Appendix A
Outline Plan for the Invasion of Western Europe--Marshall Memorandum

Several versions of the plan are extant, some with and some without dates. The dated copies all bear the date 2 April. The many versions of the plan are similar in substance but vary considerably ill language and order of presentation. Presumably for security, no formal file entry for the plan was ever made in either the regular OPD decimal file system or the files of the Office of the Chief of Staff. Even the President did slot keep a copy. Since the plan was covered with a memorandum, the British called it the "Marshall Memorandum." The BOLERO-ROUNDUP-SLEDGEHAMMER terminology came into use a few weeks later.

War Department files contain several versions besides the one described in the text.1 A second version of the plan was the one presented to Marshall by Eisenhower, Handy, and Hull. It bears, a number of revisions of language, though not of basic ideas, penned by Marshall.2 A third version of the plan, incorporating these revisions of cover memorandum, was subsequently prepared by Eisenhower, Handy, and Hull.3 A fourth version incorporated penciled revisions that had been made on copy No. 1 of the third version.4 In this version tile memorandum itself contained a subsection headed "Outlined Plan for Invasion of Western Europe," which took the place of the attached study of previous versions. This copy bears further minor penned revisions by General Marshall. A fifth version, incorporating these last minor revisions, was the one taken to London by Marshall.5 It was included, with Marshall's copy of the second version, in the Chief of Staff's book prepared for the April conference in London. The book also included charts, maps, and papers on "Shipping Capabilities-1942, Landing Boats," divisional "Fitness for Battle," American ground and air forces "Disposition and Strength," and aircraft operational capacities. Another copy of this fifth version was carried to London by Wedemeyer.6

The third version of the plan was probably the one shown to the President by Marshall since he later indicated that he had shown a preliminary draft that was Subsequently altered in "language and method of presentation.7 It is possible, however, that the second version, presumably ready on 1 April, was approved by the President on 1 April as indicated by Stimson.


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1. In n. 39, p. 183, above.

2. Memo, no source, for CofS, n.d., sub: Basis for Preparation of atchd Outlined Plan for Invasion of W Europe, Tab A, Item 5a, Exec 1, and atchd study, n.d., title: Plan for Opns in W Europe.

3. Memo, no source, no addressee, 2 Apr 42, sub: Opns in W Europe; and atchd study, n.d., title: Plan for Opns in W Europe, Copy 1, Item 30a, Exec 10. This copy bears extensive penciled revisions.

4. Memo, no source, 2 Apr 42, sub: Opns in W Europe, Item 4, Exec 1.

5. Memo, no source, no addressee, n.d., sub: Opns in W Europe, Tab A, Item 5a, Exec 1.

6. It is filed Tab A, ABC 381 BOLERO (3016042), 5. On the cover sheet of this file, before Tab A, is a note in pencil: "This is genesis of OVERLORD operation. First Termed BOLERO--later ROUNDUP--finally OVERLORD. ACW." Several mimeographed copies of the memorandum are filed as Item 30B, Exec 10.

7. Msg, Marshall to McNarney, 2 Apr 42, CM-IN 3210.

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