Part Two
The War Department and the Army

[See also: U.S. Government Manual, 1945--War Department]

NOTE: The location information given in this publication is obsolete. Although copies of some documents may have been retained in the various commands, the vast majority of documents have been transferred to the National Archives, primarily the Modern Military Records Branch at College Park, MD. Additional records may be located at the various branches of the Archives. --HyperWar

[130] Of all the Federal agencies in World War II, the War Department with its field establishment was probably the largest in terms of money spent, uniformed personnel and civilian employees involved, organizations and installations operating in the field, and quantities and types of records created. From 1939 to December 7, 1941, the War Department's traditional responsibilities for organizing, training, equipping, and maintaining the Army were largely directed toward the Federal-wide emergency task of mobilizing the Nation's resources, both to aid potential allies already at war with the Axis powers and to prepare United States forces for combat. The War Department participated in virtually all phases of this broad program--mobilizing manpower and material resources, preparing war plans for air, ground, and service operations, and developing and testing combat tactics and troop units both in the continental United States and in the overseas territorial departments. During the combat period, from December 7, 1941, to September 2, 1945, all these precombat functions were continued, while the Army's air and ground combat operations were launched and extended globally until they reached a successful conclusion with the end of the fighting war.

The many War Department and Army headquarters, field commands and agencies, troop units, and installations or stations that performed these combat and precombat functions and created records of their activities and experiences during the war were organized according to several major echelons or levels of administration. They were headed by the civilian Secretary of War and the military Chief of Staff, each with his immediate headquarters (after about January 1, 1943) in the Pentagon Building, in the Military District of Washington. These levels or echelons are described in this volume as constituting the following major groups: The Office of the Secretary of War and its constituent offices and divisions; the War Department General Staff and its constituent general-staff and special-staff divisions, with a few schools and other General Staff activities outside of Washington; the three major Army commands in Washington and the continental United States--the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Service Forces; and the o verseas commands, under six major theaters of operations--American.

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European, Mediterranean, Africa-Middle East, China-Burma-India, and Pacific.

Records administration.--Records were created during the war at virtually all echelons of the War Department and the Army, both in Washington and in the domestic and overseas military establishment, and were administered primarily according to regulations and records practices prescribed by The Adjutant General. About 1.6 million feet of wartime records of War Department and Army agencies, appraised as having continuing value, are being indefinitely retained by the Department of the Army. Normally the records of a given War Department or Army agency were kept by that unit's adjutant section or an equivalent office of record and were filed according to a decimal scheme or system set forth in a volume entitled War Department Decimal File System (1918 and 1943 editions) issued by The Adjutant General. Each adjutant or file supervisor, in applying this scheme to his records, was likely to introduce many deviations from the standard scheme. At the same time records were frequently kept in offices other than the central office of record, usually because a given office needed to have its own records or certain parts of them close at hand for information, control, or other administrative purposes related to its current operations. In many cases, such records were filed according to systems other than that prescribed by The Adjutant General, again because of the special needs of the individual office.

The official records of any World War II unit of the War Department or the Army are subject to the appraisal, retention, and destruction procedures prescribed for the entire military establishment in the War Department's Technical Manual entitled "Records Administration: Disposition of Records" (TM 12-259, July 1945 ed. and subsequent revisions, especially the edition of Mar. 15, 1949, which is a "Special Regulation," called SR 345-920-1), compiled by the Records Management Branch, Office of The Adjutant General. In accordance with this manual, all records of War Department and Army agencies in Washington and in the field that are worth permanent or long-term preservation are scheduled for orderly transfer, when they become noncurrent, to one of several Army records depositories (which also handle Army Air Forces and United States Air Force records) in the continental United States and overseas. From these depositories the records of permanent value will ultimately be transferred to the National Archives. The "Special Regulation" cited above calls for the transfer to Army records depositories by June 30, 1949, of all such World War II records of both domestic and overseas Army agencies but it does not apply to Air Forces records. Exceptions to this formula (as approved by The Adjutant General) as well as the normal transfers of records are noted throughout the entries that follow.

Guides to the records.--The wartime records are under varying degrees of reference control, as far as lists, indexes, and other finding aids or guides are concerned. Many of the. records are briefly listed, by organization and by series title, in the Records Disposition Schedules or Filing Control Schedules prepared during the war throughout the military

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establishment in connection with the records administration program supervised by The Adjutant General. Insofar as these schedules describe records of continuing value, the pertinent information is summarized in appropriate entries in this volume. In addition, most of the field records, when they are transferred to one of the Army records depositories, are briefly described on record-group control cards and series control sheets (called processing work sheets), filed in the particular depository; much of this information has been summarized in this volume. For some groups of records, furthermore, there are indexes and other finding aids prepared as the records themselves were originally filed; these are with the records. For all records that are filed according to the War Department Decimal File System, this volume provides a general reference tool.

For undertaking research in the records of a particular Army organization, another useful type of guide may often be found in the form of an official, unpublished history of that organization, prepared during the war as part of the Army historical program supervised by the Historical Branch, G-2, now the Historical Division, Department of the Army (see entry 182). Many of these histories, especially those for agencies at the higher echelons, con tain footnotes and bibliographies that refer to and describe especially important individual files in the organization's records. At present the histories of ground units or ground-related units are divided between the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; the Army's Historical Division; and the historical sections of the various arms and services. Most histories of air units or air-related units are in the Air Historical Group of the Air University, located at Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala. In addition, a duplicate copy of its history is likely to be filed among an organization's records (usually under file 314.7 Military History), although for the higher commands such copies frequently do not exist.

Central Records of the War Department [131]

Although record keeping in the War Department in Washington was largely decentralized during the war among the major offices and commands in that area, which are separately described in the entries that follow, there are several voluminous series of records that were filed in the Adjutant General's Office in Washington according to the War Department Decimal File System and that, for convenience of reference throughout this volume, are called the "central records of the War Department, in the AGO." These central records, more familiarly known as AG files, constitute probably the most comprehensive single body of important documentation of the activities of the War Department and the Army during the war. They are in two major groups. One group may be described as security-classified files, that is, records that were "classified" for security purposes as "top secret," "secret," "confidential," or "restricted"; these were originally filed by the Operations Branch, AGO, and are now partly in that Branch's custody and partly in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The other group consists of records that were not given security classification; these were originally filed by the Office Service Branch, AGO, and are now in the

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Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Each group consists of series covering major chronological periods, such as 1926-39, 1940-42, and 1943-45; within each of these series there are thousands of individual subject cases or folders of correspondence and related papers, arranged according to the War Department Decimal File System; and within each case or folder the papers are normally in chronological order. Bulky enclosures are filed separately in an extensive series of "bulk" files.

In addition to the records mentioned above, there are more than a thousand separate subseries or "projects." Each of them is a separate and complete decimal subseries in itself and relates, for example, to a particular field command (such as the European Theater of Operations, the Second Service Command in New York City, or the Los Angeles Port of Embarkation), a particular post or station (such as Fort Knox, Ky., or Wright Field, Ohio), a particular State or city, a particular foreign country, area, or agency, or some other functional, institutional, or geographical subject for which a separate sequence of decimal files seemed necessary. The main military and naval organizational "project" files are separately noted throughout this volume; a complete list of the types of project titles used from January 1940 to June 1947, but without inclusive dates, is in the "AGO Supplement to the Revised War Department Decimal File System" [July 1, 1947], p. 75-93.

Also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, are hundreds of thousands of cross-reference sheets, called "index sheets," which are either interfiled among the individual cases or kept separately in the form of microfilm copies in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; some of these are mentioned throughout this volume, not only as a guide to these records, but also as clues to the whereabouts of related papers in other decentralized groups of records. The subject matter of these records is as broad and varied as were the functions, activities, and interests of the War Department and the Army during the war. No attempt is made here to analyze the content of these records except to note that the "subjects" of the cases and of the index sheets include not only topical subjects (of which there are thousands), but also organizational subjects (such as the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and many other interservice agencies, Army commands and troop units, Navy units, civilian Federal agencies, and foreign agencies of the war period); private institutional subjects (such as particular industrial corporations and educational institutions); personal name subjects (not only for Army personnel but also for many of the thousands of other persons who corresponded with the War Department); and geographical subjects (such as enemy countries and other foreign areas or place names).

An important characteristic of these central records is that they contain a number of small, separately organized series that represent, in effect, intact bodies of records (especially of ad hoc committees and boards, but sometimes of small staff sections) that were sent to the central-files units of the Adjutant General's Office rather than to (or, more commonly, before the establishment of) noncurrent records depositories, such as the AGO Departmental Records Branch. (The central files of other headquarters agencies, especially Headquarters Army Air Forces and the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, contain

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similar bodies of records.) In the central records of the War Department, these small groups are usually in the "bulk" files. They are always cross-referenced, usually under the agency names, in the "straight" decimal files mentioned earlier. No complete survey of the "bulk" files has been made for purposes of this volume, but several of the known groups of this kind are separately entered elsewhere, in the appropriate agency entries.

Other General Records of the War Department [132]

In addition to the central records of the War Department, in the AGO. there are several other series of records that are general or cental to the entire War Department and Army for the war period. Notable among these are the following major series, which are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis, and which for the most part represent a postwar. Army-wide consolidation and integration, by the AGO, of records that were originally filed separately by particular headquarters agencies and the many operating commands and units that make up the Army: (1) Military "201" files, or personnel folders, for the approximately 12 million demobilized officers and enlisted men of the Army, including the regular Army, the Reserve Components, and certain other categories; (2) civilian "201" files, or personnel folders, for about 9.3 million former civilian employees of War Department agencies in the continental United States and overseas, from 1939 on; (3) morning reports (M/R's) of all command headquarters and troop units; (4) clinical case files (individual medical records) for officers and enlisted men; and (5) wartime contract and procurement case files, except those for the Army Air Forces contracts, for individual contracts on which final payments have been made. Each case file in the last-named group contains in addition to the contract or other instrument of agreement, such documents as contract-termination correspondence, renegotiation papers, company-pricing agreements, and audit records. Case files relating to Army Air Forces contracts are in the custody of the Air Matériel Command, Wright Field, Ohio.

Other major bodies of consolidated files are the Army's disbursement accounts files, in the custody of the Army Finance Center, St. Louis; the Army's files of still photographs, in the Army, Pictorial Service Division, Washington; the Army's motion-picture files, in the Signal Corps Photographic Center, Long Island City, N.Y.; the Army's record and reference files of medical publications, in the Army Medical Library, Washington; and the Army's record and reference files of maps and other cartographic materials, in the Army Map Service, Washington. Additional details as to some of the specific types of documents in these consolidated files are given in Technical manual 12-259 (July 1945) and Special Regulation 345-920-1 (Mar. 15, 1949), passim.

[132a] Printed or processed documents.--Importantly documenting the activities of the War Department and the Army are the many series of printed and processed orders, informational memoranda, training literature, and other documents that were distributed throughout the Army during the war. Most of these documents originated in particular commands and are

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separately noted elsewhere, under the appropriate command. Others were issued by the War Department in Washington, usually through the Adjutant General's Office; and of these, a number of series contain general information on the Department in Washington or the Army. The major series of orders and directives include Army Regulations (AR's), 1939-45; War Department Bulletins, 1939-45; War Department Circulars, 1939-45; and War Department Circulars and Orders, 1939-45. Two other series--War Department General Orders, 1942-45, and War Department Special Orders, 1944-45-- were limited in subject matter to the War Department in Washington. All these documents were issued separately and some of them were published in the Federal Register, 1939-45.

Another category of directives, overlapping in part the several series named above, are the many "block letters," such as War Department Memoranda, that were distributed generally to Departmental and Army organizations in Washington and in the field. For a guide to such letters, see index sheets in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, filed under AG 020 War Department Bureaus [Block Letters to], 1940-45; AG 029 War Department Bureaus [Block Letters to], Jan. 1940-May 1943; AG 321 Arms of Service . . . [Block Letters to] 1940-45; AG 323.36 [Block Letters to the Field], 1940-45; and AG 323.36 Commanders and Staffs [Block Letters to], 1940-45 (10 linear feet).

Other printed or processed documents that were issued centrally by the War Department are the various directories of officers, installations, commands, and troop units of the Army. Among these were the "War Department Telephone Directory" (providing the names of agencies and key personnel in Washington), in about 40 editions, 1939-45; the Official Army Register, in annual editions, 1939-45; the "Army Directory," and the "Army List and Directory," covering organizations and officers, in various editions, Apr. 1939-Apr. 1943; the "Directory [of Organizations] of the Army of the United States . . .," in various monthly editions, some for the continental United States, others for overseas areas, 1943-45; and the quarterly lists, "Officers of the Army Stationed in or Near the District of Columbia," Jan. 1939-July 1943. Also of interest on the Army as a whole are the many different series of recurring statistical summaries of the strength of the Army, compiled and issued by the Machine Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office, 1941-45.

