United States Army in World War II
The Western Hemisphere

The Framework of Hemisphere Defense

Stetson Conn and Byron Fairchild

. . . to Those Who Served


  Foreword vii
  The Authors viii
  Preface ix
Chapter   Page
I. The Problem of Hemisphere Defense 3
    Hemisphere Security and the Axis Threat 5
    The RAINBOW Plans 7
    The Problem of Bases 10
    The Army's State of Readiness in 1939 14
    Preparedness Measures, April-September 1939 19
    The Strategic Outlook, Autumn and Winter, 1939-40 25
II. The Crisis of 1940 30
    The Defeat of France and Repercussions in America 31
    Decisions on National Policy 36
    Mobilization 41
    The Fate of European Possessions 44
    The Destroyer-Base Agreement 51
    American Military Preparations and the War Outlook, July-October 1940 62
III. The Axis Threat 68
    The German Position, Summer 1940 68
    The Tripartite Pact and Japan 74
    The Gibraltar-Africa Project 76
IV. The American Response: Military Policies and Plans, 1940-41 82
    Emergency Expeditionary Force Plans 83
    New Definitions of National Policy 88
    The New Outlook Toward the War 96
V. The Atlantic Crisis of 1941 101
    Naval Plans and Preparations 103
    The Crisis of May 1941 110
    The Azores and Brazil 116
    The Crisis Resolved 121
VI. From Nonbelligerency to War 130
    Operations in the North Atlantic 132
    The German Threat in the Southern Atlantic 135
    Military Policy and Army Readiness, Autumn 1941 143
    The Approach to War 149
VII. The Shift Toward the Offensive 156
    The Reaction to Pearl Harbor 156
    Planning for the Offensive 161
    The ARCADIA Decisions 169
VIII. General Military Relations with Latin America 172
    The Staff Conversations and Agreements of 1940 175
    Other Measures To Improve Military Relations 183
    Planning for the Support of Friendly Governments 186
    The Organization of Military Relationships, 1941-42 191
    Military Assistance to Latin America in 1942 200
IX. The Supply of Arms to Latin America 207
    Law, Policy, and Procedure 208
    The Latin American Arms Program of 1941 217
    Airplanes for Latin America 225
    Special Problems During 1941 228
    Arms Supply After Pearl Harbor 232
X. Air Defense Preparations in Latin America 238
    The Control of Civil Aviation 239
    The Airport Development Program 249
    Preparing for Air Operations 259
XI. Military Relations With Brazil Before Pearl Harbor 265
    The Problem of Arms Supply 268
    War Plans and Staff Agreements, 1940 272
    The Mission of General Amaro Bittencourt 278
    The Security Force Plan, June 1941 284
    Joint Staff and General Headquarters Planning 289
    Munitions for Brazil in 1941 293
    The Army's Quest for Action 296
XII. The Establishment of United States Army Forces in Brazil 303
    Emergency Airfield and Airway Security Measures 304
    Brazil Theater Planning 307
    The Approach to Collaboration 312
    The United States Army Forces South Atlantic 320
    Defense Planning and the Brazilian Expeditionary Force 327
XIII. The United States and Mexico: Solidarity and Security 331
    Gathering Momentum 333
    The Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission 338
    The Mexican Corridor 344
    The United States and the Security of Mexico 351
    Mexico and the Defense of California 356
XIV. The United States and Canada: Copartners in Defense 364
    Rapprochement 365
    The Ogdensburg Meeting and Its Result 370
    The Functioning of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense 373
    Basic Problems of Responsibility and Command 377
    The Pre-Pearl Harbor Pattern of Joint Defense 383
XV. The United States and Canada: Elements of Wartime Collaboration 390
    The Air and Land Routes to Alaska 391
    The Cost, Control, and Permanent Disposition of Facilities in Canada 403
    Completing the Machinery of Collaboration 406
    Preface to the Present 408
XVI. Some Conclusions and Observations 410
Bibliographical Note 425
Glossary of Abbreviations  
Glossary of CODE NAMES  
Index 437

Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation