From: Edgar Foster (
Date: Sun Aug 23 1998 - 21:30:42 EDT

---Paul Zellmer wrote:

> Edgar Foster wrote:

> > Since Carl and I discussed the appropriateness or
inappropriateness of the paraphrase "irrefutable," I have given more
thought to this matter. IMHO, "irrefutable" does not have to negate
the forensic significance of TEKMHRION. In fact, that is exactly how I
am using the term. In a court of law, there is a forensic concept
called _prima facie_ evidence. That is, irrefutable evidence. ---< <

> Edgar,

> "Prima facie," or "first face" evidence has a definite possibility
of being refuted. It is the evidence presented to the grand juries in
the States, for example, that results in indictment. It is also the
evidence that defenses spend their time
refuting. And, if it is refuted, there is no conviction.<

Dear Paul,

You are right. Prima facie evidence can be refuted. I failed to be
precise as I should have been in my delineation of the term. I was
using it in the sense of "irrefutable" (which sense it does have).
But, to be exact, prima facie evidence can be and is refuted. The
point I was making, however, is that the evidence that was presented
to the apostles was "obvious." It was stark, and could not _rightly_
be disputed among the apostles. Yet, when the followers of Jesus
preached about this event to others--efforts to refute this divine
miracle did take place. I guess my point is that the evidence
presented to the apostles was "indubitable" or obvious to them
(regardless of whether others viewed it that way).

Keep in mind also, I am using the concept of prima facie analogically.
This is my effort to help modern man understand what Acts 1:3 is
saying. I would not per se translate Acts 1:3 as "prima facie." I
simply used this legal concept to illustrate how forensic evidence can
be viewed as irrefutable. In the long run, it is probably safer to
render Acts 1:3 as "convincing, infallible, or indubitable. Thanks for
the correction.


Edgar Foster

Lenoir-Rhyne College

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