suit. Bacon.
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Syn. -- Chagrin; agitation; mortification; uneasiness; trouble; grief; sorrow; distress. See Chagrin.
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Vexatious
Vex*a"tious (?), a. [See Vexation.] 1. Causing vexation; agitating; afflictive; annoying; as, a vexatious controversy; a vexatious neighbor. “Continual vexatious wars.” South.
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2. Full of vexation, trouble, or disquiet; disturbed.
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He leads a vexatious life. Sir K. Digby.
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Vexatious suit (Law), a suit commenced for the purpose of giving trouble, or without cause.
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-- Vex*a"tious*ly, adv. -- Vex*a"tious*ness, n.
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Vexed
Vexed (?), a. 1. Annoyed; harassed; troubled.
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2. Much debated or contested; causing discussion; as, a vexed question.
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Vexer
Vex"er (?), n. One who vexes or troubles.
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Vexil
Vex"il (?), n. A vexillum.
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Vexillary
Vexillar
{ Vex"il*lar (?), Vex"il*la*ry (?), }[Cf. F. vexillaire, L. vexillarius a standard bearer.]
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1. Of or pertaining to an ensign or standard.
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2. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the vexillum, or upper petal of papilionaceous flowers.
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Vexilary aestivation (Bot.), a mode of aestivation in which one large upper petal folds over, and covers, the other smaller petals, as in most papilionaceous plants.
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Vexillary
Vex"il*la*ry (?), n. [L. vexillarius: cf. F. vexillaire.] A standard bearer. Tennyson.
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Vexillation
Vex`il*la"tion (?), n. [L. vexillatio.] (Rom. Antiq.) A company of troops under one vexillum.
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Vexillum
Vex*il"lum (?), n.; pl. Vexilla (#). [L., a standard, a flag.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) (a) A flag or standard. (b) A company of troops serving under one standard.
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2. (Eccl.) (a) A banner. (b) The sign of the cross.
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3. (Bot.) The upper petal of a papilionaceous flower; the standard.
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4. (Zool.) The rhachis and web of a feather taken together; the vane.
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Vexingly
Vex"ing*ly (?), adv. In a vexing manner; so as to vex, tease, or irritate. Tatler.
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V hook
V" hook` (?). (Steam Engine) A gab at the end of an eccentric rod, with long jaws, shaped like the letter V.
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Via
Vi"a (vī"&adot_; or vē"&adot_;), n. [L. See Way.] A road or way.
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Via Lactea [L.] (Astron.), the Milky Way, or Galaxy. See Galaxy, 1. -- Via media [L.] (Theol.), the middle way; -- a name applied to their own position by the Anglican high-churchmen, as being between the Roman Catholic Church and what they term extreme Protestantism.
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Via
Vi"a, prep. [L., ablative of via way. See Way.] By the way of; as, to send a letter via Queenstown to London.
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Viability
Vi`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being viable. Specifically: --
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(a) (Law) The capacity of living after birth. Bouvier.
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(b) The capacity of living, or being distributed, over wide geographical limits; as, the viability of a species.
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Viable
Vi"a*ble (?), a. [F., from vie life, L. vita. See Vital.] (Law) Capable of living; born alive and with such form and development of organs as to be capable of living; -- said of a newborn, or a prematurely born, infant.
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VIABLE, Vitae habilis, capable of living. This is said of a child who is born alive in such an advanced state of formation as to be capable of living. Unless be is born viable he acquires no rights and cannot transmit them to his heirs, and is considered as if he had never been born. Bouvier (Law Dictionary, 1856).
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Viaduct
Vi`a*duct (?), n. [L. via a way + -duct, as in aqueduct: cf. F. viaduc. See Via, and Aqueduct.] A structure of considerable magnitude, usually with arches or supported on trestles, for carrying a road, as a railroad, high above the ground or water; a bridge; especially, one for crossing a valley or a gorge. Cf. Trestlework.
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Viage
Vi"age (?), n. [See Voyage.] A voyage; a journey. [Obs.] Chaucer. Gower.
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Vial
Vi"al (vī"&aitalic_;l), n. [OE. viole, fiole, F. fiole. See Phial.] A small bottle, usually of glass; a little glass vessel with a narrow aperture intended to be closed with a stopper; as, a vial of medicine. [Written also phial.]
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Take thou this vial, being then in bed,
And this distilled liquor drink thou off.
Shak.
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Vial
Vi"al, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vialed (?) or Vialled; p. pr. & vb. n. Vialing or Vialling.] To put in a vial or vials. “Precious vialed liquors.” Milton.
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Viameter
Vi*am"e*ter (?), n. [L. via a way + -meter.] An odometer; -- called also viatometer.
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Viand
Vi"and (?), n. [F. viande meat, food, LL. vianda, vivanda, vivenda, properly, things to live on, fr. L. vivere to live; akin to vivus living. See Vivid, and cf. Victuals.] An article of food; provisions; food; victuals; -- used chiefly in the plural. Cowper.
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Viands of various kinds allure the taste. Pope.
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Viander
Vi"and*er (?), n. A feeder; an eater; also, one who provides viands, or food; a host. [Obs.] Holinshed.
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Vi-apple
Vi"-ap`ple (?), n. See Otaheite apple.
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Viary
Vi"a*ry (?), a. [L. viarius, fr. via a way, road.] Of or pertaining to roads; happening on roads. [Obs.]
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Viatecture
Vi"a*tec`ture (?; 135), n. [L. via way + -tecture, as in architecture.] The art of making roads or ways for traveling, including the construction of bridges, canals, viaducts, etc. [R.] R. Park.
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Viatic
Vi*at"ic (?), a. [L. viaticus, fr. via a way. See Voyage.] Of or pertaining to a journey or traveling.
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Viaticum
Vi*at"i*cum (?), n. [L., from viaticus, a. See Viatic.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) An allowance for traveling expenses made to those who were sent into the provinces to exercise any office or perform any service.
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2. Provisions for a journey. Davies (Wit's Pilgr.).
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3. (R. C. Ch.) The communion, or eucharist, when given to persons in danger of death.
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Viatometer
Vi`a*tom"e*ter (?), n. A viameter.
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Vibices
Vi*bi"ces (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of vibex, -icis, the mark of a blow.] (Med.) More or less extensive patches of subcutaneous extravasation of blood.
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Vibraculum
Vi*brac"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Vibracula (#). [NL., dim. from L. vibrare to vibrate.] (Zool.) One of the movable, slender, spinelike organs or parts with which certain bryozoans are furnished. They are regarded as specially modified zooids, of nearly the same nature as Avicularia.
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Vibrancy
Vi"bran*cy (?), n. The state of being vibrant; resonance.
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Vibrant
Vi"brant (?), a. [L. vibrans, p. pr.: cf. F. vibrant. See Vibrate.] Vibrating; tremulous; resonant; as, vibrant drums. Longfellow.
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Vibrate
Vi"brate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vibrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vibrating.] [L. vibratus, p. p. of vibrare, v. t. & v. i., to shake, brandish, vibrate; akin to Skr. vip to tremble, Icel. veifa to wave, vibrate. See Waive and cf. Whip, v. t.] 1. To brandish; to move to and fro; to swing; as, to vibrate a sword or a staff.
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2. To mark or measure by moving to and fro; as, a pendulum vibrating seconds.
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3. To affect with vibratory motion; to set in vibration.
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Breath vocalized, that is, vibrated or undulated, may . . . impress a swift, tremulous motion. Holder.
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Star to star vibrates light. Tennyson.
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Vibrate
Vi"brate (?), v. i. 1. To move to and fro, or from side to side, as a pendulum, an elastic rod, or a stretched string, when disturbed from its position of rest; to swing; to oscillate.
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2. To have the constituent particles move to and fro, with alternate compression and dilation of parts, as the air, or any elastic body; to quiver.
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3. To produce an oscillating or quivering effect of sound; as, a whisper vibrates on the ear. Pope.
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4. To pass from one state to another; to waver; to fluctuate; as, a man vibrates between two opinions.
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Vibratile
Vi"bra*tile (?), a. [Cf. F. vibratile.] Adapted to, or used in, vibratory motion; having the power of vibrating; vibratory; as, the vibratile organs of insects.
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Vibratility
Vi`bra*til"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. vibratilité.] The quality or state of being vibratile; disposition to vibration or oscillation. Rush.
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Vibration
Vi*bra"tion (?), n. [L. vibratio: cf. F. vibration.] 1. The act of vibrating, or the state of being vibrated, or in vibratory motion; quick motion to and fro; oscillation, as of a pendulum or musical string.
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As a harper lays his open palm
Upon his harp, to deaden its vibrations.
Longfellow.
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2. (Physics) A limited reciprocating motion of a particle of an elastic body or medium in alternately opposite directions from its position of equilibrium, when that equilibrium has been disturbed, as when a stretched cord or other body produces musical notes, or particles of air transmit sounds to the ear. The path of the particle may be in a straight line, in a circular arc, or in any curve whatever.
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&hand_; Vibration and oscillation are both used, in mechanics, of the swinging, or rising and falling, motion of a suspended or balanced body; the latter term more appropriately, as signifying such motion produced by gravity, and of any degree of slowness, while the former applies especially to the quick, short motion to and fro which results from elasticity, or the action of molecular forces among the particles of a body when disturbed from their position of rest, as in a spring.
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Amplitude of vibration, the maximum displacement of a vibrating particle or body from its position of rest. -- Phase of vibration, any part of the path described by a particle or body in making a complete vibration, in distinction from other parts, as while moving from one extreme to the other, or on one side of the line of rest, in distinction from the opposite. Two particles are said to be in the same phase when they are moving in the same direction and with the same velocity, or in corresponding parts of their paths.
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Vibratiuncle
Vi*bra"ti*un`cle (?), n. [Dim. of vibration.] A small vibration. [R.] Chambers.
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Vibrative
Vi"bra*tive (?), a. Vibrating; vibratory. “A vibrative motion.” Sir I. Newton.
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Vibrator
Vi"bra*tor (?), n. One that vibrates, or causes vibration or oscillation of any kind; specif. (a) (Elec.) (1) A trembler, as of an electric bell. (2) A vibrating reed for transmitting or receiving pulsating currents in a harmonic telegraph system. (3) A device for vibrating the pen of a siphon recorder to diminish frictional resistance on the paper. (4) An oscillator. (b) An ink-distributing roller in a printing machine, having an additional vibratory motion. (a) (Music) A vibrating reed, esp. in a reed organ. (d) (Weaving) Any of various vibrating devices, as one for slackening the warp as a shed opens. (e) An attachment, usually pneumatic, in a molding machine to shake the pattern loose. (f) a small electrical device held in the hand, with a motor that causes the device and hand to vibrate, and is used for vibratory massage.
[Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Vibratory
Vi"bra*to*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. vibratoire.] Consisting in, or causing, vibration, or oscillation; vibrating; as, a vibratory motion; a vibratory power.
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Vibrio
Vib"ri*o (?), prop. n.; pl. E. Vibrios (#), L. Vibriones (#). [NL., fr. L. vibrare to vibrate, to move by undulations.] (Biol.) A genus of motile bacteria characterized by short, slightly sinuous filaments and an undulatory motion; also, an individual of this genus.
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Vibrissa
Vi*bris"sa (?), n.; pl. Vibrissae (#). [L. vibrissae, pl., the hairs in the nostrils of man, fr. vibrare to vibrate; -- so called because touching them tickles a person, and causes him to shake his head.] 1. (Anat.) One of the specialized or tactile hairs which grow about the nostrils, or on other parts of the face, in many animals, as the so-called whiskers of the cat, and the hairs of the nostrils of man.
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2. (Zool.) The bristlelike feathers near the mouth of many birds.
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Vibrograph
Vi"bro*graph (?), n. [Vibrate + -graph.] An instrument to observe and record vibrations.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vibroscope
Vi"bro*scope (?), n. 1. An instrument for observing or tracing vibrations.
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2. An instrument resembling the phenakistoscope.
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Viburnum
Vi*bur"num (?), n. [L., the wayfaring tree.] (Bot.) A genus of shrubs having opposite, petiolate leaves and cymose flowers, several species of which are cultivated as ornamental plants, as the laurestine and the guelder-rose.
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Vicar
Vic"ar (v&ibreve_;k"&etilde_;r), n. [OE. vicar, viker, vicair, F. vicaire, fr. L. vicarius. See Vicarious.] 1. One deputed or authorized to perform the functions of another; a substitute in office; a deputy. [R.]
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2. (Eng. Eccl. Law) The incumbent of an appropriated benefice.
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&hand_; The distinction between a parson [or rector] and vicar is this: The parson has, for the most part, the whole right to the ecclesiastical dues in his parish; but a vicar has generally an appropriator over him, entitled to the best part of the profits, to whom he is in fact perpetual curate with a standing salary. Burrill.
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Apostolic vicar, or Vicar apostolic. (R. C. Ch.) (a) A bishop to whom the Roman pontiff delegates a portion of his jurisdiction. (b) Any ecclesiastic acting under a papal brief, commissioned to exercise episcopal authority. (c) A titular bishop in a country where there is no episcopal see, or where the succession has been interrupted. -- Vicar forane. [Cf. LL. foraneus situated outside of the episcopal city, rural. See Vicar, and Foreign.] (R. C. Ch.) A dignitary or parish priest appointed by a bishop to exercise a limited jurisdiction in a particular town or district of a diocese. Addis & Arnold. -- Vicar-general. (a) (Ch. of Eng.) The deputy of the Archbishop of Canterbury or York, in whose court the bishops of the province are confirmed. Encyc. Brit. (b) (R. C. Ch.) An assistant to a bishop in the discharge of his official functions. -- Vicar of Jesus Christ (R. C. Ch.), the pope as representing Christ on earth.
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Vicarage
Vic"ar*age (v&ibreve_;k"&etilde_;r*&auptack_;j; 48), n. 1. The benefice of a vicar.
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2. The house or residence of a vicar.
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Vicarial
Vi*ca"ri*al (v&iuptack_;*kā"&ibreve_;*&aitalic_;l), a. [Cf. F. vicarial.] 1. Of or pertaining to a vicar; as, vicarial tithes.
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2. Delegated; vicarious; as, vicarial power.
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Vicarian
Vi*ca"ri*an (?), n. A vicar. [Obs.] Marston.
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Vicariate
Vi*ca"ri*ate (?), a. Having delegated power, as a vicar; vicarious. Barrow.
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Vicariate
Vi*ca"ri*ate, n. [LL. vicariatus, or F. vicariat.] Delegated office or power; vicarship; the office or oversight of a vicar.
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The vicariate of that part of Germany which is governed by the Saxon laws devolved on the elector of Saxony. Robertson.
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Vicarious
Vi*ca"ri*ous (v&iuptack_;*kā"&ibreve_;*ŭs), a. [L. vicarius, from vicis change, alternation, turn, the position, place, or office of one person as assumed by another; akin to Gr. e'i`kein to yield, give way, G. wechsel a change, and probably also to E. weak. See Weak, and cf. Vice, prep.] 1. Of or pertaining to a vicar, substitute, or deputy; deputed; delegated; as, vicarious power or authority.
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2. Acting or suffering for another; as, a vicarious agent or officer.
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The soul in the body is but a subordinate efficient, and vicarious . . . in the hands of the Almighty. Sir M. Hale.
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3. Performed ,experienced, or suffered in the place of another; substituted; as, a vicarious sacrifice; vicarious punishment; vicarious pleasure.
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The vicarious work of the Great Deliverer. I. Taylor.
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4. (Med.) Acting as a substitute; -- said of abnormal action which replaces a suppressed normal function; as, vicarious hemorrhage replacing menstruation.
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Vicariously
Vi*ca"ri*ous*ly, adv. In a vicarious manner.
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Vicarship
Vic"ar*ship (?), n. The office or dignity of a vicar.
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Vicary
Vic"ar*y (?), n. [L. vicarius.] A vicar. [Obs.]
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Vice
Vice (vīs), n. [F., from L. vitium.] 1. A defect; a fault; an error; a blemish; an imperfection; as, the vices of a political constitution; the vices of a horse.
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Withouten vice of syllable or letter. Chaucer.
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Mark the vice of the procedure. Sir W. Hamilton.
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2. A moral fault or failing; especially, immoral conduct or habit, as in the indulgence of degrading appetites; customary deviation in a single respect, or in general, from a right standard, implying a defect of natural character, or the result of training and habits; a harmful custom; immorality; depravity; wickedness; as, a life of vice; the vice of intemperance.
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I do confess the vices of my blood. Shak.
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Ungoverned appetite . . . a brutish vice. Milton.
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When vice prevails, and impious men bear sway,
The post of honor is a private station.
Addison.
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3. The buffoon of the old English moralities, or moral dramas, having the name sometimes of one vice, sometimes of another, or of Vice itself; -- called also Iniquity.
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&hand_; This character was grotesquely dressed in a cap with ass's ears, and was armed with a dagger of lath: one of his chief employments was to make sport with the Devil, leaping on his back, and belaboring him with the dagger of lath till he made him roar. The Devil, however, always carried him off in the end. Nares.
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How like you the Vice in the play?
. . . I would not give a rush for a Vice that has not a wooden dagger to snap at everybody.
B. Jonson.
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Syn. -- Crime; sin; iniquity; fault. See Crime.
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Vice
Vice, n. [See Vise.] 1. (Mech.) A kind of instrument for holding work, as in filing. Same as Vise.
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2. A tool for drawing lead into cames, or flat grooved rods, for casements. [Written also vise.]
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3. A gripe or grasp. [Obs.] Shak.
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Vice
Vice, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Viced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vicing (?).] To hold or squeeze with a vice, or as if with a vice. Shak.
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The coachman's hand was viced between his upper and lower thigh. De Quincey.
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Vice
Vi"ce (?), prep. [L., abl. of vicis change, turn. See Vicarious.] In the place of; in the stead; as, A. B. was appointed postmaster vice C. D. resigned.
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Vice
Vice (?), a. [Cf. F. vice-. See Vice, prep.] Denoting one who in certain cases may assume the office or duties of a superior; designating an officer or an office that is second in rank or authority; as, vice president; vice agent; vice consul, etc.
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Vice admiral. [Cf. F. vice-amiral.] (a) An officer holding rank next below an admiral. By the existing laws, the rank of admiral and vice admiral in the United States Navy will cease at the death of the present incumbents. (b) A civil officer, in Great Britain, appointed by the lords commissioners of the admiralty for exercising admiralty jurisdiction within their respective districts. -- Vice admiralty, the office of a vice admiral. -- Vice-admiralty court, a court with admiralty jurisdiction, established by authority of Parliament in British possessions beyond the seas. Abbott. -- Vice chamberlain, an officer in court next in rank to the lord chamberlain. [Eng.] -- Vice chancellor. (a) (Law) An officer next in rank to a chancellor. (b) An officer in a university, chosen to perform certain duties, as the conferring of degrees, in the absence of the chancellor. (c) (R. C. Ch.) The cardinal at the head of the Roman Chancery. -- Vice consul [cf. F. vice-consul], a subordinate officer, authorized to exercise consular functions in some particular part of a district controlled by a consul. -- Vice king, one who acts in the place of a king; a viceroy. -- Vice legate [cf. F. vice-légat], a legate second in rank to, or acting in place of, another legate. -- Vice presidency, the office of vice president. -- Vice president [cf. F. vice-président], an officer next in rank below a president.
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Viced
Viced (?), a. Vicious; corrupt. [Obs.] Shak.
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Vicegerency
Vice*ge"ren*cy (?), n. The office of a vicegerent. South.
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Vicegerent
Vice*ge"rent (?), a. [Vice, a. + gerent: cf. F. vice-gérant.] Having or exercising delegated power; acting by substitution, or in the place of another. Milton.
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Vicegerent
Vice*ge"rent, n. An officer who is deputed by a superior, or by proper authority, to exercise the powers of another; a lieutenant; a vicar. Bacon.
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The symbol and vicegerent of the Deity. C. A. Young.
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Viceman
Vice"man (?), n.; pl. Vicemen (&unr_;). A smith who works at the vice instead of at the anvil.
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Vicenary
Vic"e*na*ry (?; 277), a. [L. vicenarius, fr. viceni twenty each; akin to viginti twenty.] Of or pertaining to twenty; consisting of twenty.
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Vicennial
Vi*cen"ni*al (?), a. [L. vicennium a period of twenty years; viceni twenty + annus year.] 1. Lasting or comprising twenty years.
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2. Happening once in twenty years; as, a vicennial celebration.
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Vice-regal
Vice`-re"gal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a viceroy or viceroyalty. Macaulay.
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Viceroy
Vice"roy (?), n. [F. vice-roi; pref. vice- in the place of (L. vice) + roi a king, L. rex. See Vice, prep. and Royal.] 1. The governor of a country or province who rules in the name of the sovereign with regal authority, as the king's substitute; as, the viceroy of India.
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2. (Zool.) A large and handsome American butterfly (Basilarchia archippus syn. Limenitis archippus). Its wings are orange-red, with black lines along the nervures and a row of white spots along the outer margins. The larvae feed on willow, poplar, and apple trees.
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Viceroyalty
Vice*roy"al*ty (?), n. The dignity, office, or jurisdiction of a viceroy.
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Viceroyship
Vice"roy*ship (?), n. Viceroyalty.
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Vicety
Vi"ce*ty (?), n. [From Vice a fault.] Fault; defect; coarseness. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Vichy water
Vi"chy wa`ter (?), prop. n. A mineral water found at Vichy, France. It is essentially an effervescent aqueous solution of sodium, calcium, and magnesium carbonates, with sodium and potassium chlorides; also, by extension, any artificial or natural water resembling in composition the Vichy water proper. Called also, colloquially, Vichy.
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Viciate
Vi"ci*ate (?), v. t. See Vitiate. [R.]
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Vicinage
Vic"i*nage (?; 48), n. [OF. veisinage, F. voisinage, from OF. veisin, F. voisin, neighboring, a neighbor, L. vicinus. See Vicinity.] The place or places adjoining or near; neighborhood; vicinity; as, a jury must be of the vicinage. “To summon the Protestant gentleman of the vicinage.” Macaulay.
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Civil war had broken up all the usual ties of vicinage and good neighborhood. Sir W. Scott.
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Vicinal
Vic"i*nal (?; 277), a. [L. vicinalis: cf. F. vicinal.] 1. Near; vicine. T. Warton.
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2. (Organic Chem.) Having the substituted groups on the same carbon atom.
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Vicinal planes (Min.), subordinate planes on a crystal, which are very near to the fundamental planes in angles, and sometimes take their place. They have in general very complex symbols.
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Vicine
Vic"ine (?), a. [L. vicinus: cf. F. voisin.] Near; neighboring; vicinal. [R.] Glanvill.
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Vicine
Vic"ine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid extracted from the seeds of the vetch (Vicia sativa) as a white crystalline substance.
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Vicinity
Vi*cin"i*ty (v&ibreve_;*s&ibreve_;n"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;; 277), n. [L. vicinitas, from vicinus neighboring, near, from vicus a row of houses, a village; akin to Gr. o'i^kos a house, Skr. vēça a house, viç to enter, Goth. weihs town: cf. OF. vicinité. Cf. Diocese, Economy, Parish, Vicinage, Wick a village.]
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1. The quality or state of being near, or not remote; nearness; propinquity; proximity; as, the value of the estate was increased by the vicinity of two country seats.
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A vicinity of disposition and relative tempers. Jer. Taylor.
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2. That which is near, or not remote; that which is adjacent to anything; adjoining space or country; neighborhood. “The vicinity of the sun.” Bentley.
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Syn. -- Neighborhood; vicinage. See Neighborhood.
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Viciosity
Vi`ci*os"i*ty (?), n. Vitiosity. [R.]
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Vicious
Vi"cious (?), a. [OF. vicious, F. vicieux, fr. L. vitiosus, fr. vitium vice. See Vice a fault.] 1. Characterized by vice or defects; defective; faulty; imperfect.
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Though I perchance am vicious in my guess. Shak.
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The title of these lords was vicious in its origin. Burke.
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A charge against Bentley of vicious reasoning. De Quincey.
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2. Addicted to vice; corrupt in principles or conduct; depraved; wicked; as, vicious children; vicious examples; vicious conduct.
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Who . . . heard this heavy curse,
Servant of servants, on his vicious race.
Milton.
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3. Wanting purity; foul; bad; noxious; as, vicious air, water, etc. Dryden.
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4. Not correct or pure; corrupt; as, vicious language; vicious idioms.
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5. Not well tamed or broken; given to bad tricks; unruly; refractory; as, a vicious horse.
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6. Bitter; spiteful; malignant. [Colloq.]
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Syn. -- Corrupt; faulty; wicked; depraved.
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-- Vi"cious*ly, adv. -- Vi"cious*ness, n.
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Vicissitude
Vi*cis"si*tude (?), n. [L. vicissitudo, fr. vicis change, turn: cf. F. vicissitude. See Vicarious.]
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1. Regular change or succession from one thing to another; alternation; mutual succession; interchange.
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God made two great lights . . .
To illuminate the earth and rule the day
In their vicissitude, and rule the night.
Milton.
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2. Irregular change; revolution; mutation.
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3. (pl.) Changing conditions of fortune in one's life; life's ups and downs.
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This man had, after many vicissitudes of fortune, sunk at last into abject and hopeless poverty. Macaulay.
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Vicissitudinary
Vi*cis`si*tu"di*na*ry (?), a. Subject to vicissitudes. Donne.
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Vicissitudinous
Vi*cis`si*tu"di*nous (?), a. Full of, or subject to, changes.
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Vicissy duck
Vi*cis"sy duck` (?). (Zool.) A West Indian duck, sometimes domesticated.
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Vickers' gun
Vick"ers' gun (?). (Ordnance) One of a system of guns manufactured by the firm of Vickers' Sons, at Sheffield, Eng. now included in Vickers-Maxim guns.
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Vickers-Maxim automatic machine gun
Vick"ers-Max"im automatic machine gun. An automatic machine gun in which the mechanism is worked by the recoil, assisted by the pressure of gases from the muzzle, which expand in a gas chamber against a disk attached to the end of the barrel, thus moving the latter to the rear with increased recoil, and against the front wall of the gas chamber, checking the recoil of the system.
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Vickers-Maxim gun
Vickers-Maxim gun. (Ordnance) One of a system of ordnance, including machine, quick-fire, coast, and field guns, of all calibers, manufactured by the combined firms of Vickers' Sons of Sheffield and Maxim of Birmingham and elsewhere, England.
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Vicontiel
Vi*con"ti*el (?), a. [From OE. vicounte a viscount. See Viscount.] (O. Eng. Law) Of or pertaining to the viscount or sheriff of a county.
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Vicontiel rents. See Vicontiels. -- Vicontiel writs, such writs as were triable in the sheriff, or county, court.
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Vicontiels
Vi*con"ti*els (?), n. pl. [See Vicontiel.] (O. Eng. Law) Things belonging to the sheriff; especially, farms (called also vicontiel rents) for which the sheriff used to pay rent to the king.
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Vicount
Vi"count (?), n. See Viscount.
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Victim
Vic"tim (?), n. [L. victima: cf. F. victime.] 1. A living being sacrificed to some deity, or in the performance of a religious rite; a creature immolated, or made an offering of.
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Led like a victim, to my death I'll go. Dryden.
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2. A person or thing destroyed or sacrificed in the pursuit of an object, or in gratification of a passion; as, a victim to jealousy, lust, or ambition.
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3. A person or living creature destroyed by, or suffering grievous injury from, another, from fortune or from accident; as, the victim of a defaulter; the victim of a railroad accident.
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4. Hence, one who is duped, or cheated; a dupe; a gull. [Colloq.]
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Victimate
Vic"tim*ate, v. t. [L. victimatus, p. p. of victimare to sacrifice.] To make a victim of; to sacrifice; to immolate. [Obs.] Bullokar.
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Victimize
Vic"tim*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Victimized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Victimizing (?).] To make a victim of, esp. by deception; to dupe; to cheat.
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Victor
Vic"tor (?), n. [L. victor, fr. vincere, victum, to vanquish, to conquer. See Vanquish.] 1. The winner in a contest; one who gets the better of another in any struggle; esp., one who defeats an enemy in battle; a vanquisher; a conqueror; -- often followed by at, rarely by of.
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In love, the victors from the vanquished fly;
They fly that wound, and they pursue that die.
Waller.
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2. A destroyer. [R. & Poetic]
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There, victor of his health, of fortune, friends,
And fame, this lord of useless thousands ends.
Pope.
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Victor
Vic"tor, a. Victorious. “The victor Greeks.” Pope.
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Victoress
Vic"tor*ess (?), n. A victress. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Victoria
Vic*to"ri*a (?), prop. n. [NL.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of aquatic plants named in honor of Queen Victoria. The Victoria regia is a native of Guiana and Brazil. Its large, spreading leaves are often over five feet in diameter, and have a rim from three to five inches high; its immense rose-white flowers sometimes attain a diameter of nearly two feet.
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2. A kind of low four-wheeled pleasure carriage, with a calash top, designed for two persons and the driver who occupies a high seat in front.
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3. (Astron.) An asteroid discovered by Hind in 1850; -- called also Clio.
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4. One of an American breed of medium-sized white hogs with a slightly dished face and very erect ears.
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Victoria cross, a bronze Maltese cross, awarded for valor to members of the British army or navy. It was first bestowed in 1857, at the close of the Crimean war. The recipients also have a pension of £10 a year. -- Victoria green. (Chem.) See Emerald green, under Green. -- Victoria lily (Bot.), the Victoria regia. See def. 1, above.
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Victoria crape
Victoria crape. A kind of cotton crape.
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Victorian
Vic*to"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the reign of Queen Victoria of England; as, the Victorian poets.
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Victorian period. See Dionysian period, under Dyonysian.
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Victorine
Vic`tor*ine" (?), n. A woman's fur tippet.
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Victorious
Vic*to"ri*ous (?), a. [L. victoriosus: cf. F. victorieux. See Victory.] Of or pertaining to victory, or a victor; being a victor; bringing or causing a victory; conquering; winning; triumphant; as, a victorious general; victorious troops; a victorious day.
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But I shall rise victorious, and subdue
My vanquisher.
Milton.
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Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths. Shak.
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-- Vic*to"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Vic*to"ri*ous*ness, n.
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Victorium
Vic*to"ri*um (?), n. [NL. So named after Victoria, queen of Great Britain.] (Chem.) A probable chemical element discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1898. Its nitrate is obtained byy practical decomposition and crystallization of yttrium nitrate. At. wt., about 117.
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Victory
Vic"to*ry (?), n.; pl. Victories (#). [OE. victorie, OF. victorie, victoire, F. victoire, L. victoria. See Victor.] The defeat of an enemy in battle, or of an antagonist in any contest; a gaining of the superiority in any struggle or competition; conquest; triumph; -- the opposite of defeat.
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Death is swallowed up in victory. 1 Cor. xv. 54.
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God on our side, doubt not of victory. Shak.
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Victory may be honorable to the arms, but shameful to the counsels, of a nation. Bolingbroke.
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Victress
Vic"tress (?), n. [Cf. L. victrix.] A woman who wins a victory; a female victor.
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Victrice
Vic"trice (?), n. A victress. [R.] B. Jonson.
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Victrix
Vic"trix (?), n. [L.] A victress. C. Bronté.
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Victual
Vict"ual (v&ibreve_;t"'l), n. 1. Food; -- now used chiefly in the plural. See Victuals. 2 Chron. xi. 23. Shak.
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He was not able to keep that place three days for lack of victual. Knolles.
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There came a fair-hair'd youth, that in his hand
Bare victual for the mowers.
Tennyson.
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Short allowance of victual. Longfellow.
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2. Grain of any kind. [Scot.] Jamieson.
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Victual
Vict"ual (v&ibreve_;t"'l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Victualed (v&ibreve_;t"'ld) or Victualled; p. pr. & vb. n. Victualing or Victualling.] To supply with provisions for subsistence; to provide with food; to store with sustenance; as, to victual an army; to victual a ship.
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I must go victual Orleans forthwith. Shak.
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Victualage
Vict"ual*age (v&ibreve_;t"'l*&auptack_;j; 48), n. Victuals; food. [R.] “With my cargo of victualage.” C. Bronté.
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Victualer
Vict"ual*er (v&ibreve_;t"'l*&etilde_;r), n. [F. victuailleur.] [Written also victualler.] 1. One who furnishes victuals.
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2. One who keeps a house of entertainment; a tavern keeper; an innkeeper. Shak.
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3. A vessel employed to carry provisions, usually for military or naval use; a provision ship.
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4. One who deals in grain; a corn factor. [Scot.]
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Licensed victualer. See under Licensed.
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Victualing
Vict"ual*ing, a. Of or pertaining to victuals, or provisions; supplying provisions; as, a victualing ship.
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Victuals
Vict"uals (v&ibreve_;t"'lz), n. pl. [OE. vitaille, OF. vitaille, F. victuaille, pl. victuailles, fr. L. victualia, pl. of. victualis belonging to living or nourishment, fr. victus nourishment, from vivere, victum, to live; akin to vivus living. See Vivid.] Food for human beings, esp. when it is cooked or prepared for the table; that which supports human life; provisions; sustenance; meat; viands.
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Then had we plenty of victuals. Jer. xliv. 17.
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Victus
Vic"tus (?), n. [L.] (Zool.) Food; diet.
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Vicugna
Vicuna
{ ‖Vi*cu"ña, ‖Vi*cu"gna } (?), n. [Sp. vicuña. Cf. Vigonia.] (Zool.) A South American mammal (Auchenia vicunna) native of the elevated plains of the Andes, allied to the llama but smaller. It has a thick coat of very fine reddish brown wool, and long, pendent white hair on the breast and belly. It is hunted for its wool and flesh.
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Vida finch
Vid"a finch` (?). (Zool.) The whidah bird.
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Vidame
Vi*dame" (?), n. [F., fr. LL. vice-dominus, fr. L. vice instead of + dominus master, lord.] (Fr. Feud. Law) One of a class of temporal officers who originally represented the bishops, but later erected their offices into fiefs, and became feudal nobles.
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Vide
Vi"de (?), imperative sing. of L. videre, to see; -- used to direct attention to something; as, vide supra, see above.
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Videlicet
Vi*del"i*cet (?), adv. [L., contr. fr. videre licet, literally, it is easy to see, one may or can see.] To wit; namely; -- often abbreviated to viz.
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videocasette
videocasette n. a casette containing magnetic tape, which can be used in a videocasette recorder to record and play back electronic signals, such as from television programs. The long magnetic tape in the videocasette is moved between two spindles, and a small portion of the tape at any one time is passed over a recording or playback head.
[PJC]

videocasette recorder
videocasette recorder n. an electronic device which can record electronic signals, as from a television program, on magnetic tape contained in a videocassette, and can also play back the recording. It is used, for example, to record television programs broadcast at some particular time, which can then be viewed at any subsequent time by attaching the videocasette recorder to a television receiver and playing the signals throught the television receiver. Also called VCR.
[PJC]

videotape
videotape n. 1. a video recording made on magnetic tape.
[WordNet 1.5]

