The History of India

From the Earliest Period to the Close of Lord Dalhousie’s Administration

by John Clark Marshman

In three volumes

Volume 1


The compilation of this work was undertaken at the request of the University of Calcutta, to assist the studies of those who were desirous of competing for its honours. The author has been encouraged to publish an edition in this country on the kind assurance of friends, that it may also be found useful by those who are in search of a brief and compendious narrative of the progress of the British empire in India. So far as historical truth can be discovered, he is prepared to vouch for the accuracy of the facts detailed in it, and he is not without a hope that his efforts to present an impartial and trustworthy opinion on the various transactions which have been the subject and the sport of party-feeling, may be found not altogether unsuccessful.

January 1st, 1867

For the information of the English reader, it is requisite to intimate that a crore of rupees is a million sterling; a lac of rupees, £10,000; a gold mohur, 32s.; a pagoda, 8s.; and a rupee, 2s.; also that a maun is equivalent to 82 lbs., and a seer to 2 lbs.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 – Early History to the Ghuzni Invasion.

Boundaries and divisions of India — Hindostan and the Deccan — Chronology of the Hindoos — Early history of the Hindoos — Ten divisions and ten languages — The Vedus — Munoo — The solar and the lunar race — Ramu — The great war celebrated in the Muhabharut — The battle of Kooroo-kshetru — Influence of Ramu’s expedition and the great war — The Takshuk invasion — Expedition of Darius — Religion of Boodh, spread of Boodhism — Expedition of Alexander the Great — His progress and return — His great projects and death — Nundu, Chundra-goopta — The Mugudu kingdom — The Ugnikools — Expulsion of the Boodhists — Cave temples of India — Vikramadityu — The birth of Jesus Christ — The Andrea — Early history of the Deccan — The Pandyas and the Cholas — Kerala, Telingana, Orissa, and Maharastra — Rajpoots of Chittore — Mahomed — Early Mahomedan invasions — War between the Mahomedans and Chittore — The Cunouj Brahmins in Bengal

Chapter 2 – From the Dynasty of Ghuzni to that on Toghluk, 1009–1321

Movements in Khorasan and Cabul — 976, Subuktugeen — Invasion of Jeypal repelled — 997, Death of Subuktugeen — Mahmood mounts the throne of Ghuzni — 1001, His first expedition to India — 1004, Second expedition — 1005, Third expedition — 1008, Fourth expedition; Hindoo confederacy defeated — Capture of Nagarcote — 1011, Sixth expedition; Thanesur — 1017, Ninth expedition; capture of Cunouj — 1024, Twelfth expedition; plunder of Somnath — 1030, Death of Mahmood — His character — 1030–1040, Musaood; his conflict with the Seljuks — 1040–1118, Succession of seven monarchs — 1118, Byram; his quarrel with Ghore — 1152, The House of Ghuzni retires to India under Khusro — 1186, The House of Ghuzni extinguished in the reign of Khusro Malik — Antecedents of the House of Ghore — 1152, Alla-ood-deen gives up the city of Ghuzni to plunder — 1157, Gheias-ood-deen mounts the throne, and associates his brother Shahab-ood-deen (Mahomed of Ghore,) with him in the government — 1191, State of the Hindoo princes — Bhoje raja — Mahomed Ghore defeated by the Hindoos — 1193, He conquers Delhi and Ajmere — 1194, Conquest of Cunouj; emigration of the Rathores — 1203, Conquest of Behar and Bengal — 1206, Death of Mahomed Ghory; extent of his territories; he utterly demolishes the Hindoo power in Hindostan — 1206, Kootub-ood-deen establishes an independent Mahomedan sovereignty at Delhi — 1211, Altumsh, the slave of Kootub, ascends the throne — 1219, Conquests of the Moguls under Jenghis Khan — 1238, Death of Altumsh — Sultana Rezia on the throne; her abilities, weakness, and death — 1246, Nazir-ood-deen sovereign; Bulbun vizier — 1266, Bulbun succeeds to the throne; his virtuous reign — 1279, Expedition against Bengal — 1288, Kei-kobad’s atrocities bring the dynasty to an end — 1288, Feroze Ghiljie establishes a new dynasty — 1294, Alla-ood-deen’s invasion of the Deccan — 1295, He assassinates his father and mounts the throne — 1297, Expedition to Guzerat — 1303, Capture of Chittore — 1305–1306, Mogul invasions of India — 1308, Renewed expedition to the Deccan — 1310, Farther invasion of the Deccan; extinction of the Hindoo dynasty of Bellal — 1311, Kafoor carries the Mogul arms to the extremity of the Deccan, and returns laden with booty — 1316, Mobarik succeeds to the throne, is assassinated, and Ghazee Toghluk extinguishes the dynasty

