From: Thomas Kopecek (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Date: Fri Nov 28 1997 - 05:34:19 EST
Rolf Furuli wrote:
> Dear Pete,
> I am not an expert on Luke, but I have some comments. F.L. Godet, Repr.
> 1971 "Commentary on Luke" says: "The separation of PNEUMA from hAGION by
> the verb HN in the greater part of the MSS. gives prominence to the idea of
> the adjective. An influence rested upon him, and this influence was holy."
> I.H. Marshall, 1978 "The Gospel of Luke" agrees about the emphatic nature
> of the construction.
> Not only is the position of the verb interesting in your example but also
> the lack of article. This evidently led Godet to speak of "an influence"
> rather than "a person". Thomas.F. Middleton wrote in 1833 a monograph on
> the Greek article ("The Doctrine of the Greek article Applied to the
> Criticism and Illustration of the Greek New Testament"). On p 126 he
> concluded that it is impossible that "God The Holy Spirit" is referred to
> without the article being used, so PNEUMA hAGION "in cases without the
> article being not here the Person of the Holy Spirit, but his influence or
> operation." Some of the examples with the article also signified the same,
> according to him, because they were anaphoric.
> Some time ago I made a study on the use of the definite article with PNEUMA
> hAGION. I found 36 instances of the words together with the article and 44
> instances without. Looking at the articular occurrences I found that most,
> or all of them CAN be anaphoric, thus upholding the indefinite nature which
> PNEUMA hAGION have in the majority of the occurrences. In three NT books
> Luke (1:15), Titus (3:5) and Hebrews (2:4) the first occurrence of the
> words neither is preceded by an article nor by a preposition; so all the
> other references in these books may be anaphoric. In eleven books, Matthew
> (1:18), Mark (1:8);John (1:33); Acts (1:2), Romans (5:5), 2 Corinthians
> (6:6), 1 Thessalonians (1:5), 2 Timothy (1:14), 1 Peter (1:12), 2 Peter
> (1:21) and Jude (1:20), the first occurrence is anarthrous but it is
> preceded by a preposition, which may or may not indicate definiteness. In
> two books, 1 Corinthians (6:19) and Ephesians (1:13) the first occurrence
> is articular. 1 Cor 6:19 may itself be anaphoric because PNEUMA is
> mentioned alone in 2:4 and TOU PNEUMATOS TOU QEOU is mentioned in 2:14. In
> Eph 1:13 the article may be required because of the complex construction in
> which PNEUMA hAGION occur.
> In the book of Luke, 1:15,35,41,67; 2:25; 4:1; 11:13 are anarthrous and
> without preposition, 3:16 is anarthrous with preposition and 2:26; 3:22 and
> 10:21 are articular.
Rolf: What was your conclusion regarding Acts 2:33 within its larger
context in the first couple of chapters of Acts? If this is the first
sermon in the history of Christianity, then Peter's "trinity" appears to
be the one God, a man of Davidic descent who has been resurrected by God
"to be made both Lord And Messiah," and perhaps God's force or Spirit
which the resurrected Jesus "pours out" on the Jerusalem church. If that
is the case, then Luke means that "made" not be taken in the sense of
"made for the first time," as perhaps Paul, using the second Psalm and
the title Son, intended for Jesus' resurrection (cf. the first few
verses of Romans for a similar claim, taking over surely from a source
prior to Paul).
Thomas A. Kopecek
Religion and History
Pella, IA 50219
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