2. a relatively wide magnetic tape for use in recording visual images and associated sound.
[WordNet 1.5]

Vidette
Vi*dette" (?), n. (Mil.) Same as Vedette.
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Vidonia
Vi*do"ni*a (?), n. [Cf. Pg. vidonho the quality of grapes, Sp. veduño.] A dry white wine, of a tart flavor, produced in Teneriffe; -- called also Teneriffe.
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Viduage
Vid"u*age (?), n. [See Vidual.] The state of widows or of widowhood; also, widows, collectively.
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Vidual
Vid"u*al (?), a. [L. vidualis, fr. vidua a widow, fr. viduus widowed. See Widow.] Of or pertaining to the state of a widow; widowed. [R.] Jer. Taylor.
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Viduation
Vid`u*a"tion (?), n. The state of being widowed or bereaved; loss; bereavement. [R.]
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Viduity
Vi*du"i*ty (?), n. [L. viduitas: cf. F. viduité.] Widowhood. [R.] “Chaste viduity.” Ld. Ellenborough.
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Vie
Vie (vī), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vied (vīd); p. pr. & vb. n. Vying (vī"&ibreve_;ng).] [OE. vien, shortened fr. envien, OF. envier to invite, to challenge, a word used in gambling, L. invitare to invite; of uncertain origin. Cf. Invite, Envie.] 1. To stake a sum upon a hand of cards, as in the old game of gleek. See Revie. [Obs.]
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2. To strive for superiority; to contend; to use emulous effort, as in a race, contest, or competition.
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In a trading nation, the younger sons may be placed in such a way of life as . . . to vie with the best of their family. Addison.
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While Waterloo with Cannae's carnage vies. Byron.
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Vie
Vie, v. t. 1. To stake; to wager. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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2. To do or produce in emulation, competition, or rivalry; to put in competition; to bandy. [Obs.]
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She hung about my neck; and kiss on kiss
She vied so fast.
Shak.
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Nor was he set over us to vie wisdom with his Parliament, but to be guided by them. Milton.
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And vying malice with my gentleness,
Pick quarrels with their only happiness.
Herbert.
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Vie
Vie, n. A contest for superiority; competition; rivalry; strife; also, a challenge; a wager. [Obs.]
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We 'll all to church together instantly,
And then a vie for boys.
J. Fletcher.
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Vielle
Vi*elle" (?), n. [F. Cf. Viol.] An old stringed instrument played upon with a wheel; a hurdy-gurdy.
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Vienna paste
Vi*en"na paste` (?). (Pharm.) A caustic application made up of equal parts of caustic potash and quicklime; -- called also Vienna caustic.
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Viennese
Vi`en*nese" (?), a. Of or pertaining to Vienna, or the people of Vienna. -- n. sing. & pl. An inhabitant, or the inhabitants, of Vienna.
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Vierkleur
Vier"kleur` (?), n. [D., fr. vier four + kleur color, F. couleur.] The four-colored flag of the South African Republic, or Transvaal, -- red, white, blue, and green.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

