The History of India

by the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone

In two volumes

Volume I

1841

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction – General Description of India

Boundaries and Extent of India – Natural Divisions – Hindostan and the Deckan – Natural Divisions of Hindostan – Natural Divisions of the Deckan – Superficial Measurement and Population of India – Climate and Seasons – Natural Productions – Trees – Spices, &c. – Agricultural Produce – Animals – Minerals

Book 1 – Hindus –State of the Hindus at the Time of Menu’s Code

Preliminary Observations

Chapter 1 – Division and Employment of Classes

Bramins – Cshetryas – Veisyas – Sudras – Mixture of Classes

Chapter 2 – Government

The King – Administration of the Government – Revenue – The Court – Policy – War

Chapter 3 – Administration of Justice

General Rules – Criminal Law – Civil Law – Mode of Proceeding – Law of Evidence – Mode of Proceeding resumed – Debts – Interest of Money – Contracts – Sale without Ownership – Disputes between Master and Servant – Disputes about Boundary – Relations between Man and Wife – Inheritance

Chapter 4 – Religion

The Vedas – Monotheism – Religion of the Institutes – Creation – Inferior Deities and Spirits – Man – Ritual Observances – Moral Effects

Chapter 5 – Manners and State of Civilisation

State of Women – Manners – Arts of Life – General Remarks – Origin of the Hinds, and Formation of their Society – Peculiarities relating to Bramins

Book 2 – Changes since Menu, and State of the Hindus in Later Times

Chapter 1 – Changes in Cast

Changes in the four great Classes – Mixed Classes – Monastic Orders

Chapter 2 – Changes in the Government

Administration – Revenue Divisions – Description of a Township – Its Privileges – Government of a Township by one Head – Duties of a Headman – Village Establishment; the Accountant, Watchman, &c. – Government by a Village Community – Classes of Inhabitants – Village Landholders – Permanent Tenants – Temporary Tenants – Hired Labourers – Shopkeepers, &c. – Probable Origin and Decline of Village Communities – Public Land Revenue – Property in the Soil – Other Branches of the Revenue – Alienations – Lands alienated for military Service – Lands for military Service among the Rajputs – Lands for Services not military – Lands held free of Service – Tributary and other dependent Territories – Zemindars, what – Changes in War and Policy

Chapter 3 – Changes in the Law

Changes in the written Law – Civil Law – Changes in Practice – Criminal Law – Local Laws

Chapter 4 – Present state of Religion

Changes since Menu – The Puranas – Present Objects of Worship – Siva – Devi or Bhawani – Vishnu and his Incarnations – Rama – Crishna – Other Gods – Good and bad Spirits – Local Gods – General Character of the Hindu Religion – Future State – Moral Effects – Sects – New Ritual – Ascendancy of the Monastic Orders – Religion of the Baudhas and Jainas – Comparative Antiquity of those Religions and that of Brama

Chapter 5 – Present state of Philosophy

Six principal Schools – Sankya Schools (atheistical and theistical) 216 – Purpose of Knowledge – Means of attaining Knowledge – Principles – Constitution of animated corporeal Beings – Intellectual Creation – General View of the Sankya Doctrine – Separate Doctrines of the atheistical and theistical Branches – Yogis – Vedanta School – God the sole Existence – Logical Schools – Their Points of Resemblance to Aristotle – General Classification – Heads or Topics, and their Subdivisions – Metaphysical Opinions – Doctrine of Atoms – Resemblance to some of the Greek Schools, especially to Pythagoras

Book 3 – State of the Hindus in Later Times, continued

Chapter 1 – Astronomy and Mathematical Science

Antiquity of the Hindu Astronomy – Its Extent – Geometry – Arithmetic – Algebra – Originality of Hindu Science

Chapter 2 – Geography

Chapter 3 – Chronology

Mythological Periods – Impossibility of fixing early Dates, even by Conjecture – Solar and lunar Races – Materials subsequent to the War of the “Maha Bharat” – Kings of Magada – Chandragupta contemporary with Seleucus, and Asoca with Antiochus – Date of Nanda’s Reign – Date of the Death of Budha – Probable Date of the “Maha Bharat” – Dates after Chandragupta – Coincidence with Chinese Annals – Obscurity after AD 436 – Eras of Vicramaditya and Salivahana

Chapter 4 – Medicine

Chapter 5 – Language

Shanscrit – Other Languages of India

Chapter 6 – Literature

Poetry – The Drama – Sacred Poetry – Heroic – Descriptive – Pastoral – Satire – Tales and Fables

Chapter 7 – Fine Arts

Music – Painting – Sculpture – Architecture

Chapter 8 – Other Arts

Weaving – Dyeing – Working in Gold

Chapter 9 – Agriculture

Chapter 10 – Commerce

External Commerce – Trade from the West Coast – Coasting Trade – Trade from the East Coast – Hindu Settlements in Java and other eastern Islands – Trade in Times subsequent to the Greeks – Exports in ancient Times – Imports – Inland Trade

Chapter 11 – Manners and Character

Difference of Indian Nations – Villages – Habits of Villagers – Towns – Food and Manner of eating of all Classes – Indoor Amusements – Houses – Ceremonial and Conversation of the upper Classes – Entertainments and Pomp of the Rich – Fairs, Pilgrimages, &c. – Gardens and Natural Scenery – Manner of Life of the Townspeople and Festivals of all Classes – Exercises – Dress – Women – Slavery – Ceremonies of Marriage – Education – Names – Funerals – Sattis – Hereditary Thieves – Bhats and Charans – Mountaineers and Forest Tribes – Character – Comparison of the Hindu Character in ancient and modern Times

