From: Carl W. Conrad (email@example.com)
Date: Mon Feb 01 1999 - 12:52:24 EST
At 9:03 AM -0800 2/1/99, George Blaisdell wrote:
>>From: Edgar Krentz
>>The four Stoic categories for logical analysis and description
>>PROS TI and PROS TO PWS ECON.
>>These are first the category of relationship and then of disposition
>>in the relationship. Neither indicates movement!
>Can we then say that the [or 'a'] fundamental meaning of PROS might be
>"In relationship to", with the focus being on direction [or perhaps
>orientation?], that may or may not entail movement [according to the
>kind of verb involved]?
>Our prayers, for instance, are PROS TON QEON [I would hope!!], and when
>we are praying, are we then 'being' PROS TON QEON? As well, to avoid
>theology here, when we direct our thoughts toward, say, balloons, are
>we then 'being' toward those balloons? Does the action create the state
>of being? And are the two so easily separable? Does the state of being
>imply the action?
>Grammatically, we separate verbs that denote actions from those that
>denote states, and then draw a distinction between the meaning of PROS
>when used with one or the other.
>Yet in Greek, the single word is PROS.
Let me suggest an alternative formulation and analogy, although those who
object to etymological perspectives brought to bear upon questions of
EIS : PROS = EN : PRO
EN refers to stationary position in space or time, while EIS (EN + S)
refers to temporal or spatial directionality with reference to a position
in space or time or to a notion that is conceived metaphorically as
analogous to a position in space and time (as when EIS is used with an
accusative in a phrase of purpose or result); PRO refers to stationary
position, temporal or local before or in front of a position in space or
time, while PROS (PRO + S) refers to temporal or spatial directionality
with reference to an object or person or time or to a no;tion conceived
metaphorically as analogous to such a position: "facing, toward, prior to
I don't know that this resolves all the questions about EIS and PROS, but I
think that seeing the two adverbial/prepositional elements in relation to
EN and PRO can, I think, be helpful.
Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics/Washington University
One Brookings Drive/St. Louis, MO, USA 63130/(314) 935-4018
Home: 7222 Colgate Ave./St. Louis, MO 63130/(314) 726-5649
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