Chapter 3 – From the Accession of the House of Toghluk to the Establishment of the Moguls, 1321–1526

1321, Ghazee Toghluk — 1323, Conquest of Telingana, and capture of Warungole — 1325, Accession of Mahomed Toghluk; his wild character — He attempts to conquer China and fails — His tyranny and exactions — 1338, He attempts to remove the capital to Dowlutabad — 1340, Revolt of the provinces — 1344, A new Hindoo dynasty established in Telingana — Hindoo kingdom established at Beejuynugur — 1347, General rebellion in the Deccan — 1351, Death of Mahomed Toghluk — Feroze Toghluk; his public works — 1394, General anarchy and dissolution of the monarchy — 1395–1400, Four independent kingdoms — 1398, Invasion of Timur — He plunders Delhi, and retires beyond the Indus — 1414, Khizir Khan Syud, founds a new dynasty — 1450, The Synd dynasty extinguished by Beloli Lodi — Rise of the Lodi family — 1478, Jounpore reannexed to the throne of Delhi — 1488, Secundur Lodi, his bigotry and intolerance — 1517, Ibrahim Lodi succeeds to the throne; general revolt of the provinces — 1401, Sultan Dilawur founds the independent kingdom of Malwa — 1898, Mozuffer Shah becomes independent in Guzerat — 1435–1482, Reign of Mahmood Khan Ghiljie in Malwa — 1456, Alliance between Malwa and Guzerat for the conquest of Chittore — 1482, Seraglio of Gheias-ood-deen of Malwa — 1459–1511, Reign of the great Mahomed Shah of Guzerat — 1512, Mahmood the Second of Malwa — Grandeur of Rana Sunga of Chittore — 1526, Extinction of the kingdom of Malwa — 1349, Hussun Gungu, first Bahminy king — 1358, Conflict of Mahomed Bahminy with Beejuynugur — 1397–1435, Reigns of Feroze and Ahmed Shah — 1435, Alla-ood-deen’s wars with the Hindoos — 1463, Mahomed Shah Bahminy — 1481, His great minister, Mahmood Gawan, executed by his orders — 1482, The Bahminy kingdom crumbles away, and five states formed out of it — Rise of the Portuguese power — 1497, Vasco de Gama conducts the first expedition to India — 1499, Second voyage under Cabral — 1502, Vasco de Gama’s second voyage — 1508, Almeyda’s naval actions — 1507–1515, Albuquerque

Chapter 4 – Mogul Dynasty –Baber to Akbar, 1526–1605

Early career of Baber — 1519–1526, His five expeditions to India — 1526, Haber enters Delhi — State of India on Baber’s accession — 1527, Defeat of Rana Sunga — 1529, Baber attacks Chunderee — 1530, His death and character — Humayoon succeeds to the throne — 1538, He overruns Guzerat — 1537, Tragic death of Bahadoor Shah of Guzerat — Origin of Shere Khan Afghan — 1539, He defeats Humayoon — 1540, Humayoon flies across the Indus — Birth of Akbar — 1540–1545, Illustrious reign of Shere Shah; his death — 1545–1554, His two successors; the crown lost to the family — 1543, Humayoon retreats to Candahar and Persia — 1555, He recrosses the Indus, and regains the throne of Delhi — 1556, His death — Accession of Akbar — Defeat and death of Hemu — 1560, Arrogance and fall of Byram — Revolt of Akbar’s generals — 1564, Heroism of Doorgawuttee, a Hindoo princess — 1566, Revolt of Akbar’s brother — 1567, Complete subjugation of the disaffected generals — Matrimonial alliances with the royal Rajpoot families — 1568, Capture of Chittore — Singular mode in which it is commemorated — 1572, Conquest of Guzerat — 1550, Orissa conquered by the Affghans of Bengal — 1576, Conquest of Bengal by Akbar — 1577, Revolt of the Mogul Officers in Bengal — 1560, Destruction of the city of Gour — 1587, Conquest of Cashmere — Attempt to curb the Khyberees — 1591–1594, Conquest of Sinde and Guzerat — History of the Deccan in the 16th century; the five kingdoms of Beder, Serer, Golconda, Beejapore, and Ahmednugur — Rise and growing importance of the Mahrattas — 1565, Hindoo kingdom of Beejuynugur extinguished at the battle of Tellicotta — Portuguese during the 16th century — The great Beejapore gun — 1570, Combined attack on Goa — 1594, Complete pacification and settlement of Hindostan by Akbar — 1595, Akbar’s views on the Deccan — He enters the state of Ahmednugur; the city defended by Chand Sultana — 1596, She cedes Berar and makes peace — 1597, Doubtful battle of Soneput — 1599, Akbar goes in person to the Deccan — 1600, Capture of Ahmednugur — 1601, Candesh absorbed — 1605, Akbar’s death and character — His religious views and toleration; his revenue reforms and military system, and his Court — Division of the empire into soubahs

Chapter 5 – Jehangeer and Shah Jehan; 1606–1658

1605, Jehangeer ascends the throne — 1606, Rebellion of Khusro — 1611, Marriage of Jehangeer with Noor Jehan — Talents of Malik Amber; he defeats Jehangeer — 1614 Subjugation of Oodypoore — 1615, Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to Delhi — 1617, Second expedition against Malik Amber — 1621, Death of Khusro — Empress alienated from Shah Jehan — 1628, Mohabet sent against him — 1625, Empress’s hatred of Mohabet — 1626, Mohabet seizes the emperor — Empress fights him, and is defeated — She is reconciled to him; release of Jehangeer — 1627, His death and character — Accession of Shah Jehan — His extravagant expenditure — Condition of the kingdoms of Beejapore, Ahmednugur, and Golconda — 1629–1637, Revolt of Jehan Lodi; war kindled in the Deccan — 1637, The kingdom of Ahmednugur extinguished — The emperor’s accommodation with Beejapore — Golconda submits to pay tribute — Portuguese power in Bengal — 1632, Capture of Hooghly and extinction of the Portuguese power — 1637, Ali Merdan betrays Candahar to the emperor — His canal — 1644–1647, Military operations beyond the Indus — Services of the Rajpoots in the Hindoo Kosh — 1648, Persians retake Candahar; three unsuccessful attempts to recover it — 1655, Aurungzebe viceroy of the Deccan; renews the war with its princes — Career and talents of Meer Joomla — 1656, Aurungzebe attacks Golconda; plunders and burns Hyderabad; exacts a large tribute — 1657, Unprovoked attack on Beejapore; he is obliged suddenly to proceed to Delhi — The four sons of Shah Jehan — Aurungzebe moves with Morad towards Delhi — Soojah takes the field, and is defeated by Dara — 1658, Dara defeated by Aurungzebe — Aurungzebe deposes Shah Jehan and ascends the throne of Delhi — Character of Shah Jehan — His peacock throne

Chapter 6 – Aurungzebe, 1658–1707

1658, Aurungzebe gets rid of his three brothers — 1662, His dangerous illness; intrigues at the Court — Meer Joomla’s disastrous expedition to Assam — Rise and progress of the Mahrattas — The Mahrattas trained to war during the contests between Beejapore and Ahmednugur — 1594, Birth of Shahjee — 1620, He succeeds to the jaygeer of Poona — 1634, He endeavours to create a king of Ahmednugur — 1627, Birth of Sevajee; his early habits — 1646, Begins his career by capturing Torna — 1649, His constant aggressions; his father seized as a hostage — 1657, His correspondence with Aurungzebe — He plunders the Mogul territories — 1659, Aurungzebe cedes the Concan to him — King of Beejapore sends Afzul Khan to subdue him — Afzul Khan treacherously murdered — 1562, The extent of Sevajee’s possessions — Shaista Khan sent by Aurungzebe against Sevajee — 1664, Sevajee plunders Surat — Great commercial wealth of that port — Death and possessions of Shahjee — Maritime exploits of Sevajee — 1665, He submits to Aurungzebe — Origin of the chout — 1666, Sevajee goes to Delhi treated with hauteur — His civil and military institutions — 1666–1670, Prosperous state of the Mogul empire — Aurungzebe breaks with Sevajee, who proceeds to levy Most — 1671, Jinjeerah made over to the Moguls — 1673, Aurungzebe baffled in the Khyber — 1674, Sevajee assumes royalty with great pomp — 1676, His expedition to the Carnatic — 1676, Insurrection of the Sutnaramees — 1677, Aurungzebe persecutes the Hindoos; imposes the jezzia — 1678, Revolt of the Rajpoots in consequence — 1679, Aurungzebe attacks Beejapore — 1680, Death and character of Sevajee — He is succeeded by Sambajee — 1683, Aurungzebe’s grand expedition to the Deccan; his splendid camp — 1684, He invades the Concan and is repulsed — 1686, Invasion of Beejapore, and plunder of Hyderabad — Conquest and extinction of the kingdom of Beejapore — 1687, Conquest and extinction of Golconda — Confusion in the Deccan — 1689, Sambajee made prisoner and put to death — Sahoo becomes king; Ram-raja regent, retires to Ginjee — 1692, Extensive Mahratta depredations — Comparison of the Mahratta and the Mogul armies — 1690–1698, Siege of Ginjee — 1698, Ram-raja returns and makes Satara his capital — 1700, New military plans of Aurungzebe — 1702–1707, His increasing embarrassments — 1706, He makes overtures to the Mahrattas — He returns to Ahmednugur pursued by them — 1707, Death of Aurungzebe; remarks on his reign

