Section B. General Characters and Character States:
VIII. Growth and Development

[A. Growth Regions] [B. Growth Periodicity] [C. General Development] [D. Developmental Shoot Types]

A. Growth Regions
(Location of meristematic region on or within an organ or its parts)

Adaxial or Abaxial. Growth region localized on top or bottom of a leaf part or any dorsi-ventral structure.
Apical or Terminal. Growth region at the apex of the structure.
Basal. Growth region at the base of a blade. as in grasses.
Intercalary. Growth region near the base of an internode or base of blade.
Interstitial. Growth all-over in an organ, no localized meristems, as in some fruits.
Marginal. Growth region near the edge of a leaf.

B. Growth Periodicity
(Location of meristematic region on or within an organ or its parts)

Accrescent. Growing after flowering or bud development has occurred, as the sepals in Hypericum and bud scales in Carya.
Determinate. Growth of plant parts, the size of which is limited by cessation of meristematic activity during the year.
Indeterminate or Evergrowing. Continual growth of plant parts, not limited by a cessation of meristematic activity.
Intermittent. A renewal and cessation of meristematic activity which produces clusters of stems and/or leaves along an axis.

C. General Development
(Direction of maturation within the plant of its organs or its parts; e.g., from the base upward or from the inside outward)

Acropetal. Developing upward, toward apex.
Basipetal. Developing downward, toward base.
Centripetal. Developing from the outside inward, or from bottom upward.
Centrifugal. Developing from the inside outward, or from top downward.
Determinate. Central flower develops first, arresting development of primary axis.
Indeterminate. Lateral flowers develop first with primary axis continuing to elongate or develop.

D. Developmental Shoot Types
(Classification based on origin and development of shoots)

Dwarf Shoots or Spurs. Shoots that develop from preformed buds which have very short internodal lengths or intervals.
Epicormic Shoots or Water Sprouts. Shoots that develop from dormant lateral buds on the trunk which have very long and frequently variable internodal lengths or intervals.
Flushing Shoots. Shoots that develop from mature terminal buds several times during a season. Terminal bud will develop shoot with new terminal bud which will develop more shoots and a terminal bud which will develop etc.--several times in a season with several flushes of growth.
Heterophyllous Shoots. Shoots that develop from winter buds which do not contain the primordia of all the leaves to develop during the year.
Lammas Shoots. Abnormal late season shoots that develop from the terminal bud, not a recurring phenomenon as in flushing shoots.
Long Bud Shoots. Abnormal buds or shoots which elongate, then have arrested growth without the development of leaves and lateral branches.
Long Shoots. Normal shoots that develop from terminal or axillary buds which have normal internodal lengths or intervals.
Preformed Shoots. Normal shoots that develop from winter buds which contain primordia of all leaves that will expand during the season.
Proleptic Shoots. Abnormal late season shoots that develop from the lateral buds immediately beneath the terminal.
Sucker Shoots. Shoots that develop from adventitious buds on old stumps or roots, usually after cutting or injury, which have elongate internodal lengths and intervals.
Syleptic Shoots. Abnormal shoots that develop from lateral buds before they have reached maturity.