2 The Legal Sufferings of the Jews in Russia, edited by Lucien Wolf, p.31 (T. Fisher Unwin, 1912). This is the latest and best survey of the Jewish disabilities in Russia, and forms the principal authority for the present account.
3 In 1911, Mr. Oscar Straus, then United States Ambassador in Constantinople, wished to visit Russia, but as the requisite document was worded in an unusual manner he abandoned the projected journey. Furthermore, a British officer, ordered by his War Office to the Far East, was refused permission to travel by the Siberian Railway because he was a Jew (Legal Sufferings of the Jews in Russia, p. 73). In November 1913, Dr. Georg Brandes was also refused permission to visit Russia for a lecturing engagement.
4 The technical term for such "drives" is oblava.
5 "In Wilna the son of the advocate Schmerling has committed suicide by throwing himself out of the window of the third story because, after waiting for two years, he was refused admission to the University by reason of the percentage norm" (Hilfsverein Report, 1911, p.123). Since last February, by an order of M. Kasso, the Minister of Instruction, the admission of Jews to Universities must be decided by lots, a cunning device for depriving them of all incentive.
6 The following typical episode is related in the Vossische Zeitung of 30th March 1913: "In the year 1908 the eleven-year-old son of a Jew named Manela, who removed from Kielce to Lodz, was summoned by the Military commission to join the army. The little recruit naturally did not respond. Some time after, the father, to his great surprise, was sentenced to a fine of 300 roubles. As the matter had become serious Manela went with his son to Kielce and convinced the Military Commission by ocular evidence that the boy was really only eleven years old. But the Military Commission had no power to absolve him of the fine and advised him to appeal to the District Court, a step which he was unable to take owing to the expense. Thereupon his furniture was seized and sold by auction, and as this did not yield sufficient money the new furniture that he obtained was overtaken by a similar fate. Manela then appealed to the Governor and also to the late Prime Minister, M. Stolypin, but without avail. Ultimately he appealed to the District Court, but three years have now passed and he is still awaiting the Court's decision. In the meantime his son has reached his sixteenth year, but cannot get a passport as he is officially a deserter!"
7 Legal Sufferings 0f the Jews in Russia, p.6.
8 The persecution of the Jews in Russia has greatly increased in extent and severity during the last two years. In 1913 alone, over 10,000 Jews were expelled from various towns outside the Pale and from Polish villages, in which, in many cases, they had been settled over thirty years. In 1912, of 3000 Jewish students who applied for admission to the universities and technical colleges, only 350 were admitted; and ill 1913, of 3908 who applied only 162 were admitted (Hilfsverein Report, 1914). The most serious addition to the code of disabilities is the recent law which prohibits Jews to sit on the boards of joint stock companies and forbids such companies as have Jewish directors to acquire lands. This reactionary measure produced a veritable panic in the Russian financial world. The Times (5th June 1914) stigmatized the measure as “grotesque," but it justified the general disabilities of the Jews on the ground that the Jews were engaged in "peddling, liquor-dealing, and money-lending," and that if they were free to trade among the peasants they would soon” ‘eat up’ the tillers of the soil.” The fact is, two-fifths of the Jews are engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits; liquor-dealing is a monopoly of the Government; and the mass of the Jews are too poor to have any money to lend. Even if there were a shred of substance in the allegation of the Times, it cannot justify the mass of anti-Jewish restrictions that embitter the lives of artisans and persons engaged in the liberal professions, nor the impending banishment of 40,000 Jews from Kiev (Russische Korrespondenz, 18th July 1914).
9 A considerable literature has grown up about The Russian pogroms. The standard work is Die Judenpogrome is Russlend (Jüdischer Verlag, Berlin, 1910, 2 vols.), comprising nearly 1000 pages of painful and often gruesome reading, which demands very strong nerves. See also The Russian Government and the Massacres, by E. Semenoff (John Murray, 1907), which proves the complicity of the Government; Russia at the Bar of the American People, edited by Isidore Singer (Funk & Wagnalls, 1904), and Within the Pale, by Michael Davitt (Hurst & Blackett, 1903), the last two dealing mainly with the Kishineff massacres of 1903.
10 The Blood Accusation has been refuted by many Christian scholars, notably Prof. H. L. Strack. It has also been condemned as baseless in several Papal Bulls. The Encyclical issued by Innocent IV (1247) and the Report drawn up in 1758 by Cardinal Ganganelli (1ater Clement XIV) are authenticated by cardinal Merry del Val, Papal Secretary of State, in a letter, dated 18th October 1913, to Lord Rothschild.
11 Professors Jorga and Cuza were openly accused of this charge by the Liberal Minister of Education, M. Haret, in the Rumanian Parliament (Report of the" Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden," 1911, p.31).
12 See the Report of the "Hilfsverein," 1911, pp. 28, 29.
13 21st March 1913.
14 The Times, 13th May 1914.
15 Jewish Chronicle, 1st and 8th August 1913.
16 The Times, 11th June 1914.