Chapter 7 – From the Death of Aurungzebe to the Invasion of Nadir Shah, 1707–1789

1707, Bahadoor Shah ascends the throne — 1708, Dissensions among the Mahrattas — Daood Khan grants the chout to the Mahrattas — Origin and progress of the Sikhs — 1712, Bahadoor Shah marches against them; his death — Jehander Shah’s brief reign — 1713, Ferokshere ascends the throne of Delhi — Origin and progress of Nizam-ool-moolk — 1714, Balajee Vishwunath becomes Peshwa — Hussein Ali viceroy of the Deccan — Death of Daood Khan — 1717, Hussein grants the chout by a convention to the Mahrattas — Remarks on this event — 1718, Ferokshere put to death — 1719, Accession of Mahomed Shah — 1720, Revolt of Nizam-ool-moolk — Hussein Ali assassinated — Mahomed Shah abolishes the jezzia — 1721, Origin of the royal family of Oude — 1723, Nizam-ool-moolk, independent viceroy of the Deccan — 1720, Death of Balajee Vishwunath — Bajee Rao, Peshwa — Affairs of Guzerat — 1729, Bajee Rao obtains the chout of Guzerat — 1730, The two Mahratta royal families — 1730, Origin of the Guickwar Family — Origin of the family of Sindia — Origin of the family of Holkar — 1731, Convention between the Nizam and Bajee Rao — 1736, Malwa ceded to Bajee Rao — Bajee Rao’s exorbitant demands; he marches to the gates of Delhi — 1737, The Nizam defeated by Bajee Rao at Bhopal — Nadir Shah’s antecedents and career — He invades Affghanistan and India — 1739, He orders the massacre at Delhi — He plunders Delhi and the provinces — State of India after his invasion

Chapter 8 – Rise and Progress of the English, 1600–1756

The English in India before 1600 — 1599, Formation of the East India Company — Their first adventures — Power of the Portuguese at this period — 1613, Firmans granted by the Emperor — 1615, Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe — 1620, First settlement in Bengal — 1636, Privileges obtained by Mr. Boughton — 1639, First establishment of the factory at Madras — 1658, Cromwell grants a new charter to the Company — 1661, Charter granted by Charles the Second — 1662, Acquisition of Bombay — 1668, Introduction of Tea into England — 1664, French East India Company established — 1667, The Dutch begin to trade with Bengal — 1667, The Danes establish a factory in Bengal — 1682, Bengal erected by the East India Company into a Presidency — Disturbance of the English trade in Bengal — 1685, The Company go to war with the Great Mogul — 1688, Bengal abandoned by the Company — 1690, Reconciliation with the Emperor — 1690, August 24th, Charnock returns; foundation of Calcutta — 1690, Ambition of the Court of Directors quenched for 50 years — 1695, Fortification of Calcutta — 1658, Rival East India Company; mutual injury — Depredation of Captain Kidd, the pirate — 1700, Embassy of Sir W. Norris to the Emperor — 1702, Union of the two Companies — Constant contests between the Soobadar of Bengal and the Company’s agents from 1700 to 1756 — Moorshed Koolee Khan, viceroy of the three soubahs — 1715, Embassy from Calcutta to Delhi — Mr. Hamilton disinterestedly obtains great privileges for the Company — 1715, Financial system of Moorshed Koolee Khan — 1725, His death — Succeeded by Soojah-ood-deen — The Ostend East India Company — 1739, Death of Soojah ood-deen — 1740, Ali verdy Khan seizes the government — 1739, Disputes between Bajee Rao Peshwa and Rughoojee Bhonslay — Rughoojee’s expedition to the Carnatic — 1740, Death of Bajee Rao — 1740, Balajee Bajee Rao, Peshwa — 1741, Invasion of Bengal by the Berar Mahrattas — 1742, The Mahratta Ditch of Calcutta — 1744, Continued Mahratta depredations — 1745, Rebellion of Mustapha, the general of Ali verdy — 1751, Ali verdy purchases peace by ceding Orissa to the Mahrattas, and agreeing to pay chout — 1710, Daood Khan appoints Sadutoola governor of the Carnatic — 1732, On his death Dost Ali succeeds to the post — 1736, Dost Ali defeated and killed by the Mahrattas — 1741, Chunda Sahib sent prisoner to Satara — 1740, The Nizam moves into the Carnatic, appoints Anwar-ood-deen governor of the province, who founds the family of the “Nabob of Arcot”