Book 4 – History of the Hindus up to the Mahometan Invasion

Chapter 1 – Hindostan

Races of the Sun and Moon – Rama – War of the “Maha Bharat” – Kingdom of Magada (Sandracottus) – Malwa (Vicramaditya, Bhoja) – Guzerat – Canouj – Other Principalities – Table

Chapter 2 – The Deckan

Early State and Divisions of the Deckan – Dravida, or the Tamil Country – Carnata, or Canarese Country – Telingana, or Teluga Country – Maharashtra, or Maratta Country – Orissa, or Urya Country – Kingdoms and Principalities in the Deckan – Pandya – Chola – Chera – Kerala – The Concan – Carnata and Telingana – Belala Rajas – Yadavas – Chalukyas of Carnata – Chalukyas of Calinga – Kings of Andra – Orissa – Maharashtra, or Maratta Country – Tagara – Salivahana – Deogiri

Appendix 1– On the Age of Menu and of the Vedas

Age of the Vedas – Age of the Code or Institutes

Appendix 2 – On Changes in Cast

Doubts regarding the Foreign Descent of any of the Rajput Tribes – Scythian Settlers in India

Appendix 3 – On the Greek Accounts of India

India bounded on the West by the Indus – Indians to the West of that River – Greek Descriptions of India – Authorities for those Descriptions – Division into Classes – Sanyassis – Sudras – Absence of Slavery – Number and Extent of the different States – Manners and Customs – Favourable Opinion entertained by the Greeks of the Indian Character

Appendix 4 – On the Greek Kingdom of Bactria

Accounts of the Ancients – Further Discoveries from Coins

Appendix 5 – Notes on the Revenue System

Book 5 – Mahometans – From the Commencement of the Arab Conquests to the Establishment of a Mahometan Government in India

Chapter 1 – Arab Conquests

622, Rise of the Mahometan Religion – 632–636, Conquest of Persia – 651, Extended to the Indus – 664, First Incursion into India – 711, Conquest of Sind by the Arabs – 750, Their Expulsion – Causes of the slow Progress of the Mahometans in India – Tartar Nations – Turks in Transoxiana – 706–712, Arab Conquest of Transoxiana

Chapter 2 – Dynasties Formed after the Breaking up of the Empire of the Califs

820–872, The Taherites – 872–903, The Sofarides – 872–999, The House of Samani – 932–1055, The Buyades or Deilemites – Alptegin, Founder of the House of Ghazni – 961, His Rebellion – 976, Sebektegin – Invasion by Jeipal, Raja of Lahor – Repelled – Hindu Confederacy – Defeated – Sebektegin assists the Samanis against the Eastern Tartars – 997, His Death

Chapter 3 – House of Ghazni – Sultan Mahmud 997–1030

Disputed Succession – 999, Mahmud declares his Independence – 1001, His first Expedition to India – 1004, Second Expedition – 1005, Third Expedition – Invasion of the Tartars under Elik Khan – Defeated by Mahmud – 1008, Fourth Expedition – Decisive Battle – Temple of Nagarcot – 1010, Conquest of Ghor – Fifth Expedition to India – 1011, Sixth Expedition – Capture of Tanesar – 1013–14 or 15, Seventh and Eighth Expeditions – 1016, Conquest of Transoxiana – 1017, Ninth Expedition to India – Canouj – 1022–23, Tenth and Eleventh Expeditions – Permanent Occupation of the Panjab – 1024–1026, Twelfth Expedition – Somnat – Mahmud sets up a new Raja in Guzerat – Distresses in the Desert on his Return – First Revolt of the Seljuks – 1027, Suppressed – 1029, Conquest of Persia by Mahmud – 1030, His Death – His Character – Composition of his Court and Army – Turks – Persians – Relation of the different Nations to the Government

Chapter 4 – Other Kings of Ghazni and Ghor 1030–1206

1030, Sultan Mohammed – Sultan Masaud – Rise of the Seljuks – Their Wars with Masaud – 1040, Deposition and Death of Masaud – Sultan Modud – 1049, Sultan Abul Hasan – 1051, Sultan Abul Rashid – 1052, Sultan Farokhzad – 1058, Sultan Ibrahim – 1089 or 1100, Sultan Masaud II – 1114, Sultan Arslan – 1118, Sultan Behram – Quarrel with Ghor – Ghazni taken by the Ghorians – Recovered by Behram – Cruel Execution of the King of Ghor – 1152, Ghazni destroyed by the Ghorians – House of Ghazni retire to India – 1152, Sultan Khusru – 1160, Sultan Khusru Malik – Ala u din Ghori – Origin of the House of Ghor – 1152, Taking of Ghazni by the Seljuks – Restoration of Ala u din – 1153, Fall of the Seljuks – 1156, Seif u din Ghori – 1157, Gheias u din Ghori – 1176, First Expedition to India under Shahab u din – 1186, Expulsion of the House of Ghazni from the Panjab – Wars with the Hindus – The Rajputs – 1191, Defeat of Shahab u din – 1193, Return of Shahab u din to India – Conquest of Ajmir – Conquest of Delhi – 1194, Capture of Canouj – Conquest of Oud, Behar, and Bengal – 1202, Shahab u din (or Mohammed) Ghori – 1203, Unsuccessful Invasion of Kharizm – Rebellions in India – Subdued – 1206, Death of Shahab u din – Extent of his Conquests in India – Mahmud Ghori – Dissolution of the Ghorian Empire

This collection transcribed by Chris Gage
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