From: Steven Craig Miller (
Date: Sun Mar 05 2000 - 08:43:59 EST

<x-flowed>To: Neil Booth,

<< 1. Am I correct in thinking that the verb used in both instances --
ENQUMEOMAI -- must once have had a QUMOS content -- anger? >>

The term QUMOS has a wide range of meaning including: "breath, life,
spirit, strength, soul, desire, mind, temper, courage, anger" etc.

<< 2. If so, had that content completely disappeared by the time Matthew
came to use the verb? 3. If not, would it be permissible to translate the
verb as "to fret" or even "to fume" in both instances? >>

Actually, the basic meaning of ENQUMEOMAI (according to LSJM) appears to be
to "ponder," only secondarily does it also mean "angry."

But as for Mt 1:20, depending on how one views the context, the translation
"while he was upset about these things" appears to make more sense than the
neutral translation "while he thought on these things" (KJV) as if Joseph
was merely an unfeeling stoic.

-Steven Craig Miller
Alton, Illinois (USA)
FWIW: I'm neither a clergy-person, nor an academic (and I have no post-grad

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