From: Steven R. LoVullo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Date: Tue May 09 2000 - 20:40:32 EDT
I don't think DE in 2 Thess 2:13 can be taken as transitional. Rather, it is
very closely connected to vv. 10-12 and should be taken in a contrastive
sense. Thus it should be translated "but." Paul is here contrasting the
Thessalonian believers with the unbelievers of vv. 10-12.
Note first of all the emphatic position of hHMEIS in v.12 and the fact that
it is in the nominative case, even though it is not the subject of a verb in
the sentence. It is a "pendent" or "hanging" nominative, and, along with
ADELFOI HGAPHMENOI hUPO KURIOU is grammatically unrelated to the rest of the
sentence. The combination of position and case creates emphasis, and leads
us to understand hHMEIS DE as "But *you*" in contrast to those of whom he
has been speaking.
Next, compare the verbal parallels between vv. 10-12 and v. 13. The people
in v. 10 had no love THS ALHQEIAS ("of the truth"). In v. 11 God sends upon
these people a deluding influence EIS TO PISTEUSAI AUTOUS TWi YEUDEI ("so
that they will believe what is false"). These people are described in v. 12
as hOI MH PISTEUSANTES THi ALHQEIAi ("those who did not believe the truth").
Those in v. 13, on the other hand, exercised PISTEI ALHQEIAS ("belief in the
truth"). Notice the recurrence of ALHTHEIA in vv. 10, 12, and 13, and
PISTEUW/PISTIS in vv. 11, 12, and 13. We will note another parallel under
the next point.
Finally note the respective ends of the two groups. The deceived are
described in v. 10 as TOIS APOLLUMENOIS ("those who perish"), and in v. 12
the reason for God sending a deluding influence upon them is hINA KRIQWSIN
("so that they may be judged"). They did not receive the love of the truth
EIS TO SWQHNAI AUTOUS ("so as to be saved"). On the other hand, God chose
the Thessalonians for SWTHRIAN ("salvation"). Note again the verbal parallel
between SWQHNAI and SWTHRIAN.
So the contrast is between those who refuse to believe the truth and instead
believe falsehood and are not saved, and those who do believe the truth and
are saved. Paul distinguishes the latter from the former and gives special
thanks for them.
In light of the above, I think it is best to take DE as contrastive rather
than transitional. It could be translated: "But you, on the other hand... "
I think this maintains the integral relationship between v. 12 and what
Steve Lo Vullo
----- Original Message -----
From: Mike Sangrey <email@example.com>
To: Biblical Greek <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Cc: clayton stirling bartholomew <email@example.com>
Sent: Tuesday, May 09, 2000 10:49 AM
Subject: Use of DE in 2 Thess.
> I was originally going to send this just to Clayton, but I wondered if
> others might have thoughts on this topic and, given the interest in
> Discourse Analysis, I thought people might enjoy any discussion.
> Clayton and others,
> If I may bother you for a few moments, I would like your thoughts on
> the following ideas. The APOSTASIA discussion got me thinking about
> the structure of 2 Thess. and I noticed the incidence of DE appears
> to mark significant semantic transitions. I am wondering, given your
> reading of Discourse Analysis, whether my thoughts below hold water.
> Might you, or any others, have an opinion?
> First, note DE is used only three times in the first two chapters and
> is not used till 2:1. If one assumes DE is a transition marker, then
> one might expect it to be used in 1:3; but a transition into the body
> of the letter is expected there as in any letter, so DE is not needed.
> Chapter three begins with TO LOIPON, which is in itself a very strong
> transition marker. Also, 3:17 and 18 would not need DE for much the
> same reason as 1:3 doesn't.
> Regarding chapter two, here's my thought: Chapter 2:1-2 form a
> short and concise introduction to two topics, namely, the PAROUSIA
> and the EPISUNAGWGH. Then 2:3-12 discuss the PAROUSIA and 2:13-15 the
> EPISUNAGWGH. Paul makes a transition into chapter two with DE and then
> transitions into the second of the two subjects (verse 13) also with DE.