Chapter 9 – Efforts of the French to Establish an Empire in India, 1746–1761

1744, War between the English and the French — Labourdonnais’ previous career — 1746, Arrives off the coast with a large armament — Dupleix’s early career — Labourdonnais captures Madras — Fate of Labourdonnais on his return to France — Defeat of the Nabob’s army by a handful of French troops — 1747, Dupleix besieges Fort St. David; the Nabob changes sides and joins him — 1748, Fruitless siege of Pondicherry by Admiral Boscawen — Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle terminates the war — 1749, Expedition to Devi-cotta — The ambitious designs of Dupleix — 1748, Death of Nizam-ool-moolk — Nazir Jung sets up as Nizam — He defeats Anwar-ood-dean, who is killed in battle — 1749, The English first espouse the cause of his son Mahomed Ali — Mozuffer Jung and Chunda Sahib besiege Tanjore — They are defeated by Nazir Jung — Dupleix’s skilful manoeuvres — Nazir Jung attacked and killed by the French — 1750, Mozuffer made Nizam by them — He appoints Dupleix governor of all the districts south of the Kistna — 1751, Mozuffer Jung killed by the Nabob of Kurnool — Salabut Jung made Nizam by Bussy — 1744, Clive enters the civil service of the Company — 1751, He captures Arcot — Memorable siege of that place — 1752, French defeated by Major Lawrence — Mysore Regent, the ally of Mahomed Ali — French defeated at Bahoor by Major Lawrence — Mysore Regent, and Morari Rao go over to the French — 1754, Godeheu arrives from Europe, supersedes Dupleix, and terminates the war by a treaty — Fate of Dupleix — 1748, Death of Sahoo — 1750, Balajee Rao. Peshwa, attains supreme power — 1752, Progress if Bussy — 1753, He obtains the Northern Sircars, and acquires great power — 1754, Predatory expedition of the Mahrattas — 1755–1756, Movements of Salabut Jung — 1756, Intrigues against Bussy baffled by his genius — 1757, Bussy at the summit of success — 1758, Bussy’s career cut short by Lally — Lally’s antecedents; his arrival at Pondicherry — He attacks Tanjore without success — 1759, He besieges Madras, and is discomfited — 1760, Coote defeats Lally at Wandewash — 1761, He captures Pondicherry — Fate of Lally

