Re: PANTES in Romans 3:23

From: clayton stirling bartholomew (
Date: Wed Jan 19 2000 - 01:54:44 EST

>From: "Stephen C. Carlson" <>
>Subject: PANTES in Romans 3:23
>Date: Tue, Jan 18, 2000, 8:14 PM
> I received the following question from my uncle, and I am somewhat at loss
> in how to respond:
>>I have a translation question for you, if you could be so
>>kind to help me. In Romans 3:23 is the word all (pas) to mean "all groups" or
>>all individuals. I know someone who states that the word all for individuals
>>is "panton" not "pas."


PANTON??? Are we talking about PANTWN which is gen. plural of PAS?
Cannot find a form like this in the NT or LXX. It is late and I am not a
mind reader but I think that this suggestion is probably a confused one
from the start.

>>Therefore the translation means all groups and not all
>>individuals. Thanks a bunch! Uncle Jim
> For reference, Romans 3:23 is PANTES GAR hHMARTON KAI hUSTEROUNTAI THS
> All my reference works merely state than an anarthrous substantive PANTES
> means "all," with no indication of "all groups."

I read Rom 3:9-25ish a few times and then I grabbed what ever was handy
in the way of commentaries (Calvin, Alford, Hodge, Godet, H.A.W. Meyer,
Sanday/Hedlam, J. Murray, Cranfield (ICC), Leon Morris (Pillar)) and
took a quick look at how they handled PANTES in Rom. 3:23. Not one of
these noble fellows suggested "all groups" as even a potential gloss for
PANTES in this context.

>I also feel that "all
> groups" is ruled out by the context.

The context of this passage is rather a large one. Paul uses the word
PAS in a such a repetitious manner that it makes some passages almost
mind numbing to read. Paul's use of PAS in Rom 5:12 shedds a lot of
light on the use in Rom. 3:23. Leon Morris (Pillar) mentions this in a
footnote on Rom. 3:23 and cites W.G.T. Shedd on the subject. I would
suggest that the scope and force of PAS in 5:12 might be seen as
explaining the scope and force of PAS in 3:23.

I am aware that W.G.T. Shedd was a notorious reformed theologian who
produced a multi volume work on dogmatics which I used to own but gave
away with all the rest of my books like that to a local church. I
mention this because I can just feel a number of b-greek people cringe
when I mention his name. Anyway that is off topic and I didn't get the
idea from Shedd anyway. Never really read much of him.


Clayton Stirling Bartholomew
Three Tree Point
P.O. Box 255 Seahurst WA 98062

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