> I don't believe I've read this interpretation of 13-15 anywhere so
> I guess I'm sticking my neck out; but it does appear to me as a fair
> treatment of the structure of chapter two. Read it for yourself and see
> if in this light you don't sense Paul describing how Jesus gathers
> a people to himself.
> In 2:16 Paul "closes the lid", so to speak, to his discussion of the two
> topics using a benediction of sorts. Of course, this is not a novel
> example for Paul.
> 3:1-2 asks for prayer.
> 3:3,4,5 form a list (DE is used on a low semantic level):
> 3 -- Lord is faithful.
> 4 -- We are confident.
> 5 -- Paul expresses a wish for their guidance.
> 3:6-11 discusses the topic of idle people.
> 3:12,13 form another list, somewhat related to 6-11. (Here again, DE is
> used on a relatively low semantic level.)
> 3:14-15 give a final, poignant remark.
> 3:16-18 give concluding remarks.
> Well, Ladies and Gentlemen, what are your thoughts? And thank you all
> so much.
> Here is the list of verses for your convenience (3:8 has an OUDE which
> I don't think should be thought of in the same way as DE. Likewise, 2:2
> has a MHDE.):
> 2 Thess. 2:1
> ERWTWMEN DE hUMAS, ADELFOI, hUPER THS PAROUSIAS TOU KURIOU hHMWN
> IHSOU CRISTOU KAI hHMWN EPISUNAGWGHS EP' AUTON,
> 2 Thess. 2:13
> hHMEIS DE OFEILOMEN EUCARISTEIN TWi QEWi PANTOTE PERI hUMWN,
> ADELFOI HGAPHMENOI hUPO KURIOU, hOTI hEILATO hUMAS hO QEOS APARCHN
> EIS SWTHRIAN EN hAGIASMWi PNEUMATOS KAI PISTEI ALHQEIAS,
> 2 Thess. 2:16
> AUTOS DE hO KURIOS hHMWN IHSOUS CRISTOS KAI [hO] QEOS hO PATHR
> hHMWN, hO AGAPHSAS hHMAS KAI DOUS PARAKLHSIN AIWNIAN KAI ELPIDA
> AGAQHN EN CARITI,
> 2 Thess. 3:3
> PISTOS DE ESTIN hO KURIOS, hOS STHRIXEI hUMAS KAI FULAXEI APO
> TOU PONHROU.
> 2 Thess. 3:4
> PEPOIQAMEN DE EN KURIWi EF' hUMAS, hOTI hA PARAGGELLOMEN [KAI]
> POIEITE KAI POIHSETE.
> 2 Thess. 3:5
> hO DE KURIOS KATEUQUNAI hUMWN TAS KARDIAS EIS THN AGAPHN TOU QEOU
> KAI EIS THN hUPOMONHN TOU CRISTOU.
> 2 Thess. 3:6
> PARAGGELLOMEN DE hUMIN, ADELFOI, EN ONOMATI TOU KURIOU [hHMWN]
> IHSOU CRISTOU, STELLESQAI hUMAS APO PANTOS ADELFOU ATAKTWS
> PERIPATOUNTOS KAI MH KATA THN PARADOSIN hHN PARELABOSAN PAR' hHMWN.
> 2 Thess. 3:12
> TOIS DE TOIOUTOIS PARAGGELLOMEN KAI PARAKALOUMEN EN KURIWi IHSOU
> CRISTWi hINA META hHSUCIAS ERGAZOMENOI TON hEAUTWN ARTON ESQIWSIN.
> 2 Thess. 3:13
> hUMEIS DE, ADELFOI, MH EGKAKHSHTE KALOPOIOUNTES.
> 2 Thess. 3:14
> EI DE TIS OUC hUPAKOUEI TWi LOGWi hHMWN DIA THS EPISTOLHS, TOUTON
> SHMEIOUSQE, MH SUNANAMIGNUSQAI AUTWi, hINA ENTRAPHi:
> 2 Thess. 3:16
> AUTOS DE hO KURIOS THS EIRHNHS DWiH hUMIN THN EIRHNHN DIA PANTOS
> EN PANTI TROPWi. hO KURIOS META PANTWN hUMWN.
> Mike Sangrey
> Landisburg, Pa.
> There is no 'do' in faith, everywhere present within it is 'done'.
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