Determining the root of a word group

klitwak
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Determining the root of a word group

Post by klitwak » April 19th, 2014, 10:00 pm

I am trying to determine the root word for the group of words that relate to "holy." I think there's a different word to call this besides root, though it's not coming to mind right now. In any case, if I wanted to do this with a Hebrew word, it's easy to determine the root consonants. In Greek, however, how do I discover what the root word is, or perhaps the etymology? For example, what is the root word for hAGIAZW, hAGIOS, hAGIASMOS, etc.? Thanks.

Ken Litwak
Azusa Pacific Univ.
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Kenneth D. Litwak, Ph.D.
Reference and Instruction Librarian
Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary
Mill Valley, CA 94941
kennethlitwak@ggbts.edu
Adjunct Professor of New Testament in ExL
Asbury Theological Seminary
Wilmore, KY

Stephen Hughes
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Reference works dealing with Greek word roots

Post by Stephen Hughes » April 19th, 2014, 11:34 pm

Have you tried either of these works?

The Complete Vocabulary Guide to the Greek New Testament [Warren C. Trenchard]

Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek [Bruce M. Metzger]
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

klitwak
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Joined: November 6th, 2011, 2:03 am
Location: Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730

Re: Determining the root of a word group

Post by klitwak » April 20th, 2014, 3:00 am

Thanks for the suggestions. No, I tried the big LSJ and BDAG to no avail, not to mention several web sties that claimed to have Greek roots but they were only for GRE vocabulary study and not much help. I will look at these others.
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Kenneth D. Litwak, Ph.D.
Reference and Instruction Librarian
Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary
Mill Valley, CA 94941
kennethlitwak@ggbts.edu
Adjunct Professor of New Testament in ExL
Asbury Theological Seminary
Wilmore, KY

Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

What's your aim in finding word-roots?

Post by Stephen Hughes » April 20th, 2014, 4:47 am

Those two are simple works designed to facilitate vocabulary acquisition .

What are you looking at roots for? Perhaps there are more suitable works than these two.

You can downloaded "Multikey" to type Unicode Greek now.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Barry Hofstetter
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Re: Determining the root of a word group

Post by Barry Hofstetter » April 20th, 2014, 7:06 am

One way to do this is to eliminate all the inflections and word formation stuff and what's left tends to be the root. If we do that with ἅγιος, κτλ., we get *HAG-. Not sure what you are looking for exactly or why, but there it is.
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N.E. Barry Hofstetter
Instructor of Latin
Jack M. Barrack Hebrew Academy
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Stephen Carlson
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Re: Determining the root of a word group

Post by Stephen Carlson » April 20th, 2014, 9:04 am

One of the things that the Middle Liddell has but not the Great Scott is roots. If you are interested in what these old lexicographers thought were roots, you can consult the Middle Liddell. https://archive.org/stream/intermediate ... 3/mode/2up
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Stephen C. Carlson, Ph.D.
Melbourne, Australia

cwconrad
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Re: Determining the root of a word group

Post by cwconrad » April 20th, 2014, 9:55 am

Stephen Carlson wrote:One of the things that the Middle Liddell has but not the Great Scott is roots. If you are interested in what these old lexicographers thought were roots, you can consult the Middle Liddell. https://archive.org/stream/intermediate ... 3/mode/2up
But be aware that what you're getting here is what Victorian lexicographers thought were roots. For verbs, at least, Smyth's catalog of irregulars just before the index is especially useful.
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οὔτοι ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς πάντα θεοὶ θνητοῖς ὑπέδειξαν,
ἀλλὰ χρόνῳ ζητέοντες ἐφευρίσκουσιν ἄμεινον. (Xenophanes, Fragment 16)

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Retired)

klitwak
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Re: Determining the root of a word group

Post by klitwak » April 20th, 2014, 6:13 pm

Thanks for the responses. The two works related to vocabulary did not exactly show what I'm after.
Let me try again. By analogy, virtually all the words in the Hebrew Bible that relate to holiness, being holy, consecrating or sanctifying, and even cult prostitute are derivatives of the lemma Qoph-Dalet-Shin.
If I wanted to say the ??/root/cognate/what is the correct term for the word upon which all the others are based, I would say QDSh. I'm sure there's a specific linguistic term for this root, and I've probably seen it but don't remember what it is.

Obviously, Greek and Hebrew don't have the same sort of lemmas, since Greek vowels are integral to the spelling and form of a word, unlike Hebrew. I'm sure there is a special word for what I want, and I would like to know what it is. More importantly, however, if I say that in Hebrew, all the words related to holiness, holy, consecrate, etc. are based upon Qoph-Dalet-Shin, what word would I say that hAGIAZW, hAGIASMOS, hAGIOTHS, etc. are based on or stem from, or are derived from? Or, is this an invalid analogy from Semitic languages? Thanks.

Ken
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Kenneth D. Litwak, Ph.D.
Reference and Instruction Librarian
Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary
Mill Valley, CA 94941
kennethlitwak@ggbts.edu
Adjunct Professor of New Testament in ExL
Asbury Theological Seminary
Wilmore, KY

Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Derived

Post by Stephen Hughes » April 20th, 2014, 6:52 pm

Derived.

The process is referred to as derivational morphology. A verb derived from a noun is called a denominal. Dealing with the forms of a verb is conjugation. Dealing with the forms of a noun, adjective or participle is declension. Identifying the part of speech and the dictionary form of the word is parsing.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Roots are theoretical in Greek

Post by Stephen Hughes » April 20th, 2014, 7:09 pm

In real language, words come in families. Each member plays as different syntactic role.

ἁγιάζω is a causal verb
ἁγιασμόςis a noun describing a n action
ἅγιος is an adjective
ἁγιότης is an abstract noun describing the quality/state
ἁγιωσύνη is an abstract noun describing the state/quality

For an active knowledge of Greek one learns the family. Knowing the root is a bit theoretical.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

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