View
View (vū), n. [OF. veue, F. vue, fr. OF. veoir to see, p. p. veu, F. voir, p. p. vu, fr. L. videre to see. See Vision, and cf. Interview, Purview, Review, Vista.] 1. The act of seeing or beholding; sight; look; survey; examination by the eye; inspection.
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Thenceforth I thought thee worth my nearer view. Milton.
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Objects near our view are thought greater than those of a larger size that are more remote. Locke.
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Surveying nature with too nice a view. Dryden.
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2. Mental survey; intellectual perception or examination; as, a just view of the arguments or facts in a case.
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I have with exact view perused thee, Hector. Shak.
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3. Power of seeing, either physically or mentally; reach or range of sight; extent of prospect.
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The walls of Pluto's palace are in view. Dryden.
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4. That which is seen or beheld; sight presented to the natural or intellectual eye; scene; prospect; as, the view from a window.
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'T is distance lends enchantment to the view. Campbell.
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5. The pictorial representation of a scene; a sketch, either drawn or painted; as, a fine view of Lake George.
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6. Mode of looking at anything; manner of apprehension; conception; opinion; judgment; as, to state one's views of the policy which ought to be pursued.
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To give a right view of this mistaken part of liberty. Locke.
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7. That which is looked towards, or kept in sight, as object, aim, intention, purpose, design; as, he did it with a view of escaping.
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No man sets himself about anything but upon some view or other which serves him for a reason. Locke.
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8. Appearance; show; aspect. [Obs.]
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[Graces] which, by the splendor of her view
Dazzled, before we never knew.
Waller.
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Field of view. See under Field. -- Point of view. See under Point. -- To have in view, to have in mind as an incident, object, or aim; as, to have one's resignation in view. -- View halloo, the shout uttered by a hunter upon seeing the fox break cover. -- View of frankpledge (Law), a court of record, held in a hundred, lordship, or manor, before the steward of the leet. Blackstone. -- View of premises (Law), the inspection by the jury of the place where a litigated transaction is said to have occurred.
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View
View (vū), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Viewed (vūd); p. pr. & vb. n. Viewing.] 1. To see; to behold; especially, to look at with attention, or for the purpose of examining; to examine with the eye; to inspect; to explore.
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O, let me view his visage, being dead. Shak.
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Nearer to view his prey, and, unespied,
To mark what of their state he more might learn.
Milton.
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2. To survey or examine mentally; to consider; as, to view the subject in all its aspects.
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The happiest youth, viewing his progress through. Shak.
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Viewer
View"er (?), n. 1. One who views or examines.
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2. (Law) A person appointed to inspect highways, fences, or the like, and to report upon the same.
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3. The superintendent of a coal mine. [Eng.]
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Viewiness
View"i*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being viewy, or of having unpractical views.
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Viewless
View"less, a. Not perceivable by the eye; invisible; unseen.Viewless winds.” Shak.
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Swift through the valves the visionary fair
Repassed, and viewless mixed with common air.
Pope.
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Viewsome
Viewly
{ View"ly (?), View"some (?), } a. Pleasing to the sight; sightly. [Prov. Eng.]
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Viewy
View"y (?), a. 1. Having peculiar views; fanciful; visionary; unpractical; as, a viewy person.
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2. Spectacular; pleasing to the eye or the imagination.
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A government intent on showy absurdities and viewy enterprises rather than solid work. London Spectator.
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Vifda
Vif"da (?), n. In the Orkney and Shetland Islands, beef and mutton hung and dried, but not salted. [Scot.] [Written also vivda.] Jamieson.
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Vigesimal
Vi*ges"i*mal (?), a. [L. vigesimus twentieth, from viginti twenty.] Twentieth; divided into, or consisting of, twenties or twenty parts. Tylor.
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Vigesimation
Vi*ges`i*ma"tion (?), n. The act of putting to death every twentieth man. [R.]
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Vigesimo-quarto
Vi*ges"i*mo-quar"to (?), a. [L. vigesimus quartus twenty-fourth. Cf. Duodecimo.] Having twenty-four leaves to a sheet; as, a vigesimo-quarto form, book, leaf, size, etc.
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Vigesimo-quarto
Vi*ges"i*mo-quar"to, n.; pl. -tos (&unr_;). A book composed of sheets each of which is folded into twenty-four leaves; hence, indicating more or less definitely a size of book so made; -- usually written 24mo, or 24°.
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Vigil
Vig"il (?), n. [OE. vigile, L. vigilia, from vigil awake, watchful, probably akin to E. wake: cf. F. vigile. See Wake, v. i., and cf. Reveille, Surveillance, Vedette, Vegetable, Vigor.] 1. Abstinence from sleep, whether at a time when sleep is customary or not; the act of keeping awake, or the state of being awake; sleeplessness; wakefulness; watch. “Worn out by the labors and vigils of many months.” Macaulay.
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Nothing wears out a fine face like the vigils of the card table and those cutting passions which attend them. Addison.
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2. Hence, devotional watching; waking for prayer, or other religious exercises.
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So they in heaven their odes and vigils tuned. Milton.
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Be sober and keep vigil,
The Judge is at the gate.
Neale (Rhythm of St. Bernard).
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3. (Eccl.) (a) Originally, the watch kept on the night before a feast. (b) Later, the day and the night preceding a feast.
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He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbors,
And say, “To-morrow is St. Crispian.”
Shak.
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(c) A religious service performed in the evening preceding a feast.
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Vigils of flowers or Watchings of flowers (Bot.), a peculiar faculty belonging to the flowers of certain plants of opening and closing their petals at certain hours of the day. [R.]
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Vigilance
Vig"i*lance (?), n. [L. vigilantia: cf. F. vigilance.] 1. The quality or state of being vigilant; forbearance of sleep; wakefulness.
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2. Watchfulness in respect of danger; care; caution; circumspection. Cowper.
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And flaming ministers to watch and tend
Their earthly charge; of these the vigilance
I dread.
Milton.
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3. Guard; watch. [Obs.] “In at this gate none pass the vigilance here placed.” Milton.
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Vigilance committee, a volunteer committee of citizens for the oversight and protection of any interest, esp. one organized for the summary suppression and punishment of crime, as when the processes of law appear inadequate.
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Vigilancy
Vig"i*lan*cy (?), n. Vigilance. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Vigilant
Vig"i*lant (?), a. [L. vigilans, -antis, p. pr. of vigilare to watch, fr. vigil awake: cf. F. vigilant. See Vigil.] Attentive to discover and avoid danger, or to provide for safety; wakeful; watchful; circumspect; wary. “Be sober, be vigilant.” 1 Pet. v. 8.
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Sirs, take your places, and be vigilant. Shak.
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Vigilantly
Vig"i*lant*ly, adv. In a vigilant manner.
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Vigily
Vig"i*ly (?), n. [L. vigilia.] A vigil. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Vigintivirate
Vi`gin*tiv"i*rate (?), n. [L. vigintiviratus, fr. vigintiviri; viginti twenty + vir a man.] The office of the vigintiviri, a body of officers of government consisting of twenty men; also, the vigintiviri. [R.]
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Vignette
Vi*gnette" (?; 277), n. [F. vignette, fr. vigne a vine. See Vine, and cf. Vinette.] 1. (Arch.) A running ornament consisting of leaves and tendrils, used in Gothic architecture.
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2. A decorative design, originally representing vine branches or tendrils, at the head of a chapter, of a manuscript or printed book, or in a similar position; hence, by extension, any small picture in a book; hence, also, as such pictures are often without a definite bounding line, any picture, as an engraving, a photograph, or the like, which vanishes gradually at the edge.
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3. A picture, illustration, or depiction in words, esp. one of a small or dainty kind.
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Vignette
Vi*gnette", v. t. To make, as an engraving or a photograph, with a border or edge insensibly fading away.
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Vignetter
Vi*gnett"er (?), n. 1. A device used by photographers in printing vignettes, consisting of a screen of paper or glass with a central aperture the edges of which become opaque by insensible gradations.
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2. A maker of vignettes.
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Vigonia
Vi*go"ni*a (?), a. [Cf. F. vigogne vicuña. See Vicuña.] Of or pertaining to the vicuña; characterizing the vicuña; -- said of the wool of that animal, used in felting hats, and for other purposes. Prescott.
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Vigor
Vig"or (?), n. [OE. vigour, vigor, OF. vigor, vigur, vigour, F. vigueur, fr. L. vigor, fr. vigere to be lively or strong. See Vegetable, Vigil.] 1. Active strength or force of body or mind; capacity for exertion, physically, intellectually, or morally; force; energy.
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The vigor of this arm was never vain. Dryden.
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2. Strength or force in animal or vegetable nature or action; as, a plant grows with vigor.
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3. Strength; efficacy; potency.
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But in the fruithful earth . . .
His beams, unactive else, their vigor find.
Milton.
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&hand_; Vigor and its derivatives commonly imply active strength, or the power of action and exertion, in distinction from passive strength, or strength to endure.
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Vigor
Vig"or, v. t. To invigorate. [Obs.] Feltham.
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Vigorite
Vig"or*ite (?), n. [L. vigor strength.] An explosive containing nitroglycerin. It is used in blasting.
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Vigoroso
Vig`o*ro"so (?), a. & adv. [It.] (Mus.) Vigorous; energetic; with energy; -- a direction to perform a passage with energy and force.
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Vigorous
Vig"or*ous (?), a. [Cf. OF. vigoros, F. vigoureux, LL. vigorosus.] 1. Possessing vigor; full of physical or mental strength or active force; strong; lusty; robust; as, a vigorous youth; a vigorous plant.
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Famed for his valor, young,
At sea successful, vigorous and strong.
Waller.
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2. Exhibiting strength, either of body or mind; powerful; strong; forcible; energetic; as, vigorous exertions; a vigorous prosecution of a war.
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The beginnings of confederacies have been always vigorous and successful. Davenant.
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-- Vig"or*ous*ly, adv. -- Vig"or*ous*ness, n.
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Viking
Vi"king (?), n. [Icel. vīkingr, fr. vīk a bay, inlet.] One belonging to the pirate crews from among the Northmen, who plundered the coasts of Europe in the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries.
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Of grim Vikings, and the rapture
Of the sea fight, and the capture,
And the life of slavery.
Longfellow.
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&hand_; Viking differs in meaning from sea king, with which it is frequently confounded. “The sea king was a man connected with a royal race, either of the small kings of the country, or of the Haarfager family, and who, by right, received the title of king as soon he took the command of men, although only of a single ship's crew, and without having any land or kingdom . . . Vikings were merely pirates, alternately peasants and pirates, deriving the name of viking from the vicks, wicks, or inlets, on the coast in which they harbored with their long ships or rowing galleys.” Laing.
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Vilany
Vil"a*ny (v&ibreve_;l"&adot_;*n&ybreve_;), n. Villainy. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Vilayet
Vi`la*yet" (?), n. [Turk., from Ar. wilāyah.] One of the chief administrative divisions or provinces of the Ottoman Empire; -- formerly called eyalet.
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Vild
Vild (?), a. [As if the p. p. of a verb to vile. See Vile, a.] Vile. [Obs.] “That vild race.” Spenser. -- Vild"ly, adv. [Obs.] Spenser.
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Vile
Vile (vīl), a. [Comp. Viler (vīl"&etilde_;r); superl. Vilest.] [OE. vil, F. vil, from L. vilis cheap, worthless, vile, base.]
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1. Low; base; worthless; mean; despicable.
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A poor man in vile raiment. James ii. 2.
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The craft either of fishing, which was Peter's, or of making tents, which was Paul's, were [was] more vile than the science of physic. Ridley.
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The inhabitants account gold but as a vile thing. Abp. Abbot.
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2. Morally base or impure; depraved by sin; hateful in the sight of God and men; sinful; wicked; bad. “Such vile base practices.” Shak.
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Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee ? Job xl. 4.
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Syn. -- See Base.
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-- Vile"ly, adv. -- Vile"ness, n.
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Viled
Viled (vīld), a. [See Vild.] Abusive; scurrilous; defamatory; vile. [Obs.]Viled speeches.” Hayward.
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Vileyns
Vil"eyns (?), a. [See Villain.] Villainous. [Obs.]Vileyns sinful deeds make a churl.” Chaucer.
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Vilification
Vil`i*fi*ca"tion (v&ibreve_;l`&ibreve_;*f&ibreve_;*kā"shŭn), n. The act of vilifying or defaming; abuse. South.
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Vilifier
Vil"i*fi`er (v&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*fī`&etilde_;r), n. One who vilifies or defames.
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Vilify
Vil"i*fy (v&ibreve_;l"&ibreve_;*fī), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vilified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vilifying.] [L. vilis vile + -fy; cf. L. vilificare to esteem of little value.] 1. To make vile; to debase; to degrade; to disgrace. [R.]
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When themselves they vilified
To serve ungoverned appetite.
Milton.
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2. To degrade or debase by report; to defame; to traduce; to calumniate. I. Taylor.
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Many passions dispose us to depress and vilify the merit of one rising in the esteem of mankind. Addison.
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3. To treat as vile; to despise. [Obs.]
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I do vilify your censure. Beau. & Fl.
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Vilipend
Vil"i*pend (?), v. t. [L. vilipendere; vilis vile + pendere to weigh, to value: cf. F. vilipender.] To value lightly; to depreciate; to slight; to despise.
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To vilipend the art of portrait painting. Longfellow.
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Vilipendency
Vil"i*pend"en*cy (?), n. Disesteem; slight; disparagement. [R.] E. Waterhouse.
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Vility
Vil"i*ty (?), n. [L. vilitas: cf. F. vileté, vilité, OF. vilté.] Vileness; baseness. [Obs.] Kennet.
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Vill
Vill (?), n. [OF. ville, vile, a village, F. ville a town, city. See Villa.] A small collection of houses; a village. “Every manor, town, or vill.” Sir M. Hale.
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Not should e'er the crested fowl
From thorp or vill his matins sound for me.
Wordsworth.
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&hand_; A word of various significations in English, law; as, a manor; a tithing; a town; a township; a parish; a part of a parish; a village. The original meaning of vill, in England, seems to have been derived from the Roman sense of the term villa, a single country residence or farm; a manor. Later, the term was applied only to a collection of houses more than two, and hence came to comprehend towns. Burrill. The statute of Exeter, 14 Edward I., mentions entire-vills, demivills, and hamlets.
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Villa
Vil"la (?), n.; pl. Villas (#). [L. villa, LL. also village, dim. of L. vicus a village: cf. It. & F. villa. See Vicinity, and cf. Vill, Village, Villain.] A country seat; a country or suburban residence of some pretensions to elegance. Dryden. Cowper.
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Village
Vil"lage (?; 48), n. [F., fr. L. villaticus belonging to a country house or villa. See Villa, and cf. Villatic.] A small assemblage of houses in the country, less than a town or city.
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Village cart, a kind of two-wheeled pleasure carriage without a top.
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Syn. -- Village, Hamlet, Town, City. In England, a hamlet denotes a collection of houses, too small to have a parish church. A village has a church, but no market. A town has both a market and a church or churches. A city is, in the legal sense, an incorporated borough town, which is, or has been, the place of a bishop's see. In the United States these distinctions do not hold.
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Villager
Vil"la*ger (?), n. An inhabitant of a village.
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Brutus had rather be a villager
Than to repute himself a son of Rome
Under these hard condition.
Shak.
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Villagery
Vil"lage*ry (?), n. Villages; a district of villages. [Obs.] “The maidens of the villagery.” Shak.
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Villain
Vil"lain (?), n. [OE. vilein, F. vilain, LL. villanus, from villa a village, L. villa a farm. See Villa.]
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1. (Feudal Law) One who holds lands by a base, or servile, tenure, or in villenage; a feudal tenant of the lowest class, a bondman or servant. [In this sense written also villan, and villein.]
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If any of my ansectors was a tenant, and a servant, and held his lands as a villain to his lord, his posterity also must do so, though accidentally they become noble. Jer. Taylor.
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&hand_; Villains were of two sorts; villains regardant, that is, annexed to the manor (LL. adscripti glebae); and villains in gross, that is, annexed to the person of their lord, and transferable from one to another. Blackstone.
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2. A baseborn or clownish person; a boor. [R.]
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Pour the blood of the villain in one basin, and the blood of the gentleman in another, what difference shall there be proved? Becon.
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3. A vile, wicked person; a man extremely depraved, and capable or guilty of great crimes; a deliberate scoundrel; a knave; a rascal; a scamp.
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Like a villain with a smiling cheek. Shak.
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Calm, thinking villains, whom no faith could fix. Pope.
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Villain
Vil"lain, a. [F. vilain.] Villainous. [R.] Shak.
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Villain
Vil"lain, v. t. To debase; to degrade. [Obs.] Sir T. More.
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Villainous
Vil"lain*ous (?), a. [Written also villanous.]
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1. Base; vile; mean; depraved; as, a villainous person or wretch.
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2. Proceeding from, or showing, extreme depravity; suited to a villain; as, a villainous action.
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3. Sorry; mean; mischievous; -- in a familiar sense. “A villainous trick of thine eye.” Shak.
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Villainous judgment (O. E. Law), a judgment that casts reproach on the guilty person.
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--- Vil"lain*ous*ly, adv. Vil"lain*ous*ness, n.
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Villainy
Vil"lain*y (?), n.; pl. Villainies (#). [OE. vilanie, OF. vilanie, vilainie, vileinie, vilanie, LL. villania. See Villain, n.] [Written also villany.] 1. The quality or state of being a villain, or villainous; extreme depravity; atrocious wickedness; as, the villainy of the seducer. “Lucre of vilanye.” Chaucer.
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The commendation is not in his wit, but in his villainy. Shak.
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2. Abusive, reproachful language; discourteous speech; foul talk. [Archaic]
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He never yet not vileinye ne said
In all his life, unto no manner wight.
Chaucer.
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In our modern language, it [foul language] is termed villainy, as being proper for rustic boors, or men of coarsest education and employment. Barrow.
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Villainy till a very late day expressed words foul and disgraceful to the utterer much oftener than deeds. Trench.
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3. The act of a villain; a deed of deep depravity; a crime.
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Such villainies roused Horace into wrath. Dryden.
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That execrable sum of all villainies commonly called a slave trade. John Wesley.
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Villakin
Vil"la*kin (?), n. A little villa. [R.] Gay.
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Villan
Vil"lan (?), n. A villain. [R.]
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Villanage
Vil"lan*age (?; 48), n. [OF. villenage, vilenage. See Villain.] 1. (Feudal Law) The state of a villain, or serf; base servitude; tenure on condition of doing the meanest services for the lord. [In this sense written also villenage, and villeinage.]
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I speak even now as if sin were condemned in a perpetual villanage, never to be manumitted. Milton.
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Some faint traces of villanage were detected by the curious so late as the days of the Stuarts. Macaulay.
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2. Baseness; infamy; villainy. [Obs.] Dryden.
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Villanel
Vil`la*nel" (?), n. [See Villanelle.] A ballad. [Obs.] Cotton.
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Villanella
Vil`la*nel"la (?), n.; pl. Villanelle (#). [It., a pretty country girl.] (Mus.) An old rustic dance, accompanied with singing.
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Villanelle
Vil`la*nelle" (?), n. [F.] A poem written in tercets with but two rhymes, the first and third verse of the first stanza alternating as the third verse in each successive stanza and forming a couplet at the close. E. W. Gosse.
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Villanette
Vil`la*nette" (?), n. [Dim. of villa; formed on the analogy of the French.] A small villa. [R.]
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Villanize
Vil"lan*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Villanized; p. pr. & vb. n. Villanizing (?).] To make vile; to debase; to degrade; to revile. [R.]
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Were virtue by descent, a noble name
Could never villanize his father's fame.
Dryden.
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Villanizer
Vil"lan*i`zer (?), n. One who villanizes. [R.]
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Villanousness
Villanously
Villanous
Vil"lan*ous (?), a. Vil"lan*ous*ly, adv., Vil"lan*ous*ness, n., See Villainous, etc.
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Villany
Vil"lan*y (?), n. See Villainy.
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Villatic
Vil*lat"ic (?), a. [L. villaticus belonging to a country house. See Village.] Of or pertaining to a farm or a village; rural. “Tame villatic fowl.” Milton.
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Villein
Vil"lein (?), n. (Feudal Law) See Villain, 1.
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Villenage
Vil"len*age (?), n. [See Villanage.] (Feudal Law) Villanage. Blackstone.
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Villenous
Vil"len*ous (?), a. Of or pertaining to a villein.
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Villi
Vil"li (?), n., pl. of Villus.
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Villiform
Vil"li*form (?), a. [Villus + -form.] Having the form or appearance of villi; like close-set fibers, either hard or soft; as, the teeth of perch are villiform.
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Villose
Vil*lose" (?), a. (Bot.) See Villous.
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Villosity
Vil*los"i*ty (?), n. 1. State of being villous.
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2. (Bot.) A coating of long, slender hairs.
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3. (Anat.) A villus.
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Villous
Vil"lous (?), a. [L. villosus: cf. F. villeux. Cf. Velvet.] 1. Abounding in, or covered with, fine hairs, or a woolly substance; shaggy with soft hairs; nappy.
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2. (Anat.) Furnished or clothed with villi.
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Villus
Vil"lus (?), n.; pl. Villi (#). [L., shaggy hair, a tuft of hair.] 1. (Anat.) One of the minute papillary processes on certain vascular membranes; a villosity; as, villi cover the lining of the small intestines of many animals and serve to increase the absorbing surface.
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2. pl. (Bot.) Fine hairs on plants, resembling the pile of velvet.
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Vim
Vim (?), n. [L., accusative of vis strength.] Power; force; energy; spirit; activity; vigor. [Colloq.]
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Vimen
Vi"men (?), n. [L., a twig.] (Bot.) A long, slender, flexible shoot or branch.
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Viminal
Vim"i*nal (?; 277), a. [L. viminalis pertaining to osiers, fr. vimen a pliant twig, osier.] Of or pertaining to twigs; consisting of twigs; producing twigs.
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Vimineous
Vi*min"e*ous (?; 277), a. [L. vimineus, fr. vimen pliant twig.] 1. Of or pertaining to twigs; made of pliant twigs. “In the hive's vimineous dome.” Prior.
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2. (Bot.) Producing long, slender twigs or shoots.
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Vinaceous
Vi*na"ceous (?; 277), a. [L. vinaceus. See Vine.] 1. Belonging to, or like, wine or grapes.
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2. Of the color of wine, especially of red wine.
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Vinaigrette
Vin`ai*grette" (?), n. [F., fr. vinaigre vinegar.] 1. (Cookery) A sauce, made of vinegar, oil, and other ingredients, -- used esp. for cold meats.
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2. A small perforated box for holding aromatic vinegar contained in a sponge, or a smelling bottle for smelling salts; -- called also vinegarette.
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3. A small, two-wheeled vehicle, like a Bath chair, to be drawn or pushed by a boy or man. [R.]
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Vinaigrous
Vin"ai*grous (?), a. [F. vinaigre vinegar.] 1. Resembling vinegar; sour.
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2. [Fig.]: Unamiable; morose. Carlyle.
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Vinasse
Vi*nasse" (?), n. [F.] (Chem.) The waste liquor remaining in the process of making beet sugar, -- used in the manufacture of potassium carbonate.
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Vinatico
Vi*nat"i*co (?), n. [Pg. vinhatico.] Madeira mahogany; the coarse, dark-colored wood of the Persea Indica.
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Vincentian
Vin*cen"tian (?), a. Of or pertaining to Saint Vincent de Paul, or founded by him. [R.]
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Vincentian
Vin*cen"tian, n. (R. C. Ch.) (a) Same as Lazarist. (b) A member of certain charitable sisterhoods.
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Vincetoxin
Vin`ce*tox"in (?), n. (Chem.) A glucoside extracted from the root of the white swallowwort (Vincetoxicum officinale, a plant of the Asclepias family) as a bitter yellow amorphous substance; -- called also asclepiadin, and cynanchin.
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Vincibility
Vin`ci*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vincible, vincibleness.
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Vincible
Vin"ci*ble (?), a. [L. vincibilis, fr. vincere to vanquish, conquer: cf. F. vincible. See Victor.] Capable of being overcome or subdued; conquerable. “He, not vincible in spirit . . . drew his sword.” Hayward.Vincible by human aid.” Paley.
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Vincible ignorance (Theol.), ignorance within the individual's control and for which, therefore, he is responsible before God.
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Vincibleness
Vin"ci*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being vincible.
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Vincture
Vinc"ture (?; 135), n. [L. vinctura, fr. vincire, vinctum, to bind.] A binding. [Obs.]
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Vinculum
Vin"cu*lum (?), n.; pl. L. Vincula (#), E. Vinculums (#). [L., from vincire, vinctum, to bind.] 1. A bond of union; a tie.
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2. (Math.) A straight, horizontal mark placed over two or more members of a compound quantity, which are to be subjected to the same operation, as in the expression x2 + y2 - x + y.
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3. (Anat.) A band or bundle of fibers; a fraenum.
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4. (Zool.) A commissure uniting the two main tendons in the foot of certain birds.
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Vindemial
Vin*de"mi*al (?), a. [L. vindemialis, fr. vindemia a vintage. See Vintage.] Of or pertaining to a vintage, or grape harvest. [R.]
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Vindemiate
Vin*de"mi*ate (?), v. i. [L. vindemiare. See Vindemial.] To gather the vintage. [Obs.] Evelyn.
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Vindemiation
Vin*de`mi*a"tion (?), n. [LL. vindemiatio.] The operation of gathering grapes. [Obs.] Bailey.
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Vindicable
Vin"di*ca*ble (?), a. Capable of being vindicated. -- Vin`di*ca*bil"i*ty (#), n.
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Vindicate
Vin"di*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vindicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vindicating.] [L. vindicatus, p. p. of vindicare to lay claim to, defend, avenge. See Vengeance.] 1. To lay claim to; to assert a right to; to claim. [R.]
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Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain?
The birds of heaven shall vindicate their grain.
Pope.
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2. To maintain or defend with success; to prove to be valid; to assert convincingly; to sustain against assault; as, to vindicate a right, claim, or title.
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3. To support or maintain as true or correct, against denial, censure, or objections; to defend; to justify.
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When the respondent denies any proposition, the opponent must directly vindicate . . . that proposition. I. Watts.
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Laugh where we must, be candid where we can,
But vindicate the ways of God to man.
Pope.
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4. To maintain, as a law or a cause, by overthrowing enemies. Milton.
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5. To liberate; to set free; to deliver. [Obs.]
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I am confident he deserves much more
That vindicates his country from a tyrant
Than he that saves a citizen.
Massinger.
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6. To avenge; to punish; as, a war to vindicate or punish infidelity. [Obs.] Bacon.
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God is more powerful to exact subjection and to vindicate rebellion. Bp. Pearson.
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Syn. -- To assert; maintain; claim. See Assert.
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Vindication
Vin`di*ca"tion (?), n. [L. vindicatio a laying claim, defense, vindication. See Vindicate.] 1. The act of vindicating, or the state of being vindicated; defense; justification against denial or censure; as, the vindication of opinions; his vindication is complete.
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Occasion for the vindication of this passage in my book. Locke.
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2. (Civil Law) The claiming a thing as one's own; the asserting of a right or title in, or to, a thing. Burrill.
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Vindicative
Vin"di*ca*tive (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. vindicatif. Cf. Vindictive.] 1. Tending to vindicate; vindicating; as, a vindicative policy.
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2. Revengeful; vindictive. [Obs.]
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Vindicative persons live the life of witches, who, as they are mischievous, so end they infortunate. Bacon.
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-- Vin"di*ca*tive*ness, n.
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Vindicator
Vin"di*ca`tor (?), n. [LL., an avenger.] One who vindicates; one who justifies or maintains. Locke.
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Vindicatory
Vin"di*ca*to*ry (?), a. 1. Tending or serving to vindicate or justify; justificatory; vindicative.
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2. Inflicting punishment; avenging; punitory.
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The afflictions of Job were no vindicatory punishments to take vengeance of his sins. Abp. Bramhall.
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Vindictive
Vin*dic"tive (?), a. [For vindicative, confused with L. vindicta revenge, punishment, fr. vindicare to vindicate. Cf. Vindicative.] 1. Disposed to revenge; prompted or characterized by revenge; revengeful.
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I am vindictive enough to repel force by force. Dryden.
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2. Punitive. [Obs.]
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Vindictive damages. (Law) See under Damage, n.
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-- Vin*dic"tive*ly, adv. -- Vin*dic"tive*ness, n.
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Vine
Vine (?), n. [F. vigne, L. vinea a vineyard, vine from vineus of or belonging to wine, vinum wine, grapes. See Wine, and cf. Vignette.] (Bot.) (a) Any woody climbing plant which bears grapes. (b) Hence, a climbing or trailing plant; the long, slender stem of any plant that trails on the ground, or climbs by winding round a fixed object, or by seizing anything with its tendrils, or claspers; a creeper; as, the hop vine; the bean vine; the vines of melons, squashes, pumpkins, and other cucurbitaceous plants.
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There shall be no grapes on the vine. Jer. viii. 13.
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And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds. 2 Kings iv. 89.
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Vine apple (Bot.), a small kind of squash. Roger Williams. -- Vine beetle (Zool.), any one of several species of beetles which are injurious to the leaves or branches of the grapevine. Among the more important species are the grapevine fidia (see Fidia), the spotted Pelidnota (Pelidnota punctata) (see Rutilian), the vine fleabeetle (Graptodera chalybea), the rose beetle (see under Rose), the vine weevil, and several species of Colaspis and Anomala. -- Vine borer. (Zool.) (a) Any one of several species of beetles whose larvae bore in the wood or pith of the grapevine, especially Sinoxylon basilare, a small species the larva of which bores in the stems, and Ampeloglypter sesostris, a small reddish brown weevil (called also vine weevil), which produces knotlike galls on the branches. (b) A clearwing moth (Aegeria polistiformis), whose larva bores in the roots of the grapevine and is often destructive. -- Vine dragon, an old and fruitless branch of a vine. [Obs.] Holland. -- Vine forester (Zool.), any one of several species of moths belonging to Alypia and allied genera, whose larvae feed on the leaves of the grapevine. -- Vine fretter (Zool.), a plant louse, esp. the phylloxera that injuries the grapevine. -- Vine grub (Zool.), any one of numerous species of insect larvae that are injurious to the grapevine. -- Vine hopper (Zool.), any one of several species of leaf hoppers which suck the sap of the grapevine, especially Erythroneura vitis. See Illust. of Grape hopper, under Grape. -- Vine inchworm (Zool.), the larva of any species of geometrid moths which feed on the leaves of the grapevine, especially Cidaria diversilineata. -- Vine-leaf rooer (Zool.), a small moth (Desmia maculalis) whose larva makes a nest by rolling up the leaves of the grapevine. The moth is brownish black, spotted with white. -- Vine louse (Zool.), the phylloxera. -- Vine mildew (Bot.), a fungous growth which forms a white, delicate, cottony layer upon the leaves, young shoots, and fruit of the vine, causing brown spots upon the green parts, and finally a hardening and destruction of the vitality of the surface. The plant has been called Oidium Tuckeri, but is now thought to be the conidia-producing stage of an Erysiphe. -- Vine of Sodom (Bot.), a plant named in the Bible (Deut. xxxii. 32), now thought to be identical with the apple of Sodom. See Apple of Sodom, under Apple. -- Vine sawfly (Zool.), a small black sawfiy (Selandria vitis) whose larva feeds upon the leaves of the grapevine. The larvae stand side by side in clusters while feeding. -- Vine slug (Zool.), the larva of the vine sawfly. -- Vine sorrel (Bot.), a climbing plant (Cissus acida) related to the grapevine, and having acid leaves. It is found in Florida and the West Indies. -- Vine sphinx (Zool.), any one of several species of hawk moths. The larvae feed on grapevine leaves. -- Vine weevil. (Zool.) See Vine borer (a) above, and Wound gall, under Wound.
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Vineal
Vi"ne*al (?), a. [L. vinealis.] Of or pertaining to vines; containing vines. [R.] Sir T. Browne.
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Vine-clad
Vine"-clad` (?), a. Covered with vines.
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Vined
Vined (?), a. Having leaves like those of the vine; ornamented with vine leaves.Vined and figured columns.” Sir H. Wotton.
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Vinedresser
Vine"dress`er (?), n. One who cultivates, prunes, or cares for, grapevines; a laborer in a vineyard.
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The sons of the shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers. Isa. lxi. 5.
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Vinegar
Vin"e*gar (?), n. [OE. vinegre, F. vinaigre; vin wine (L. vinum) + aigre sour. See Wine, and Eager, a.] 1. A sour liquid used as a condiment, or as a preservative, and obtained by the spontaneous (acetous) fermentation, or by the artificial oxidation, of wine, cider, beer, or the like.
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&hand_; The characteristic sourness of vinegar is due to acetic acid, of which it contains from three to five per cent. Wine vinegar contains also tartaric acid, citric acid, etc.
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2. Hence, anything sour; -- used also metaphorically.
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Here's the challenge: . . . I warrant there's vinegar and pepper in't. Shak.
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Aromatic vinegar, strong acetic acid highly flavored with aromatic substances. -- Mother of vinegar. See 4th Mother. -- Radical vinegar, acetic acid. -- Thieves' vinegar. See under Thief. -- Vinegar eel (Zool.), a minute nematode worm (Leptodera oxophila, or Anguillula acetiglutinis), commonly found in great numbers in vinegar, sour paste, and other fermenting vegetable substances; -- called also vinegar worm. -- Vinegar lamp (Chem.), a fanciful name of an apparatus designed to oxidize alcohol to acetic acid by means of platinum. -- Vinegar plant. See 4th Mother. -- Vinegar tree (Bot.), the stag-horn sumac (Rhus typhina), whose acid berries have been used to intensify the sourness of vinegar. -- Wood vinegar. See under Wood.
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Vinegar
Vin"e*gar, v. t. To convert into vinegar; to make like vinegar; to render sour or sharp. [Obs.]
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Hoping that he hath vinegared his senses
As he was bid.
B. Jonson.
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Vinegarette
Vin`e*gar*ette" (?), n. See Vinaigrette, n., 2.
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Vinegar fly
Vin"e*gar fly. Any of several fruit flies, esp. Drosophila ampelopophila, which breed in imperfectly sealed preserves and in pickles.
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Vinegarroon
Vin`e*gar*roon" (?), n. [Cf. Sp. vinagre vinegar.] A whip scorpion, esp. a large Mexican species (Thelyphonus giganteus) popularly supposed to be very venomous; -- from the odor that it emits when alarmed.
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Vinegary
Vin"e*gar*y (?), a. Having the nature of vinegar; sour; unamiable.
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Viner
Vin"er (?), n. A vinedresser. [Obs.]
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Vinery
Vin"er*y (?), n. 1. A vineyard. [Obs.] “The vinery of Ramer.” Fabyan.
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2. A structure, usually inclosed with glass, for rearing and protecting vines; a grapery.
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Vinette
Vi*nette" (?), n. [Cf. Vignette.] A sprig or branch. [Archaic] Halliwell.
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Vinewed
Vin"ewed (?), a. Same as Vinnewed.
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Vineyard
Vine"yard (?), n. [For OE. winyard, AS. wīngeard; influenced by E. vine. See Wine, and Yard an inclosure.] An inclosure or yard for grapevines; a plantation of vines producing grapes.
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Vineyardist
Vine"yard*ist, n. One who cultivates a vineyard.
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Vingt et un
Vingt` et` un" (?). [F., twenty and one.] A game at cards, played by two or more persons. The fortune of each player depends upon obtaining from the dealer such cards that the sum of their pips, or spots, is twenty-one, or a number near to it; -- also called blackjack, or twenty-one. There are several variations (such as Caribbean blackjack). In the most common variation played in casinos, there is one dealer who plays for the house, and up to seven players. The players and dealer each receive two cards, the dealer's cards usually being one face up and one face down. The players each in turn decide whether they will request additional cards (“hit”), the objective being to reach a sum of card values as close as possible to twenty-one, without exceeding that number. If, on hitting, the player's total card values exceed 21, he has “busted”, and lost his bet. Otherwise, the player wins only if his total card values exceed those of the dealer. “picture cards” (or “face cards”, being the jack, queen, and king) are counted as having a value of ten. The ace may count as one or eleven, at the player's option. Other than to hit, there are also other possible actions by the player, such as to “double down” (receive only one additional card, while doubling the initial bet), or to “split” (if the first two cards have the same value).
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Vingtun
Vingt`un" (?), n. Contraction for Vingt et un.
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Vinic
Vin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to wine; as, vinic alcohol.
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Viniculture
Vin"i*cul`ture (?), n. [L. vinum wine + cultura culture.] The cultivation of the vine, esp. for making wine; viticulture.
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Vinification
Vin`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. vinum wine + E. -fication.] The conversion of a fruit juice or other saccharine solution into alcohol by fermentation.
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Vinnewed
Vin"newed (?), a. [See Fenowed.] Moldy; musty. [Written also vinewed.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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-- Vin"newed*ness, n. [Obs.]
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Many of Chaucer's words are become, as it were, vinnewed and hoary with over-long lying. F. Beaumont.
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Vinny
Vin"ny (?), a. Vinnewed. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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Vinolency
Vin"o*len*cy (?), n. [L. vinolentina. See Vinolent.] Drunkennes. [Obs.]
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Vinolent
Vin"o*lent (?), a. [L. vinolentus, fr. vinum wine.] Given to wine; drunken; intemperate. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Vinometer
Vin*om"e*ter (?), n. [L. vinum vine + -meter.] An instrument for determining the strength or purity of wine by measuring its density.
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Vin ordinaire
Vin` or`di`naire" (?). [F., lit., common wine.] A cheap claret, used as a table wine in France.
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Vinose
Vi*nose" (?), a. Vinous.
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Vinosity
Vi*nos"i*ty (?), n. [L. vinositas: cf. F. vinosité.] The quality or state of being vinous.
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Vinous
Vi"nous (?), a. [L. vinosus, fr. vinum wine: cf. F. vineux. See Wine.] Of or pertaining to wine; having the qualities of wine; as, a vinous taste.
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Vinquish
Vin"quish (?), n. (Far.) See Vanquish, n.
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Vintage
Vint"age (?; 48), n. [Corrupted by influence of vintner, vintry, from OE. vindage, vendage, for vendange, OF. vendenge, F. vendange, from L. vindemia; vinum wine, grapes + demere to take off; de + emere, originally, to take. See Wine, Redeem, and cf. Vindemial.] 1. The produce of the vine for one season, in grapes or in wine; as, the vintage is abundant; the vintage of 1840.
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2. The act or time of gathering the crop of grapes, or making the wine for a season.
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Vintage spring, a wine fount. -- Vintage time, the time of gathering grapes and making wine. Milton.
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Vintager
Vint"a*ger (?), n. [From Vintage: cf. F. vendangeur.] One who gathers the vintage.
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Vintaging
Vint"a*ging (?), n. The act of gathering the vintage, or crop of grapes.
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Vintner
Vint"ner (?), n. [OE. vintener, viniter, OF. vinetier, vinotier, LL. vinetarius, fr. L. vinetum a vineyard, fr. vinum wine. See Wine.] One who deals in wine; a wine seller, or wine merchant.
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Vintry
Vint"ry (?), n. [OE. viniterie, from OF. vinotier, vinetier, wine merchant. See Vintner.] A place where wine is sold. [Obs.] Ainsworth.
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Vinum
Vi"num (?), n.; pl. Vina (#). [L. See Wine.] Wine, -- chiefly used in Pharmacy in the name of solutions of some medicinal substance in wine; as: vina medicata, medicated wines; vinum opii, wine of opium.
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Viny
Vin"y (?), a. Of or pertaining to vines; producing, or abounding in, vines. P. Fletcher.
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Vinyl
Vi"nyl (?), n. [L. vinum wine + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical C2H3, regarded as the characteristic residue of ethylene and that related series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with which the allyl compounds are homologous.
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Viol
Vi"ol (?), n. [F. viole; cf. Pr. viola, viula, Sp., Pg., & It. viola, LL. vitula; of uncertain origin; perhaps from L. vitulari to celebrate a festival, keep holiday, be joyful, perhaps originally, to sacrifice a calf (vitulus; cf. Veal). Cf. Fiddle, Vielle, 2d Viola, Violin.]
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1. (Mus.) A stringed musical instrument formerly in use, of the same form as the violin, but larger, and having six strings, to be struck with a bow, and the neck furnished with frets for stopping the strings.
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Me softer airs befit, and softer strings
Of lute, or viol still, more apt for mournful things.
Milton.
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&hand_; The name is now applied as a general term to designate instruments of the violin kind, as tenor viol, bass viol, etc.
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2. (Naut.) A large rope sometimes used in weighing anchor. [Written also voyal, and voyal.] Totten.
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Viola
Vi"o*la (?), n. [L., a violet. See Violet.] (Bot.) A genus of polypetalous herbaceous plants, including all kinds of violets.
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Viola
Vi"o*la (?), n. [It. See Viol.] (Mus.) An instrument in form and use resembling the violin, but larger, and a fifth lower in compass.
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Viola da braccio [It., viol for the arm], the tenor viol, or viola, a fifth lower than the violin. Its part is written in the alto clef, hence it is sometimes called the alto. -- ‖Viola da gamba [It., viol for the leg], an instrument resembling the viola, but larger, and held between the knees. It is now rarely used. -- ‖Viola da spalla [It., viol for the shoulder], an instrument formerly used, resembling the viola, and intermediate in size between the viola and the viola da gamba. -- ‖Viola di amore [It., viol of love: cf. F. viole d'amour], a viol, larger than the viola, having catgut strings upon, and brass or steel wires under, the keyboard. These, sounding sympathetically with the strings, yield a peculiarly soft and silvery sound. It is now seldom used.
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Violable
Vi"o*la*ble (?), a. [L. violabilis: cf. F. violable. See Violate.] Capable of being violated, broken, or injured. -- Vi"o*la*bly, adv.
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Violaceous
Vi`o*la"ceous (?), a. [L. violaceus, fr. viola a violet.] 1. Resembling violets in color; bluish purple.
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2. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants, of which the violet is the type. It contains about twenty genera and two hundred and fifty species.
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Violaniline
Vi`o*lan"i*line (?), n. [Violet + aniline.] (Chem.) A dyestuff of the induline group, made from aniline, and used as a substitute for indigo in dyeing wool and silk a violet-blue or a gray-blue color.
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Violantin
Vi`o*lan"tin (?), n. [See Violuric.] (Chem.) A complex nitrogenous substance, produced as a yellow crystalline substance, and regarded as a complex derivative of barbituric acid.
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Violaquercitrin
Vi`o*la*quer"cit*rin (?), n. (Chem.) A yellow crystalline glucoside obtained from the pansy (Viola tricolor), and decomposing into glucose and quercitrin.
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Violascent
Vi`o*las"cent (?), a. Violescent. [R.]
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Violate
Vi"o*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Violates (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Violating.] [L. violatus, p. p. of violare to violate, fr. vis strength, force. See Violent.] 1. To treat in a violent manner; to abuse.
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His wife Boadicea violated with stripes, his daughters with rape. Milton.
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2. To do violence to, as to anything that should be held sacred or respected; to profane; to desecrate; to break forcibly; to trench upon; to infringe.
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Violated vows
'Twixt the souls of friend and friend.
Shak.
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Oft have they violated
The temple, oft the law, with foul affronts.
Milton.
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3. To disturb; to interrupt. “Employed, it seems, to violate sleep.” Milton.
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4. To commit rape on; to ravish; to outrage.
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Syn. -- To injure; disturb; interrupt; infringe; transgress; profane; deflour; debauch; dishonor.
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Violation
Vi`o*la"tion (?), n. [L. violatio: cf. F. violation.] The act of violating, treating with violence, or injuring; the state of being violated. Specifically: --
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(a) Infringement; transgression; nonobservance; as, the violation of law or positive command, of covenants, promises, etc. “The violation of my faith.” Shak.
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(b) An act of irreverence or desecration; profanation or contemptuous treatment of sacred things; as, the violation of a church. Udall.
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(c) Interruption, as of sleep or peace; disturbance.
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(d) Ravishment; rape; outrage. Shak.
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Violative
Vi"o*la*tive (?), a. Violating, or tending to violate.
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Violator
Vi"o*la`tor (?), n. [L.] One who violates; an infringer; a profaner; a ravisher.
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Viole
Vi"ole (?), n. A vial. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Violence
Vi"o*lence (?), n. [F., fr. L. violentia. See Violent.] 1. The quality or state of being violent; highly excited action, whether physical or moral; vehemence; impetuosity; force.
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That seal
You ask with such a violence, the king,
Mine and your master, with his own hand gave me.
Shak.
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All the elements
At least had gone to wrack, disturbed and torn
With the violence of this conflict.
Milton.
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2. Injury done to that which is entitled to respect, reverence, or observance; profanation; infringement; unjust force; outrage; assault.
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Do violence to do man. Luke iii. 14.
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We can not, without offering violence to all records, divine and human, deny an universal deluge. T. Burnet.
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Looking down, he saw
The whole earth filled with violence.
Milton.
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3. Ravishment; rape; constupration.
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To do violence on, to attack; to murder. “She . . . did violence on herself.” Shak. -- To do violence to, to outrage; to injure; as, he does violence to his own opinions.
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Syn. -- Vehemence; outrage; fierceness; eagerness; violation; infraction; infringement; transgression; oppression.
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Violence
Vi"o*lence, v. t. To assault; to injure; also, to bring by violence; to compel. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Violent
Vi"o*lent (?), a. [F., from L. violentus, from vis strength, force; probably akin to Gr. &unr_; a muscle, strength.] 1. Moving or acting with physical strength; urged or impelled with force; excited by strong feeling or passion; forcible; vehement; impetuous; fierce; furious; severe; as, a violent blow; the violent attack of a disease.
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Float upon a wild and violent sea. Shak.
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A violent cross wind from either coast. Milton.
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2. Acting, characterized, or produced by unjust or improper force; outrageous; unauthorized; as, a violent attack on the right of free speech.
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To bring forth more violent deeds. Milton.
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Some violent hands were laid on Humphrey's life. Shak.
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3. Produced or effected by force; not spontaneous; unnatural; abnormal.
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These violent delights have violent ends. Shak.
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No violent state can be perpetual. T. Burnet.
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Ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.
Milton.
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Violent presumption (Law), presumption of a fact that arises from proof of circumstances which necessarily attend such facts. -- Violent profits (Scots Law), rents or profits of an estate obtained by a tenant wrongfully holding over after warning. They are recoverable in a process of removing.
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Syn. -- Fierce; vehement; outrageous; boisterous; turbulent; impetuous; passionate; severe; extreme.
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Violent
Vi"o*lent, n. An assailant. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.
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Violent
Vi"o*lent, v. t. [Cf. F. violenter.] To urge with violence. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Violent
Vi"o*lent, v. i. To be violent; to act violently. [Obs.]
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The grief is fine, full, perfect, that I taste,
And violenteth in a sense as strong
As that which causeth it.
Shak.
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Violently
Vi"o*lent*ly, adv. In a violent manner.
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Violescent
Vi`o*les"cent (?), a. [L. viola a violet.] Tending to a violet color; violascent.
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Violet
Vi"o*let (?), n. [F. violette a violet (cf. violet violet-colored), dim. of OF. viole a violet, L. viola; akin to Gr. &unr_;. Cf. Iodine.] 1. (Bot.) Any plant or flower of the genus Viola, of many species. The violets are generally low, herbaceous plants, and the flowers of many of the species are blue, while others are white or yellow, or of several colors, as the pansy (Viola tricolor).
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&hand_; The cultivated sweet violet is Viola odorata of Europe. The common blue violet of the eastern United States is Viola cucullata; the sand, or bird-foot, violet is Viola pedata.
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2. The color of a violet, or that part of the spectrum farthest from red. It is the most refrangible part of the spectrum.
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3. In art, a color produced by a combination of red and blue in equal proportions; a bluish purple color. Mollett.
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4. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small violet-colored butterflies belonging to Lycaena, or Rusticus, and allied genera.
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Corn violet. See under Corn. -- Dame's violet. (Bot.) See Damewort. -- Dogtooth violet. (Bot.) See under Dogtooth. -- Water violet (Bot.), an aquatic European herb (Hottonia palustris) with pale purplish flowers and pinnatifid leaves.
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Violet
Vi"o*let (?), a. [Cf. F. violet. See Violet, n.] Dark blue, inclining to red; bluish purple; having a color produced by red and blue combined.
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Violet shell (Zool.), any species of Ianthina; -- called also violet snail. See Ianthina. -- Violet wood, a name given to several kinds of hard purplish or reddish woods, as king wood, myall wood, and the wood of the Andira violacea, a tree of Guiana.
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Violet-ear
Vi"o*let-ear`, n. Any tropical humming bird of the genus Petasophora, having violet or purplish ear tufts.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Violet-tip
Vi"o*let-tip" (?), n. (Zool.) A very handsome American butterfly (Polygonia interrogationis). Its wings are mottled with various shades of red and brown and have violet tips.
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Violin
Vi`o*lin" (?), n. [It. violino, dim. of viola. See Viol.] (Mus.) A small instrument with four strings, played with a bow; a fiddle.
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&hand_; The violin is distinguished for the brilliancy and gayety, as well as the power and variety, of its tones, and in the orchestra it is the leading and most important instrument.
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Violine
Vi"o*line (?), n. (Chem.) (a) A pale yellow amorphous substance of alkaloidal nature and emetic properties, said to have been extracted from the root and foliage of the violet (Viola). (b) Mauve aniline. See under Mauve.
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Violinist
Vi`o*lin"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. violiniste, violoniste, It. violonista.] A player on the violin.
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Violist
Vi"ol*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. violiste.] A player on the viol.
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Violoncellist
Vi`o*lon*cel"list (?), n. [Cf. F. violoncelliste, It. violoncellista.] A player on the violoncello.
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Violoncello
Vi`o*lon*cel"lo (?; 277), n. [It. violoncello, dim. of violone a bass viol. See Violone.] (Mus.) A stringed instrument of music; a bass viol of four strings, or a bass violin with long, large strings, giving sounds an octave lower than the viola, or tenor or alto violin.
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Violone
Vi`o*lo"ne (?), n. [It. violone, augment. of viola a viol. See Viol.] (Mus.) The largest instrument of the bass-viol kind, having strings tuned an octave below those of the violoncello; the contrabasso; -- called also double bass. [Written also violono.]
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Violous
Vi"o*lous (?), a. Violent. [Obs.] J. Fletcher.
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Violuric
Vi`o*lu"ric (?), a. [Violet + barbituric.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a complex nitroso derivative of barbituric acid. It is obtained as a white or yellow crystalline substance, and forms characteristic yellow, blue, and violet salts.
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VIOXX
VI`OXX (vī"&obreve_;ks), prop. n. [Trade name, used by Merck & Co.] (Chem. & Med.) A trade name for rofecoxib. [Trade name]
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viper
vi"per (vī"p&etilde_;r), n. [F. vipère, L. vipera, probably contr. fr. vivipera; vivus alive + parere to bring forth, because it was believed to be the only serpent that brings forth living young. Cf. Quick, a., Parent, Viviparous, Wivern, Weever.]
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1. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of Old World venomous snakes belonging to Vipera, Clotho, Daboia, and other genera of the family Viperidae.
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There came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand. Acts xxviii. 3.
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&hand_; Among the best-known species are the European adder (Pelias berus), the European asp (Vipera aspis), the African horned viper (Vipera cerastes), and the Indian viper (Daboia Russellii).
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2. A dangerous, treacherous, or malignant person.
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Who committed
To such a viper his most sacred trust
Of secrecy.
Milton.
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3. Loosely, any venomous or presumed venomous snake.
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Horned viper. (Zool.) See Cerastes. -- Red viper (Zool.), the copperhead. -- Viper fish (Zool.), a small, slender, phosphorescent deep-sea fish (Chauliodus Sloanii). It has long ventral and dorsal fins, a large mouth, and very long, sharp teeth. -- Viper's bugloss (Bot.), a rough-leaved biennial herb (Echium vulgare) having showy purplish blue flowers. It is sometimes cultivated, but has become a pestilent weed in fields from New York to Virginia. Also called blue weed. -- Viper's grass (Bot.), a perennial composite herb (Scorzonera Hispanica) with narrow, entire leaves, and solitary heads of yellow flowers. The long, white, carrot-shaped roots are used for food in Spain and some other countries. Called also viper grass.
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Viperina
Vi`per*i"na (?), n. pl. (Zool.) See Viperoidea.
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Viperine
Vi"per*ine (?; 277), a. [L. viperinus: cf. F. vipérin.] Of or pertaining to a viper or vipers; resembling a viper.
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Viperine snake. (Zool.) (a) Any venomous snake of the family Viperidae. (b) A harmless snake resembling a viper in form or color, esp. Tropidonotus viperinus, a small European species which resembles the viper in color.
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Viperish
Vi"per*ish, a. Somewhat like a viper; viperous.
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Viperoid
Vi"per*oid (?), a. [Viper + -oid.] (Zool.) Like or pertaining to the vipers.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Viperoides
Viperoidea
{ ‖Vi`per*oi"de*a (?), Vi`per*oi"des (?), } n. pl. [NL. See Viper, and -oid.] (Zool.) A division of serpents which includes the true vipers of the Old World and the rattlesnakes and moccasin snakes of America; -- called also Viperina.
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Viperous
Vi"per*ous (?), a. Having the qualities of a viper; malignant; venomous; as, a viperous tongue. “This viperous slander.” Shak. -- Vi"per*ous*ly, adv.
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Viraginian
Vi`ra*gin"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to a virago; having the qualities of a virago. Milton.
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Viraginity
Vi`ra*gin"i*ty (?), n. The qualities or characteristics of a virago.
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Virago
Vi*ra"go (?; 277), n.; pl. Viragoes (#). [L. virago, -intis, from vir a man. See Virile.] 1. A woman of extraordinary stature, strength, and courage; a woman who has the robust body and masculine mind of a man; a female warrior.
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To arms! to arms! the fierce virago cries. Pope.
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2. Hence, a mannish woman; a bold, turbulent woman; a termagant; a vixen.
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Virago . . . serpent under femininity. Chaucer.
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Vire
Vire (?), n. [OF. vire, fr. virer to turn. Cf. Veer, Vireton.] An arrow, having a rotary motion, formerly used with the crossbow. Cf. Vireton. Gower.
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Virelay
Vir"e*lay (?), n. [F. virelai; virer to turn + lai a song, a lay.] An ancient French song, or short poem, wholly in two rhymes, and composed in short lines, with a refrain.
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Of such matter made he many lays,
Songs, complains, roundels, virelayes.
Chaucer.
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To which a lady sung a virelay. Dryden.
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&hand_; “The virelay admitted only two rhymes, and, after employing one for some time, the poet was virer, or to turn, to the other.” Nares.
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Virent
Vi"rent (?), a. [L. virens, p. pr. of virere to be green.] Green; not withered. [R.] Sir T. Browne.
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Vireo
Vir"e*o (?), n. [L., a species of bird.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of American singing birds belonging to Vireo and allied genera of the family Vireonidae. In many of the species the back is greenish, or olive-colored. Called also greenlet.
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&hand_; In the Eastern United States the most common species are the white-eyed vireo (Vireo Noveboracensis), the red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), the blue-headed, or solitary, vireo (Vireo solitarius), the warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus), and the yellow-throated vireo (Vireo flavifrons). All these are noted for the sweetness of their songs.
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Virescence
Vi*res"cence (?), (Bot.) The act or state of becoming green through the formation of chlorophyll.
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Virescent
Vi*res"cent (?), a. [L. virescens, p. pr. of virescere to grow green, verb incho. fr. virere to be green.] Beginning to be green; slightly green; greenish.
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Vireton
Vir"e*ton (?), n. [F. See Vire.] An arrow or bolt for a crossbow having feathers or brass placed at an angle with the shaft to make it spin in flying.
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Virgalieu
Vir"ga*lieu (?), n. [Cf. Virgouleuse.] (Bot.) A valuable kind of pear, of an obovate shape and with melting flesh of delicious flavor; -- more properly called White Doyenné. [Written also virgaloo, vergalieu, vergaloo, etc.]
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Virgate
Vir"gate (?), a. [L. virgatus made of twigs, fr. virga a twig, rod. See Verge a rod.] (Bot.) Having the form of a straight rod; wand-shaped; straight and slender.
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Virgate
Vir"gate, n. [LL. virgata, virgata terrae, so much land as virga terrae, a land measure, contains, fr. L. virga a twig, rod.] A yardland, or measure of land varying from fifteen to forty acres. [Obs.] T. Warton.
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Virgated
Vir"ga*ted (?), a. [L. virgatus striped. See Virgate, a.] Striped; streaked. [Obs.]
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Virge
Virge (?), n. A wand. See Verge. [Obs.]
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Virger
Vir"ger (?), n. See Verger. [Obs.]
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Virgilian
Vir*gil"i*an (?), a. [L. Virgilianus, better Vergilianus.] Of or pertaining to Virgil, the Roman poet; resembling the style of Virgil. [Spelt also Vergilian.]
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The rich Virgilian rustic measure
Of Lari Maxume.
Tennyson.
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Virgin
Vir"gin (?), n. [L. virgo, -inis: cf. OF. virgine, virgene, virge, vierge, F. vierge.] 1. A woman who has had no carnal knowledge of man; a maid.
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2. A person of the male sex who has not known sexual indulgence. [Archaic] Wyclif.
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These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. Rev. xiv. 4.
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He his flesh hath overcome;
He was a virgin, as he said.
Gower.
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3. (Astron.) See Virgo.
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4. (Zool.) Any one of several species of gossamer-winged butterflies of the family Lycaenidae.
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5. (Zool.) A female insect producing eggs from which young are hatched, though there has been no fecundation by a male; a parthenogenetic insect.
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The Virgin, or The Blessed Virgin, the Virgin Mary, the Mother of Jesus Christ. -- Virgin's bower (Bot.), a name given to several climbing plants of the genus Clematis, as Clematis Vitalba of Europe, and Clematis Virginiana of North America.
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Virgin
Vir"gin (?), a. 1. Being a virgin; chaste; of or pertaining to a virgin; becoming a virgin; maidenly; modest; indicating modesty; as, a virgin blush.Virgin shame.” Cowley.
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Innocence and virgin modesty . . .
That would be wooed, and unsought be won.
Milton.
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2. Pure; undefiled; unmixed; fresh; new; as, virgin soil; virgin gold.Virgin Dutch.” G. W. Cable.
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The white cold virgin snow upon my heart. Shak.
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A few ounces of mutton, with a little virgin oil. Landor.
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3. Not yet pregnant; impregnant. Milton.
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Virgin
Vir"gin, v. i. To act the virgin; to be or keep chaste; -- followed by it. See It, 5. [Obs.] “My true lip hath virgined it e'er since [that kiss].” Shak.
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Virginal
Vir"gin*al (?), a. [L. virginalis: cf. F. virginal.] Of or pertaining to a virgin; becoming a virgin; maidenly. “Chastity and honor virginal.” Spenser.
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Virginal generation (Biol.), parthenogenesis. -- Virginal membrane (Anat.), the hymen.
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Virginal
Vir"gin*al, n. [Cf. F. virginale; -- probably so called from being used by young girls, or virgins.] (Mus.) An instrument somewhat resembling the spinet, but having a rectangular form, like the small piano. It had strings and keys, but only one wire to a note. The instrument was used in the sixteenth century, but is now wholly obsolete. It was sometimes called a pair of virginals.
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Virginal
Vir"gin*al, v. i. To play with the fingers, as if on a virginal; to tap or pat. [Obs.] “Still virginaling upon his palm!” Shak.
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Virginhood
Vir"gin*hood (?), n. Virginity; maidenhood.
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Virginia
Vir*gin"i*a (?), n. One of the States of the United States of America. -- a. Of or pertaining to the State of Virginia.
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Virginia cowslip (Bot.), the American lungwort (Mertensia Virginica). -- Virginia creeper (Bot.), a common ornamental North American woody vine (Ampelopsis quinquefolia), climbing extensively by means of tendrils; -- called also woodbine, and American ivy. [U. S.] -- Virginia fence. See Worm fence, under Fence. -- Virginia nightingale (Zool.), the cardinal bird. See under Cardinal. -- Virginia quail (Zool.), the bobwhite. -- Virginia reel, an old English contradance; -- so called in the United States. Bartlett. -- Virginia stock. (Bot.) See Mahon stock.
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Virginity
Vir*gin"i*ty (?), n. [OE. virgintee, F. virginité, L. virginitas.] 1. The quality or state of being a virgin; undefiled purity or chastity; maidenhood.
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2. The unmarried life; celibacy. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Virgo
Vir"go (?), n. [L. virgo a virgin, the constellation Virgo in the zodiac. See Virgin.] (Astron.) (a) A sign of the zodiac which the sun enters about the 21st of August, marked thus [&virgo_;] in almanacs. (b) A constellation of the zodiac, now occupying chiefly the sign Libra, and containing the bright star Spica.
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Virgouleuse
Vir"gou*leuse (?), n. [F. virgouleuse, from the village of Virgoulée, near Limoges.] (Bot.) An old French variety of pear, of little value.
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Virgularian
Vir`gu*la"ri*an (?), n. [From. L. virgula a small rod.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of long, slender Alcyonaria belonging to Virgularia and allied genera of the family Virgularidae. These corals are allied to the sea-pens, but have a long rodlike rhachis inclosing a slender, round or square, calcareous axis. The polyps are arranged in transverse rows or clusters along each side of the rhachis.
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Virgulate
Vir"gu*late (?), a. Shaped like a little twig or rod.
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Virgule
Vir"gule (?), n. [F. virgule, fr. L. virgula, dim. of virga. See Verge a rod.] A comma. [R.]
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In the MSS. of Chaucer, the line is always broken by a caesura in the middle, which is pointed by a virgule. Hallam.
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Virial
Vir"i*al (?), n. [L. vis, viris, force.] (Physics) A certain function relating to a system of forces and their points of application, -- first used by Clausius in the investigation of problems in molecular physics.
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Virid
Vir"id (?), a. [L. viridis green. See Verdant.] Green. [Obs.]
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The virid marjoram
Her sparkling beauty did but see.
Crompton.
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Viridescence
Vir`i*des"cence (?), n. Quality or state of being viridescent.
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Viridescent
Vir`i*des"cent (?), a. [L. viridescens, p. pr. of viridescere to grow green.] Slightly green; greenish.
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Viridine
Vir"i*dine (?), n. [L. viridis green.] (Chem.) A greenish, oily, nitrogenous hydrocarbon, C12H19N7, obtained from coal tar, and probably consisting of a mixture of several metameric compounds which are higher derivatives of the base pyridine.
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Viridite
Vir"i*dite (?), n. [L. viridis green.] (Min.) A greenish chloritic mineral common in certain igneous rocks, as diabase, as a result of alternation.
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Viridity
Vi*rid"i*ty (?), n. [L. viriditas, fr. viridis green: cf. F. viridité. See Verdant.] 1. Greenness; verdure; the color of grass and foliage.
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2. Freshness; soundness. [Obs.] Evelyn.
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Viridness
Vir"id*ness (?), n. Viridity; greenness.
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Virile
Vi"rile (?; 277), a. [L. virilis, fr. vir a man; akin to AS. wer: cf. F. viril. See Werewolf, World, and cf. Decemvir, Virago, Virtue.] Having the nature, properties, or qualities, of an adult man; characteristic of developed manhood; hence, masterful; forceful; specifically, capable of begetting; -- opposed to womanly, feminine, and puerile; as, virile age, virile power, virile organs.
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Virility
Vi*ril"i*ty (?), n. [L. virilitas: cf. F. virilité.] The quality or state of being virile; developed manhood; manliness; specif., the power of procreation; as, exhaustion.Virility of visage.” Holland.
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Viripotent
Vi*rip"o*tent (?), a. [L. vir man + potens fit for.] Developed in manhood; hence, able to beget; marriageable. [Obs.]
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Being not of ripe years, not viripotent. Holinshed.
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Virmilion
Vir*mil"ion (?), n. See Vermilion. [R.]
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Virole
Vi*role" (?), n. [F., a ferrule. See Ferrule.] (Her.) A ring surrounding a bugle or hunting horn.
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Viroled
Vi*roled" (?), a. (Her.) Furnished with a virole or viroles; -- said of a horn or a bugle when the rings are of different tincture from the rest of the horn.
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Virose
Vi*rose" (?), a. [L. virosus. See Virus.] Having a nauseous odor; fetid; poisonous. [R.]
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Virtu
Vir*tu" (?; 277), n. [It. virtù virtue, excellence, from L. virtus. See Virtue.] A love of the fine arts; a taste for curiosities. J. Spence.
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An article of virtu, or a piece of virtu, , an object of art or antiquity; a curiosity, such as those found in museums or private collections.
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I had thoughts, in my chambers to place it in view,
To be shown to my friends as a piece of virtù.
Goldsmith.
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Virtual
Vir"tu*al (?; 135), a. [Cf. F. virtuel. See Virtue.] 1. Having the power of acting or of invisible efficacy without the agency of the material or sensible part; potential; energizing.
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Heat and cold have a virtual transition, without communication of substance. Bacon.
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Every kind that lives,
Fomented by his virtual power, and warmed.
Milton.
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2. Being in essence or effect, not in fact; as, the virtual presence of a man in his agent or substitute.
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A thing has a virtual existence when it has all the conditions necessary to its actual existence. Fleming.
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To mask by slight differences in the manners a virtual identity in the substance. De Quincey.
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Principle of virtual velocities (Mech.), the law that when several forces are in equilibrium, the algebraic sum of their virtual moments is equal to zero. -- Virtual focus (Opt.), the point from which rays, having been rendered divergent by reflection of refraction, appear to issue; the point at which converging rays would meet if not reflected or refracted before they reach it. -- Virtual image. (Optics) See under Image. -- Virtual moment (of a force) (Mech.), the product of the intensity of the force multiplied by the virtual velocity of its point of application; -- sometimes called virtual work. -- Virtual velocity (Mech.), a minute hypothetical displacement, assumed in analysis to facilitate the investigation of statical problems. With respect to any given force of a number of forces holding a material system in equilibrium, it is the projection, upon the direction of the force, of a line joining its point of application with a new position of that point indefinitely near to the first, to which the point is conceived to have been moved, without disturbing the equilibrium of the system, or the connections of its parts with each other. Strictly speaking, it is not a velocity but a length. -- Virtual work. (Mech.) See Virtual moment, above.
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Virtuality
Vir`tu*al"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. virtualité.] 1. The quality or state of being virtual.
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2. Potentiality; efficacy; potential existence. [Obs.]
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In one grain of corn, there lieth dormant a virtuality of many other. Sir T. Browne.
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Virtually
Vir"tu*al*ly (?), adv. In a virtual manner; in efficacy or effect only, and not actually; to all intents and purposes; practically.
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Virtuate
Vir"tu*ate (?), v. t. To make efficacious; to give virtue of efficacy. [Obs.] Harvey.
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Virtue
Vir"tue (?; 135), n. [OE. vertu, F. vertu, L. virtus strength, courage, excellence, virtue, fr. vir a man. See Virile, and cf. Virtu.] 1. Manly strength or courage; bravery; daring; spirit; valor. [Obs.] Shak.
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Built too strong
For force or virtue ever to expugn.
Chapman.
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2. Active quality or power; capacity or power adequate to the production of a given effect; energy; strength; potency; efficacy; as, the virtue of a medicine.
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Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about. Mark v. 30.
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A man was driven to depend for his security against misunderstanding, upon the pure virtue of his syntax. De Quincey.
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The virtue of his midnight agony. Keble.
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3. Energy or influence operating without contact of the material or sensible substance.
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She moves the body which she doth possess,
Yet no part toucheth, but by virtue's touch.
Sir. J. Davies.
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4. Excellence; value; merit; meritoriousness; worth.
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I made virtue of necessity. Chaucer.
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In the Greek poets, . . . the economy of poems is better observed than in Terence, who thought the sole grace and virtue of their fable the sticking in of sentences. B. Jonson.
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5. Specifically, moral excellence; integrity of character; purity of soul; performance of duty.
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Virtue only makes our bliss below. Pope.
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If there's Power above us,
And that there is all nature cries aloud
Through all her works, he must delight in virtue.
Addison.
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6. A particular moral excellence; as, the virtue of temperance, of charity, etc. “The very virtue of compassion.” Shak. “Remember all his virtues.” Addison.
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7. Specifically: Chastity; purity; especially, the chastity of women; virginity.
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H. I believe the girl has virtue.
M. And if she has, I should be the last man in the world to attempt to corrupt it.
Goldsmith.
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8. pl. One of the orders of the celestial hierarchy.
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Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers. Milton.
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Cardinal virtues. See under Cardinal, a. -- In virtue of, or By virtue of, through the force of; by authority of. “He used to travel through Greece by virtue of this fable, which procured him reception in all the towns.” Addison. “This they shall attain, partly in virtue of the promise made by God, and partly in virtue of piety.” Atterbury. -- Theological virtues, the three virtues, faith, hope, and charity. See 1 Cor. xiii. 13.
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Virtueless
Vir"tue*less (?), a. Destitute of virtue; without efficacy or operating qualities; powerless.
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Virtueless she wished all herbs and charms. Fairfax.
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Virtuosity
Vir`tu*os"i*ty (?), n. 1. The quality or state of being a virtuoso; in a bad sense, the character of one in whom mere artistic feeling or aesthetic cultivation takes the place of religious character; sentimentalism.
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This famous passage . . . over which the virtuosity of modern times, rejoicing in evil, has hung so fondly. C. Kingsley.
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2. Virtuosos, collectively. Carlyle.
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3. An art or study affected by virtuosos.
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Virtuoso
Vir`tu*o"so (?), n.; pl. Virtuosos (#); It. Virtuosi (#). [It. See Virtuous.] 1. One devoted to virtu; one skilled in the fine arts, in antiquities, and the like; a collector or ardent admirer of curiosities, etc.
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Virtuoso the Italians call a man who loves the noble arts, and is a critic in them. Dryden.
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2. (Mus.) A performer on some instrument, as the violin or the piano, who excels in the technical part of his art; a brilliant concert player.
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Virtuosoship
Vir`tu*o"so*ship, n. The condition, pursuits, or occupation of a virtuoso. Bp. Hurd.
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Virtuous
Vir"tu*ous (?; 135), a. [OE. vertuous, OF. vertuos, vertuous, F. vertueux, fr. L. Virtuous. See Virtue, and cf. Virtuoso.] 1. Possessing or exhibiting virtue. Specifically: --
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(a) Exhibiting manly courage and strength; valorous; valiant; brave. [Obs.]
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Old Priam's son, amongst them all, was chiefly virtuous. Chapman.
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(b) Having power or efficacy; powerfully operative; efficacious; potent. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Lifting up his virtuous staff on high,
He smote the sea, which calméd was with speed.
Spenser.
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Every virtuous plant and healing herb. Milton.
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(c) Having moral excellence; characterized by morality; upright; righteous; pure; as, a virtuous action.
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The virtuous mind that ever walks attended
By a strong siding champion, conscience.
Milton.
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2. Chaste; pure; -- applied especially to women.
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Mistress Ford . . . the virtuous creature, that hath the jealous fool to her husband. Shak.
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-- Vir"tu*ous*ly, adv. -- Vir"tu*ous*ness, n.
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Virulency
Virulence
{ Vir"u*lence (?), Vir"u*len*cy (?), } n. [Cf. F. virulence, L. virulentia an offensive odor, a stench.] 1. The quality or state of being virulent or venomous; poisonousness; malignancy.
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2. Extreme bitterness or malignity of disposition. “Refuted without satirical virulency.” Barrow.
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The virulence of one declaimer, or the profundities and sublimities of the other. I. Taylor.
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Virulent
Vir"u*lent (?), a. [L. virulentus, fr. virus poison: cf. F. virulent. See Virus.] 1. Extremely poisonous or venomous; very active in doing injury.
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A contagious disorder rendered more virulent by uncleanness. Sir W. Scott.
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2. Very bitter in enmity; actuated by a desire to injure; malignant; as, a virulent invective.
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Virulented
Vir"u*lent*ed, a. Made virulent; poisoned. [Obs.]
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Virulently
Vir"u*lent*ly, adv. In a virulent manner.
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Virus
Vi"rus (?), n. [L., a slimy liquid, a poisonous liquid, poison, stench; akin to Gr. &unr_; poison, Skr. visha. Cf. Wizen, v. i.] 1. (Med.) Contagious or poisonous matter, as of specific ulcers, the bite of snakes, etc.; -- applied to organic poisons. [Archaic]
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2. the causative agent of a disease, . [obsolescent]
[PJC]

