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Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters:
[A. Perianth Parts] [B. Hypanthium Parts] [C. Perianth Types] [D. Perianth and Hypanthium Structural Types]
VIII. Perianth and Hypanthium
- Anterior Lobes. The lobes away from axis, toward the subtending bract; abaxial lobes.
- Anterior Ridges, Lines, Grooves. The lines, grooves, ridges in or on the dorsal side, abaxial, within the perianth.
- Base. Bottom or lower portion.
- Beard. A tuft, line or zone of trichomes.
- Bristle. A stiff, strong trichome, as in the perianth of some members of the Cyperaceae.
- Callosity. A thickened, raised area, which is usually hard; a callus.
- Carina. Keel.
- Claw. The long, narrow petiole-like base of a sepal or petal.
- Corona. A crown; any outgrowth between the stamens and corolla which may be petaline or staminal in origin.
- Dorsal Side. Back or abaxial side, or the lower side of a perianth part.
- Faucal Area. The throat area.
- Fringe. The modified margin of a petal, sepal, tepal or lip.
- Hood. A cover-shaped perianth part, usually with a turned down margin.
- Horn. A curved, pointed and hollow protuberance from the perianth.
- Hypogynium. Perianth-like structure of bony scales subtending the ovary, as in Scleria and other members of the Cyperaceae.
- Keel. The two united petals of a papilionaceous flower; any structure ridged like the bottom of a boat.
- Ligule. The strap-shaped portion of a ray or ligulate corolla.
- Lip or Labellum. Either of two variously shaped parts into which a corolla or calyx is divided, usually into an upper and lower lip, as in the Lamiaceae and Orchidaceae.
- Limb. Expanded portion of corolla or calyx above the tube, throat or claw.
- Lobe. Any, usually rounded, segment or part of the perianth.
- Lodicule. Abortive perianth part in the Poaceae; hyaline scales at base of ovary in the Poaceae.
- Palate. The raised area in the throat of a sympetalous corolla.
- Pappus. Bristly or scaly calyx in the Asteraceae.
- Petal. A corolla member or segment; a unit of the corolla.
- Posterior Lobe. The lobe next to axis, away from the subtending bract; adaxial lobe.
- Posterior Ridges, Lines, Grooves. The lines, grooves, ridges in or on the ventral side, adaxial, within the perianth.
- Pouch or Sac. A bag-shaped structure.
- Scale. Small, scarious to coriaceous flattened bodies within the perianth, as in the Cyperaceae and Asteraceae.
- Sepal. A calyx member or segment; a unit of the calyx.
- Spur. A tubular or pointed projection from the perianth.
- Standard, Banner, or Vexillum. The upper, usually wide petal in a papilionaceous corolla.
- Tepal. A member or segment of perianth in which the parts are not differentiated into distinct sepals and petals.
- Throat. An open, expanded tube in the perianth.
- Tube. The cylindrical part of the perianth.
- Ventral Side. Top side or upper side of a perianth part.
- Wing. Lateral petals, as in the Fabaceae; a flattened extension, appendage or projection from a perianth part.
- Base. Bottom or lower portion of the hypanthium.
- Limb. Free, flared portion of the hypanthium.
- Neck. Narrowed portion of hypanthium, between the base and a flared limb.
- Tube or Casing. Cylindrical part of the hypanthium.
C. Perianth Types
(Classification based primarily on fusion of parts)
- Achlamydeous. Without perianth.
- Apetalous. No petals or corolla.
- Apopetalous or Choripetalous. With separate petals.
- Aposepalous or Chorisepalous. With separate sepals.
- Asepalous. No sepals or calyx.
- Chlamydeous. With perianth.
- Dichlamydeous. With perianth composed of distinct calyx and corolla.
- Homochlamydeous. With perianth composed of similar parts, each part a tepal.
- Sympetalous. With fused petals.
- Synsepalous. With fused sepals.
- Actinomorphic. With radially arranged perianth parts; ray-like figure.
- Bilabiate. Two-lipped, with two unequal divisions.
- Calcarate. Spurred.
- Calceolate. Slipper-shaped, as in the corolla of Cypripedium.
- Campanulate. Bell-shaped; with flaring tube about as broad as long and a flaring limb.
- Carinate. Keeled.
- Corniculate. Horned.
- Coronate. Tubular or flaring perianth or staminal outgrowth; petaloid appendage.
- Cruciate. Four separate petals in cross form.
- Cucullate. Hooded.
- Galeate. Helmet-shaped, as one sepal in Aconitum.
- Gibbous. Inflated on one side near the base.
- Globose. Round.
- Infundibular. Funnel-shaped.
- Ligulate or Ray. Strap-shaped.
- Papilionaceous. With large posterior petal (banner or standard) two lateral petals (wings) and usually two connate lower petals (keel); as in the Fabaceae.
- Personate. Two-lipped with the upper arched and the lower protruding into corolla throat.
- Rotate. Wheel-shaped, with short tube and wide limb at right angles to tube.
- Saccate. Pouch-like.
- Salverform. Trumpet-shaped. With slender tube and limb nearly at right angles to tube.
- Subglobose. Almost round or spherical.
- Tubular. Cylindrical.
- Unguiculate. Clawed.
- Urceolate. Urn-shaped.
- Ventricose. Inflated on one side near the middle.
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