Chapter 10 – From the Capture of Calcutta to the Battle of Paniput, 1756–1761

1747, Ahmed Shah Abdalee — His first invasion of India — 1748, Death of Mahomed Shah, accession of his son Ahmed Shah to the throne of Delhi — The Nabob of Oude, pushed by the Bohillas, calls in the Mahrattas — 1751, The Abdalee’s second irruption — 1753, Nabob of Oude becomes virtually independent — 1754, Ghazee-ood-deen deposes and blinds the emperor — 1756, The Abdalee’s third invasion; he sacks Delhi — The pirate Conajee Angria on the Malabar coast — Clive captures his fort of Gheriah — Death of Ali verdy — Seraja Dowlah succeeds him as Nabob — Disputes between him and the governor of Calcutta — Condition of Fort William — Siege and capture of Calcutta — The tragedy of the Black Hole — Expedition from Madras to Calcutta — 1757, Clive recaptures Calcutta and takes Hooghly — Seraja Dowlah marches to Calcutta and is defeated — Clive takes Chandernagore — Confederacy against Seraja Dowlah — Clive joins the Confederacy — He circumvents Omichund — Battle of Plassy — Seraja Dowlah flies to Rajmahal — Meer Jaffier made Nabob by Clive — His large donations to the English — Fate of Seraja Dowlah — 1758, Clive quells three insurrections — Colonel Forde sent to the Coast — 1759, Ali Gohur invades Behar, and submits to Clive — Dutch armament in Bengal defeated — 1780, Clive returns to England — 1753, Ahmed Shah Abdalee returns to Persia — 1757, His son Timur expelled from the Punjab; the Mahrattas plant their standard on the Indus — Sudaseeb Rao Bhao, Mahratta generalissimo — Peshwa wrests large territories from Salahut Jung — 1759, Power of the Mahrattas at its summit — Fourth invasion of the Abdalee — Murder of the Emperor Alumgir — Vast Mahratta army advances against the Abdalee, under Sudaseeb Rao Bhao — Sudaseeb rejects the advice of Sooruj Mull; the Jauts withdraw from him — 1761, January 7, Decisive battle of Paniput; death of Sudaseeb; total defeat of the Mahrattas — Peshwa dies of a broken heart

Chapter 11 – Bengal, 1761–1772

1761, Condition of Bengal after the battle of Paniput — Mr. Vansittart, Governor of Bengali — Three members of Council summarily dismissed by the Court of Directors — 1760, Shahzada invades Behar, and is defeated by Colonel Calliaud — Captain Knox defeats the Nabob of Purneah — Death of Meerun — 1781, Meer Jaffier deposed, and Meer Cassim made Nabob of Moorshedabad — Meer Cassim’s vigorous administration; he organizes an efficient army — The Emperor’s force in Behar dispersed by Colonel Carnac — 1762, Meer Cassim despoils Ramnarayun, Governor of Patna — The transit duties; disorders arising from them — Mr. Vansittart’s convention regarding them with Meer Cassim — 1763, It is rejected by the Council in Calcutta; Meer Cassim abolishes all duties — Mr. Ellis seizes the city of Patna; is overpowered and made prisoner — The Council in Calcutta make war on Meer Cassim — Meer Jaffier made Nabob a second time — Meer Cassim’s troops defeated at Cutwa and at Gheresh — He causes his European prisoners to be massacred — Meer Cassim’s troops defeated at Oodwanulla; he flies from Behar — 1764, The Nabob Vizier invades Behar — First Sepoy mutiny quelled by Major Munro — The Nabob Vizier defeated at Buxar — Pecuniary arrangement with Meer Jaffier — 1765, Death of Meer Jaffier — He is succeeded by his son, Nujum-ood-dowlah — Lord Clive’s treatment by the Court of Directors in England; they are constrained to appoint him Governor — Condition of Bengal — Clive’s arrangements with the Emperor, the Nabob of Moorshedabad, and the Vizier — He restores Oude to the Vizier — He obtains the Dewanny of the three provinces for the Company, 12th of August — 1766, Mutiny of the European officers quelled by Clive — He establishes the Society for Inland Trade — 1767, He returns to England; is subject to the most unworthy treatment — 1774, He puts a period to his existence — 1767–1772, Wretched condition of Bengal