3. any of numerous submicroscopic complex organic objects which have genetic material and may be considered as living organisms but have no proper cell membrane, and thus cannot by themselves perform metabolic processes, requiring entry into a host cell in order to multiply. The simplest viruses have no lipid envelope and may be considered as complex aggregates of molecules, sometimes only a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a coat protein. They are sometimes viewed as being on the borderline between living and nonliving objects. They are smaller than living cells in size, usually between 20 and 300 nm; thus they pass through standard filters, and were previously referred to as filterable virus. The manifestations of disease caused by multiplication of viruses in cells may be due to destruction of the cells caused by subversion of the cellular metabolic processes by the virus, or by synthesis of a virus-specific toxin. Viruses may infect animals, plants, or microorganisms; those infecting bacteria are also called bacteriophages. Certain bacteriophages may be non-destructive and benign in the host; -- see bacteriophage.
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4. Fig.: Any morbid corrupting quality in intellectual or moral conditions; something that poisons the mind or the soul; as, the virus of obscene books.
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5. (Computers) a program or segment of program code that may make copies of itself (replicate), attach itself to other programs, and perform unwanted actions within a computer; also called computer virus or virus program. Such programs are almost always introduced into a computer without the knowledge or assent of its owner, and are often malicious, causing destructive actions such as erasing data on disk, but sometime only annoying, causing peculiar objects to appear on the display. The form of sociopathic mental disease that causes a programmer to write such a program has not yet been given a name. Compare trojan horse{3}.
[PJC]

Vis
Vis (?), n. 1. Force; power.
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2. (Law) (a) Physical force. (b) Moral power.
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Principle of vis viva (Mech.), the principle that the difference between the aggregate work of the accelerating forces of a system and that of the retarding forces is equal to one half the vis viva accumulated or lost in the system while the work is being done. -- Vis impressa [L.] (Mech.), force exerted, as in moving a body, or changing the direction of its motion; impressed force. -- Vis inertiae. [L.] (a) The resistance of matter, as when a body at rest is set in motion, or a body in motion is brought to rest, or has its motion changed, either in direction or in velocity. (b) Inertness; inactivity. Vis intertiae and inertia are not strictly synonymous. The former implies the resistance itself which is given, while the latter implies merely the property by which it is given. -- Vis mortua [L.] (Mech.), dead force; force doing no active work, but only producing pressure. -- Vis vitae, or Vis vitalis [L.] (Physiol.), vital force. -- Vis viva [L.] (Mech.), living force; the force of a body moving against resistance, or doing work, in distinction from vis mortua, or dead force; the kinetic energy of a moving body; the capacity of a moving body to do work by reason of its being in motion. See Kinetic energy, in the Note under Energy. The term vis viva is not usually understood to include that part of the kinetic energy of the body which is due to the vibrations of its molecules.
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Visa
Vi"sa (?), n. [F.] A written stamp or document obtained by a citizen of one country from the proper authorities of another country, denoting that that person's passport has been examined, and that the person who bears the visa is permitted to enter or pass through the second country. It is usually in the form of an endorsement on the passport of the person seeking permission to enter a foreign country; however, in some cases a separate document is issued that does not create a mark in the passport. Same as Visé.
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Visa
Visa card
Vi"sa (vē"z&adot_;), Vi"sa card` (vē"z&adot_; kärd`), prop. n. A credit card issued with the Trade Name “Visa” on it; as, he charged the dinner to his Visa. Visa is a competitor of Master Card, Discover, MBNA, and American Express, and other credit card companies.
[PJC]

Visa
Vi"sa, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Visaed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Visaing.] To indorse, after examination, with the word visé, as a passport; to visé.
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Visage
Vis"age (?; 48), n. [F. visage, from L. visus a seeing, a look, fr. videre, visum, to see. See Vision.] The face, countenance, or look of a person or an animal; -- chiefly applied to the human face. Chaucer. “A visage of demand.” Shak.
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His visage was so marred more than any man. Isa. lii. 14.
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Love and beauty still that visage grace. Waller.
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Visage
Vis"age (?; 48), v. t. To face. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Visaged
Vis"aged (?), a. Having a visage. Shak.
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Visard
Vis"ard (?), n. A mask. See Visor.
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Visard
Vis"ard, v. t. To mask.
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Vis-a-vis
Vis`-a-vis" (?), n. [F., opposite, face to face.] 1. One who, or that which, is face to face with another; esp., one who faces another in dancing.
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2. A carriage in which two persons sit face to face. Also, a form of sofa with seats for two persons, so arranged that the occupants are face to face while sitting on opposite sides.
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Vis-a-vis
Vis`-a-vis", adv. Face to face.
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Visayan
Vi*sa"yan (?), n. [Cf. Sp. Bisayo a Visayan.] A member of the most numerous of the native races of the Philippines, occupying the Visayan Islands and the northern coast Mindanao; also, their language. The Visayans possessed a native culture and alphabet.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Viscacha
Viz-cacha
Vis*ca"cha (?), ‖Viz-ca"cha (&unr_;), n. [Sp.] (Zool.) A large burrowing South American rodent (Lagostomus trichodactylus) allied to the chinchillas, but much larger. Its fur is soft and rather long, mottled gray above, white or yellowish white beneath. There is a white band across the muzzle, and a dark band on each cheek. It inhabits grassy plains, and is noted for its extensive burrows and for heaping up miscellaneous articles at the mouth of its burrows. Called also biscacha, bizcacha, vischacha, vishatscha.
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Viscera
Vis"ce*ra (?), n., pl. of Viscus.
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Visceral
Vis"cer*al (?), a. [Cf. F. viscéral, LL. visceralis.] 1. (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or affecting the viscera; splanchnic.
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2. Fig.: Having deep sensibility. [R.] Bp. Reynolds.
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3. proceeding from emotion or instinct rather than from intellect; deeply emotional; -- as, a visceral reaction.
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4. dealing with coarse or base emotions; -- as, a visceral literary style. [RHUD]
[PJC]

