Chapter XVIII
Plans, Personalities, and Problems


1. Ltrs, Eisenhower to Montgomery, 31 Jul and 2 Aug, SGS SHAEF File 381, OVERLORD, 1 (a).

2. Hitler Conf, "Besprechung des Fuehrers mit Generaloberst Jodl am 31.7.1944," in captured German documents; Jodl diary, 31 Jul; Der Westen (Schramm); MS # - 731 (Fahrmbacher); Pogue, Supreme Command, pp. 201-03; Blumenson and Hodgson, "Hitler Versus his Generals in the West," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (December, 1956). Hitler enunciated his fortress policy in Hitler Directive # 40, 23 March 1942, translated in Appendix C to Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, pp. 459-63.

3. OB WEST, a Study in Command, I, 22.

4. OB WEST KTB, 1 Aug, Anlage 1050; Der Westen(Schramm), p. 79; OB WEST, a Study in Command, I, 1, 118ff.

5. Kluge Telecon, 0230, 1 Aug, AGp B KTB; H. B. Ramcke, Fallschirmjaeger, Damals und Danach (Frankfurt: Lorch-Verlag, c. 1951), pp. 30-46; Hodgson, R-58; see below, Ch. XX.

6. Telecons, Speidel and Gersdorff, 1020, 1 Aug, AGp B KTB, and Tempelhoff and Zimmerman, 1155, 1 Aug, OB WEST KTB, Anlage 999.

7. Telecon, Kluge and Hausser, 2130, 1 Aug, OB WEST KTB, Anlage 1015.

8. OB WEST, a Study in Command, I, 133. LXXIV Corps had been pulled out of Brittany on 25 July to take over a portion of the front facing the British. MS # B-722 (Gersdorff).

9. MS # 731 (Fahrmbacher); OB WEST KTB, 2 Aug; Hodgson, R-34; OB WEST, a Study in Command, I, 40.

10. MS # 731 (Fahrmbacher) is the basic source of this section.

11. SHAEF Memo, Command and Organization After D Day--OVERLORD, 21 AGp/20657/i/G (Plans), 30 May; SHAEF/17100/5/Opns (A), 1 Jun; ETOUSA Ltr, Organization and Comd of U.S. Forces, 6 Jun. All in SHAEF G-3 Opns File A 322/011/1.

12. Ltr, Bradley to Eisenhower, 19 Jul, with handwritten endorsement by Montgomery, 20 Jul, Gen Bd Rpts File 322/011, Box 47, Item 50.

13. FUSA Memo, Bradley to Hodges and Patton, 21 Jul, 12th AGp File 371.3, Mil Objectives.

14. SHAEF Ltr, Comd and Organization, U.S. Ground Forces, 25 Jul, SHAEF/17100/5/Opns (A), SHAEF G-3 File Opns A-322/011.1; SGS SHAEF War Diary, 25 Jul.

15. Chief of Staff, Maj. Gen. Leven C. Allen; G-1, Col. Joseph J. O'Hare; G-2, Brig. Gen. Edwin L. Sibert; G-3, Brig. Gen. A. Franklin Kibler; G-4, Brig. Gen. Raymond G. Moses.

16. ADSEC continued to be the direct agency of supply for the combat forces, but Lt. Gen. John C. H. Lee's Communication Zone headquarters was fast getting established on the Continent.

17. Ltrs, Eisenhower to Marshall, 29 and 30 Apr, cited in Pogue, Supreme Command, p. 166.

18. Patton, War as I Knew It, p. 354.

19. The Third Army general staff consisted of Maj. Gen. Hugh j. Gaffey, chief of staff; Col. Frederick S. Matthews, G-1; Col. Oscar W. Koch, G-2; Col. Halley G. Maddox, G-3; Col. Walter J. Muller, G-4. See Hugh M. Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1950), Chapter I, for a detailed discussion of the Third Army command and staff.

20. Eisenhower to Marshall, FWD-12493, 30 Jul, Pogue Files.

21. JIC (44) 345 (O) (Final), German Appreciation of Allied Intentions in the West, 7 Aug, JIC Papers, 1944, Pogue Files.

22. OB WEST, a Study in Command, pp. 55ff.

23. TUSA AAR, I, 7, 12.

24. AEAF Ltr, Comd and Contl of Allied Air Force, AEAF/TS 378/Air Plans, 5 Aug, Gen Bd Rpts File 322/011/1, Box 47, Item 50.

25. Ltr, Eisenhower to Montgomery, 10 Jul, SGS SHAEF File 381, OVERLORD, I (a). ANVIL was the code name for the invasion of southern France, which was scheduled for 15 August. [Changed to DRAGOON, as ANVIL was assigned to the Anzio landing. --HyperWar]

26. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 186-88, 285-97; SHAEF/17100/35 Opns, NEPTUNE, Summary of Jt Opns Plan, Phase II, 25 Apr, SGS SHAEF File 381, OVERLORD, I (a); SHAEF/17100/35/Opns, NEPTUNE, Summary of Rev Jt Opns Plan--U.S. Forces for Phase II of Opn OVERLORD, 20 May, and SHAEF/17100/35/Opns, NEPTUNE, Summary of Third U.S. Army Outline Plan, 22 May, both in EUCOM Files, Box 3; Capt Albert Norman, The History of 12th Army Group (Third Draft), MS, Hist Br, AG Sec, 12th AGp [27 Jul 45], pp. 349-56, 12th AGp File, Box 27; Interv by Pogue with Maj Gen K. R. McLean, 11-13 Mar 47, Pogue Files.

27. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 468-74.

28. 21 AGp Dirs, M-510 and M-515, 10 and 27 Jul; Ltr, Montgomery to Bradley, Dempsey, Patton, and Crerar, M-512, 21 Jul.

29. 12th AGp Ltr of Instrs 1, 29 Jul. The 12th Army Group orders are conveniently reproduced as Annex 4 of the 12th Army Group History and also in Annex 1 of the Third Army AAR.

30. TUSA AAR, I, 13; SHAEF/17100/35/Opns, NEPTUNE, Summary of Third U.S. Army Outline Plan, 22 May, EUCOM Files, Box 3; 83d Div Min of Mtg, 0900, 30 Jul, 83d Div G-2, G-3 Jnl and File.

31. TUSA FO 1, 4 Aug (confirming verbal orders, 1 Aug), AAR, I, 16, and Ltr, Confirmation of Verbal Orders Issued 2 Aug 44, 4 Aug; TF A AAR and Jnl, Aug. The Third Army orders are conveniently reproduced in Annex 2 of the Third Army AAR.

32. The principal components of Task Force A were the 15th Cavalry Group and the 6th Tank Destroyer Group, both supported by attached engineers and operating under the headquarters of the 1st Tank Destroyer Brigade. The brigade had been activated in 1942 as a tactical headquarters, but, upon its assignment to the Third Army in 1944, it had been transformed into the army tank destroyer staff section. On 1 August it was again given command status and attached to VIII Corps.

33. 1st Tank Destroyer Brigade History, 24 Nov 42-31 Dec 44; VIII Corps FO 9, 1600, 1 Aug; TUSA Ltr, Confirmation of Verbal Orders Issued 2 Aug, 4 Aug; TF A FO 1, 2 Aug; Interv by author with Gen Grow.

34. 12th AGp Dir for Current Opns, 2 Aug.

35. TUSA AAR, I, 16-18.

36. TUSA AAR, I, 5; Interv with Lt Col Samuel M. Goodwin, Executive Officer, 6th Cav Gp, Hosp Intervs, IV, GL-93 (321), ML-2235. Between 1 August and 10 October, the reconnaissance platoons lost 1 officer and 57 men. Twenty-eight were casualties of enemy action, the remaining 30 victims of traffic accidents. Montgomery used a similar communications system called Phantom.

37. VIII Corps AAR, Aug, Opns Instrs, 31 Jul (confirming fragmentary verbal orders, 31 Jul), and FO 9, 1600, 1 Aug.

38. TF A AAR and Jnl, Aug.

39. Telecon, 6 Aug, VIII Corps G-3 Jnl; VIII Corps Sitrep, 2 Aug.

40. VIII Corps AAR, Aug.

41. Msg, VIII Corps Sig Officer to G-3, 0040, 4 Aug; Memo, Rpt of Evenings Activities, 4 Aug. Both in VIII Corps G-3 Jnl.

42. Ltr, Lt Col William J. Given to Gen Grow, 12 Jan 53, OCMH Files; 146th Armored Signal Company, The Signal Circuit (Luxembourg, 1945), p. 7.

43. Interv with Col Claude E. Haswell, Third Army Sig Sec Executive Officer, 1st Lt Richard Stockton's Hosp Intervs, ML-2234.

44. Capt Marechal's Notes, 6 Aug, VIII Corps G-3 Jnl; Ltr, Given to Grow, 12 Jan 53.

45. VIII Corps AAR, Aug.

46. Msg, Middleton to Grow, 1715, 4 Aug.

47. 6th Armd Div Ltr to VIII Corps, Rpts Submitted 6-7 Aug, 8 Aug, and Telephonic Msg from VIII Corps Sig Officer, 0855, 6 Aug. Both in VIII Corps G-3 Jnl.

48. Msg, Middleton to Patton, 1700, 5 Aug.

49. Ltr, Wood to OCMH, 24 Mar 54, OCMH Files.

50. Interv with William M. King, 44th Armd Inf Bn, 6th Armd Div, Hosp Intervs, II, ML-2235, GL-93 (104).

51. TUSA AAR states that the FFI membership in Brittany numbered about 30,000, but the Journal des Marches et Opérations du Commandement des F. F. I. en Bretagne (4 juillet au 10 septembre 1944) (hereafter cited as Journal des Marches) gives the figure used above. The Journal was submitted as an after action report by the commander of the FFI in Brittany, Col. Albert M. Eon, and the manuscript is in the files of the Section Historique de l'Armeé FranZçaise. Lieutenant Colonel Lugand, Maj. Jean Vial, and Capt. André Méric of the French Army historical section kindly made this source and others available to the author in the summer of 1953.

52. Journal des Marches; 6th Armd Div Msg to VIII Corps G-2, 1410, 3 Aug; TUSA 11th Spec Force Detachment Ltr, Resistance Activities and Plans (Brittany), 4 Aug; TUSA Memo to VIII Corps. 5 Aug; Msg, Middleton to Grow, 1405, 5 Aug.

53. Msg, Middleton to Earnest, 2 Aug; Comments, Gen Grow to author 27 Apr 54, OCMH Files.

54. App. A to PS SHAEF (44) 29 (First Draft), Enemy Dispositions and Possible Reaction (in Brittany), SHAEF G-3 File 24533/Opns, Future Opns; TUSA AAR, I, 16; Notes, 1 Aug, 83d Div G-2, G-3 Jnl and File.

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