[b-greek] Re: EGIERW in perfect in 1Cor 15

From: Carlton Winbery (winberyc@speedgate.net)
Date: Thu Nov 23 2000 - 21:00:53 EST

Steven R. Lo Vullo wrote;

>On 11/23/00 12:08 AM, Dmitriy Reznik wrote:
>> Will you please help me to translate EGEIRW which is very often used in
>> 1Cor 15 in perfect tense? Actually it is used in verses 12, 13, 14, 16,
>> 17, 20. I would suspect it to be intransitive, as I have already been
>> taught in this forum. But presence of G-d as the subject who HGEIREN
>> Jesus makes me doubt. What would you say: should EGHGERTAI be translated
>> as passive, or as intransitive middle?
>Hi Dmitriy,
>Although EGEIRW in the passive voice with an intransitive meaning is
>certainly a legitimate option in many contexts, I think there are at least
>two clues in 1 Cor 15 that favor the simple passive. You have already hit on
>the first one: EGEIRW is used in the active voice twice in v. 15 with God as
>subject and Christ as object. So the fact that in this context Paul had in
>mind that Christ was raised by God is indisputable.
>The other clue is that the discussion centers around the contention of some
>in Corinth that there was no resurrection of the dead per se (vv. 12, 13,
>15, 16). Paul uses the phrase ANASTASIS NEKRWN in vv. 12 and 13, where
>NEKRWN seems to be an objective genitive, i.e., the action implied in
>ANASTASIS is directed toward NEKRWN. The dead don't simply rise, they are
>raised. This seems to be the implication of vv. 15 and 16 (cf. v. 29) also,
>where the passive of EGEIRW is used of the dead in general, though in the
>present tense instead of the perfect. Since it is difficult to think of
>Paul, keeping in mind his theocentric mind, contemplating the dead in
>general simply rising of their own accord, it would seem more natural that
>he has in mind their being raised (i.e., by God).
>I think the perfect tense is used with respect to Christ because Paul wants
>to emphasize that Christ was not only raised, but that in his resurrection
>mode he remains alive. After all, the hope of Christians is not simply that
>Christ was raised at some point in time, but that he remains alive and is
>coming for his own. It is EN TWi CRISTWi (v. 22) that we shall be made alive
>(ZWiOPOIHQHSONTAI, again passive, probably a "theological passive"), which
>will take place EN THi PAROUSIAi AUTOU (v. 23). Christians can't be made
>alive in Christ if he is not still alive, and he can't come to make
>Christians live if he is not still alive. Paul wants his readers to know
>that Christ was raised and remains raised and ready to fulfill God's
>promises to Christians in the future.
Steve does not mention Carl Conrad's reply to Dmitriy Reznik, but I hope he
is aware of it. I have learned much concerning the developments of voice in
the history of the Greek language from Carl's post. Certainly Carl is one
qualified to speak concerning this subject. His posts have caused me to
drop any talk of "deponent" verbs while teaching Greek. I agree with what
he says about "intransitive" middles and also the intransitive verbs in the
-QH + N forms (I still say "passive" in connection with these forms but not
"deponent passives," but all are not passive.) However, in 1 Cor 15 and and
many other places in Paul, I cannot see how to avoid the idea of the
passive. For Paul, IMHO, God is the agent of resurrection as he is the
agent of Paul's calling. While I do not like the terminology of "divine
passive," I do think that for Paul (perhaps as a result of Hebrew
background) the understood agent is God even though there is a reluctance
to make it explicit in every statement. I can see God as the implied agent
even when Paul uses adjectives that have a passive meaning such as Rom. 1:1
"a called apostle" which I think clearly indicates "God called me."

I think that Carl is right that there should be strong evidence in the
context to read these as passives. In Paul, I think there is.

Dr. Carlton L. Winbery
Foggleman Professor of Religion
Louisiana College
Ph. 1 318 448 6103 hm
Ph. 1 318 487 7241 off
Fax: 1 318 487 7425

B-Greek home page: http://metalab.unc.edu/bgreek
You are currently subscribed to b-greek as: [jwrobie@mindspring.com]
To unsubscribe, forward this message to leave-b-greek-327Q@franklin.oit.unc.edu
To subscribe, send a message to subscribe-b-greek@franklin.oit.unc.edu

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.1.4 : Sat Apr 20 2002 - 15:36:42 EDT