Sun, 10 Nov 1996 14:09 -0500 (EST)

TO: Mike Luper <> cc: B-Greek
FROM: Harry J. Harm
DATE: 10 November 1996
RE: Cataphora

Dear Mike,

Greetings from Mississippi. On Saturday you asked the following
question about cataphora -

First, in working through Young's grammar I came across a
reference he makes to a "cataphoric demonstrative" (p. 190).
I have never heard of the term "cataphoric" and could not
track it down in any dictionary or linguistic text. Could
somebody offer some insight on the meaning of this term?

Cataphora is the opposite of anaphora. In cataphora the "word" refers
forward to something which will be expressed, e.g., "Here is the 9
o'clock news." This is a cataphoric use of "here". Jude 4 has a good
example of touto used cataphorically -- who long ago were written about
for THIS judgment/condemnation.

Anaphora is the opposite of cataphora. In anaphora the "word" refers
back to something which has already been expressed. "John painted this
picture in Bermuda. He did that there..." In the second sentence each
word is an anaphoric word referring back to something in the previous

I "stole" the definintions and English examples from David Crystal's, A
Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. (I used it to check my faulty
memory.) The two words, of course, are borrowed from the Greek.
katapherw - to bring down; anapherw - to bring up.

I hope that this answers your question.


Harry :{)