Section C. Gymnosperm Glossary

(Contributed by James W. Hardin, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.)

[A. Vegetative Structures] [B. Reproductive Structures]

A. Vegetative Structures

Acicular Leaf. Needle-like, long and slender; e.g., Pinus.
Awl-shaped Leaf. Subulate; narrow, flat, stiff, sharp-pointed, usually less than 1/2 in. long; e.g., Juniperus.
Fascicle. Cluster of needles borne on a minute determinate short shoot in the axil of a primary leaf (bract); e.g., Pinus.
Fascicle Sheath. Closely imbricated bud scales at the base of the fascicle of needles; e.g., Pinus.
Linear Leaf. Narrow, flattened, triangular, or quadrangular leaf usually 1/2-2 in. long; e.g., Taxus, Picea.
Long Shoot. Elongated internodes, rapid annual growth.
Multinodal Shoot. Spring shoot developing from the terminal winter bud and producing 2 or more whorls of branches; the cones are partly lateral in the middle of the shoot; e.g., Pinus echinata.
Needle. Acicular; slender, elongated leaf, usually over 2 in long; e.g., Pinus.
Peg (sterigmata). Lateral stem projection to which leaf is attached and persistent after leaf dehiscence; i.e., abscission layer between peg and leaf. Leaf may be sessile; e.g., Picea; or petiolate; e.g., Tsuga, on the peg.
Scale Leaf. Small, usually appressed and imbricate; e.g., Juniperus, Thuja.
Short Shoot. Very short or inconspicuous internodes and growth very slow if at all.
Uninodal Shoot. Spring shoot developing from the terminal winter bud and producing only one internode with one whorl of branches at the end; the cones are subterminal at the end of the shoot; e.g., Pinus resinosa.

B. Reproductive Structures

Apophysis. Exposed outer surface of either an ovuliferous scale or megasporophyll as seen when the cone is closed.
Aril. An outgrowth from the stem forming a fleshy covering of the seed; e.g., Taxus, Torreya; or only rudimentary at base of the fleshy seed; e.g., Cephalotaxus.
Bract. Modified leaf subtending the ovuliferous scale; may be distinct or fused to the scale.
Cone (strobilus). Aggregation of sporangia-bearing structures at tip of the stem (either sporophylls or scales in the Gymnosperms).
Epimatium. Fleshy covering of the seed and more or less fused with the integument; arising from the chalazal end of the ovule like an additional integument; e.g., Podocarpus.
Megasporophyll. Modified leaf bearing o w les; e.g., Zamia.
Microsporophyll. Modified leaf bearing microsporangia or pollen sacs.
Ovuliferous Scale. Highly modified lateral branch in the axil of a leaf (bract), and bearing ovules. May be flat or peltate, woody or fleshy; e.g., Pinaceae.
Receptaculum. A fleshy structure below the seed formed from the bases of bracts and the swollen receptacle or cone axis; e.g.,Acmopyle, and some Podocarpus spp.
Umbo. Projection, with or without spine or prickle, on the apophysis of the cone scale.