Re: Titus 2.11-12a

From: Carlton Winbery (
Date: Fri May 23 1997 - 02:32:30 EDT

Perry Stepp wrote;

>I'm looking at Titus 2.11-12a, which is usually translated along the lines
>of "the grace of God has appeared for the salvation of all men, training us
>to renounce impiety . . . ." The punctuation of the NA27 suggests a
>different possibility, and I'm wondering what the ins and outs are for this
>particular reading. I don't know of any commentators who have addressed
>it, but my resources are limited when it comes to the Pastorals.
>The NA27 punctuation suggests that the text might be read as follows: "For
>the grace of God has appeared, training us [to work for?] the salvation of
>all men, in order that we should renounce impiety, . . . ."
>Is this translation possible? Does the punctuation indeed suggest this
>reading, or am I imagining things? Do any commentators/translators discuss
>it? What are the arguments relating to it?

There is a textual variation indicated in the N-A27 that is important for
translation. Is SWTHRIOS (nom of the adj SWTHRIOS) in the txt original or
do we go with SWTHROS, with or without the article TOU, (gen of SWTHR) or
with hH SWTHRIOS which would make the adj. modify CARIS also nom. If the
later, which I prefer with mms Psi, 33, & the Majority witnesses, then I
would translate "For the saving grace of God has appeared to all men,
teaching us to live in the present having denied ungodleness . . ."

Even without the article, the adj in the nominative might modify CARIS.
The translation "for the salvation of all men" seems difficult to me
because it is difficult to get from the nom. form of the adj. to that kind
of statement of purpose. The gen form of SWTHR (savior) with aleph, F, G,
and some of the Old Latin (with or without the article) should be
translated "God (our) savior."


Carlton L. Winbery
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Pineville, LA 71360
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