Chapter 12 – Progress of Events at Madras and Bombay, 1761–1779

1761, State of affairs at Madras and in the Carnatic — 1763, Mahomed Ali instigates the Madras Government to attack Tanjore — The Peace of Paris, and its anomalies — Nizam Ali, having previously deposed his brother, Salabut Jung, puts him to death — 1765, Clive induces the Emperor to make Mahomed Ali independent of Hyderabad — He acquires the Northern Sirkars for the Company — 1766, Treaty with the Nizam, 12th November — Rise of Hyder Ali — 1755, He lays the foundation of his fortunes — 1757, Peshwa besieges Seringapatam, which is relieved by Hyder — 1760, Hyder assists Lally; gains an advantage over the English — 1761, His extreme danger; recovers his position, and usurps the throne — 1763, He conquers Bednore, and constructs a navy — 1761, Accession of Madhoo Rao as Peshwa — 1763, Nizam Ali invades the Mahratta dominions, and is defeated by Raghoba — 1765, Hyder defeated by the Mahrattas with great loss — 1766, Confederacy of the Nizam and the Mahrattas against Hyder; the Madras Government drawn into it — 1767, The Mahrattas constrain Hyder to make peace — The Nizam deserts his English allies, and joins Hyder — Nizam and Hyder defeated at Changama — Expedition from Bengal against the Nizam — 1768, He hastens to make peace; treaty of the 23rd of February — Hyder proceeds to the western coast to repel an English invasion — Campaign of 1768 unfavourable to the English — 1769, Hyder dictates peace under the walls of Madras — 1770–1771, War between the Mahrattas and Hyder — 1771, He is completely defeated at Milgota — He demands aid of the English in accordance with the treaty, but in vain — Sir John Lindsay sent as the Sing’s representative to Mahomed Ali — 1769, Mahrattas again invade Hindostan — 1771, The Emperor throws himself on them and is installed at Delhi — 1772, The Mahrattas. invade Rohilcund; the bond of forty lacs — The Mahrattas and the Emperor fall out; the Emperor obliged to submit — 1778, The Mahrattas enter Rohilcund for the invasion of Oude; their plans disconcerted; they retreat to their own country — 1770, The singular anomaly of the Company’s Government — Its vicious constitution — 1771, Interference of Parliament — Financial difficulties of the Company — 1773, The Regulating Act; appointment of Governor-General; establishment of the Supreme Court

Chapter 13 – Hastings’s Administration and the Mahratta War, 1772–1782

1778, Warren Hastings’s antecedents — The condition of Bengal — 1772, Warren Hastings appointed Governor of Bengal; his reforms — 1778, The first Rohilla war — 1774, Destruction of the Rohillas — Remarks on this transaction — Arrival of the judges of the Supreme Court and the new Councillors — The old Government abolished; the new Government installed — 1776, Francis and his colleagues interfere in the affairs of Oude — Death of the old Vizier; treaty with his successor — The begums claim the treasure and the jaygeers; Mr. Bristow’s arrangement — Accusations multiplied against Hastings — Charge brought by Nundu koomar — Charge by his son and Manny begum — Nundu koomar executed on a charge of forgery brought by a native — Remarks on this transaction — The Court of Directors condemn Hastings — 1776, He tenders his resignation through his agent, and retracts it — 1777, General Clavering’s violent proceedings in the Council, and his death — 1780, Francis fights a duel with Hastings, is wounded, and retires from the service — 1777, New settlement of the land revenue of Bengal — 1772, Death of Madhoo Rao Peshwa — Resources of the Mahratta empire at this period — 1773, Narayun Rao Peshwa assassinated — 1773, Raghoba becomes Peshwa — 1774, Revolution at Poona; the widow of Narayun Rao delivered of a son; Raghoba excluded — 1755–1772, Affairs of Guzerat — 1775, Raghoba negotiates with the Bombay government — Treaty concluded — Bombay government send a force to his aid; battle of Arras — Mahrattas driven back to the Nerbudda — Treaty with Raghoba disallowed at Calcutta — 1776, Colonel Upton sent to Poona, who concludes the Treaty of Poorunder; remarks on it — Treaty of Poorunder disapproved in England — 1777, A French envoy received at Poona — 1778, Revolution in favour of Raghoba at Poona — Counter revolution against him — The Bombay government send an expedition to Poona to reinstate Raghoba — 1779, Its disastrous termination — Disgraceful convention of Wurgaum — 1778, General Goddard’s expedition across India — War between France and England — 1779, General Goddard reaches Surat safely — Convention of Wurgaum disallowed at Bombay and Calcutta — Raghoba sent by Sindia to Hindostan, and escapes — General Goddard’s success in Guzerat — 1780, Capture of Gwalior by Major Popham — 1781, Sindia’s force defeated — 1779, Confederacy against the English — 1780, General Goddard captures Bassein — Hartley gallantly repulses the Mahrattas — 1781, Failure of General Goddard’s expedition to Poona — 1779, Roghoojee Bhonslay sends an expedition to Bengal which is neutralized by Hastings — 1781, Hastings sends an expedition under Colonel Pearce down the coast to Madras — Colonel Pearce treated with kindness by Roghoojee Bhonslay — Treaty with Sindia — 1782, Treaty of Salbye with the Mahrattas, negotiated by Sindia — Nana Furnuvese hesitates to ratify it, till the death of Hyder

