Re: Romans 8:28

From: Trevor M Peterson (
Date: Wed Aug 12 1998 - 15:39:53 EDT

On Wed, 12 Aug 1998 11:37:54 +0000 Steve Long <>


>the text reads PANTA SYNERGIE EIS AGAQON in H&F, but N-A reads PANTA
>SYNERGIE {hO QEOS} EIS AGAQON. My question is how does hO QEOS fit in
>sentence? The NASB translates it "God causes all things to work
>for good", but where does "causes" come from? Where is the verb for hO

What I think the NASB translators are trying to do is to render the
concept hO QEOS (subject) SUNERGEI (verb) PANTA (object). Syntatically,
this is possible, since hO QEOS is nominative singular (which fits as the
subject of SUNERGEI) and PANTA may be accusative. On the other hand, I
can't seem to find any other case where SUNERGEW functions transitively,
which would call into question the whole notion of whether it can do so
here, let alone what case its object would take or what force it would
carry. It seems that we should expect dative, if the meaning is that God
works together *with* all things, so causative seems to be the only
alternative left (assuming hO QEOS belongs at all). Obviously, without
hO QEOS, PANTA functions as the subject (since it could also be

Textually, it is an interesting situation, in that the later editions of
NA have changed to read with the MajT (as well as Sinaiticus, C, D, F, G,
Psi, 33, 1739, 1881, etc.). The reading your edition reflects is
supported by P46, A, B, and 81, but that's about all she wrote. So, it's
not surprising that the switch was made in light of the external evidence
alone (not to mention the difficulty you've pointed out with trying to
render it with hO QEOS).

Trevor Peterson
Bible/Theology Department
Washington Bible College
Lanham, MD

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