Visceral arches (Anat.), the bars or ridges between the visceral clefts. -- Visceral cavity or Visceral tube (Anat.), the ventral cavity of a vertebrate, which contains the alimentary canal, as distinguished from the dorsal, or cerebro-spinal, canal. -- Visceral clefts (Anat.), transverse clefts on the sides just back of the mouth in the vertebrate embryo, which open into the pharyngeal portion of the alimentary canal, and correspond to the branchial clefts in adult fishes.
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Viscerate
Vis"cer*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Viscerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Viscerating.] To deprive of the viscera, or entrails; to eviscerate; to disembowel.
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Visceroskeletal
Vis`cer*o*skel"e*tal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the framework, or skeleton, or skeleton, of the viscera; as, the visceroskeletal system of muscles. Mivart.
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Viscid
Vis"cid (?), a. [L. viscidus, fr. viscum the mistletoe, birdlime made from the berries of the mistletoe; akin to Gr. &unr_;: cf. F. viscide.] Sticking or adhering, and having a ropy or glutinous consistency; viscous; glutinous; sticky; tenacious; clammy; as, turpentine, tar, gums, etc., are more or less viscid.
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Viscidity
Vis*cid"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. viscidité.] The quality or state of being viscid; also, that which is viscid; glutinous concretion; stickiness.
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Viscin
Vis"cin (?), n. (Chem.) A clear, viscous, tasteless substance extracted from the mucilaginous sap of the mistletoe (Viscum album), holly, etc., and constituting an essential ingredient of birdlime.
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Viscoidal
Vis*coid"al (?), a. Somewhat viscous. Cf. Mobile, a., 2.
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Viscosimeter
Vis`co*sim"e*ter (?), n. [Viscosity + -meter.] An instrument for measuring the degree of viscosity of liquids, as solutions of gum.
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Viscosity
Vis*cos"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. viscosité, LL. viscositas.] 1. The quality or state of being viscous.
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2. (Physics) A property possessed by a viscous fluid, being a resistance to the forces causing a fluid to flow, caused by interactions between the molecules of the fluid and between the fluid and the walls of the conduit through which it moves; also, a measure of such a property.
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Viscount
Vis"count` (?), n. [OE. vicounte, OF. visconte, vescunte, F. vicomte, LL. vicecomes; L. vice (see Vice, a.) + comes a companion, LL., a count. See Count.] 1. (O. Eng. Law) An officer who formerly supplied the place of the count, or earl; the sheriff of the county.
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2. A nobleman of the fourth rank, next in order below an earl and next above a baron; also, his degree or title of nobility. See Peer, n., 3. [Eng.] Chaucer.
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Viscountcy
Vis"count`cy (?), n. The dignity or jurisdiction of a viscount. Sir B. Burke.
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Viscountess
Vis"count`ess (?), n. [F. vicomtesse, LL. vicecomitissa.] The wife of a viscount.
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Viscounty
Viscountship
{ Vis"count`ship, Vis"count`y (?), } n. [F. vicomté.] The quality, rank, or office of a viscount.
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Viscous
Vis"cous (?), a. [L. viscosus. See Viscid.] Adhesive or sticky, and having a ropy or glutinous consistency; viscid; glutinous; clammy; tenacious; as, a viscous juice. -- Vis"cous*ness, n.
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&hand_; There is no well-defined distinction in meaning between viscous and viscid.
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Viscum
Vis"cum (?), n. [L.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of parasitic shrubs, including the mistletoe of Europe.
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2. Birdlime, which is often made from the berries of the European mistletoe.
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Viscus
Vis"cus (?), n.; pl. Viscera (#). [L., perhaps akin to E. viscid.] (Anat.) One of the organs, as the brain, heart, or stomach, in the great cavities of the body of an animal; -- especially used in the plural, and applied to the organs contained in the abdomen.
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Vise
Vise (?), n. [F. vis a screw, winding stairs, OF. vis, viz, fr. L. vitis a vine; probably akin to E. withy.] An instrument consisting of two jaws, closing by a screw, lever, cam, or the like, for holding work, as in filing. [Written also vice.]
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Vise
Vi*sé" (?), n. [F. visé, p. p. of viser to put a visa to, fr. L. visus seen, p. p. of videre to see.] A document or an indorsement made on a passport by the proper authorities of certain countries, denoting that the passport has been examined, and that the person who bears it is permitted to proceed on her journey. Same as visa; -- an older spelling now used less frequently than visa.
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Vise
Vi*sé" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Viséed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Viséing.] To examine and indorse, as a passport; to visa.
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Vishnu
Vish"nu (v&ibreve_;sh"n&oomacr_;), n. [Skr. Vish&nsdot_;u, from vish to pervade., to extend through nature.] (Hindu Myth.) A divinity of the modern Hindu trimurti, or trinity. He is regarded as the preserver, while Brahma is the creator, and Siva the destroyer of the creation.
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Visibility
Vis`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. visibilitas: cf. F. visibilité.] The quality or state of being visible.
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Visible
Vis"i*ble (?), a. [L. visibilis, fr. videre, visum, to see: cf. F. visible. See Vision.] 1. Perceivable by the eye; capable of being seen; perceptible; in view; as, a visible star; the least spot is visible on white paper.
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Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. Bk. of Com. Prayer.
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Virtue made visible in outward grace. Young.
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2. Noticeable; apparent; open; conspicuous. Shak.
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The factions at court were greater, or more visible, than before. Clarendon.
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Visible church (Theol.), the apparent church of Christ on earth; the whole body of professed believers in Christ, as contradistinguished from the invisible, or real, church, consisting of sanctified persons. -- Visible horizon. Same as Apparent horizon, under Apparent.
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-- Vis"i*ble*ness, n. -- Vis"i*bly, adv.
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Visible speech
Vis"i*ble speech". (Phon.) A system of characters invented by Prof. Alexander Melville Bell to represent all sounds that may be uttered by the speech organs, and intended to be suggestive of the position of the organs of speech in uttering them.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Visigoth
Vis"i*goth (?), n. [L. Visegothae, pl. Cf. West, and Goth.] One of the West Goths. See the Note under Goth. -- Vis`i*goth"ic (#), a.
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Vision
Vi"sion (?), n. [OE. visioun, F. vision, fr. L. visio, from videre, visum, to see: akin to Gr. &unr_; to see, &unr_; I know, and E. wit. See Wit, v., and cf. Advice, Clairvoyant, Envy, Evident, Provide, Revise, Survey, View, Visage, Visit.] 1. The act of seeing external objects; actual sight.
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Faith here is turned into vision there. Hammond.
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2. (Physiol.) The faculty of seeing; sight; one of the five senses, by which colors and the physical qualities of external objects are appreciated as a result of the stimulating action of light on the sensitive retina, an expansion of the optic nerve.
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3. That which is seen; an object of sight. Shak.
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4. Especially, that which is seen otherwise than by the ordinary sight, or the rational eye; a supernatural, prophetic, or imaginary sight; an apparition; a phantom; a specter; as, the visions of Isaiah.
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The baseless fabric of this vision. Shak.
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No dreams, but visions strange. Sir P. Sidney.
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5. Hence, something unreal or imaginary; a creation of fancy. Locke.
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Arc of vision (Astron.), the arc which measures the least distance from the sun at which, when the sun is below the horizon, a star or planet emerging from his rays becomes visible. -- Beatific vision (Theol.), the immediate sight of God in heaven. -- Direct vision (Opt.), vision when the image of the object falls directly on the yellow spot (see under Yellow); also, vision by means of rays which are not deviated from their original direction. -- Field of vision, field of view. See under Field. -- Indirect vision (Opt.), vision when the rays of light from an object fall upon the peripheral parts of the retina. -- Reflected vision, or Refracted vision, vision by rays reflected from mirrors, or refracted by lenses or prisms, respectively. -- Vision purple. (Physiol.) See Visual purple, under Visual.
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Vision
Vi"sion, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Visioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Visioning.] To see in a vision; to dream.
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For them no visioned terrors daunt,
Their nights no fancied specters haunt.
Sir W. Scott.
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Visional
Vi"sion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a vision.
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Visionariness
Vi"sion*a*ri*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being visionary.
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Visionary
Vi"sion*a*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. visionnaire.] 1. Of or pertaining to a visions or visions; characterized by, appropriate to, or favorable for, visions.
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The visionary hour
When musing midnight reigns.
Thomson.
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2. Affected by phantoms; disposed to receive impressions on the imagination; given to reverie; apt to receive, and act upon, fancies as if they were realities.
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Or lull to rest the visionary maid. Pope.
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3. Existing in imagination only; not real; fanciful; imaginary; having no solid foundation; as, visionary prospect; a visionary scheme or project. Swift.
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Syn. -- Fanciful; fantastic; unreal. See Fanciful.
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Visionary
Vi"sion*a*ry, n.; pl. Visionaries (&unr_;). 1. One whose imagination is disturbed; one who sees visions or phantoms.
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2. One whose imagination overpowers his reason and controls his judgment; an unpractical schemer; one who builds castles in the air; a daydreamer.
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Visioned
Vi"sioned (?), a. Having the power of seeing visions; inspired; also, seen in visions. [R.] Shelley.
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Visionist
Vi"sion*ist (?), n. A visionary.
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Visionless
Vi"sion*less, a. Destitute of vision; sightless.
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Visit
Vis"it (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Visited; p. pr. & vb. n. Visiting.] [F. visiter, L. visitare, fr. visere to go to see, to visit, fr. videre, visum to see. See Vision.]
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1. To go or come to see, as for the purpose of friendship, business, curiosity, etc.; to attend; to call upon; as, the physician visits his patient.
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2. Specifically: To go or come to see for inspection, examination, correction of abuses, etc.; to examine, to inspect; as, a bishop visits his diocese; a superintendent visits persons or works under his charge.
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3. (Script.) To come to for the purpose of chastising, rewarding, comforting; to come upon with reward or retribution; to appear before or judge; as, to visit in mercy; to visit one in wrath.
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[God] hath visited and redeemed his people. Like i. 68.
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Visit
Vis"it (?), v. i. To make a visit or visits; to maintain visiting relations; to practice calling on others.
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Visit
Vis"it, n. [Cf. F. visite. See Visit, v. t., and cf. Visite.] 1. The act of visiting, or going to see a person or thing; a brief stay of business, friendship, ceremony, curiosity, or the like, usually longer than a call; as, a visit of civility or respect; a visit to Saratoga; the visit of a physician.
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2. The act of going to view or inspect; an official or formal inspection; examination; visitation; as, the visit of a trustee or inspector.
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Right of visit (Internat. Law), the right of visitation. See Visitation, 4.
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Visitable
Vis"it*a*ble (?), a. Liable or subject to be visited or inspected. “All hospitals built since the Reformation are visitable by the king or lord chancellor.” Ayliffe.
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Visitant
Vis"it*ant (?), n. [L. visitans, -antis; p. pr.: cf. F. visitant.] One who visits; a guest; a visitor.
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When the visitant comes again, he is no more a stranger. South.
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Visitant
Vis"it*ant, a. Visiting. Wordsworth.
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Visitation
Vis`it*a"tion (?), n. [L. visitatio: cf. F. visitation.] 1. The act of visiting, or the state of being visited; access for inspection or examination.
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Nothing but peace and gentle visitation. Shak.
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2. Specifically: The act of a superior or superintending officer who, in the discharge of his office, visits a corporation, college, etc., to examine into the manner in which it is conducted, and see that its laws and regulations are duly observed and executed; as, the visitation of a diocese by a bishop.
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3. The object of a visit. [Obs.] “O flowers, . . . my early visitation and my last.” Milton.
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4. (Internat. Law) The act of a naval commander who visits, or enters on board, a vessel belonging to another nation, for the purpose of ascertaining her character and object, but without claiming or exercising a right of searching the vessel. It is, however, usually coupled with the right of search (see under Search), visitation being used for the purpose of search.
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5. Special dispensation; communication of divine favor and goodness, or, more usually, of divine wrath and vengeance; retributive calamity; retribution; judgment.
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What will ye do in the day of visitation? Isa. x. 3.
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6. (Eccl.) A festival in honor of the visit of the Virgin Mary to Elisabeth, mother of John the Baptist, celebrated on the second of July.
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The Order of the Visitation of Our Lady (R. C. Ch.), a religious community of nuns, founded at Annecy, in Savoy, in 1610, and in 1808 established in the United States. In America these nuns are devoted to the education of girls.
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Visitatorial
Vis`it*a*to"ri*al (?), a. [Cf. LL. visitator a bishop temporarily put in place of another.] Of or pertaining to visitation, or a judicial visitor or superintendent; visitorial.
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An archdeacon has visitatorial power. Ayliffe.
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The queen, however, still had over the church a visitatorial power of vast and undefined extent. Macaulay.
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Visite
Vi*site" (?), n. [F. See Visit, n.] A light cape or short cloak of silk or lace worn by women in summer.
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Visiter
Vis"it*er (?), n. A visitor.
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Visiting
Vis"it*ing, a. & vb. n. from Visit.
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Visiting ant. (Zool.) See Driver ant, under Driver. -- Visiting book, a book in which a record of visits received, made, and to be made, is kept. Thackeray. -- Visiting card. See under Card.
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Visitor
Vis"it*or (?). [Cf. F. visiteur.] [Written also visiter.] 1. One who visits; one who comes or goes to see another, as in civility or friendship. “This great flood of visitors.” Shak.
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2. A superior, or a person lawfully appointed for the purpose, who makes formal visits of inspection to a corporation or an institution. See Visit, v. t., 2, and Visitation, n., 2.
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The king is the visitor of all lay corporations. Blackstone.
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Visitorial
Vis`it*o"ri*al (?), a. Same as Visitatorial.
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Visive
Vi"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. visif, LL. visivus. See Vision.] Of or pertaining to the sight; visual. [Obs.]
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I can not satisfy myself how men should be so little surprised about this visive faculty. Berkeley.
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Vis major
Vis ma"jor. [L. major greater.] (Law) A superior force which under certain circumstances is held to exempt from contract obligations; inevitable accident; -- a civil-law term used as nearly equivalent to, but broader than, the common-law term act of God (which see).
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Visne
Visne (?; 277), n. [OF. visné, veisiné, visnet, neighborhood, LL. vicinatus, fr. L. vicunus neighboring, a neighbor. See Vicinity.] (Law) Neighborhood; vicinity; venue. See Venue.
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Visnomy
Vis"no*my (?), n. [Contr. fr. physiognomy.] Face; countenance. [Colloq.] Spenser. Lamb.
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Vison
Vi"son (?), n. [F.] (Zool.) The mink.
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Visor
Vis"or (?), n. [OE. visere, F. visière, fr. OF. vis. See Visage, Vision.] [Written also visar, visard, vizard, and vizor.] 1. A part of a helmet, arranged so as to lift or open, and so show the face. The openings for seeing and breathing are generally in it.
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2. A mask used to disfigure or disguise. “My very visor began to assume life.” Shak.
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My weaker government since, makes you pull off the visor. Sir P. Sidney.
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3. The fore piece of a cap, projecting over, and protecting the eyes.
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Visored
Vis"ored (?), a. Wearing a visor; masked.
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Visored falsehood and base forgery. Milton.
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Vista
Vis"ta (?), n.; pl. Vistas (#). [It., sight, view, fr. vedere, p. p. visto, veduto, to see, fr. L. videre, visum. See View, Vision.] A view; especially, a view through or between intervening objects, as trees; a view or prospect through an avenue, or the like; hence, the trees or other objects that form the avenue.
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The finished garden to the view
Its vistas opens, and its alleys green.
Thomson.
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In the groves of their academy, at the end of every vista, you see nothing but the gallows. Burke.
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The shattered tower which now forms a vista from his window. Sir W. Scott.
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Visto
Vis"to (?), n. A vista; a prospect. [R.] Gay.
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Through the long visto of a thousand years. Young.
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Visual
Vis"u*al (?), a. [L. visualis, from visus a seeing, sight: cf. F. visuel. See Vision.] 1. Of or pertaining to sight; used in sight; serving as the instrument of seeing; as, the visual nerve.
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The air,
Nowhere so clear, sharpened his visual ray.
Milton.
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2. That can be seen; visible. [R.]
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Visual angle. (Opt.) See under Angle. -- Visual cone (Persp.), a cone whose vertex is at the point of sight, or the eye. -- Visual plane, any plane passing through the point of sight. -- Visual point, the point at which the visual rays unite; the position of the eye. -- Visual purple (Physiol.), a photochemical substance, of a purplish red color, contained in the retina of human eyes and in the eyes of most animals. It is quickly bleached by light, passing through the colors, red, orange, and yellow, and then disappearing. Also called rhodopsin, and vision purple. See Optography. -- Visual ray, a line from the eye, or point of sight. -- Visual white (Physiol.), the final product in the action of light on visual purple. It is reconverted into visual purple by the regenerating action of the choroidal epithelium. -- Visual yellow (Physiol.), a product intermediate between visual purple and visual white, formed in the photochemical action of light on visual purple.
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Visualize
Vis"u*al*ize (?), v. t. 1. To make visual, or visible. [Written also visualise.]
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2. to see in the imagination; to form a mental image of.
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No one who has not seen them [glaciers] can possibly visualize them. Lubbock.
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Visualize
Vis"u*al*ize (?), v. i. To form a mental image of something not present before the eye at the time.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Visualizer
Vis"u*al*iz`er (?), n. One who visualizes or is proficient in visualization; esp. (Physiol.), one whose mental imagery is prevailingly visualization.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitaille
Vi*taille (?), n. [See Victuals.] Food; victuals. [Obs.] Piers Plowman. Chaucer.
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Vital
Vi"tal (?), a. [F., fr. L. vitalis, fr. vita life; akin to vivere to live. See Vivid.] 1. Belonging or relating to life, either animal or vegetable; as, vital energies; vital functions; vital actions.
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2. Contributing to life; necessary to, or supporting, life; as, vital blood.
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Do the heavens afford him vital food? Spenser.
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And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth. Milton.
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3. Containing life; living. “Spirits that live throughout, vital in every part.” Milton.
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4. Being the seat of life; being that on which life depends; mortal.
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The dart flew on, and pierced a vital part. Pope.
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5. Very necessary; highly important; essential.
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A competence is vital to content. Young.
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6. Capable of living; in a state to live; viable. [R.]
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Pythagoras and Hippocrates . . . affirm the birth of the seventh month to be vital. Sir T. Browne.
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Vital air, oxygen gas; -- so called because essential to animal life. [Obs.] -- Vital capacity (Physiol.), the breathing capacity of the lungs; -- expressed by the number of cubic inches of air which can be forcibly exhaled after a full inspiration. -- Vital force. (Biol.) See under Force. The vital forces, according to Cope, are nerve force (neurism), growth force (bathmism), and thought force (phrenism), all under the direction and control of the vital principle. Apart from the phenomena of consciousness, vital actions no longer need to be considered as of a mysterious and unfathomable character, nor vital force as anything other than a form of physical energy derived from, and convertible into, other well-known forces of nature. -- Vital functions (Physiol.), those functions or actions of the body on which life is directly dependent, as the circulation of the blood, digestion, etc. -- Vital principle, an immaterial force, to which the functions peculiar to living beings are ascribed. -- Vital statistics, statistics respecting the duration of life, and the circumstances affecting its duration. -- Vital tripod. (Physiol.) See under Tripod. -- Vital vessels (Bot.), a name for latex tubes, now disused. See Latex.
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Vital
Vi"tal, n. A vital part; one of the vitals. [R.]
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Vitalic
Vi*tal"ic (?), a. Pertaining to life; vital. [R.]
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Vitalism
Vi"tal*ism (?), n. (Biol.) The doctrine that all the functions of a living organism are due to an unknown vital principle distinct from all chemical and physical forces.
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Vitalist
Vi`tal*ist (?), n. (Biol.) A believer in the theory of vitalism; -- opposed to physicist.
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Vitalistic
Vi`tal*is"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Pertaining to, or involving, vitalism, or the theory of a special vital principle.
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Vitality
Vi*tal"i*ty (?; 277), n. [L. vitalitas: cf. F. vitalité.] The quality or state of being vital; the principle of life; vital force; animation; as, the vitality of eggs or vegetable seeds; the vitality of an enterprise.
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Vitalization
Vi`tal*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of vitalizing, or infusing the vital principle.
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Vitalize
Vi"tal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vitalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vitalizing (?).] [Cf. F. vitaliser.] To endow with life, or vitality; to give life to; to make alive; as, vitalized blood.
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Vitally
Vi"tal*ly, adv. In a vital manner.
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Vitals
Vi"tals (?), n. pl. 1. Organs that are necessary for life; more especially, the heart, lungs, and brain.
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2. Fig.: The part essential to the life or health of anything; as, the vitals of a state. “The vitals of the public body.” Glanvill.
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Vitamin
Vit"a*min (vīt"&adot_;*m&ibreve_;n), n. any of several organic chemical substances not synthesized by an animal and required in small quantities for normal metabolism, present in and obtained from the natural foods eaten by the animal. Human vitamins are also produced synthetically, and taken in pure form or in mixtures, as dietary supplements. Deficiencies of specific vitamins lead to certain specific disorders, such as scurvy, caused by an insufficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Most vitamins act as coenzymes or precursors to coenzymes, and are not consumed for energy production or incorporated into structural units of the cell.
[PJC]

vitamin A
vitamin A n. any of several related fat-soluble vitamins (such as retinol) essential for normal vision; it also prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes.
Syn. -- antiophthalmic factor, axerophthol.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin A1
vitamin A1 n. retinol (C20H30O), one of the substances also called vitamin A. It is also called more specifically vitamin A alcohol. It is a required factor for human nutrition. The USP unit of activity is equal to 0.30 micrograms of retinol.
Syn. -- retinol.
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

vitamin A2
vitamin A2 n. dehydroretinol (C20H28O), one of the substances also called vitamin A. It has about 40% of the bioactivity of vitamin A1.
Syn. -- dehydroretinol.
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

vitamin B
vitamin B n. a group of water-soluble vitamins originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins.
Syn. -- B-complex vitamin, B complex, vitamin B complex, B vitamin.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin B1
vitamin B1 n. a B vitamin (C12H17N4OS)Cl that prevents beriberi and maintains appetite and growth. Same as thiamine.
Syn. -- thiamin, aneurin, antiberiberi factor.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin B12
vitamin B12 n. a B vitamin that is used to treat pernicious anemia.
Syn. -- cobalamin, cyanocobalamin.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin B2
vitamin B2 n. a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss.
Syn. -- vitamin G, riboflavin, lactoflavin, ovoflavin, hepatoflavin.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin B3
vitamin B3 n. See nicotinamide.
Syn. -- nicotinamide.
[PJC]

vitamin B5
vitamin B5 n. See nicotinic acid.
Syn. -- nicotinic acid.
[PJC]

vitamin B6
vitamin B6 n. a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch.
Syn. -- pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, adermin.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin Bc
vitamin Bc n. a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction. Also called folic acid
Syn. -- vitamin M, folic acid, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin B complex
vitamin B complex n. a mixture of water-soluble vitamins originally thought to be a single vitamin but now known to be a mixture of several compounds with vitaminic activity. Syn. -- B complex, vitamin B complex, vitamin B, B vitamin. [WordNet 1.5]

vitamin C
vitamin C n. a vitamin that prevents scurvy. Also called ascorbic acid.
Syn. -- ascorbic acid.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin D
vitamin D n. any of several chemically related fat-soluble vitamins that prevent rickets. It is found in fish-liver oils, egg yolks and milk. Component vitamin D2 is also called calciferol, and vitamin D3 is called cholecalciferol.
Syn. -- calciferol, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin E
vitamin E n. a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction. It is found in vegetable oils, butter, and eggs.
Syn. -- tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin G
vitamin G n. same as vitamin B2.
Syn. -- vitamin B2, riboflavin, lactoflavin, ovoflavin, hepatoflavin.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin H
vitamin H n., a B vitamin that aids in body growth.
Syn. -- biotin.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin K
vitamin K n. (1929) [from G. Koagulationsvitamin.] either of two fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K1 or vitamin K2) that help clot blood by participating in the fromation of prothrombin. Syn. -- naphthoquinone.
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

vitamin K1
vitamin K1 n. one of the two K vitamins, (C31H46O2). It is fat-soluble and occurs naturally as the trans isomer. Chemically it is 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4,-naphthoquinone.
Syn. -- phylloquinone, phytonadione, antihemorrhagic vitamin..
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

vitamins K2
vitamin K2
vitamin K2, vitamins K2 n. one of the two K vitamins, actually a mixture of homologous fat-soluble substituted naphthoquinones (called menaquinones), (C11H7O2[C5H8]nH), where n may be 1 to 13 but is mostly 7 to 9. The term is also used for synthetic compounds resembling vitamin K2 and having the same physiological action. The individual components of vitamin K2 are also referred to by the number of isoprenyl units in the side chain (the number n in the formula), as for menadione, having no units at that position of the naphthaquinone ring, and also called vitamin K2(0) (and also called vitamin K3). [MI11]
Syn. -- menaquinones, antihemorrhagic vitamin..
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

vitamin K3
vitamin K3 n. menadione, (C11H8O2) being chemically 2-methyl-1,4,-naphthoquinone. Having no side chain in the 3 position, it cannot exert all functions of a true K vitamin and the designation as vitamin K3 has been discouraged [MI11]
Syn. -- vitaminK2(0); menaphthone.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin M
vitamin M n. same as vitamin Bc; folic acid.
[WordNet 1.5]

vitamin p
vitamin p n. a water-soluble vitamin that maintains the resistance of cell and capillary walls to permeation.
Syn. -- bioflavinoid, citrin.)
[WordNet 1.5]

Vitascope
Vi"ta*scope (?), n. [L. vita life + -scope.] A form of machine for exhibiting animated pictures.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitellary
Vit"el*la*ry (?; 277), a. [L. vitellus a little calf, the yolk of an egg.] (Biol.) Vitelline.
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Vitelligenous
Vit`el*lig"e*nous (?), a. (Zool.) Producing yolk, or vitelline substance; -- applied to certain cells (also called nutritive, or yolk, cells) formed in the ovaries of many insects, and supposed to supply nutriment to the developing ova.
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Vitellin
Vi*tel"lin (?), n. [See Vitellus.] (Physiol. Chem.) An albuminous body, belonging to the class of globulins, obtained from yolk of egg, of which it is the chief proteid constituent, and from the seeds of many plants. From the latter it can be separated in crystalline form.
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Vitelline
Vi*tel"line (?), a. [L. vitellus the yolk of an egg.] (Biol.) Of or pertaining to the yolk of eggs; as, the vitelline membrane, a smooth, transparent membrane surrounding the vitellus.
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Vitellogene
Vi*tel"lo*gene (?), n. [See Vitellus, and -gen.] (Zool.) A gland secreting the yolk of the eggs in trematodes, turbellarians, and some other helminths.
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Vitellus
Vi*tel"lus (?), n. [L., the yolk of an egg.]
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1. (Biol.) The contents or substance of the ovum; egg yolk. See Illust. of Ovum.
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2. (Bot.) Perisperm in an early condition.
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Vitiate
Vi"ti*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vitiated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vitiating.] [L. vitiatus, p. p. vitiare to vitiate, fr. vitium a fault, vice. See Vice a fault.] [Written also viciate.] 1. To make vicious, faulty, or imperfect; to render defective; to injure the substance or qualities of; to impair; to contaminate; to spoil; as, exaggeration vitiates a style of writing; sewer gas vitiates the air.
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A will vitiated and growth out of love with the truth disposes the understanding to error and delusion. South.
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Without care it may be used to vitiate our minds. Burke.
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This undistinguishing complaisance will vitiate the taste of readers. Garth.
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2. To cause to fail of effect, either wholly or in part; to make void; to destroy, as the validity or binding force of an instrument or transaction; to annul; as, any undue influence exerted on a jury vitiates their verdict; fraud vitiates a contract.
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Vitiation
Vi`ti*a"tion (?), n. [L. vitiatio.] The act of vitiating, or the state of being vitiated; depravation; corruption; invalidation; as, the vitiation of the blood; the vitiation of a contract.
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The vitiation that breeds evil acts. G. Eliot.
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Viticulose
Vi*tic"u*lose` (?), a. [L. viticula, dim. of vitis vine.] (Bot.) Having long and slender trailing stems.
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Viticultural
Vit`i*cul"tur*al (?; 135), a. Of or pertaining to viticulture.
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Viticulture
Vit"i*cul`ture (?), n. [L. vitis vine + E. culture.] The cultivation of the vine; grape growing.
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Viticulturist
Vit`i*cul"tur*ist, n. One engaged in viticulture.
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Vitiligo
Vit`i*li"go (?), n. [L., a kind of tetter, fr. vitium blemish, vice.] (Med.) A rare skin disease consisting in the development of smooth, milk-white spots upon various parts of the body.
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Vitilitigate
Vit`i*lit"i*gate (?), v. i. [L. vitilitigare to quarrel disgracefully; vitium vice + litigare to quarrel.] To contend in law litigiously or cavilously. [Obs.]
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Vitilitigation
Vit`i*lit`i*ga"tion (?), n. Cavilous litigation; cavillation. [Obs.] Hudibras.
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Vitiosity
Vi`ti*os"i*ty (?), n. [L. vitiositas. See Vicious.] Viciousness; depravity.
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The perverseness and vitiosity of man's will. South.
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Vitiousness
Vitiously
Vitious
Vi"tious (?), a., Vi"tious*ly, adv., Vi"tious*ness, n. See Vicious, Viciously, Viciousness.
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Vitis
Vi"tis (?), prop. n. [L., a vine.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including all true grapevines.
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Vitoe
Vi"to*e (?), a. (Zool.) See Durukuli.
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Vitrage
Vit"rage (?), n. [F., prop., glazing, glass window.] A curtain of light and translucent material intended to be secured directly to the woodwork of a French casement window or a glazed door.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitrella
Vi*trel"la (?), n. [NL., dim. of L. vitrum glass.] (Zool.) One of the transparent lenslike cells in the ocelli of certain arthropods.
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Vitre-o-electic
Vit`re-o-e*lec"tic (?), a. [See Vitreous, and Electric.] (Physics) Containing or exhibiting positive, or vitreous, electricity.
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Vitreous
Vit"re*ous (?), a. [L. vitreous, from vitrum glass; perhaps akin to videre to see (see Vision). Cf. Varnish.] 1. Consisting of, or resembling, glass; glassy; as, vitreous rocks.
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2. Of or pertaining to glass; derived from glass; as, vitreous electricity.
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Vitreous body (Anat.), the vitreous humor. See the Note under Eye. -- Vitreous electricity (Elec.), the kind of electricity excited by rubbing glass with certain substances, as silk; positive electricity; -- opposed to resinous, or negative, electricity. -- Vitreous humor. (Anat.) See the Note under Eye. -- Vitreous sponge (Zool.), any one of numerous species of siliceous sponges having, often fibrous, glassy spicules which are normally six-rayed; a hexactinellid sponge. See Venus's basket, under Venus.
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Vitreousness
Vit"re*ous*ness, n. The quality or state of being vitreous.
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Vitrescence
Vi*tres"cence (?), n. The quality or state of being vitreous; glassiness, or the quality of being vitrescent; capability of conversion into glass; susceptibility of being formed into glass. Kirwan.
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Vitrescent
Vi*tres"cent (?), a. [See Vitreous.] Capable of being formed into glass; tending to become glass.
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Vitrescible
Vi*tres"ci*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. vitrescible.] That may be vitrified; vitrifiable.
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Vitric
Vit"ric (?), a. [L. vitrum glass.] Having the nature and qualities of glass; glasslike; -- distinguished from ceramic.
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Vitrics
Vit"rics (?), n. [See Vitric.] 1. The art or study of the manufacture and decoration of glassware.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. pl. Articles of glassware, glassware in general.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitrifaction
Vit`ri*fac"tion (?), n. [Cf. Vitrification.] The act, art, or process of vitrifying; also, the state of being vitrified.
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Vitrifacture
Vit`ri*fac"ture (?; 135), n. [L. vitrum glass + facere, factum, to make.] The manufacture of glass and glassware.
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Vitrifiable
Vit"ri*fi`a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. vitrifiable.] Capable of being vitrified, or converted into glass by heat and fusion; as, flint and alkalies are vitrifiable.
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Vitrificable
Vi*trif"i*ca*ble (?), a. Vitrifiable. [Obs.]
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Vitrificate
Vit"ri*fi*cate (?), v. t. To convert into glass; to vitrify. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Vitrification
Vit`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [See Vitrify.] Same as Vitrifaction. Sir T. Browne. Ure.
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Vitrified
Vit"ri*fied (?), a. Converted into glass.
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Vitriform
Vit"ri*form (?), a. [L. vitrum glass + -form.] Having the form or appearance of glass; resembling glass; glasslike.
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Vitrify
Vit"ri*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vitrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vitrifying (?).] [F. vitrifier; L. vitrum glass + -ficare to make. See Vitreous, -fy.] To convert into, or cause to resemble, glass or a glassy substance, by heat and fusion.
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Vitrify
Vit"ri*fy, v. t. To become glass; to be converted into glass.
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Chymists make vessels of animal substances, calcined, which will not vitrify in the fire. Arbuthnot.
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Vitrina
Vi*tri"na (?), n. [NL., fr. L. vitrum glass.] (Zool.) A genus of terrestrial gastropods, having transparent, very thin, and delicate shells, -- whence the name.
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Vitrine
Vit"rine (?), n. [F.] A glass show case for displaying fine wares, specimens, etc.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitriol
Vit"ri*ol (?), n. [F. vitriol; cf. Pr. vitriol, vetriol, Sp. & Pg. vitriolo, It. vitriuolo; fr. L. vitreolus of glass, vitreus vitreous. See Vitreous.] (Chem.) (a) A sulphate of any one of certain metals, as copper, iron, zinc, cobalt. So called on account of the glassy appearance or luster. (b) Sulphuric acid; -- called also oil of vitriol. So called because first made by the distillation of green vitriol. See Sulphuric acid, under Sulphuric. [Colloq.]
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Blue vitriol. See under Blue. -- Green vitriol, ferrous sulphate; copperas. See under Green. -- Oil of vitriol, sulphuric or vitriolic acid; -- popularly so called because it has the consistency of oil. -- Red vitriol, a native sulphate of cobalt. -- Vitriol of Mars, ferric sulphate, a white crystalline substance which dissolves in water, forming a red solution. -- White vitriol, zinc sulphate, a white crystalline substance used in medicine and in dyeing. It is usually obtained by dissolving zinc in sulphuric acid, or by roasting and oxidizing certain zinc ores. Formerly called also vitriol of zinc.
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Vitriol
Vit"ri*ol (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -oled (?) or -olled; p. pr. & vb. n. -oling or -olling.] [From Vitriol, n.] 1. (Metal.) To dip in dilute sulphuric acid; to pickle.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. To vitriolize. [Colloq.]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitriolate
Vit"ri*o*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vitriolated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vitriolating.] (Old Chem.) (a) To convert into, or change to, a vitriol; to make into sulphuric acid or a sulphate. (b) To subject to the action of, or impregnate with, vitriol.
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Vitriolate
Vit"ri*o*late (?), a. Vitriolated. [R.]
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Vitriolate
Vit"ri*o*late, n. (Old Chem.) A sulphate.
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Vitriolated
Vit"ri*o*la`ted (?), a. (Old Chem.) Changed into a vitriol or a sulphate, or subjected to the action of sulphuric acid or of a sulphate; as, vitriolated potash, i. e., potassium sulphate.
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Vitriolation
Vit`ri*o*la"tion (?), n. (Old Chem.) The act, process, or result of vitriolating.
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Vitriolic
Vit`ri*ol"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. vitriolique.] 1. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to vitriol; derived from, or resembling, vitriol; vitriolous; as, a vitriolic taste. Cf. Vitriol.
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2. Biting, bitter or caustic; having or expressing strong and unpleasantly negative feelings; -- of speech or feelings; the vitriolic denunciations of opponents by partisan columnists.
[PJC]

