Re: Eph. 2:8-9

From: Carl W. Conrad (
Date: Mon Oct 07 1996 - 08:46:16 EDT

At 1:33 AM -0500 10/6/96, Russ Patrick Reeves wrote:
>At 06:34 AM 10/5/96 -0500, Carl W. Conrad wrote:
>>While I can think of or find no other examples of this in the NT, I would
>>understand this TOUTO as referring back to the preceding clause, THi GAR
>>XARITI SESWiSMENOI ESTE, and picking it up as the subject of OUK (ESTIN) EX
>>hUMWN: i.e.: "This (the fact that you have been saved) (is) not from you,
>>(it is) a gift of God.
>Possibly related to this in Phillipians 1:28 - DE SOTHARIAS KAI TOUTO APO
>THOU. Would TOUTO refer to the feminine noun SOTHARIAS, or to the whole
>previous phrase?
>I checked the online Liddell Scott Lexicon for hOUTOS (the search result url
>was\=tos) which
> II. though houtos usu. agrees with the Noun that serves as Predicate,
>it is not rare to find it in the neut., mania de kai tout' esti Eur. Ba.
>305; touto gar eisi . . euthunai Dem. 19.82, etc.: and in pl., ouk esti
>tauta arch Aeschin. 3.13; taut' estin ho prodots IDEM=Aeschin. 2.166: so
>with an explanatory clause added, touto gar estin ho sukophants, aitiasthai
>men panta exelenxai de mden Dem. 57.34.
>>> 3. the neut. also may refer to a masc. or fem. Noun, karpon
>phoreei kuam™i ison: touto epean gentai pepon ktl. Hdt. 4.23, cf. Xen.
>Anab. 1.5.10, etc.
>Could this be the solution for Eph 2:8?

It would appear that your question regarding a "solution" means that you
really want the antecedent of TOUTO to be PISTIS and are looking for a
grammatical justification for that understanding. I believe that the
examples you cite from LSJ above ARE in fact helpful, but only if
understood rightly, and I think the phrasing of the LSJ entry is
misleading; the neuters cited in the first par. above are resumptive usages
of hOUTOS in the neuter sg. or pl.: they point back to what has just
previously been referred in the same way as our "that" in "The procedure is
unheard of--THAT's what I meant!" So in the examples above:
        Eur. Bacchae 305 MANIA DE KAI TOUT' ESTI "That too is madness"
        Dem. 19.82: TOUTO GAR EISI ... EUQUNAI: "That, after all, is what
                impeachment is."
        Aeschin. 3.13: TAUT' ESTIN hO PRODOTHS: "That's what 'Traitor' means."
The Demosthenes 57.34 passage is even clearer: TOUTO GAR ESTIN hO
what "sycophant" means: offering any and every accusation but presenting
not a smidgeon of evidence."

I really think that the Herodotus citation works the same way: "It produces
a fruit matching a bean, once THAT ripens ..."

I suppose these instances will provide the justification you're seeking,
but I would still prefer to explain the usage of KAI TOUTO in Eph 2:8 as an
idiomatic "sentence appositive." LSJ has an entry under the same article
(hOUTOS) s.v. VIII. Adverbial usages. a.2. "KAI TAUTA, adding a
circumstance heightening the force of what has just been said." Although
LSJ says the singular TOUTO is rare, BDF argues (#290.5) that in Eph 2:8
and Rom 13:11 the KAI TOUTO is equivalent to the older Attic KAI TAUTA.

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University
One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, USA 63130
(314) 935-4018 OR

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