Re: Eph. 2:8-9

From: Dale M. Wheeler (
Date: Mon Oct 07 1996 - 12:22:39 EDT

At 01:21 AM 10/7/96 EDT, Russ Patrick Reeves <> wrote:

>At 06:34 AM 10/5/96 -0500, Carl W. Conrad wrote:
>>While I can think of or find no other examples of this in the NT, I would
>>understand this TOUTO as referring back to the preceding clause, THi GAR
>>XARITI SESWiSMENOI ESTE, and picking it up as the subject of OUK (ESTIN) EX
>>hUMWN: i.e.: "This (the fact that you have been saved) (is) not from you,
>>(it is) a gift of God.
>Possibly related to this in Phillipians 1:28 - DE SOTHARIAS KAI TOUTO APO
>THOU. Would TOUTO refer to the feminine noun SOTHARIAS, or to the whole
>previous phrase?
>I checked the online Liddell Scott Lexicon for hOUTOS (the search result url
>was\=3Dtos) which=
> stated:
> II. though houtos usu. agrees with the Noun that serves as Predicate,
>it is not rare to find it in the neut., mania de kai tout' esti Eur. Ba.
>305; touto gar eisi . . euthunai Dem. 19.82, etc.: and in pl., ouk esti
>tauta arch=EA Aeschin. 3.13; taut' estin ho prodot=EAs IDEM=3DAeschin.=
> 2.166: so
>with an explanatory clause added, touto gar estin ho sukophant=EAs,=
> aitiasthai
>men panta exelenxai de m=EAden Dem. 57.34.=20
>>> 3. the neut. also may refer to a masc. or fem. Noun, karpon
>phoreei kuam=F4i ison: touto epean gen=EAtai pepon ktl. Hdt. 4.23, cf. Xen.
>Anab. 1.5.10, etc.=20
>Could this be the solution for Eph 2:8?

I would have to agree with Carl on this one because, while TOUTO on its
own may have fem or masc antecedent, in Eph 2:8ff., we are dealing with
what has apparently become a stock phrase, almost a composite conjunction
in the form of KAI TOUTO. BAGD (sv., "hOUTOS," 1.b.g.; cf., BDF #290[5];
442[9]) translates "and at that, and especially"; if you look at the uses
(which evidently parallels the Latin idque and Classical KAI TAUTA) you
can see that this "conjunction" implies the repetition of the whole
preceeding phrase, not just one element.

Dale M. Wheeler, Th.D.
Research Professor in Biblical Languages Multnomah Bible College
8435 NE Glisan Street Portland, OR 97220
Voice: 503-251-6416 FAX:503-254-1268 E-Mail:

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