Vitriolic acid (Old Chem.), (a) sulphuric acid. See Vitriol (b). [Colloq.]
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Vitriolizable
Vit"ri*ol*i`za*ble (?), a. Capable of being converted into a vitriol.
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Vitriolization
Vit`ri*ol*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. vitriolisation.] (Old Chem.) The act of vitriolizing, or the state of being vitriolized; vitriolation.
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Vitriolize
Vit"ri*ol*ize (?), v. t. [Cf. F. vitrioliser.] 1. To convert into a vitriol; to vitriolate.
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2. To injure (a person) with vitriol, or sulphuric acid, as by throwing it upon the face.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitriolous
Vi*tri"o*lous (?), a. See Vitriolic. [Obs.]
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Vitrite
Vit"rite (?), n. [L. vitrum glass.] A kind of glass which is very hard and difficult to fuse, used as an insulator in electrical lamps and other apparatus.
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Vitro-di-trina
Vit"ro-di-tri"na (?), n. [It. vetro di trina glass of lace.] A kind of Venetian glass or glassware in which white threads are embedded in transparent glass with a lacelike or netlike effect.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vitruvian
Vi*tru"vi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Vitruvius, an ancient Roman architect.
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Vitruvian scroll (Arch.), a name given to a peculiar pattern of scrollwork, consisting of convolved undulations. It is used in classical architecture. Oxf. Gloss.
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Vitta
Vit"ta (?), n.; pl. Vittae (#). [L. vitta ribbon, fillet.] 1. (Bot.) One of the oil tubes in the fruit of umbelliferous plants.
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2. (Zool.) A band, or stripe, of color.
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Vittate
Vit"tate (?), a. [L. vittatus bound with a fillet, fr. vitta fillet.] 1. (Bot.) Bearing or containing vittae.
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2. Striped longitudinally.
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Vituline
Vit"u*line (?; 277), a. [L. vitulinus, fr. vitulus a calf. See Veal.] Of or pertaining to a calf or veal.
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Vituperable
Vi*tu"per*a*ble (?), a. [L. vituperabilis: cf. F. vitupérable.] Liable to, or deserving, vituperation, or severe censure.
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Vituperate
Vi*tu"per*ate (?; 277), v. t. [L. vituperatus, p. p. of vituperare to blame, vituperate; vitium a fault + parare to prepare. See Vice a fault, and Pare, v. t.] To find fault with; to scold; to overwhelm with wordy abuse; to censure severely or abusively; to rate.
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Vituperation
Vi*tu`per*a"tion (?), n. [L. vituperatio: cf. OF. vituperation. See Vituperate.] The act of vituperating; abuse; severe censure; blame.
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When a man becomes untractable and inaccessible by fierceness and pride, then vituperation comes upon him. Donne.
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Vituperative
Vi*tu"per*a*tive (?), a. Uttering or writing censure; containing, or characterized by, abuse; scolding; abusive. -- Vi*tu"per*a*tive*ly, adv.
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Vituperative appellations derived from their real or supposed ill qualities. B. Jonson.
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Vituperator
Vi*tu"per*a`tor (?), n. [L.] One who vituperates, or censures abusively.
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Vituperrious
Vi`tu*per"ri*ous (?), a. Worthy of vituperation; shameful; disgraceful. [Obs.]
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Viva
Vi"va (?), interj. [It.] Lit., (long) live; -- an exclamation expressing good will, well wishing, etc. -- n. The word viva, or a shout or sound made in uttering it.
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A wilder burst of “vivas”. R. H. Davis.
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Vivace
Vi*va"ce (?), a. & adv. [It.] (Mus.) Brisk; vivacious; with spirit; -- a direction to perform a passage in a brisk and lively manner.
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Vivacious
Vi*va"cious (?; 277), a. [L. vívax, -acis, fr. vivere to live. See Vivid.] 1. Having vigorous powers of life; tenacious of life; long-lived. [Obs.]
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Hitherto the English bishops have been vivacious almost to wonder. . . . But five died for the first twenty years of her [Queen Elizabeth's] reign. Fuller.
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The faith of Christianity is far more vivacious than any mere ravishment of the imagination can ever be. I. Taylor.
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2. Sprightly in temper or conduct; lively; merry; as, a vivacious poet.Vivacious nonsense.” V. Knox.
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3. (Bot.) Living through the winter, or from year to year; perennial. [R.]
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Syn. -- Sprightly; active; animated; sportive; gay; merry; jocund; light-hearted.
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-- Vi*va"cious*ly, adv. -- Vi*va"cious*ness, n.
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Vivacity
Vi*vac"i*ty (?), n. [L. vivicitas: cf. F. vivacité.] The quality or state of being vivacious. Specifically: --
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(a) Tenacity of life; vital force; natural vigor. [Obs.]
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The vivacity of some of these pensioners is little less than a miracle, they lived so long. Fuller.
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(b) Life; animation; spiritedness; liveliness; sprightliness; as, the vivacity of a discourse; a lady of great vivacity; vivacity of countenance.
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Syn. -- Liveliness; gayety. See Liveliness.
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Vivandier
Vi`van`dier" (?), n. [OF. & F. vivandier, fr. LL. vivanda, vivenda, provisions. Cf. Viand.] In Continental armies, esp. the French, a sutler.
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Vivandiere
Vi`van`dière" (?), n. [F. See Viand.] In Continental armies, especially in the French army, a woman accompanying a regiment, who sells provisions and liquor to the soldiers; a female sutler.
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Vivant
Vi`vant" (?), n. [F., p. pr., living.] In mort, bridge, and similar games, the partner of dummy.
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Vivarium
Vi*va"ri*um (?), n.; pl. E. Vivariums (#), L. Vivaria (#). [L., fr. vivarius belonging to living creatures, fr. vivus alive, living. See Vivid.] A place artificially arranged for keeping or raising living animals, as a park, a pond, an aquarium, a warren, etc.
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Vivary
Vi"va*ry (vī"v&adot_;*r&ybreve_;), n.; pl. Vivaries (-r&ibreve_;z). A vivarium. “That . . . vivary of fowls and beasts.” Donne.
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Viva voce
Vi"va vo"ce (vī"v&adot_; vō"s&euptack_;). [L.] By word of mouth; orally.
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Vivda
Viv"da (v&ibreve_;v"d&adot_;), n. See Vifda.
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Vive
Vive (vēv). [F., imperative sing. pres. fr. vivre to live, L. vivere.] Long live, that is, success to; as, vive le roi, long live the king; vive la bagatelle, success to trifles or sport.
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Vive
Vive (vīv), a. [L. vivus: cf. F. vif. See Vivid.] Lively; animated; forcible. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Vively
Vive"ly, adv. In a lively manner. [Obs.]
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If I see a thing vively represented on the stage. B. Jonson.
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Vivency
Vi"ven*cy (?), n. [L. vivens, p. pr. of vivere to live.] Manner of supporting or continuing life or vegetation. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.
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Viverra
Vi*ver"ra (v&ibreve_;*v&ebreve_;r"r&adot_;), prop. n. [L., a ferret.] (Zool.) A genus of carnivores which comprises the civets.
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viverrine
vi*ver"rine (v&ibreve_;*v&ebreve_;r"rīn), a. (Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Viverridae, or Civet family.
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vivers
vi"vers (vē"v&etilde_;rz), n. pl. [F. vivres, pl. of vivre, orig., to live.] Provisions; victuals. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
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I 'll join you at three, if the vivers can tarry so long. Sir W. Scott.
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vives
vives (vīvz), n. [OF. vives, F. avives (cf. Sp. abivas, adiva) fr. Ar. ad-dhība. Cf. Fives vives.] (Far.) A disease of brute animals, especially of horses, seated in the glands under the ear, where a tumor is formed which sometimes ends in suppuration.
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Vivianite
Viv"i*an*ite (?), n. [So called by Werner after the English mineralogist F. G. Vivian.] (Min.) A hydrous phosphate of iron of a blue to green color, growing darker on exposure. It occurs in monoclinic crystals, also fibrous, massive, and earthy.
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vivid
viv"id (v&ibreve_;v"&ibreve_;d), a. [L. vividus, from vivere to life; akin to vivus living. See Quick, a., and cf. Revive, Viand, Victuals, Vital.] 1. True to the life; exhibiting the appearance of life or freshness; animated; spirited; bright; strong; intense; as, vivid colors.
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In dazzling streaks the vivid lightnings play. Cowper.
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Arts which present, with all the vivid charms of painting, the human face and human form divine. Bp. Hobart.
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2. Forming brilliant images, or painting in lively colors; lively; sprightly; as, a vivid imagination.
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Body is a fit workhouse for sprightly, vivid faculties to exercise . . . themselves in. South.
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Syn. -- Clear; lucid; bright; strong; striking; lively; quick; sprightly; active.
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-- viv"id*ly, adv. -- viv"id*ness, n.
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vividity
vi*vid"i*ty (v&ibreve_;*v&ibreve_;d"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. The quality or state of being vivid; vividness. [R.]
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vivifical
vivific
{ vi*vif"ic (v&ibreve_;*v&ibreve_;f"&ibreve_;k), vi*vif"ic*al (v&ibreve_;*v&ibreve_;f"&ibreve_;*k&aitalic_;l), } a. [L. vivificus: cf. F. vivifique. See Vivify.] Giving life; reviving; enlivening. [R.]
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Vivificate
Vi*vif"i*cate (?), v. t. [L. vivificatus, p. p. vivificare. See Vivify.] 1. To give life to; to animate; to revive; to vivify. [R.]
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God vivificates and actuates the whole world. Dr. H. More.
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2. (Chem.) To bring back a metal to the metallic form, as from an oxide or solution; to reduce. [Obs.]
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Vivification
Viv`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. vivificatio: cf. vivification.] 1. The act of vivifying, or the state of being vivified; restoration of life; revival. Bacon.
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2. (Physiol.) One of the changes of assimilation, in which proteid matter which has been transformed, and made a part of the tissue or tissue cells, is endowed with life, and thus enabled to manifest the phenomena of irritability, contractility, etc. McKendrick.
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3. (Chem.) The act or process of vivificating. [Obs.]
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Vivificative
Viv"i*fi*ca*tive (?), a. Able or tending to vivify, animate, or give life; vivifying.
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Vivify
Viv"i*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vivified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vivifying (?).] [F. vivifier, L. vivificare. See Vivid, -fy; cf. Vivificate.] To endue with life; to make to be living; to quicken; to animate.
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Sitting on eggs doth vivify, not nourish. Bacon.
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Vivipara
Vi*vip"a*ra (?), n. pl. [NL. See Viviparous.] (Zool.) An artificial division of vertebrates including those that produce their young alive; -- opposed to Ovipara.
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Viviparity
Viv`i*par"i*ty (?), n. (Biol.) The quality or condition of being viviparous. H. Spencer.
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Viviparous
Vi*vip"a*rous (?), a. [L. viviparus; vivus alive + parere to bear, bring forth. Cf. Viper.] (Biol.) Producing young in a living state, as most mammals, or as those plants the offspring of which are produced alive, either by bulbs instead of seeds, or by the seeds themselves germinating on the plant, instead of falling, as they usually do; -- opposed to oviparous.
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Viviparous fish. (Zool.) See Embiotocoid. -- Viviparous shell (Zool.), any one of numerous species of operculated fresh-water gastropods belonging to Viviparus, Melantho, and allied genera. Their young, when born, have a well-developed spiral shell.
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Viviparously
Vi*vip"a*rous*ly, adv. (Biol.) In a viviparous manner.
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Viviparousness
Vi*vip"a*rous*ness, n. (Biol.) The quality of being viviparous; viviparity.
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Vivisect
Viv"i*sect` (?), v. t. To perform vivisection upon; to dissect alive. [Colloq.] Pop. Sci. Monthly.
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Vivisection
Viv`i*sec"tion (?), n. [L. vivus alive + E. section: cf. F. vivisection. See Vivid, and Section.] The dissection of an animal while alive, for the purpose of making physiological investigations.
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Vivisectional
Viv`i*sec"tion*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to vivisection.
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Vivisectionist
Viv`i*sec"tion*ist, n. One who practices or advocates vivisection; a vivisector.
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Vivisector
Viv`i*sec"tor (?), n. A vivisectionist.
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Vixen
Vix"en (?), n. [AS. fixen a she-fox, for fyxen, fem. of fox. See Fox.] 1. A female fox. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
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2. A cross, ill-tempered person; -- formerly used of either sex, now only of a woman. Barrow.
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She was a vixen when she went to school. Shak.
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Vixenish
Vix"en*ish, a. Of or pertaining to a vixen; resembling a vixen.
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Vixenly
Vix"en*ly, a. Like a vixen; vixenish. Barrow.
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Viz
Viz (?), adv. [Contr. fr. videlicet.] To wit; that is; namely.
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Vizard
Viz"ard (?), n. [See Visor.] A mask; a visor. [Archaic] “A grotesque vizard.” Sir W. Scott.
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To mislead and betray them under the vizard of law. Milton.
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Vizarded
Viz"ard*ed, a. Wearing a vizard. [R.] Shak.
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Vizcacha
Viz*ca"cha (?), n. [Sp.] (Zool.) Same as Viscacha.
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Vizier
Viz"ier (?), n. [Ar. wezīr, wazīr, properly, a bearer of burdens, a porter, from wazara to bear a burden: cf. F. vizir, visir. Cf. Alguazil.] A councilor of state; a high executive officer in Turkey and other Oriental countries. [Written also visier, vizir, and vizer.]
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Grand vizier, the chief minister of the Turkish empire; -- called also vizier-azem.
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Vizierate
Viz"ier*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. vizirat.] The office, dignity, or authority of a vizier.
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Vizier-azem
Vi*zier`-a*zem" (?), n. [Ar. azam great. See Vizier.] A grand vizier. See under Vizier.
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Vizierial
Vi*zier"i*al (?), a. [Cf. F. vizirial.] Of, pertaining to, or issued by, a vizier. [Written also vizirial.]
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Vizir
Vi*zir" (?), n. See Vizier.
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Vizor
Viz"or (?), n. See Visor.
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Vlissmaki
Vliss*ma"ki (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zool.) The diadem indris. See Indris.
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V moth
V" moth` (?). (Zool.) A common gray European moth (Halia vauaria) having a V-shaped spot of dark brown on each of the fore wings.
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Vocable
Vo"ca*ble (?), n. [L. vocabulum an appellation, designation, name, fr. vocare to call, fr. vox, vocis, a voice, a word: cf. F. vocable. See Voice.] A word; a term; a name; specifically, a word considered as composed of certain sounds or letters, without regard to its meaning.
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Swamped near to drowning in a tide of ingenious vocables. Carlyle.
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Vocabulary
Vo*cab"u*la*ry (v&ouptack_;*kăb"&uuptack_;*l&auptack_;*r&ybreve_;), n.; pl. Vocabularies (#). [LL. vocabularium, vocabularius: cf. F. vocabulaire. See Vocable.] 1. A list or collection of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained; a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole language, a single work or author, a branch of science, or the like; a word-book.
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. . .
The “vocabulary” of this dictionary referred to within the definitions of certain collocations are those words serving as headwords for main entries, and distinguished from word combinations (“collocations”) which follow the main part of certain entries. In the XML-tagged version, these headwords are marked by the tags . . ..
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2. A sum or stock of words employed.
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His vocabulary seems to have been no larger than was necessary for the transaction of business. Macaulay.
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Vocabulist
Vo*cab"u*list (v&ouptack_;*kăb"&uuptack_;*l&ibreve_;st), n. [Cf. F. vocabuliste.] The writer or maker of a vocabulary; a lexicographer.
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Vocal
Vo"cal (vō"k&aitalic_;l), a. [L. vocalis, fr. vox, vocis, voice: cf. F. vocal. See Voice, and cf. Vowel.] 1. Of or pertaining to the voice or speech; having voice; endowed with utterance; full of voice, or voices.
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To hill or valley, fountain, or fresh shade,
Made vocal by my song.
Milton.
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2. Uttered or modulated by the voice; oral; as, vocal melody; vocal prayer.Vocal worship.” Milton.
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3. Of or pertaining to a vowel or voice sound; also, spoken with tone, intonation, and resonance; sonant; sonorous; -- said of certain articulate sounds.
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4. (Phon.) (a) Consisting of, or characterized by, voice, or tone produced in the larynx, which may be modified, either by resonance, as in the case of the vowels, or by obstructive action, as in certain consonants, such as v, l, etc., or by both, as in the nasals m, n, ng; sonant; intonated; voiced. See Voice, and Vowel, also Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 199-202. (b) Of or pertaining to a vowel; having the character of a vowel; vowel.
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Vocal cords or Vocal chords. n. pl. (Anat.) The two pairs of mucous membranes that project into the larynx, and which produce the sounds of speech by vibrating under the influence of air exhaled from the lungs. See Larynx, and the Note under Voice, n., 1. -- Vocal fremitus [L. fremitus a dull roaring or murmuring] (Med.), the perceptible vibration of the chest wall, produced by the transmission of the sonorous vibrations during the act of using the voice. -- Vocal music, music made by the voice, in distinction from instrumental music; hence, music or tunes set to words, to be performed by the human voice. -- Vocal tube (Anat.), the part of the air passages above the inferior ligaments of the larynx, including the passages through the nose and mouth.
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Vocal
Vo"cal (vō"k&aitalic_;l), n. [Cf. F. vocal, LL. vocalis.]
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1. (Phon.) A vocal sound; specifically, a purely vocal element of speech, unmodified except by resonance; a vowel or a diphthong; a tonic element; a tonic; -- distinguished from a subvocal, and a nonvocal.
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2. (R. C. Ch.) A man who has a right to vote in certain elections.
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Vocalic
Vo*cal"ic (v&ouptack_;*kăl"&ibreve_;k), a. [L. vocalis (sc. littera) a vowel. See Vocal, a.] Of or pertaining to vowel sounds; consisting of the vowel sounds. Earle.
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The Gaelic language being uncommonly vocalic. Sir W. Scott.
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Vocalism
Vo"cal*ism (vō"k&aitalic_;l*&ibreve_;z'm), n. 1. The exercise of the vocal organs; vocalization.
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2. A vocalic sound. [R.]
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Vocalist
Vo"cal*ist, n. [Cf. F. vocaliste.] A singer, or vocal musician, as opposed to an instrumentalist.
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Vocality
Vo*cal"i*ty (v&ouptack_;*kăl"&ibreve_;*t&ybreve_;), n. [Cf. L. vocalitas euphony.] 1. The quality or state of being vocal; utterableness; resonance; as, the vocality of the letters.
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2. The quality of being a vowel; vocalic character.
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Vocalization
Vo`cal*i*za"tion (?), n. 1. The act of vocalizing, or the state of being vocalized.
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2. The formation and utterance of vocal sounds.
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Vocalize
Vo"cal*ize (vō"k&aitalic_;l*īz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vocalized (vō"k&aitalic_;l*īzd); p. pr. & vb. n. Vocalizing (vō"k&aitalic_;l*ī*z&ibreve_;ng).] [Cf. F. vocaliser.] 1. To form into voice; to make vocal or sonant; to give intonation or resonance to.
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It is one thing to give an impulse to breath alone, another thing to vocalize that breath. Holder.
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2. To practice singing on the vowel sounds.
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Vocally
Vo"cal*ly, adv. 1. In a vocal manner; with voice; orally; with audible sound.
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2. In words; verbally; as, to express desires vocally.
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Vocalness
Vo"cal*ness, n. The quality of being vocal; vocality.
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Vocation
Vo*ca"tion (v&ouptack_;*kā"shŭn), n. [L. vocatio a bidding, invitation, fr. vocare to call, fr. vox, vocis, voice: cf. F. vocation. See Vocal.] 1. A call; a summons; a citation; especially, a designation or appointment to a particular state, business, or profession.
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What can be urged for them who not having the vocation of poverty to scribble, out of mere wantonness make themselves ridiculous? Dryden.
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2. Destined or appropriate employment; calling; occupation; trade; business; profession.
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He would think his service greatly rewarded, if he might obtain by that means to live in the sight of his prince, and yet practice his own chosen vocation. Sir. P. Sidney.
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3. (Theol.) A calling by the will of God. Specifically: --
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(a) The bestowment of God's distinguishing grace upon a person or nation, by which that person or nation is put in the way of salvation; as, the vocation of the Jews under the old dispensation, and of the Gentiles under the gospel. “The golden chain of vocation, election, and justification.” Jer. Taylor.
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(b) A call to special religious work, as to the ministry.
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Every member of the same [the Church], in his vocation and ministry. Bk. of Com. Prayer.
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Vocative
Voc"a*tive (?), a. [L. vocativus, fr. vocare to call.] Of or pertaining to calling; used in calling; specifically (Gram.), used in address; appellative; -- said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed; as, Domine, O Lord.
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Vocative
Voc"a*tive, n. [L. vocativus (sc. casus): cf. F. vocatif.] (Gram.) The vocative case.
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Vociferance
Vo*cif"er*ance (?), n. Vociferation; noise; clamor. [R.] R. Browning.
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Vociferant
Vo*cif"er*ant (?), a. [L. vociferans, p. pr.] Noisy; clamorous. Gauden. R. Browning.
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Vociferate
Vo*cif"er*ate (?), v. i. [L. vociferatus, p. p. vociferari to vociferate; vox, vocis, voice + ferre to bear. See Voice, and Bear to carry.] To cry out with vehemence; to exclaim; to bawl; to clamor. Cowper.
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Vociferate
Vo*cif"er*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vociferated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vociferating.] To utter with a loud voice; to shout out.
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Though he may vociferate the word liberty. V. Knox.
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Vociferation
Vo*cif`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. vociferatio: cf. F. vocifération.] The act of vociferating; violent outcry; vehement utterance of the voice.
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Violent gesture and vociferation naturally shake the hearts of the ignorant. Spectator.
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Plaintive strains succeeding the vociferations of emotion or of pain. Byron.
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Vociferator
Vo*cif"er*a`tor (?), n. One who vociferates, or is clamorous. [R.]
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Vociferous
Vo*cif"er*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. vocifère.] Making a loud outcry; clamorous; noisy; as, vociferous heralds. -- Vo*cif"er*ous*ly, adv. -- Vo*cif"er*ous*ness, n.
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Vocule
Voc"ule (?), n. [L. vocula, dim. of vox, vocis, voice.] (Phon.) A short or weak utterance; a faint or feeble sound, as that heard on separating the lips in pronouncing p or b. Rush. -- Voc"u*lar (#), a.
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Vodanium
Vo*da"ni*um (?), n. [NL.] (Old Chem.) A supposed element, afterward found to be a mixture of several metals, as copper, iron, lead, nickel, etc.
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Vodka
Vod"ka (?), n. [Russ.] A Russian drink distilled from rye.
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Voe
Voe (?), n. [Cf. Icel ver sea, vöar a fenced-in landing place.] An inlet, bay, or creek; -- so called in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Jamieson.
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Vogle
Vo"gle (?), n. (Mining) Same as Vugg.
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Vogue
Vogue (?), n. [F. vogue a rowing, vogue, fashion, It. voga, fr. vogare to row, to sail; probably fr. OHG. wag&unr_;n to move, akin to E. way. Cf. Way.] 1. The way or fashion of people at any particular time; temporary mode, custom, or practice; popular reception for the time; -- used now generally in the phrase in vogue.
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One vogue, one vein,
One air of thoughts usurps my brain.
Herbert.
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Whatsoever its vogue may be, I still flatter myself that the parents of the growing generation will be satisfied with what &unr_;&unr_; to be taught to their children in Westminster, in Eton, or in Winchester. Burke.
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Use may revive the obsoletest words,
And banish those that now are most in vogue.
Roscommon.
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2. Influence; power; sway. [Obs.] Strype.
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Voice
Voice (?), n. [OE. vois, voys, OF. vois, voiz, F. voix, L. vox, vocis, akin to Gr. &unr_; a word, &unr_; a voice, Skr. vac to say, to speak, G. erwähnen to mention. Cf. Advocate, Advowson, Avouch, Convoke, Epic, Vocal, Vouch, Vowel.] 1. Sound uttered by the mouth, especially that uttered by human beings in speech or song; sound thus uttered considered as possessing some special quality or character; as, the human voice; a pleasant voice; a low voice.
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He with a manly voice saith his message. Chaucer.
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Her voice was ever soft,
Gentle, and low; an excellent thing in woman.
Shak.
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Thy voice is music. Shak.
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Join thy voice unto the angel choir. Milton.
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2. (Phon.) Sound of the kind or quality heard in speech or song in the consonants b, v, d, etc., and in the vowels; sonant, or intonated, utterance; tone; -- distinguished from mere breath sound as heard in f, s, sh, etc., and also whisper.
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&hand_; Voice, in this sense, is produced by vibration of the so-called vocal cords in the larynx (see Illust. of Larynx) which act upon the air, not in the manner of the strings of a stringed instrument, but as a pair of membranous tongues, or reeds, which, being continually forced apart by the outgoing current of breath, and continually brought together again by their own elasticity and muscular tension, break the breath current into a series of puffs, or pulses, sufficiently rapid to cause the sensation of tone. The power, or loudness, of such a tone depends on the force of the separate pulses, and this is determined by the pressure of the expired air, together with the resistance on the part of the vocal cords which is continually overcome. Its pitch depends on the number of aerial pulses within a given time, that is, on the rapidity of their succession. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 5, 146, 155.
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3. The tone or sound emitted by anything.
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After the fire a still small voice. 1 Kings xix. 12.
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Canst thou thunder with a voice like him? Job xl. 9.
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The floods have lifted up their voice. Ps. xciii. 3.
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O Marcus, I am warm'd; my heart
Leaps at the trumpet's voice.
Addison.
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4. The faculty or power of utterance; as, to cultivate the voice.
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5. Language; words; speech; expression; signification of feeling or opinion.
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I desire to be present with you now, and to change my voice; for I stand in doubt of you. Gal. iv. 20.
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My voice is in my sword. Shak.
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Let us call on God in the voice of his church. Bp. Fell.
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6. Opinion or choice expressed; judgment; a vote.
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Sic. How now, my masters! have you chose this man?
1 Cit. He has our voices, sir.
Shak.
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Some laws ordain, and some attend the choice
Of holy senates, and elect by voice.
Dryden.
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7. Command; precept; -- now chiefly used in scriptural language.
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So shall ye perish; because ye would not be obedient unto the voice of the Lord your God. Deut. viii. 20.
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8. One who speaks; a speaker. “A potent voice of Parliament.” Tennyson.
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9. (Gram.) A particular mode of inflecting or conjugating verbs, or a particular form of a verb, by means of which is indicated the relation of the subject of the verb to the action which the verb expresses.
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Active voice (Gram.), that form of the verb by which its subject is represented as the agent or doer of the action expressed by it. -- Chest voice (Phon.), a kind of voice of a medium or low pitch and of a sonorous quality ascribed to resonance in the chest, or thorax; voice of the thick register. It is produced by vibration of the vocal cords through their entire width and thickness, and with convex surfaces presented to each other. -- Head voice (Phon.), a kind of voice of high pitch and of a thin quality ascribed to resonance in the head; voice of the thin register; falsetto. In producing it, the vibration of the cords is limited to their thin edges in the upper part, which are then presented to each other. -- Middle voice (Gram.), that form of the verb by which its subject is represented as both the agent, or doer, and the object of the action, that is, as performing some act to or upon himself, or for his own advantage. -- Passive voice. (Gram.) See under Passive, a. -- Voice glide (Pron.), the brief and obscure neutral vowel sound that sometimes occurs between two consonants in an unaccented syllable (represented by the apostrophe), as in able (a"b'l). See Glide, n., 2. -- Voice stop. See Voiced stop, under Voiced, a. -- With one voice, unanimously. “All with one voice . . . cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians.” Acts xix. 34.
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Voice
Voice, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Voiced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Voicing (?).] 1. To give utterance or expression to; to utter; to publish; to announce; to divulge; as, to voice the sentiments of the nation. “Rather assume thy right in silence and . . . then voice it with claims and challenges.” Bacon.
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It was voiced that the king purposed to put to death Edward Plantagenet. Bacon.
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2. (Phon.) To utter with sonant or vocal tone; to pronounce with a narrowed glottis and rapid vibrations of the vocal cords; to speak above a whisper.
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3. To fit for producing the proper sounds; to regulate the tone of; as, to voice the pipes of an organ.
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4. To vote; to elect; to appoint. [Obs.] Shak.
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Voice
Voice, v. i. To clamor; to cry out. [Obs.] South.
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Voiced
Voiced (?), a. 1. Furnished with a voice; expressed by the voice.
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2. (Phon.) Uttered with voice; pronounced with vibrations of the vocal cords; sonant; -- said of a sound uttered with the glottis narrowed.
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Voiced stop, Voice stop (Phon.), a stopped consonant made with tone from the larynx while the mouth organs are closed at some point; a sonant mute, as b, d, g hard.
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Voiceful
Voice"ful (?), a. Having a voice or vocal quality; having a loud voice or many voices; vocal; sounding.
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Beheld the Iliad and the Odyssey
Rise to the swelling of the voiceful sea.
Coleridge.
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Voiceless
Voice"less, a. 1. Having no voice, utterance, or vote; silent; mute; dumb.
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I live and die unheard,
With a most voiceless thought, sheathing it as a sword.
Byron.
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2. (Phon.) Not sounded with voice; as, a voiceless consonant; surd.
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Voiceless stop (Phon.), a consonant made with no audible sound except in the transition to or from another sound; a surd mute, as p, t, k.
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-- Voice"less*ly, adv. -- Voice"less*ness, n.
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Void
Void (?), a. [OE. voide, OF. voit, voide, vuit, vuide, F. vide, fr. (assumed) LL. vocitus, fr. L. vocare, an old form of vacare to be empty, or a kindred word. Cf. Vacant, Avoid.] 1. Containing nothing; empty; vacant; not occupied; not filled.
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The earth was without form, and void. Gen. i. 2.
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I 'll get me to a place more void. Shak.
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I 'll chain him in my study, that, at void hours,
I may run over the story of his country.
Massinger.
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2. Having no incumbent; unoccupied; -- said of offices and the like.
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Divers great offices that had been long void. Camden.
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3. Being without; destitute; free; wanting; devoid; as, void of learning, or of common use. Milton.
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A conscience void of offense toward God. Acts xxiv. 16.
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He that is void of wisdom despiseth his neighbor. Prov. xi. 12.
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4. Not producing any effect; ineffectual; vain.
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[My word] shall not return to me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please. Isa. lv. 11.
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I will make void the counsel of Judah. Jer. xix. 7.
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5. Containing no immaterial quality; destitute of mind or soul. “Idol, void and vain.” Pope.
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6. (Law) Of no legal force or effect, incapable of confirmation or ratification; null. Cf. Voidable, 2.
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Void space (Physics), a vacuum.
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Syn. -- Empty; vacant; devoid; wanting; unfurnished; unsupplied; unoccupied.
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Void
Void, n. An empty space; a vacuum.
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Pride, where wit fails, steps in to our defense,
And fills up all the mighty void of sense.
Pope.
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Void
Void, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Voided; p. pr. & vb. n. Voiding.] [OF. voidier, vuidier. See Void, a.] 1. To remove the contents of; to make or leave vacant or empty; to quit; to leave; as, to void a table.
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Void anon her place. Chaucer.
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If they will fight with us, bid them come down,
Or void the field.
Shak.
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2. To throw or send out; to evacuate; to emit; to discharge; as, to void excrements.
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A watchful application of mind in voiding prejudices. Barrow.
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With shovel, like a fury, voided out
The earth and scattered bones.
J. Webster.
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3. To render void; to make to be of no validity or effect; to vacate; to annul; to nullify.
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After they had voided the obligation of the oath he had taken. Bp. Burnet.
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It was become a practice . . . to void the security that was at any time given for money so borrowed. Clarendon.
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Void
Void, v. i. To be emitted or evacuated. Wiseman.
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Voidable
Void"a*ble (?), a. 1. Capable of being voided, or evacuated.
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2. (Law) Capable of being avoided, or of being adjudged void, invalid, and of no force; capable of being either avoided or confirmed.
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If the metropolitan . . . grants letters of administration, such administration is not, but voidable by sentence. Ayliffe.
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&hand_; A voidable contract may be ratified and confirmed; to render it null and of no effect, it must be avoided; a void contract can not be ratified.
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Voidance
Void"ance (?), n. 1. The act of voiding, emptying, ejecting, or evacuating.
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2. (Eccl.) A ejection from a benefice.
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3. The state of being void; vacancy, as of a benefice which is without an incumbent.
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4. Evasion; subterfuge. [Obs.] Bacon.
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Voided
Void"ed, a. 1. Emptied; evacuated.
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2. Annulled; invalidated.
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3. (Her.) Having the inner part cut away, or left vacant, a narrow border being left at the sides, the tincture of the field being seen in the vacant space; -- said of a charge.
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Voider
Void"er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, voids, &unr_;mpties, vacates, or annuls.
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2. A tray, or basket, formerly used to receive or convey that which is voided or cleared away from a given place; especially, one for carrying off the remains of a meal, as fragments of food; sometimes, a basket for containing household articles, as clothes, etc.
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Piers Plowman laid the cloth, and Simplicity brought in the voider. Decker.
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The cloth whereon the earl dined was taken away, and the voider, wherein the plate was usually put, was set upon the cupboard's head. Hist. of Richard Hainam.
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3. A servant whose business is to void, or clear away, a table after a meal. [R.] Decker.
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4. (Her.) One of the ordinaries, much like the flanch, but less rounded and therefore smaller.
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Voiding
Void"ing, n. 1. The act of one who, or that which, voids. Bp. Hall.
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2. That which is voided; that which is ejected or evacuated; a remnant; a fragment. [R.] Rowe.
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Voiding knife, a knife used for gathering up fragments of food to put them into a voider.
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Voiding
Void"ing, a. Receiving what is ejected or voided. “How in our voiding lobby hast thou stood?” Shak.
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Voidness
Void"ness, n. The quality or state of being void; emptiness; vacuity; nullity; want of substantiality.
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Voir dire
Voir dire (?). [OF., to say the truth, fr. L. verus true + dicere to say.] (Law) An oath administered to a witness, usually before being sworn in chief, requiring him to speak the truth, or make true answers in reference to matters inquired of, to ascertain his competency to give evidence. Greenleaf. Ld. Abinger.
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Voiture
Voi"ture (?), n. [F., fr. L. vectura a carrying, conveying. Cf. Vettura.] A carriage. Arbuthnot.
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Voivode
Voi"vode (?), n. See Waywode. Longfellow.
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Volacious
Vo*la"cious (?), a. [L. volare to fly.] Apt or fit to fly. [R.]
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Volador
Vo*la*dor" (?), n. [Sp.] (Zool.) (a) A flying fish of California (Exocœtus Californicus): -- called also volator. (b) The Atlantic flying gurnard. See under Flying.
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Volage
Vo*lage" (?), a. [F.] Light; giddy. [Obs.]
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They wroughten all their lust volage. Chaucer.
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Volant
Vo"lant (?; 277), a. [L. volans, -antis, p. pr. of volare to fly: cf. F. volant.] 1. Passing through the air upon wings, or as if upon wings; flying; hence, passing from place to place; current.
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English silver now was current, and our gold volant in the pope's court. Fuller.
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2. Nimble; light and quick; active; rapid. “His volant touch.” Milton.
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3. (Her.) Represented as flying, or having the wings spread; as, an eagle volant.
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Volant piece (Anc. Armor), an adjustable piece of armor, for guarding the throat, etc., in a joust.
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Volante
Vo*lan"te (?), n. [Sp., prop., flying.] A two-wheeled carriage formerly much used in Cuba. The body is in front of the axle; the driver rides on the horse.
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Volapuk
Volapuek
Vol`a*pük" (?), n. Literally, world's speech; the name of an artificial language invented by Johan Martin Schleyer, of Constance, Switzerland, about 1879. For more about “planned languages”, see Esperanto.
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Volapükist
Vol`a*pük"ist, n. One who is conversant with, or who favors adoption of, Volapük.
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Volar
Vo"lar (?), a. [L. vola the palm of the hand, the sole of the foot.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot.
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Volary
Vol"a*ry (?), n. See Volery. [Obs.]
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Volatile
Vol"a*tile (?), a. [F. volatil, L. volatilis, fr. volare to fly, perhaps akin to velox swift, E. velocity. Cf. Volley.] 1. Passing through the air on wings, or by the buoyant force of the atmosphere; flying; having the power to fly. [Obs.]
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2. Capable of wasting away, or of easily passing into the aeriform state; subject to evaporation.
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&hand_; Substances which affect the smell with pungent or fragrant odors, as musk, hartshorn, and essential oils, are called volatile substances, because they waste away on exposure to the atmosphere. Alcohol and ether are called volatile liquids for a similar reason, and because they easily pass into the state of vapor on the application of heat. On the contrary, gold is a fixed substance, because it does not suffer waste, even when exposed to the heat of a furnace; and oils are called fixed when they do not evaporate on simple exposure to the atmosphere.
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3. Fig.: Light-hearted; easily affected by circumstances; airy; lively; hence, changeable; fickle; as, a volatile temper.
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You are as giddy and volatile as ever. Swift.
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Volatile alkali. (Old Chem.) See under Alkali. -- Volatile liniment, a liniment composed of sweet oil and ammonia, so called from the readiness with which the latter evaporates. -- Volatile oils. (Chem.) See Essential oils, under Essential.
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Volatile
Vol"a*tile, n. [Cf. F. volatile.] A winged animal; wild fowl; game. [Obs.] Chaucer. Sir T. Browne.
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Volatility
Volatileness
{Vol"a*tile*ness, Vol`a*til"i*ty (?), } n. [Cf. F. volatilité.] Quality or state of being volatile; disposition to evaporate; changeableness; fickleness.
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Syn. -- See Levity.
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Volatilizable
Vol"a*til*i`za*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. volatisable.] Capable of being volatilized.
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Volatilization
Vol`a*til*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. volatilisation.] The act or process of volatilizing, or rendering volatile; the state of being volatilized.
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Volatilize
Vol"a*til*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Volatilized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Volatilizing (?).] [Cf. F. volatiliser.] To render volatile; to cause to exhale or evaporate; to cause to pass off in vapor.
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The water . . . dissolving the oil, and volatilizing it by the action. Sir I. Newton.
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Volator
Vo*la"tor (?), n. [NL.] (Zool.) Same as Volador, 1.
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Vol-au-vent
Vol`-au`-vent" (?), n. [F.] (Cookery) A light puff paste, with a raised border, filled, after baking, usually with a ragout of fowl, game, or fish.
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Volborthite
Vol"borth*ite (?), n. [So named after Volborth, who first discovered it.] (Min.) A mineral occurring in small six-sided tabular crystals of a green or yellow color. It is a hydrous vanadate of copper and lime.
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Volcanian
Vol*ca"ni*an (?), a. Volcanic. [R.] Keats.
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Volcanic
Vol*can"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. volcanique, It. vulcanico.] 1. Of or pertaining to a volcano or volcanoes; as, volcanic heat.
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2. Produced by a volcano, or, more generally, by igneous agencies; as, volcanic tufa.
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3. Changed or affected by the heat of a volcano.
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Volcanic bomb, a mass ejected from a volcano, often of molten lava having a rounded form. -- Volcanic cone, a hill, conical in form, built up of cinders, tufa, or lava, during volcanic eruptions. -- Volcanic foci, the subterranean centers of volcanic action; the points beneath volcanoes where the causes producing volcanic phenomena are most active. -- Volcanic glass, the vitreous form of lava, produced by sudden cooling; obsidian. See Obsidian. -- Volcanic mud, fetid, sulphurous mud discharged by a volcano. -- Volcanic rocks, rocks which have been produced from the discharges of volcanic matter, as the various kinds of basalt, trachyte, scoria, obsidian, etc., whether compact, scoriaceous, or vitreous.
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Volcanically
Vol*can"ic*al*ly (?), adv. Like a volcano.
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Volcanicity
Vol`can*ic"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. volcanicité.] Quality or state of being volcanic; volcanic power.
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Volcanic neck
Vol*can"ic neck. (Geol.) A column of igneous rock formed by congelation of lava in the conduit of a volcano and later exposed by the removal of surrounding rocks.
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Volcanic wind
Volcanic wind. (Meteorol.) A wind associated with a volcanic outburst and due to the eruption or to convection currents over hot lava.
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Volcanism
Vol"can*ism (?), n. Volcanic power or action; volcanicity.
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Volcanist
Vol"can*ist, n. [Cf. F. volcaniste, vulcaniste.] 1. One versed in the history and phenomena of volcanoes.
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2. One who believes in the igneous, as opposed to the aqueous, origin of the rocks of the earth's crust; a vulcanist. Cf. Neptunist.
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Volcanity
Vol*can"i*ty (?), n. [See Volcanic, and Volcanicity.] The quality or state of being volcanic, or volcanic origin; volcanicity. [R.]
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Volcanization
Vol`can*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of volcanizing, or the state of being volcanized; the process of undergoing volcanic heat, and being affected by it.
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Volcanize
Vol"can*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Volcanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Volcanizing (?).] [Cf. Vulcanize.] To subject to, or cause to undergo, volcanic heat, and to be affected by its action.
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Volcano
Vol*ca"no (?), n.; pl. Volcanoes (#). [It. volcano, vulcano, fr. L. Vulcanus Vulkan, the god of fire. See Vulkan.] (Geol.) A mountain or hill, usually more or less conical in form, from which lava, cinders, steam, sulphur gases, and the like, are ejected; -- often popularly called a burning mountain.
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&hand_; Volcanoes include many of the most conspicuous and lofty mountains of the earth, as Mt. Vesuvius in Italy (4,000 ft. high), Mt. Loa in Hawaii (14,000 ft.), Cotopaxi in South America (nearly 20,000 ft.), which are examples of active volcanoes. The crater of a volcano is usually a pit-shaped cavity, often of great size. The summit crater of Mt. Loa has a maximum length of 13,000 ft., and a depth of nearly 800 feet. Beside the chief crater, a volcano may have a number of subordinate craters.
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Vole
Vole (?), n. [F.] A deal at cards that draws all the tricks. Swift.
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Vole
Vole, v. i. (Card Playing) To win all the tricks by a vole. Pope.
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Vole
Vole, n. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of micelike rodents belonging to Arvicola and allied genera of the subfamily Arvicolinae. They have a thick head, short ears, and a short hairy tail.
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&hand_; The water vole, or water rat, of Europe (Arvicola amphibius) is a common large aquatic species. The short-tailed field vole (Arvicola agrestis) of Northern and Central Europe, and Asia, the Southern field vole (Arvicola arvalis), and the Siberian root vole (Arvicola oeconomus), are important European species. The common species of the Eastern United States (Arvicola riparius) (called also meadow mouse) and the prairie mouse (Arvicola austerus) are abundant, and often injurious to vegetation. Other species are found in Canada.
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Volery
Vol"er*y (?), n. [F. volerie a flying, volière a large bird cage, fr. voler to fly, L. volare. See Volatile.]
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1. A flight of birds. [R.] Locke.
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2. A large bird cage; an aviary.
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Volge
Volge (?), n. [L. vulgus.] The common sort of people; the crowd; the mob. [Obs.] Fuller.
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Volitable
Vol"i*ta*ble (?), a. Volatilizable. [Obs.]
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Volitation
Vol`i*ta"tion (?), n. [L. volitare, volitatum, to fly to and fro, v. freq. from volare to fly.] The act of flying; flight. [R.] Sir T. Browne.
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Volitient
Vo*li"tient (?), a. [See Volition.] Exercising the will; acting from choice; willing, or having power to will. “What I do, I do volitient, not obedient.” Mrs. Browning.
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Volition
Vo*li"tion (?), n. [F., fr. L. volo I will, velle to will, be willing. See Voluntary.] 1. The act of willing or choosing; the act of forming a purpose; the exercise of the will.
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Volition is the actual exercise of the power the mind has to order the consideration of any idea, or the forbearing to consider it. Locke.
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Volition is an act of the mind, knowingly exerting that dominion it takes itself to have over any part of the man, by employing it in, or withholding it from, any particular action. Locke.
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2. The result of an act or exercise of choosing or willing; a state of choice.
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3. The power of willing or determining; will.
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Syn. -- Will; choice; preference; determination; purpose. -- Volition, Choice. Choice is the familiar, and volition the scientific, term for the same state of the will; viz., an “elective preference.” When we have “made up our minds” (as we say) to a thing, i. e., have a settled state of choice respecting it, that state is called an immanent volition; when we put forth any particular act of choice, that act is called an emanent, or executive, or imperative, volition. When an immanent, or settled state of, choice, is one which controls or governs a series of actions, we call that state a predominant volition; while we give the name of subordinate volitions to those particular acts of choice which carry into effect the object sought for by the governing or “predominant volition.” See Will.
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Volitional
Vo*li"tion*al (?), a. Belonging or relating to volition. “The volitional impulse.” Bacon.
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Volitive
Vol"i*tive (?), a. [See Volition.] 1. Of or pertaining to the will; originating in the will; having the power to will. “They not only perfect the intellectual faculty, but the volitive.” Sir M. Hale.
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2. (Gram.) Used in expressing a wish or permission as, volitive proposition.
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Volkslied
Volks"lied (?), n.; pl. Volkslieder (#). [G.] (Mus.) A popular song, or national air.
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Volksraad
Volks"raad` (?), n. [D.] A legislative assembly or parliament of any one of several countries colonized by the Dutch, esp. that of the South African Republic, or the Transvaal, and that of the Orange Free State.
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Volley
Vol"ley (?), n.; pl. Volleys (#). [F. volée; flight, a volley, or discharge of several guns, fr. voler to fly, L. volare. See Volatile.] 1. A flight of missiles, as arrows, bullets, or the like; the simultaneous discharge of a number of small arms.
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Fiery darts in flaming volleys flew. Milton.
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Each volley tells that thousands cease to breathe. Byron.
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2. A burst or emission of many things at once; as, a volley of words. “This volley of oaths.” B. Jonson.
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Rattling nonsense in full volleys breaks. Pope.
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3. (a) (Tennis) A return of the ball before it touches the ground. (b) (Cricket) A sending of the ball full to the top of the wicket.
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Half volley. (a) (Tennis) A return of the ball immediately after is has touched the ground. (b) (Cricket) A sending of the ball so that after touching the ground it flies towards the top of the wicket. R. A. Proctor. -- On the volley, at random. [Obs.] “What we spake on the volley begins work.” Massinger. -- Volley gun, a gun with several barrels for firing a number of shots simultaneously; a kind of mitrailleuse.
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Volley
Vol"ley (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Volleyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Volleying.] To discharge with, or as with, a volley.
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Volley
Vol"ley, v. i. 1. To be thrown out, or discharged, at once; to be discharged in a volley, or as if in a volley; to make a volley or volleys. Tennyson.
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2. (a) (Tennis) To return the ball before it touches the ground. (b) (Cricket) To send the ball full to the top of the wicket. R. A. Proctor.
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Volley ball
Vol"ley ball. A game played by volleying a large inflated ball with the hands over a net 7 ft. 6 in. high.
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Volleyed
Vol"leyed (?), a. Discharged with a sudden burst, or as if in a volley; as, volleyed thunder.
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Volost
Vo"lost (?), n. [Russ. volost'.] In the greater part of Russia, a division for local government consisting of a group of mirs, or village communities; a canton.
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Volow
Vol"ow (?), v. t. [From the answer, Volo I will, in the baptismal service. Richardson (Dict.).] To baptize; -- used in contempt by the Reformers. [Obs.] Tyndale.
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Volplane
Vol"plane` (?), v. i. [F. vol plané act of volplaning; vol flight + plané, p.p.; cf. planer to hover.] (Aeronautics) To glide in a flying machine.
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Volt
Volt (?), n. [F. volte; cf. It. volta. See Vault.]
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1. (Man.) A circular tread; a gait by which a horse going sideways round a center makes two concentric tracks.
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2. (Fencing) A sudden movement to avoid a thrust.
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Volt
Volt, n. [After Alessandro Volta, the Italian electrician.] (Elec.) The unit of electro-motive force; -- defined by the International Electrical Congress in 1893 and by United States Statute as, that electro-motive force which steadily applied to a conductor whose resistance is one ohm will produce a current of one ampère. It is practically equivalent to 1000/1434 the electro-motive force of a standard Clark's cell at a temperature of 15° C.
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Volta
Vol"ta (?), n.; pl. Volte (#). [It. volta a turn, turning, a time. See Volt a tread.] (Mus.) A turning; a time; -- chiefly used in phrases signifying that the part is to be repeated one, two, or more times; as, una volta, once. Seconda volta, second time, points to certain modifications in the close of a repeated strain.
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Volta-electric
Vol"ta-e*lec"tric (?), a. Of or pertaining to voltaic electricity, or voltaism.
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Volta-electrometer
Vol`ta-e`lec*trom"e*ter (?), n. An instrument for the exact measurement of electric currents.
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Voltage
Vol"tage (?), n. (Elec.) Electric potential or potential difference, expressed in volts.
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Voltagraphy
Vol*tag"ra*phy (?), n. [Voltaic + -graphy.] In electrotypy, the act or art of copying, in metals deposited by electrolytic action, a form or pattern which is made the negative electrode. [R.]
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Voltaic
Vol*ta"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. voltaïque, It. voltaico.]
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1. Of or pertaining to Alessandro Volta, who first devised apparatus for developing electric currents by chemical action, and established this branch of electric science; discovered by Volta; as, voltaic electricity.
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2. Of or pertaining to voltaism, or voltaic electricity; as, voltaic induction; the voltaic arc.
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&hand_; See the Note under Galvanism.
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Voltaic arc, a luminous arc, of intense brilliancy, formed between carbon points as electrodes by the passage of a powerful voltaic current. -- Voltaic battery, an apparatus variously constructed, consisting of a series of plates or pieces of dissimilar metals, as copper and zinc, arranged in pairs, and subjected to the action of a saline or acid solution, by which a current of electricity is generated whenever the two poles, or ends of the series, are connected by a conductor; a galvanic battery. See Battery, 4. (b), and Note. -- Voltaic circuit. See under Circuit. -- Voltaic couple or Voltaic element, a single pair of the connected plates of a battery. -- Voltaic electricity. See the Note under Electricity. -- Voltaic pile, a kind of voltaic battery consisting of alternate disks of dissimilar metals, separated by moistened cloth or paper. See 5th Pile. -- Voltaic protection of metals, the protection of a metal exposed to the corrosive action of sea water, saline or acid liquids, or the like, by associating it with a metal which is positive to it, as when iron is galvanized, or coated with zinc.
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Voltairean
Vol*tair"e*an (?), a. [Cf. F. voltairien.] Of or relating to Voltaire, the French author. J. Morley.
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Voltairism
Vol*tair"ism (?), n. The theories or practice of Voltaire. J. Morley.
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Voltaism
Vol"ta*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. voltaïsme.] (Physics) That form of electricity which is developed by the chemical action between metals and different liquids; voltaic electricity; also, the science which treats of this form of electricity; -- called also galvanism, from Galvani, on account of his experiments showing the remarkable influence of this agent on animals.
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Voltameter
Vol*tam"e*ter (?), n. [Voltaic + -meter.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the voltaic electricity passing through it, by its effect in decomposing water or some other chemical compound acting as an electrolyte.
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Voltammeter
Volt*am"me`ter (?), n. A wattmeter.
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Volt ampere
Volt-amp
Volt ampère. (Elec.) A unit of electric measurement equal to the product of a volt and an ampere. For direct current it is a measure of power and is the same as a watt; for alternating current it is a measure of apparent power.
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Voltaplast
Vol"ta*plast (?), n. [Voltaic + Gr. &unr_; molded.] A form of voltaic, or galvanic, battery suitable for use electrotyping. G. Francis.
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Voltatype
Vol"ta*type (?), n. [Voltaic + type.] An electrotype. [R.]
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Volti
Vol"ti (?), imperative. [It., fr. voltare to turn. See Volt a tread.] (Mus.) Turn, that is, turn over the leaf.
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Volti subito [It.] (Mus.), turn over quickly.
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Voltigeur
Vol`ti*geur (?), n. [F., fr. voltiger to vault, It. volteggiare. See Volt a tread.] 1. A tumbler; a leaper or vaulter.
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2. (Mil.) One of a picked company of irregular riflemen in each regiment of the French infantry.
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Voltmeter
Volt"me`ter (?), n. [2d volt + -meter.] (elec.) An instrument for measuring in volts the differences of potential between different points of an electrical circuit.
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Voltzite
Voltz"ite (?), n. [So named in honor of Voltz, a French engineer.] (Min.) An oxysulphide of lead occurring in implanted spherical globules of a yellowish or brownish color; -- called also voltzine.
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Volubile
Volubilate
{ Vo*lu"bi*late (?), Vol"u*bile (?)}, a. [See Voluble.] Turning, or whirling; winding; twining; voluble.
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Volubility
Vol`u*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. volubilitas: cf. F. volubilité.] The quality or state of being voluble (in any of the senses of the adjective).
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Voluble
Vol"u*ble (?), a. [L. volubilis, fr. volvere, volutum, to roll, to turn round; akin to Gr. &unr_; to infold, to inwrap, &unr_; to roll, G. welle a wave: cf. F. voluble. Cf. F. Well of water, Convolvulus, Devolve, Involve, Revolt, Vault an arch, Volume, Volute.]
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1. Easily rolling or turning; easily set in motion; apt to roll; rotating; as, voluble particles of matter.
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2. Moving with ease and smoothness in uttering words; of rapid speech; nimble in speaking; glib; as, a flippant, voluble, tongue.
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[Cassio,] a knave very voluble. Shak.
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&hand_; Voluble was used formerly to indicate readiness of speech merely, without any derogatory suggestion. “A grave and voluble eloquence.” Bp. Hacket.
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3. Changeable; unstable; fickle. [Obs.]
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4. (Bot.) Having the power or habit of turning or twining; as, the voluble stem of hop plants.
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Voluble stem (Bot.), a stem that climbs by winding, or twining, round another body.
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-- Vol"u*ble*ness, n. -- Vol"u*bly, adv.
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Volume
Vol"ume (?), n. [F., from L. volumen a roll of writing, a book, volume, from volvere, volutum, to roll. See Voluble.] 1. A roll; a scroll; a written document rolled up for keeping or for use, after the manner of the ancients. [Obs.]
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The papyrus, and afterward the parchment, was joined together [by the ancients] to form one sheet, and then rolled upon a staff into a volume (volumen). Encyc. Brit.
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2. Hence, a collection of printed sheets bound together, whether containing a single work, or a part of a work, or more than one work; a book; a tome; especially, that part of an extended work which is bound up together in one cover; as, a work in four volumes.
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An odd volume of a set of books bears not the value of its proportion to the set. Franklin.
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4. Anything of a rounded or swelling form resembling a roll; a turn; a convolution; a coil.
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So glides some trodden serpent on the grass,
And long behind wounded volume trails.
Dryden.
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Undulating billows rolling their silver volumes. W. Irving.
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4. Dimensions; compass; space occupied, as measured by cubic units, that is, cubic inches, feet, yards, etc.; mass; bulk; as, the volume of an elephant's body; a volume of gas.
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5. (Mus.) Amount, fullness, quantity, or caliber of voice or tone.
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Atomic volume, Molecular volume (Chem.), the ratio of the atomic and molecular weights divided respectively by the specific gravity of the substance in question. -- Specific volume (Physics & Chem.), the quotient obtained by dividing unity by the specific gravity; the reciprocal of the specific gravity. It is equal (when the specific gravity is referred to water at 4° C. as a standard) to the number of cubic centimeters occupied by one gram of the substance.
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Volumed
Vol"umed (?), a. 1. Having the form of a volume, or roil; as, volumed mist.
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The distant torrent's rushing sound
Tells where the volumed cataract doth roll.
Byron.
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2. Having volume, or bulk; massive; great.
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Volumenometer
Vol`u*me*nom"e*ter (?), n. [L. volumen volume + -meter.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the volume of a body, especially a solid, by means of the difference in tension caused by its presence and absence in a confined portion of air.
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Volumenometry
Vol`u*me*nom"e*try (?), n. (Chem. & Physics) The method or process of measuring volumes by means of the volumenometer.
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Volumescope
Vo*lu"me*scope (?), n. [Volume + -scope.] (Physics) An instrument consisting essentially of a glass tube provided with a graduated scale, for exhibiting to the eye the changes of volume of a gas or gaseous mixture resulting from chemical action, etc.
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Volumeter
Vo*lu"me*ter (?), n. [Cf. F. volumètre. See Volumetric.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the volumes of gases or liquids by introducing them into a vessel of known capacity.
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Volumetric
Vol`u*met"ric (?), a. [Volume + -metric.] Of or pertaining to the measurement of volume.
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Volumetric analysis (Chem.), that system of the quantitative analysis of solutions which employs definite volumes of standardized solutions of reagents, as measured by burettes, pipettes, etc.; also, the analysis of gases by volume, as by the eudiometer.
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Volumetrical
Vol`u*met"ric*al (?), a. Volumetric. -- Vol`u*met"ric*al*ly, adv.
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Voluminous
Vo*lu"mi*nous (?), a. [L. voluminosus: cf. F. volumineux.] Of or pertaining to volume or volumes. Specifically: --
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(a) Consisting of many folds, coils, or convolutions.
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But ended foul in many a scaly fold,
Voluminous and vast.
Milton.
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Over which dusky draperies are hanging, and voluminous curtains have long since fallen. De Quincey.
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(b) Of great volume, or bulk; large. B. Jonson.
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(c) Consisting of many volumes or books; as, the collections of Muratori are voluminous.
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(d) Having written much, or produced many volumes; copious; diffuse; as, a voluminous writer.
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-- Vo*lu"mi*nous*ly, adv. -- Vo*lu"mi*nous*ness, n.
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Volumist
Vol"u*mist (?), n. One who writes a volume; an author. [Obs.] Milton.
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Voluntarily
Vol"un*ta*ri*ly (?), adv. In a voluntary manner; of one's own will; spontaneously.
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Voluntariness
Vol"un*ta*ri*ness, n. The quality or state of being voluntary; spontaneousness; specifically, the quality or state of being free in the exercise of one's will.
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Voluntarism
Vol"un*ta*rism (?), n. 1. (Philosophy) Any theory which conceives will to be the dominant factor in experience or in the constitution of the world; -- contrasted with intellectualism. Schopenhauer and Fichte are typical exponents of the two types of metaphysical voluntarism, Schopenhauer teaching that the evolution of the universe is the activity of a blind and irrational will, Fichte holding that the intelligent activity of the ego is the fundamental fact of reality.
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2. The principle or practice of depending on volunteers to support institutions or perform some desired action.
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3. A political philosophy opposed to dependence on governmental action or support for social services that might be performed by private groups.
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Voluntary
Vol"un*ta*ry (?), a. [L. voluntarius, fr. voluntas will, choice, from the root of velle to will, p. pr. volens; akin to E. will: cf. F. volontaire, Of. also voluntaire. See Will, v. t., and cf. Benevolent, Volition, Volunteer.] 1. Proceeding from the will; produced in or by an act of choice.
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That sin or guilt pertains exclusively to voluntary action is the true principle of orthodoxy. N. W. Taylor.
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2. Unconstrained by the interference of another; unimpelled by the influence of another; not prompted or persuaded by another; done of his or its own accord; spontaneous; acting of one's self, or of itself; free.
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Our voluntary service he requires. Milton.
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She fell to lust a voluntary prey. Pope.
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3. Done by design or intention; intentional; purposed; intended; not accidental; as, if a man kills another by lopping a tree, it is not voluntary manslaughter.
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4. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to the will; subject to, or regulated by, the will; as, the voluntary motions of an animal, such as the movements of the leg or arm (in distinction from involuntary motions, such as the movements of the heart); the voluntary muscle fibers, which are the agents in voluntary motion.
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5. Endowed with the power of willing; as, man is a voluntary agent.
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God did not work as a necessary, but a voluntary, agent, intending beforehand, and decreeing with himself, that which did outwardly proceed from him. Hooker.
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6. (Law) Free; without compulsion; according to the will, consent, or agreement, of a party; without consideration; gratuitous; without valuable consideration.
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7. (Eccl.) Of or pertaining to voluntaryism; as, a voluntary church, in distinction from an established or state church.
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Voluntary affidavit or Voluntary oath (Law), an affidavit or oath made in an extrajudicial matter. -- Voluntary conveyance (Law), a conveyance without valuable consideration. -- Voluntary escape (Law), the escape of a prisoner by the express consent of the sheriff. -- Voluntary jurisdiction. (Eng. Eccl. Law) See Contentious jurisdiction, under Contentious. -- Voluntary waste. (Law) See Waste, n., 4.
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Syn. -- See Spontaneous.
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Voluntary
Vol"un*ta*ry, n.; pl. Voluntaries (&unr_;). 1. One who engages in any affair of his own free will; a volunteer. [R.] Shak.
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2. (Mus.) A piece played by a musician, often extemporarily, according to his fancy; specifically, an organ solo played before, during, or after divine service.
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3. (Eccl.) One who advocates voluntaryism.
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Voluntaryism
Vol"un*ta*ry*ism (?), n. (Eccl.) The principle of supporting a religious system and its institutions by voluntary association and effort, rather than by the aid or patronage of the state.
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Volunteer
Vol`un*teer" (?), n. [F. volontaire. See Voluntary, a.] 1. One who enters into, or offers for, any service of his own free will.
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2. (Mil.) One who enters into service voluntarily, but who, when in service, is subject to discipline and regulations like other soldiers; -- opposed to conscript; specifically, a voluntary member of the organized militia of a country as distinguished from the standing army.
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3. (Law) A grantee in a voluntary conveyance; one to whom a conveyance is made without valuable consideration; a party, other than a wife or child of the grantor, to whom, or for whose benefit, a voluntary conveyance is made. Burrill.
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4. A plant, especially a flowering plant in a garden, that appears spontaneously without having been intentionally planted.
[RDH]

