From: Paul Zellmer (
Date: Sun Aug 23 1998 - 21:00:46 EDT

Edgar Foster wrote:

> Since Carl and I discussed the appropriateness or inappropriateness of
> the paraphrase "irrefutable," I have given more thought to this
> matter. IMHO, "irrefutable" does not have to negate the forensic
> significance of TEKMHRION. In fact, that is exactly how I am using the
> term. In a court of law, there is a forensic concept called _prima
> facie_ evidence. That is, irrefutable evidence. ---


I know that we are not here to argue English or Latin terms. But if you really see
TEKMHRION having the force of "prima facie" evidence, then you are weakening your

"Prima facie," or "first face" evidence has a definite possibility of being refuted.
It is the evidence presented to the grand juries in the States, for example, that
results in indictment. It is also the evidence that defenses spend their time
refuting. And, if it is refuted, there is no conviction.

Merriam-Webster dictionary gives this definition:
1 : true, valid, or sufficient at first impression : apparent
2 : self-evident
3 : legally sufficient to establish a fact or a case unless disproved

Since you have not yet shown where and with what impact this word was used in the
legal sense in the ancient greek world, I trust that you are simply misstating the
type of evidence that you see being referred to here.

Just a minor point,


Paul and Dee Zellmer, Jimmy Guingab, Geoffrey Beltran
Ibanag Translation Project
Cabagan, Philippines

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