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Re: [nafex] Virginia Cider

Excellent, Don, another clear and informative message from you.

Just to add a bit about two of the varieties you mentioned:

1. Spartan - When I had a small cider business, I had access to lots of
Spartan, and the more Spartan I put in the cider the more people liked it. 
I believe central Virginia may be too far south for it's ideal growth,
though, unless at high elevation.  It is indeed very disease resistant, but
it tends to drop early.

2. Albemarle Pippin - (being in Albemarle County I have to call it that
rather than Newtown Pippin).  Ken Harnad, the originator of this thread on
Virginia cider, once headed one of the finest restaurants in central
Virginia.  When it was available he bought from me 20 gallons a week of pure
Albemarle Pippin cider for the exorbitant price of $6 a gallon.  He said the
only problem was keeping the employees from drinking most of it.  I had many
people tell me that the Albemarle Pippin cider was the best cider they'd
every had.  It is NOT, however, a disease-resistant apple.

David Consolvo
Hungrytown, Virginia

>From: Don Yellman <dyellman@earthlink.net>
>To: nafex@egroups.com
>Subject: [nafex] Virginia Cider
>Date: Thu, Dec 28, 2000, 2:33 AM

>    I have spent the past 25 years trying to establish a decent orchard
>in Northern Virginia, and have been making fresh and fermented cider for
>the past 5 years.   Your valley climate in general shouldn't be too much
>different from mine, although you may have more pronounced temperature
>extremes due to your elevation.  While I can tell you about my own
>experiences, the real authority on apple varieties adapted to Virginia's
>climate is Dr. Tom Burford (also a Nafexer) who lives in Monroe.
>1.  When talk turns to cider varieties, it almost inevitably revolves
>around English varieties, and a few old French apples.  No question that
>the English and French are masters of cider, and many of their old
>varieties are marvelous cider apples --- for them.  But I am not
>entirely persuaded that all of these apples are well adapted to
>Virginia, which is about 15 degrees South of the major English and
>French growing areas.  Ouir summers are considerably warmer and longer,
>and we have more disease pressures.  Also, while many of the older
>varieties are very good, they are not good just because they are old.
>Many of the old-timers are not very productive.  There are some
>excellent modern cultivars that will also make excellent cider, and grow
>well with reduced disease problems in the mid-Atlantic region.
>2.  I have tried to plant varieties that ripen roughly in the same
>timeframe --- that is, early to mid-October, certainly no later than
>mid-September.  I just don't have a cool, moist area to hold apples at
>top quality for longer than 2-3 weeks.  Cidermaking is quite an
>operation here, involving equipment setup, and washing and cutting by
>friends, relatives and in-laws.  (I grind the fruit in a garbage
>disposal, so most of it has to be cut.)  So we try to do it all in one
>hectic day.  It is my impression that many of the European apples will
>ripen here considerably earlier --- beginning in August.  Nevertheless,
>I do have a Foxwhelp, a nice branch graft of Kingston Black, and a
>couple of the French Calville Blanc's.
>3.  Here are a few that are have been performing well for me, and some
>that are my hopes for the future.  I think all of them have the kind of
>complex flavors that hold up well in blended cider, fresh or fermented:
>-- Spigold:  I don't hear much about this apple, but it is the best
>all-around apple I have grown so far.  A little slow to bloom and bear
>(fifth year), but practically disease free, with apples (when thinned)
>averaging over a pound each.  When you look at these things, you think
>an apple that big can't taste like much, but it is always crisp and very
>juicy, with a complex, sweet-tart flavor.  If you plant it, leave plenty
>of space, since it is a very vigorous grower even on M-7.  A triploid.
>-- Mutsu:  Very similar in appearance and quality to Spigold --- perhaps
>a bit spicier.  Apples average over a pound, and it bears annually.
>Another triploid.
>--  Spartan:  For my money, the best of the Macintosh crosses.
>Excellent flavor, with good disease resistance.  Very popular in N.Y
>State and Vermont for cider.
>--  Yellow Newtown Pippin:  Nativized in Virginia as the Albemarle
>Pippin.  Like many of the older varieties, a bit of a shy bearer, but a
>marvelous cider blending apple.  Should be well adapted to valley
>--  Calville Blance D'Hiver:   This old French apple does ripen late,
>and it is excellent for nearly any use, including cider and vinegar.
>But a little slow to begin fruiting, and not a heavy bearer.
>-- Stayman:  Fine cider and eating apple.  Some years, I have had
>problems with cracking and bitter pit.  Last season the tree was hit
>with cedar apple rust.  Still worth growing.  Fairly productive.
>--  Freedom:   Sister of Liberty, but a little more tart and spicy.
>Very large apple.  Bears in the 4th year.  Good scab resistance.
>--  GoldRush:  My little tree has not fruited yet, but from what I hear
>from reliable sources, this should be one of the best cider apples for
>the mid-Atlantic.  A recent Purdue release with good disease resistance.
>--  Kingston Black:  I only have a branch graft of this cultivar, and it
>has not yet fruited.  May try to whip graft it on M-7 next spring.  This
>old English variety has been proven in Virginia, and it appears to be a
>late apple, but I would not expect it to be a heavy bearer.  I really
>would like to get this one going.
>--  Virginia (Hewes) Crab:  These little apples have been grown for
>cider in Virginia for at least 200 years.  I have two little trees that
>I grafted on M-7, and one of them set four apples the first year after
>grafting.  They look like vigorous growers and bloomers, and are
>probably good pollinators.  A little more tannin than most apples.
>4.  I don't mean to discourage you from trying some of the more exotic
>varieties, but you need quite a bit of production for any substantial
>quantity of cider, and the juicier the apple the better.  That's one of
>the things I like about Spigold.  It doesn't take many to fill a
>bushel.  Having said that, I also think Nell Lancaster is right about
>Golden Russet, although I don't have any experience with it.
>5.  Just out of curiousity, what are the table/cooking varieties you
>have now?  You might already have some decent cider apples, as part of a
>blend.  I throw Red and Golden Delicious in my cider when there are too
>many to eat or even give away, and it doesn't seem to hurt the cider at
>6.  Where are you located in the Valley?  How  many trees will you
>plant?  One thing I learned the hard way: leave a little more space
>between the trees than you think you need.
>Best Regards, Don Yellman, Great Falls, VA

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