Volunteer
Vol`un*teer", a. Of or pertaining to a volunteer or volunteers; consisting of volunteers; voluntary; as, volunteer companies; volunteer advice.
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Volunteer
Vol`un*teer", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Volunteered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Volunteering.] To offer or bestow voluntarily, or without solicitation or compulsion; as, to volunteer one's services.
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Volunteer
Vol`un*teer", v. i. To enter into, or offer for, any service of one's own free will, without solicitation or compulsion; as, he volunteered in that undertaking.
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Volunteer navy
Vol`un*teer" na"vy. A navy of vessels fitted out and manned by volunteers who sail under the flag of the regular navy and subject to naval discipline. Prussia in 1870, in the Franco-German war, organized such a navy, which was commanded by merchant seamen with temporary commissions, with the claim (in which England acquiesced) that it did not come within the meaning of the term privateer.
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Volunteers of America
Vol`un*teers" of America. A religious and philanthropic organization, similar to the Salvation Army, founded (1896) by Commander and Mrs. Ballington Booth.
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Volunteer State
Volunteer State. Tennessee; -- a nickname.
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Volupere
Vol"u*pere (?), n. [Cf. Envelop.] A woman's cap. [Obs.] Chaucer.
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Voluptuary
Vo*lup"tu*a*ry (?; 135), n.; pl. Voluptuaries (#). [L. voluptuarius or voluptarius, fr. voluptas pleasure.] A voluptuous person; one who makes his physical enjoyment his chief care; one addicted to luxury, and the gratification of sensual appetites.
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A good-humored, but hard-hearted, voluptuary. Sir W. Scott.
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Syn. -- Sensualist; epicure.
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Voluptuary
Vo*lup"tu*a*ry, a. Voluptuous; luxurious.
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Voluptuous
Vo*lup"tu*ous (?), a. [F. voluptueux, L. voluptuosus, fr. voluptas pleasure, volup agreeably, delightfully; probably akin to Gr. &unr_; to hope, &unr_; hope, and to L. velle to wish. See Voluntary.] 1. Full of delight or pleasure, especially that of the senses; ministering to sensuous or sensual gratification; exciting sensual desires; luxurious; sensual.
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Music arose with its voluptuous swell. Byron.
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Sink back into your voluptuous repose. De Quincey.
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2. Given to the enjoyments of luxury and pleasure; indulging to excess in sensual gratifications. “The jolly and voluptuous livers.” Atterbury.
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Softened with pleasure and voluptuous life. Milton.
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-- Vo*lup"tu*ous*ly, adv. -- Vo*lup"tu*ous*ness, n.
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Volupty
Vo*lup"ty (?), n. [Cf. F. volupté pleasure. See Voluptuous.] Voluptuousness. [Obs.]
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Voluta
Vo*lu"ta (?), n.; pl. E. Volutas (#), L. Volutae (#). [L., a spiral scroll. See Volute.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of large, handsome marine gastropods belonging to Voluta and allied genera.
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Volutation
Vol`u*ta"tion (?), n. [L. volutatio, from volutare to roll, wallow, verb freq. volvere, volutum, to roll.] A rolling of a body; a wallowing. [R.] Sir T. Browne.
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Volute
Vo*lute" (?), n. [F. volute (cf. It. voluta), L. voluta, from volvere, volutum, to roll. See Voluble.]
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1. (Arch.) A spiral scroll which forms the chief feature of the Ionic capital, and which, on a much smaller scale, is a feature in the Corinthian and Composite capitals. See Illust. of Capital, also Helix, and Stale.
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2. (Zool.) A spiral turn, as in certain shells.
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3. (Zool.) Any voluta.
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Volute spiring, a spring formed of a spiral scroll of plate, rod, or wire, extended or extensible in the direction of the axis of the coil, in which direction its elastic force is exerted and employed.
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Voluted
Vo*lut"ed, a. Having a volute, or spiral scroll.
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Volution
Vo*lu"tion (?), n. [Cf. LL. volutio an arch, vault.]
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1. A spiral turn or wreath.
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2. (Zool.) A whorl of a spiral shell.
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Volva
Vol"va (?), n. [L. volva, vulva, covering.] (Bot.) A saclike envelope of certain fungi, which bursts open as the plant develops.
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Volvox
Vol"vox (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of minute, pale-green, globular, organisms, about one fiftieth of an inch in diameter, found rolling through water, the motion being produced by minute colorless cilia. It has been considered as belonging to the flagellate Infusoria, but is now referred to the vegetable kingdom, and each globule is considered a colony of many individuals. The commonest species is Volvox globator, often called globe animalcule.
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Volvulus
Vol"vu*lus (?), n. [NL., fr. L. volvere to turn about, to roll.] (Med.) (a) The spasmodic contraction of the intestines which causes colic. (b) Any twisting or displacement of the intestines causing obstruction; ileus. See Ileus.
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Volyer
Vol"yer (?), n. (Zool.) A lurcher. [Prov. Eng.]
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Vomer
Vo"mer (?), n. [L., a plowshare.] (Anat.) (a) A bone, or one of a pair of bones, beneath the ethmoid region of the skull, forming a part a part of the partition between the nostrils in man and other mammals. (b) The pygostyle.
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Vomerine
Vo"mer*ine (?), a. Of or pertaining to the vomer.
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Vomica
Vom"i*ca (?), n. [L., fr. vomere to throw up, vomit.] (Med.) (a) An abscess cavity in the lungs. (b) An abscess in any other parenchymatous organ.
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Vomicine
Vom"i*cine (?), n. [From nux vomica.] (Chem.) See Brucine.
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Vomic nut
Vom"ic nut` (?). [Cf. F. noix vomique.] Same as Nux vomica.
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Vomit
Vom"it (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Vomited; p. pr. & vb. n. Vomiting.] [Cf. L. vomere, vomitum, and v. freq. vomitare. See Vomit, n.] To eject the contents of the stomach by the mouth; to puke; to spew.
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Vomit
Vom"it, v. t. 1. To throw up; to eject from the stomach through the mouth; to disgorge; to puke; to spew out; -- often followed by up or out.
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The fish . . . vomited out Jonah upon the dry land. Jonah ii. 10.
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2. Hence, to eject from any hollow place; to belch forth; to emit; to throw forth; as, volcanoes vomit flame, stones, etc.
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Like the sons of Vulcan, vomit smoke. Milton.
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Vomit
Vom"it, n. [L. vomitus, from vomere, vomitum, to vomit; akin to Gr. &unr_;, Skr. vam, Lith. vemiti. Cf. Emetic, Vomito.]
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1. Matter that is vomited; esp., matter ejected from the stomach through the mouth.
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Like vomit from his yawning entrails poured. Sandys.
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2. (Med.) That which excites vomiting; an emetic.
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He gives your Hollander a vomit. Shak.
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Black vomit. (Med.) See in the Vocabulary. -- Vomit nut, nux vomica.
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Vomiting
Vom"it*ing, n. The spasmodic ejection of matter from the stomach through the mouth.
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Vomition
Vo*mi"tion (?), n. [L. vomitio.] The act or power of vomiting. Grew.
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Vomitive
Vom"i*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. vomitif.] Causing the ejection of matter from the stomach; emetic.
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Vomito
Vo*mi"to (?), n. [Sp. vómito, fr. L. vomitus. See Vomit, n.] (Med.) The yellow fever in its worst form, when it is usually attended with black vomit. See Black vomit.
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Vomitory
Vom"i*to*ry (?), a. [L. vomitorious.] Causing vomiting; emetic; vomitive.
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Vomitory
Vom"i*to*ry, n.; pl. Vomitories (&unr_;). 1. An emetic; a vomit. Harvey.
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2. [L. vomitorium.] (Arch.) A principal door of a large ancient building, as of an amphitheater.
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Sixty-four vomitories . . . poured forth the immense multitude. Gibbon.
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Vomiturition
Vom`i*tu*ri"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. vomiturition.] (Med.) (a) An ineffectual attempt to vomit. (b) The vomiting of but little matter; also, that vomiting which is effected with little effort. Dunglison.
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Vondsira
Vond*si"ra (?), n. (Zool.) Same as Vansire.
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Voodoo
Voo"doo (?), n. 1. See Voodooism.
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2. One who practices voodooism; a negro sorcerer.
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Voodoo
Voo"doo, a. Of or pertaining to voodooism, or a voodoo; as, voodoo incantations.
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Voodoo economics
Voo"doo economics, n. (Politics) an economic hypothesis, proposed by President Ronald Regan, that large cuts in tax rates would so stimulate the economy that the tax revenue on the increases in business and personal income would offset the anticipated tax revenue losses, so that such tax cuts would not increasing the federal budget deficit. Its believers do not consider the actual massive deficit increases subsequent to the 1982-83 tax cut as being caused by the tax cut itself, but by other governmental policies. This hypothesis was graphically illustrated by the Laffer curve.
[PJC]

Voodooism
Voo"doo*ism (?), n. [Probably (through Creole French vaudoux a negro sorcerer) fr. F. Vaudois Waldensian, because the Waldenses were accused of sorcery.] A degraded form of superstition and sorcery, said to include human sacrifices and cannibalism in some of its rites. It is prevalent among the negroes of Haiti, and to some extent in the United States, and is regarded as a relic of African barbarism.
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Voortreker
Voor"trek`er (?), n. [D. (in South Africa).] One who treks before or first; a pioneer. [South Africa]
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Voracious
Vo*ra"cious (?), a. [L. vorax, -acis, fr. vorare to devour; akin to Gr. &unr_; meat, food, &unr_; to devour, Skr. gar. Cf. Devour.] Greedy in eating; very hungry; eager to devour or swallow; ravenous; gluttonous; edacious; rapacious; as, a voracious man or appetite; a voracious gulf or whirlpool. Dampier. -- Vo*ra"cious*ly, adv. -- Vo*ra"cious*ness, n.
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Voracity
Vo*rac"i*ty (?), n. [L. voracitas: cf. F. voracité.] The quality of being voracious; voraciousness.
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Voraginous
Vo*rag"i*nous (?), a. [L. voraginosus, fr. vorago an abyss, fr. vorare to swallow up.] Pertaining to a gulf; full of gulfs; hence, devouring. [R.] Mallet.
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Vortex
Vor"tex (?), n.; pl. E. Vortexes (#), L. Vortices (#). [L. vortex, vertex, -icis, fr. vortere, vertere, to turn. See Vertex.]
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1. A mass of fluid, especially of a liquid, having a whirling or circular motion tending to form a cavity or vacuum in the center of the circle, and to draw in towards the center bodies subject to its action; the form assumed by a fluid in such motion; a whirlpool; an eddy.
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2. (Cartesian System) A supposed collection of particles of very subtile matter, endowed with a rapid rotary motion around an axis which was also the axis of a sun or a planet. Descartes attempted to account for the formation of the universe, and the movements of the bodies composing it, by a theory of vortices.
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3. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small Turbellaria belonging to Vortex and allied genera. See Illustration in Appendix.
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Vortex atom (Chem.), a hypothetical ring-shaped mass of elementary matter in continuous vortical motion. It was conveniently regarded in certain early mathematical models as the typical form and structure of the chemical atom, but is no longer considered a useful model, having been superseded by quantum mechanics. -- Vortex wheel, a kind of turbine.
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Vortex filament
Vor"tex fil"a*ment. A vortex tube of infinitesimal cross section.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vortex fringe
Vor"tex fringe. The region immediately surrounding a disk moving flatwise through air; -- so called because the air has a cyclic motion as in vortex ring.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vortex line
Vortex line. A line, within a rotating fluid, whose tangent at every point is the instantaneous axis of rotation as that point of the fluid.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vortex ring
Vortex ring. (Physics) A ring-shaped mass of moving fluid which, by virtue of its motion of rotation around an axis disposed in circular form, attains a more or less distinct separation from the surrounding medium and has many of the properties of a solid.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vortex theory
Vortex theory. (Chem. & Physics) The theory, advanced by Thomson (Lord Kelvin) on the basis of investigation by Helmholtz, that the atoms are vortically moving ring-shaped masses (or masses of other forms having a similar internal motion) of a homogeneous, incompressible, frictionless fluid. Various properties of such atoms (vortex atoms) can be mathematically deduced. This theory is now (1998) obsolete, and has been superseded by quantum mechanics, which provides more accurate and detailed explanations of atomic behavior.
[Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]

Vortex tube
Vortex tube. (Physics) An imaginary tube within a rotating fluid, formed by drawing the vortex lines through all points of a closed curve.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Vortical
Vor"ti*cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a vortex or vortexes; resembling a vortex in form or motion; whirling; as, a vortical motion. -- Vor"ti*cal*ly, adv.
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Vorticel
Vor"ti*cel (?), n. [Cf. F. vorticelle. See Vortex.] (Zool.) A vorticella.
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Vorticella
Vor`ti*cel"la (?), n.; pl. E. Vorticellas (&unr_;), L. Vorticellae (&unr_;). [NL., dim. fr. L. vortex. See Vortex.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of ciliated Infusoria belonging to Vorticella and many other genera of the family Vorticellidae. They have a more or less bell-shaped body with a circle of vibrating cilia around the oral disk. Most of the species have slender, contractile stems, either simple or branched.
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Vorticose
Vor"ti*cose` (?), a. [L. vorticosus.] Vortical; whirling; as, a vorticose motion.
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Vortiginous
Vor*tig"i*nous (?), a. [Cf. Vertiginous.] Moving rapidly round a center; vortical. [R.] Cowper.
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Votaress
Vo"ta*ress (?), n. [See Votary, n.] A woman who is a votary. Shak.
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Votarist
Vo"ta*rist (?), n. [See Votary.] A votary.
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Like a sad votarist in palmer's weed. Milton.
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Votary
Vo"ta*ry (?), a. [From L. votus, p. p. vovere to vow, to devote. See Vote, Vow.] Consecrated by a vow or promise; consequent on a vow; devoted; promised.
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Votary resolution is made equipollent to custom. Bacon.
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Votary
Vo"ta*ry, n.; pl. Votaries (&unr_;). One devoted, consecrated, or engaged by a vow or promise; hence, especially, one devoted, given, or addicted, to some particular service, worship, study, or state of life. “You are already love's firm votary.” Shak.
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'T was coldness of the votary, not the prayer, that was in fault. Bp. Fell.
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But thou, my votary, weepest thou? Emerson.
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Vote
Vote (?), n. [L. votum a vow, wish, will, fr. vovere, votum, to vow: cf. F. vote. See Vow.]
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1. An ardent wish or desire; a vow; a prayer. [Obs.] Massinger.
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2. A wish, choice, or opinion, of a person or a body of persons, expressed in some received and authorized way; the expression of a wish, desire, will, preference, or choice, in regard to any measure proposed, in which the person voting has an interest in common with others, either in electing a person to office, or in passing laws, rules, regulations, etc.; suffrage.
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3. That by means of which will or preference is expressed in elections, or in deciding propositions; voice; a ballot; a ticket; as, a written vote.
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The freeman casting with unpurchased hand
The vote that shakes the turrets of the land.
Holmes.
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4. Expression of judgment or will by a majority; legal decision by some expression of the minds of a number; as, the vote was unanimous; a vote of confidence.
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5. Votes, collectively; as, the Tory vote; the labor vote.
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Casting vote, Cumulative vote, etc. See under Casting, Cumulative, etc.
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Vote
Vote (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Voted; p. pr. & vb. n. Voting.] [Cf. F. voter.] To express or signify the mind, will, or preference, either viva voce, or by ballot, or by other authorized means, as in electing persons to office, in passing laws, regulations, etc., or in deciding on any proposition in which one has an interest with others.
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The vote for a duelist is to assist in the prostration of justice, and, indirectly, to encourage the crime. L. Beecher.
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To vote on large principles, to vote honestly, requires a great amount of information. F. W. Robertson.
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Vote
Vote, v. t. 1. To choose by suffrage; to elec&unr_;; as, to vote a candidate into office.
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2. To enact, establish, grant, determine, etc., by a formal vote; as, the legislature voted the resolution.
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Parliament voted them one hundred thousand pounds. Swift.
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3. To declare by general opinion or common consent, as if by a vote; as, he was voted a bore. [Colloq.]
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4. To condemn; to devote; to doom. [Obs.] Glanvill.
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Voter
Vot"er (?), n. One who votes; one who has a legal right to vote, or give his suffrage; an elector; a suffragist; as, an independent voter.
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Voting
Vot"ing, a. & n. from Vote, v.
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Voting paper, a form of ballot containing the names of more candidates than there are offices to be filled, the voter making a mark against the preferred names. [Eng.]
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Votist
Vot"ist, n. One who makes a vow. [Obs.] Chapman.
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Votive
Vo"tive (?), a. [L. votivus, fr. votum a vow: cf. F. votif. See Vow.] Given by vow, or in fulfillment of a vow; consecrated by a vow; devoted; as, votive offerings; a votive tablet.Votive incense.” Keble.
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We reached a votive stone, that bears the name
Of Aloys Reding.
Wordsworth.
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Embellishments of flowers and votive garlands. Motley.
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Votive medal, a medal struck in grateful commemoration of some auspicious event. -- Votive offering, an offering in fulfillment of a religious vow, as of one's person or property.
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-- Vo"tive*ly, adv. -- Vo"tive*ness, n.
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Votress
Vo"tress (?), n. A votaress. Dryden.
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Vouch
Vouch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vouched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vouching.] [OE. vouchen, OF. vochier to call, fr. L. vocare to call, fr. vox, vocis, voice. See Voice, and cf. Avouch.]
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1. To call; to summon. [Obs.]
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[They] vouch (as I might say) to their aid the authority of the writers. Sir T. Elyot.
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2. To call upon to witness; to obtest.
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Vouch the silent stars and conscious moon. Dryden.
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3. To warrant; to maintain by affirmations; to attest; to affirm; to avouch.
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They made him ashamed to vouch the truth of the relation, and afterwards to credit it. Atterbury.
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4. To back; to support; to confirm; to establish.
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Me damp horror chilled
At such bold words vouched with a deed so bold.
Milton.
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5. (Law) To call into court to warrant and defend, or to make good a warranty of title.
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He vouches the tenant in tail, who vouches over the common vouchee. Blackstone.
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Syn. -- To obtest; declare; affirm; attest; warrant; confirm; asseverate; aver; protest; assure.
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Vouch
Vouch, v. i. 1. To bear witness; to give testimony or full attestation.
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He will not believe her until the elector of Hanover shall vouch for the truth of what she has . . . affirmed. Swift.
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2. To assert; to aver; to declare. Shak.
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Vouch
Vouch, n. Warrant; attestation. [Obs.]
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The vouch of very malice itself. Shak.
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Vouchee
Vouch*ee" (?), n. (Law) The person who is vouched, or called into court to support or make good his warranty of title in the process of common recovery. Blackstone.
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Voucher
Vouch"er (?), n. 1. One who vouches, or gives witness or full attestation, to anything.
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Will his vouchers vouch him no more? Shak.
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The great writers of that age stand up together as vouchers for one another's reputation. Spectator.
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2. A book, paper, or document which serves to vouch the truth of accounts, or to confirm and establish facts of any kind; also, any acquittance or receipt showing the payment of a debt; as, the merchant's books are his vouchers for the correctness of his accounts; notes, bonds, receipts, and other writings, are used as vouchers in proving facts.
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3. (Law) (a) The act of calling in a person to make good his warranty of title in the old form of action for the recovery of lands. (b) The tenant in a writ of right; one who calls in another to establish his warranty of title. In common recoveries, there may be a single voucher or double vouchers. Blackstone.
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4. A document attesting to a credit against certain defined expenditures; a recipt for prepayment; -- often used in pre-arranged travel plans, to provide evidence of pre-payment of the cost of lodging, transportation, or meals.
[PJC]

Vouchment
Vouch"ment (?), n. A solemn assertion. [R.]
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Vouchor
Vouch"or (?), n. (Law) Same as Voucher, 3 (b).
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Vouchsafe
Vouch*safe" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vouchsafed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vouchsafing.] [Vouch + safe, that is, to vouch or answer for safety.]
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1. To condescend to grant; to concede; to bestow.
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If ye vouchsafe that it be so. Chaucer.
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Shall I vouchsafe your worship a word or two? Shak.
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It is not said by the apostle that God vouchsafed to the heathens the means of salvation. South.
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2. To receive or accept in condescension. [Obs.] Shak.
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Vouchsafe
Vouch*safe", v. i. To condescend; to deign; to yield; to descend or stoop. Chaucer.
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Vouchsafe, O Lord, to keep us this day without sin. Bk. of Com. Prayer.
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Vouchsafe, illustrious Ormond, to behold
What power the charms of beauty had of old.
Dryden.
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Vouchsafement
Vouch*safe"ment (?), n. The act of vouchsafing, or that which is vouchsafed; a gift or grant in condescension. Glanvill.
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Voussoir
Vous`soir" (?), n. [F., akin to voûte an arch, a vault.] (Arch.) One of the wedgelike stones of which an arch is composed.
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Vow
Vow (?), n. [OE. vou, OF. vou, veu, vo, vu, F. v&unr_;u, from L. votum, from vovere, to vow. Cf. Avow, Devout, Vote.]
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1. A solemn promise made to God, or to some deity; an act by which one consecrates or devotes himself, absolutely or conditionally, wholly or in part, for a longer or shorter time, to some act, service, or condition; a devotion of one's possessions; as, a baptismal vow; a vow of poverty. “Nothing . . . that may . . . stain my vow of Nazarite.” Milton.
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I pray thee, let me go and pay my vow. 2 Sam. xv. 7.
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I am combined by a sacred vow. Shak.
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2. Specifically, a promise of fidelity; a pledge of love or affection; as, the marriage vow.
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Knights of love, who never broke their vow;
Firm to their plighted faith.
Dryden.
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Vow
Vow (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vowing.] [OE. vouen, OF. vouer, voer, F. vouer, LL. votare. See Vow, n.]
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1. To give, consecrate, or dedicate to God, or to some deity, by a solemn promise; to devote; to promise solemnly. “When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it.” Eccl. v. 4.
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[Men] that vow a long and weary pilgrimage. Shak.
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2. To assert solemnly; to asseverate.
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Vow
Vow, v. i. To make a vow, or solemn promise.
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Better is it that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou shouldest vow and not pay. Eccl. v. 5.
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Vowel
Vow"el (?), n. [F. voyelle, or an OF. form without y, L. vocalis (sc. littera), from vocalis sounding, from vox, vocis, a voice, sound. See Vocal.] (Phon.) A vocal, or sometimes a whispered, sound modified by resonance in the oral passage, the peculiar resonance in each case giving to each several vowel its distinctive character or quality as a sound of speech; -- distinguished from a consonant in that the latter, whether made with or without vocality, derives its character in every case from some kind of obstructive action by the mouth organs. Also, a letter or character which represents such a sound. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 5, 146-149.
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&hand_; In the English language, the written vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y. The spoken vowels are much more numerous.
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Close vowel. See under Close, a. -- Vowel point. See under Point, n.
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Vowel
Vow"el, a. Of or pertaining to a vowel; vocal.
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Voweled
Vow"eled (?), a. Furnished with vowels. [Written also vowelled.] Dryden.
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Vowelish
Vow"el*ish (?), a. Of the nature of a vowel. [R.] “The power [of w] is always vowelish.” B. Jonson.
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Vowelism
Vow"el*ism (?), n. The use of vowels. [R.]
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Vowelize
Vow"el*ize (?), v. t. To give the quality, sound, or office of a vowel to.
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Vower
Vow"er (?), n. One who makes a vow. Bale.
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Vow-fellow
Vow"-fel`low (?), n. One bound by the same vow as another. [R.] Shak.
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Vox
Vox (?), n. [L. See Voice.] A voice.
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Vox humana (&unr_;) [L., human voice] (Mus.), a reed stop in an organ, made to imitate the human voice.
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Vox angelica
Vox` an*gel"i*ca (?). [L. angelica angelic.] (Music) An organ stop of delicate stringlike quality, having for each finger key a pair of pipes, of which one is tuned slightly sharp to give a wavy effect to their joint tone.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Voyage
Voy"age (?; 48), n. [OE. veage, viage, OF. veage, viage, veiage, voiage, F. voyage, LL. viaticum, fr. L. viaticum traveling money, provision for a journey, from viaticus belonging to a road or journey, fr. via way, akin to E. way. See Way, n., and cf. Convey, Deviate, Devious, Envoy, Trivial, Viaduct, Viaticum.]
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1. Formerly, a passage either by sea or land; a journey, in general; but not chiefly limited to a passing by sea or water from one place, port, or country, to another; especially, a passing or journey by water to a distant place or country.
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I love a sea voyage and a blustering tempest. J. Fletcher.
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So steers the prudent crane
Her annual voyage, borne on winds.
Milton.
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All the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
Shak.
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2. The act or practice of traveling. [Obs.]
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Nations have interknowledge of one another by voyage into foreign parts, or strangers that come to them. Bacon.
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3. Course; way. [Obs.] Shak.
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Voyage
Voy"age, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Voyaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Voyaging (?).] [Cf. F. voyager.] To take a voyage; especially, to sail or pass by water.
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A mind forever
Voyaging through strange seas of thought alone.
Wordsworth.
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Voyage
Voy"age, v. t. To travel; to pass over; to traverse.
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With what pain
[I] voyaged the unreal, vast, unbounded deep.
Milton.
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Voyageable
Voy"age*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. voyageable.] That may be sailed over, as water or air; navigable.
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Voyager
Voy"a*ger (?), n. [Cf. F. voyager traveling.] One who voyages; one who sails or passes by sea or water.
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Voyageur
Voy`a`geur" (?), n. [F., fr. voyager to travel. See Voyage.] A traveler; -- applied in Canada to a man employed by the fur companies in transporting goods by the rivers and across the land, to and from the remote stations in the Northwest.
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Voyol
Voy"ol (?), n. (Naut.) (a) See Viol, 2. (b) The block through which a messenger passes. [Written also viol, and voyal.]
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Vraisemblance
Vrai`sem`blance" (?), n. [F.] The appearance of truth; verisimilitude.
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Vugh
Vugg
{ Vugg, Vugh } (?), n. (Mining) A cavity in a lode; -- called also vogle.
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Vulcan
Vul"can (?), n. [L. Vulcanus, Volcanus: cf. Skr. ulkā a firebrand, meteor. Cf. Volcano.] (Rom. Myth.) The god of fire, who presided over the working of metals; -- answering to the Greek Hephaestus.
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Vulcanian
Vul*ca"ni*an (?), a. [L. Vulcanius.]
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1. Of or pertaining to Vulcan; made by Vulcan; hence, of or pertaining to works in iron or other metals.
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Ingenious allusions to the Vulcanian panoply which Achilles lent to his feebler friend. Macaulay.
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2. (Geol.) Volcanic.
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Vulcanic
Vul*can"ic (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to Vulcan; made by Vulcan; Vulcanian.
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2. Of or pertaining to volcanoes; specifically, relating to the geological theory of the Vulcanists, or Plutonists.
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Vulcanicity
Vul`can*ic"i*ty (?), n. Volcanicity.
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Vulcanism
Vul"can*ism (?), n. Volcanism.
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Vulcanist
Vul"can*ist, n. A volcanist.
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Vulcanite
Vul"can*ite (?), n. Hard rubber produced by vulcanizing with a large proportion of sulphur.
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Vulcanization
Vul`can*i*za"tion (?), n. [See Vulcan.] The act or process of imparting to caoutchouc, gutta-percha, or the like, greater elasticity, durability, or hardness by heating with sulphur under pressure.
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Vulcanize
Vul"can*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vulcanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vulcanizing (?).] To change the properties of, as caoutchouc, or India rubber, by the process of vulcanization.
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Vulcanized fiber, paper, paper pulp, or other fiber, chemically treated, as with metallic chlorides, so as to form a substance resembling ebonite in texture, hardness, etc. Knight. -- Vulcanized rubber, India rubber, vulcanized.
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Vulcanizer
Vul"can*i`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, vulcanizes; esp., an apparatus for vulcanizing caoutchouc.
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Vulcano
Vul*ca"no (?), n. A volcano. [Obs.]
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Vulcanology
Vul`can*ol"o*gy (?), n. [See Vulcan, and -logy.] The science which treats of phenomena due to plutonic action, as in volcanoes, hot springs, etc. [R.]
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Vulcan powder
Vul"can pow"der. A dynamite composed of nitroglycerin (30 parts), sodium nitrate (52.5), charcoal (10.5), and sulphur (7), used in mining and blasting.

Vulgar
Vul"gar (?), a. [L. vulgaris, from vulgus the multitude, the common people; of uncertain origin: cf. F. vulgaire. Cf. Divulge.]
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1. Of or pertaining to the mass, or multitude, of people; common; general; ordinary; public; hence, in general use; vernacular. “As common as any the most vulgar thing to sense. ” Shak.
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Things vulgar, and well-weighed, scarce worth the praise. Milton.
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It might be more useful to the English reader . . . to write in our vulgar language. Bp. Fell.
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The mechanical process of multiplying books had brought the New Testament in the vulgar tongue within the reach of every class. Bancroft.
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2. Belonging or relating to the common people, as distinguished from the cultivated or educated; pertaining to common life; plebeian; not select or distinguished; hence, sometimes, of little or no value. “Like the vulgar sort of market men.” Shak.
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Men who have passed all their time in low and vulgar life. Addison.
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In reading an account of a battle, we follow the hero with our whole attention, but seldom reflect on the
vulgar heaps of slaughter.
Rambler.
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3. Hence, lacking cultivation or refinement; rustic; boorish; also, offensive to good taste or refined feelings; low; coarse; mean; base; as, vulgar men, minds, language, or manners.
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Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. Shak.
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Vulgar fraction. (Arith.) See under Fraction.
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Vulgar
Vul"gar, n. [Cf. F. vulgaire.]
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1. One of the common people; a vulgar person. [Obs.]
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These vile vulgars are extremely proud. Chapman.
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2. The vernacular, or common language. [Obs.]
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Vulgarian
Vul*ga"ri*an (?), n. A vulgar person; one who has vulgar ideas. Used also adjectively.
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Vulgarism
Vul"gar*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. vulgarisme.]
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1. Grossness; rudeness; vulgarity.
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2. A vulgar phrase or expression.
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A fastidious taste will find offense in the occasional vulgarisms, or what we now call “slang,” which not a few of our writers seem to have affected. Coleridge.
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Vulgarity
Vul*gar"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. vulgarité, L. vulgaritas the multitude.]
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1. The quality or state of being vulgar; mean condition of life; the state of the lower classes of society. Sir T. Browne.
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2. Grossness or clownishness of manners of language; absence of refinement; coarseness.
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The reprobate vulgarity of the frequenters of Bartholomew Fair. B. Jonson.
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Vulgarization
Vul`gar*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of making vulgar, or common.
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Vulgarize
Vul"gar*ize (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Vulgarized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Vulgarizing (?).] [Cf. F. vulgariser, LL. vulgarizare.] To make vulgar, or common.
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Exhortation vulgarized by low wit. V. Knox.
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Vulgarly
Vul"gar*ly, adv. In a vulgar manner.
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Vulgarness
Vul"gar*ness, n. The quality of being vulgar.
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Vulgate
Vul"gate (?), n. [NL. vulgata, from L. vulgatus usual, common, p. p. of vulgare to make general, or common, fr. vulgus the multitude: cf. F. vulgate. See Vulgar, a.] An ancient Latin version of the Scripture, and the only version which the Roman Church admits to be authentic; -- so called from its common use in the Latin Church.
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&hand_; The Vulgate was made by Jerome at the close of the 4th century. The Old Testament he translated mostly from the Hebrew and Chaldaic, and the New Testament he revised from an older Latin version. The Douay version, so called, is an English translation from the Vulgate. See Douay Bible.
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Vulgate
Vul"gate (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Vulgate, or the old Latin version of the Scriptures.
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Vulnerability
Vul`ner*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being vulnerable; vulnerableness.
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Vulnerable
Vul"ner*a*ble (?), a. [L. vulnerabilis wounding, injurious, from vulnerare to wound, vulnus a wound; akin to Skr. vra&unr_;a: cf. F. vulnérable.]
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1. Capable of being wounded; susceptible of wounds or external injuries; as, a vulnerable body.
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Achilles was vulnerable in his heel; and there will be wanting a Paris to infix the dart. Dr. T. Dwight.
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2. Liable to injury; subject to be affected injuriously; assailable; as, a vulnerable reputation.
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His skill in finding out the vulnerable parts of strong minds was consummate. Macaulay.
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Vulnerableness
Vul"ner*a*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being vulnerable; vulnerability.
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Vulnerary
Vul"ner*a*ry (?), a. [L. vulnearius: cf. F. vulnéraire.] Useful in healing wounds; adapted to the cure of external injuries; as, vulnerary plants or potions. “Such vulnerary remedies.” Sir W. Scott. -- n. [Cf. F. vulnéraire.] (Med.) A vulnerary remedy.
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Vulnerate
Vul"ner*ate (?), v. t. [L. vulneratus, p. p. of vulnerare to wound.] To wound; to hurt. [Obs.]
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Vulneration
Vul`ner*a"tion (?), n. [L. vulneratio.] The act of wounding, or the state of being wounded. [Obs.]
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Vulnerose
Vul"ner*ose` (?), a. Full of wounds; wounded.
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Vulnifical
Vulnific
{ Vul*nif"ic (?), Vul*nif"ic*al (?), } a. [L. vulnificus; vulnus a wound + facere to make.] Causing wounds; inflicting wounds; wounding.
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Vulnose
Vul*nose" (?), a. Having wounds; vulnerose. [R.]
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Vulpes
Vul"pes (?), n. [L., a fox.] (Zool.) A genus of Carnivora including the foxes.
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Vulpic
Vul"pic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, an acid obtained from a lichen (Cetraria vulpina) as a yellow or red crystalline substance which on decomposition yields pulvinic acid.
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Vulpicide
Vul"pi*cide (?), n. [L. vulpes a fox + caedere to kill.] One who kills a fox, except in hunting; also, the act of so killing a fox. [Written also vulpecide.]
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Vulpine
Vul"pine (?; 277), a. [L. vulpinus, from vulpes a fox.] Of or pertaining to the fox; resembling the fox; foxy; cunning; crafty; artful.
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Vulpine phalangist (Zool.), an Australian carnivorous marsupial (Phalangista vulpina syn. Trichosurus vulpina); -- called also vulpine phalanger, and vulpine opossum.
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Vulpinic
Vul*pin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Same as Vulpic.
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Vulpinism
Vul"pin*ism (?), n. The quality of being cunning like the fox; craft; artfulness. [R.]
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He was without guile, and had no vulpinism at all. Carlyle.
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Vulpinite
Vul"pi*nite (?), n. [So called after Vulpino, in Italy.] (Min.) A scaly granular variety of anhydrite of a grayish white color, used for ornamental purposes.
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Vultern
Vul"tern (?), n. (Zool.) The brush turkey (Talegallus Lathami) of Australia. See Brush turkey.
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Vulture
Vul"ture (?; 135), n. [OE. vultur, L. vultur: cf. OF. voltour, F. vautour.] (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of rapacious birds belonging to Vultur, Cathartes, Catharista, and various other genera of the family Vulturidae.
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&hand_; In most of the species the head and neck are naked or nearly so. They feed chiefly on carrion. The condor, king vulture, turkey buzzard, and black vulture (Catharista atrata) are well known American species. The griffin, lammergeir, and Pharaoh's chicken, or Egyptian vulture, are common Old World vultures.
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Vulturine
Vul"tur*ine (?; 277), a. [L. vulturinus.] Of or pertaining to a vulture; resembling a vulture in qualities or looks; as, the vulturine sea eagle (Gypohierax Angolensis); vulturine rapacity.
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The vulturine nose, which smells nothing but corruption, is no credit to its possessor. C. Kingsley.
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Vulturish
Vul"tur*ish, a. Vulturous.
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Vulturism
Vul"tur*ism (?), n. The quality or state of being like a vulture; rapaciousness.
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Vulturous
Vul"tur*ous (?), a. Like a vulture; rapacious.
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Vulva
Vul"va (?), n. [L. vulva, volva, from volvere to roll.]
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1. (Anat.) The external parts of the female genital organs; sometimes, the opening between the projecting parts of the external organs.
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2. (Zool.) The orifice of the oviduct of an insect or other invertebrate.
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Vulviform
Vul"vi*form (?), a. [L. vulva, volva, a wrapper + -form.] (Bot.) Like a cleft with projecting edges.
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Vulvitis
Vul*vi"tis (?), n. [NL. See Vulva, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the vulva.
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Vulvo-uterine
Vul`vo-u"ter*ine (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining both to the vulva and the uterus.
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Vulvovaginal
Vul`vo*vag"i*nal (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining both to the vulva and the vagina.
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Vyce
Vyce (?), n. [Cf. Vise.] (Coopering) A kind of clamp with gimlet points for holding a barrel head while the staves are being closed around it. Knight.
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Vying
Vy"ing (?), a. & n. from Vie. -- Vy"ing*ly, adv.
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