From: George Goolde (goolde@mtnempire.net)
Date: Wed Oct 13 1999 - 22:49:43 EDT


I agree with Clayton distinction between uses of KAI. I have chosen to
identify three uses:

        1. KAI can be connecting. This is what Clayton calls a "clause initial
KAI." It has, I believe, very much the same force as DE.

        2. KAI can be adjunctive. In this use the coordinate aspect of the
English "and" is emphasized. It adds one thing to another, things of equal
grammatical weight (two nouns, two verbs, two phrases, two clauses, etc).

        3. KAI can be ascensive. In this use it does not introduce an additional
element, but heightens the meaning of the previous element. This is the
use where KAI is often translated "even."

        I note in passing that we are taught in English grammar that we ought not
begin a sentence with and, nor end it with a preposition. Ending a
sentence with a preposition is one of those grammatical errors up with
which I will not put! But beginning a sentence with KAI seems to be
perfectly acceptable Greek judging by the number of times it occurs. And
perhaps English is coming along . . .


George A. Goolde
Professor, Bible and Theology
Southern California Bible College & Seminary
El Cajon, California


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