Chapter 14 – Hastings’s Administration– Affairs of Madras, the Second Mysore War, 1771–1784

1771, Mahomed Ali induces the Madras government to attack Tanjore; treaty made by his son — 1773, Second attack on Tanjore on indefensible grounds — The country delivered over to Mahomed Ali — 1774, Court of Directors depose the Governor of Madras, and order the country to be restored — 1775, Lord Pigot Governor of Madras — 1776, Deposed by his Council — 1777, Restored by the Court of Directors, and dies — 1778, Sir Thomas Rumbold, Governor of Madras — His conduct about the Guntoor Sircar inflames the Nizam, who forms the grand confederacy — 1781, Sir Thomas Rumbold dismissed by the Court of Directors — 1773, Progress of Hyder Ali — 1776, The Nizam and the Peshwa attack him and are foiled — He negotiates with Madras without success — 1778, Capture of Pondicherry — 1779, Capture of Mahé incenses Hyder — He joins the grand confederacy — 1779, He terminates his disputes with Poona — 1780, His great preparations for war — He bursts on the Carnatic — Stupefaction of the Madras Council — Total destruction of Colonel Baillie’s detachment — Hastings’s energetic measures — He suspends the Governor of Madras — Sir Eyre Coote goes to Madras and takes the command of the army — 1781, Gallant defence of Wandewash by Lt. Flint — Battle of Porto Novo — Arrival of the Bengal force — Battle of Pollilore — Battle of Solingur — Lord Macartney Governor of Madras — Capture of Negapatam — 1782, Capture of Trincomalee — The revenues of the Carnatic taken over by the English — Defeat of Colonel Brathwaite by Tippoo — Despondent feelings of Hyder — Relieved by the arrival of a French expedition — Naval actions between the English and French — Indecisive action before Arnee — French capture Trincomalee — Admiral Hughes sails for Bombay — Great storm at Madras — Famine at Madras — Operations on the Malabar Coast — Tippoo sent to oppose an English force there — Death of Hyder, December 7th — Tippoo suddenly breaks up his camp and hastens back; assumes the royal authority — 1788, Culpable supineness of General Stuart at Madras — Tippoo returns to the Malabar Coast — Arrival of Bussy with a French force — General Stuart proceeds against him to Cuddalore — Naval action between the French and English — Operations before Cuddalore — Peace between France and England — General Stuart arrested and sent home — Expedition from Bombay to Bednore — Tippoo reconquers Bednore — He undertakes the siege of Mangalore — Extraordinary defence of it; it surrenders — Progress of Colonel Fullerton’s army towards Seringapatam — Madras enters into negotiations with Tippoo; he cajoles them — Colonel Fullerton stopped in the tide of victory by the Madras Council — 1784, Disreputable treaty of Mangalore

Chapter 15 – Hastings’s Administration – The Supreme court – Proceedings in England, 1774–1784

1774, Encroachments of the Supreme Court — 1775, Dismay of the Zemindars — 1775–1779, The Court interferes with the collections, and paralyzes the whole system of government — 1779, The Cossijura case — Hastings resists the violence of the Supreme Court — 1780, Sir Elijah Impey made chief Judge of the Sudder Court — Remarks on this arrangement — Extraordinary aid demanded of Cheyt Sing — 1781, He is fined fifty lees by Hastings; he escapes across the river — Hastings’s danger; he escapes to Chunar — Capture of Bidgegur, and distribution of the booty — 1782, The begums of Dude; their spoliation — 1780, Proceedings against Fyzoolla Khan — 1783, Court of Directors censure Hastings; he resigns — 1785, His reception in England; his impeachment — 1786, Charges against him — The three principal charges — 1788, Commencement of his trial — 1795, His acquittal — Remarks on his public character and administration — 1781–1782, Parliament appoint a Select and a Secret Committee — 1782, Motion for the recall of Hastings — 1783, Fox’s India Bill — 1784, Defeated in the House of Lords — Pitt’s India Bill — Comparison of the two Bills — The Nabob of Arcot’s debts, their origin; their nefarious character — 1785, Mr. Dundee orders them to be paid off without inquiry — 1785, Court of Directors remonstrate against this injustice; Burke’s celebrated speech — Sequel of the Nabob of Arcot’s debts — The two dark spots in the Indian Administration — The revenues of the Carnatic ordered from home to be restored; opposition of Lord Macartney

This collection transcribed by Chris Gage
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