From: Eric Weiss (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Date: Thu Mar 06 1997 - 12:13:38 EST
From Kendell Easley USER-FRIENDLY GREEK:
"When you learned English sentence structure, you learned about four
structural types of sentences: the simple sentence, the compound
sentence, the complex sentence, and the compound-complex sentence. Greek
sentences may be organized into the same four groups, but it is even
more helpful to consider the three major ways that words in a Greek
sentence can be arranged.
"MAIN CLAUSE. [This is sometimes called an "independent clause," I
believe.] A group of words that can stand alone and that contains a verb
is a main clause. (Sometimes a "be" verb is only implied in the Greek
text.) Any sentence with only one main clause, with or without
prepositional phrases, is a simple sentence. Any sentence with two or
more main clauses, with or without prepositional phrases, and without
dependent clauses, is a compound sentence.
SIMPLE: TO LOIPON, ADELFOI MOU, CAIRETE EN KURIOU - Finally, my
brothers, rejoice in the Lord (Phil 3:1)
COMPOUND: EIS TA IDIA HLQEN, KAI hOI IDIOI AUTON OU PARELABON - He came
to his own, and his own did not welcome him (John 1:11)
"PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. This is a group of words preceded by a
preposition and without a finite verb. (Greek finite verbs are
indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative.) Prepositional
phrases can be found at the beginning, end, or anywhere else in a
clause, whether main or dependent. You are familiar with these from long
practice in English. For preaching purposes it is important to identify
prepositional phrases and separate them from the clause that they are
"DEPENDENT CLAUSE. A group of words that cannot stand alone and that
contains a verb is a dependent clause. In Greek, only four formats exist
for dependent clauses. Each of the four formats is dominated by a
particular grammatical construction. 1 - A PARTICIPLE CLAUSE is a
dependent clause beginning with a participle; for example, hO BLEPWN
TOUS DOULOUS (the person who sees the slaves). 2 - AN INFINITIVE CLAUSE
is a dependent clause beginning with an infinitive; for example, BLEPEIN
TOUS DOULOUS (to see the slaves). 3 - A SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION CLAUSE
is a dependent clause beginning with a subordinate conjunction [Easley
lists hINA, hOPWS, hWSTE, hOTI, DIOTI, EPEI, EI, EAN, EIPER, EI KAI, EAN
KAI, KAN, KAQWS, hWSPER, hWS, hOPOU, hOU (where), hOTE, hOTAN, hWS AN,
hEWS (until); for example, hOTI BLEPOMEN TOUS DOULOUS (because we see
the slaves). The verb is sometimes implied rather than fully stated. 4 -
A RELATIVE CLAUSE is a dependent clause beginning with a relative
pronoun [Easley indentifies these as hOS and hOSTIS and their forms];
for example, hOV BLEPOMEN (whom we see).
"Any sentence with one main clause and at least one dependent clause is
a complex sentence, regardless of the number of prepositional phrases.
Any sentence with more than one main clause and at least one dependent
clause is a compound-complex sentence.
COMPLEX: EI ETI ANQRWPOIS HRESKON, CRISTOU DOULOS OUK AN HMHN - If I
were still pleasing people, I would not be Christ's slave (Gal 1:10)
COMPOUND-COMPLEX: EXELQWN EIDEN POLUN OCLON KAI ESPLAGCNISQH - When he
arrive (went out), he saw a great crowd and had compassion (Mark 6:34)"
I find USER-FRIENDLY GREEK to be inexpensive, easy-to-read and helpful.
Easley does fail to explain that some conjunctions (e.g., GAR) can
function either as coordinate or subordinate conjunctions, which can
lead to some confusion when one tries to implement his system of
diagramming a paragraph flow.
-- "Eric S. Weiss" http://home1.gte.net/eweiss/index.htm
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