Phytography deals with the descriptive terminology of plants and their component parts for the purpose of providing an accurate and complete vocabulary for description, identification, and classification. Phytographic studies should (1) provide the student with a vocabulary for intelligent communication about plants and an understanding of the use of relative terms; and (2) help the student observe plants more critically and describe them more precisely. The morphological and developmental features of angiosperms form the core of the terms treated in this chapter.
The classification of terminology herein represents basically a compromise between (1) the traditional approaches to phytography, (2) effective teaching-learning organization, and (3) ordering of characters and character states for increased precision in comparative studies and data banking. The use of types and structural types conforms fairly closely to accepted practice. Major organs and their component parts are basic morphology. The subclassifications, as in fruit types and arrangement, have been made for greater learning effectiveness and for compliance with traditional usage. The treatment of position-arrangement, shapes, and surface have been ordered or ranked to make those classifications comparative. The ratios and fractions of the subsection on shapes, if applied, will make the relative terms or character states more consistent in application.
Section A is organized basically as the Plant and its major structures (I-XII) which are subclassified into component parts (A), types (B), and structural types (C). Plant types are based on habit; root, stem, leaf, flower, and inflorescence types are based primarily on position and/or arrangement; and the perianth, androecium, and gynoecium types are based on fusion of parts. Structural types includes typical and specialized structures. Section B is organized as character classes (I-XII) which are subclassified as numerous characters. Section C and Section D are glossaries of terms pertinent to gymnosperms and lower vascular plants. The index includes all terms presented in the chapter. Unspecialized and specialized structures are included in the structural type classification for completeness of treatment. All terms within a subject are alphabetized except those in shape where it was deemed best to group related terms. Adjectives or noun forms, usually not both, are used throughout a classification. Some classifications knowingly have incomplete vocabularies but instructions are included for the determinations of the meanings of many additional terms.
The morphological glossary is based primarily upon those found in Lawrence (1951), Stearn (1966) , Johnson (1931) , Featherley (1954) , Correll and Johnston (1971) , Swartz (1971) , and Porter et al. (1973) . Some classifications and definitions of terms are based on special papers which are cited in the literature. A few new terms for perianth position, gynoecial and staminal types are introduced .
Phytography, as an ordered and precise subject, is still in a rather primitive state. "Different terms are often applied to the same character state, and, conversely the same term is used for many character states" (Porter et al., 1973) . Seemingly there are too many terms in this chapter, but a real need exists for even more, with precise definition and application. Terms represent concepts, or states of concepts. Generalized concepts provide the basis of classification. Improvement is needed throughout the term-concept-classification system to advance phytography and taxonomy.