From: Carlton L. Winbery (
Date: Fri Aug 02 1996 - 07:26:21 EDT

Doug Jantz wrote;
>Dr Winberry,
>So the Perfect would not have reference to "continuing present action?"
>Just the results of a completed action? As in Gal 2:20- "I have been

Perfective action is different from linear action. It would not normally
refer to continuing action but can emphasize existing result, eg.,
GEGRAPTAI, It is written.

>>As far as time, the perfect vasilates between the present and the
>Is it called a past perfect or present perfect?
Normally we associate the perfect in Greek with the present perfect in
English, though they are not exactly the same and the pluperfect with the
past perfect in English. At times the pluperfect will seem like a simple
past tense, i.e., John 2:9 HiDEI and HiDEISAN, "he did not know but the
servants knew."

Carlton L. Winbery
Prof. Religion
LA College, Pineville, La

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