From: Steven Craig Miller (
Date: Thu Oct 14 1999 - 05:27:14 EDT

To: George Goolde,

<< I have chosen to identify three uses:
1. KAI can be connecting. This is what Clayton calls a "clause initial
KAI." It has, I believe, very much the same force as DE.
2. KAI can be adjunctive. In this use the coordinate aspect of the English
"and" is emphasized. It adds one thing to another, things of equal
grammatical weight (two nouns, two verbs, two phrases, two clauses, etc).
3. KAI can be ascensive. In this use it does not introduce an additional
element, but heightens the meaning of the previous element. This is the
use where KAI is often translated "even." >>

It is interesting to note that A.T. Robertson has come up with the same
three main uses for KAI: (a) the adjunctive use ('also'); (b) the ascensive
use ('even') and (c) the mere connective ('and'). Great minds seem to think

-Steven Craig Miller
Alton, Illinois (USA)

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