The major series of wartime training literature are the Field Manuals (FM's), 1939-45; the Technical Manuals (TM's), 1940-45; an "E" (for enemy) series of Technical Manuals (TM-E's), for enemy equipment, training, and tactics, 1943-45; War Department Training Circulars, 1940-45; War Department Pamphlets, 1943-45; and Technical Bulletins, 1944-45. Another lengthy series, the United States Army Specifications, 1939-45, covers materials and equipment procured by the Army from industry. A series of Contract Summaries, Oct. 1941-Nov. 1941, was published in the Federal Register. Also common to the entire Army were the various tables or schedules outlining the categories and numbers of personnel and equipment assigned to each of the many types of Army troop units during the war; these

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tables consisted of tables of organization (T/O's), 1939-42; tables of equipment (T/E's), 1942-43; tables of organization and equipment (T/OE's), which replaced T/O's and T/E's, 1943-45; tables of allowances (T/A's), 1939-45; and tables of basic allowances (T/BA's), 1941-45. Many of these printed series are indexed in variously titled indexes, digests, and lists that were issued monthly, annually, and at other times during the war by the Adjutant General's Office. For each document in each series, furthermore, there is likely to be background correspondence, filed in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO. The printed documents themselves are filed in a number of places, notably in the AGO Army Publications Service Branch, the Army Library, the central records of the War Department (in the AGO), the library of the Government Printing Office, and the library of the National Archives.

In addition to the above series of documents, which were issued for general distribution by the War Department headquarters agencies through the Adjutant General's Office, many staff divisions in Washington and most of the commands and troop units in the field each also originated and issued its own series of orders, bulletins, circulars, memoranda, and other issuances, sometimes to supplement the general War Department document that was involved but, more usually, to provide direction or information on local functional problems within the particular agency. The basic recurring pattern of issuances of field commands and troop units during the war is described in TM 12-256 (Nov. 1944. 30 p.), entitled "Orders, Bulletins, Circulars, and Memoranda"; but many other series might be issued by a given agency. Since many staff divisions and field agencies, especially the larger and more complex ones, frequently issued series that deviated (in both their titles and functions,) from this pattern, and since a record set of each series is regarded as of permanent value by the Army (see TM 12-259, July 1945), all the known wartime series of such issuances, as well as all known important series of statistical, narrative, and pictorial reports, are separately noted throughout this volume, in each appropriate entry. Whether a complete record set of each series exists cannot, however, always be indicated.

The problem of handling the great masses of records created by the War Department and the Army during the war and the manner in which this problem was solved are discussed in Wayne C. Grover, War Department Records Administration Program, published by the Adjutant General's Office (1948. 281 p., processed). For an overall official history of the Department and the Army during the war see Historical Division, Department of the Army, United States Army in World War II (about 90 vols, in preparation; 4 vols, published, 1947-49). There is an extensive and wide variety of unofficially published literature of the War Department and the Army during the war, and many items are particularly useful in connection with research in the unpublished records. Critical bibliographies of this literature are outside the scope of this volume, but some noteworthy records-related items are mentioned in the appropriate entries that follow, and many others are noted in the Historical Division's series, mentioned above. Useful general bibliographical surveys of selected portions of this material appeared regularly during the war and afterward in Military Review, published by the Command and General Staff School, and Military Affairs, published by the American Military Institute.

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OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR [133]

During World War II the Secretary of War and his Office (known also as OS/W) had two major functions. The first was to determine general policy for the military establishment as a whole and policy with respect to special military problems as they arose; the Secretary's decisions, transmitted as directives by the Chief of Staff to his subordinates at the appropriate levels of command, were translated into action throughout the War Department and the Army. The other major function was to supervise the procurement of weapons, equipment, and supplies for the Army; this responsibility was vested primarily in the Assistant Secretary of War, 1939-December 1940, and the successor Under Secretary of War, December 1940-September 1945. The Office of the Secretary of War, like the rest of the War Department and the Army, changed considerably between 1939 and 1945. In 1939 and 1940 the Office was enlarged greatly both in size and in the scope of its activities; but in March 1942, as the result of a reorganization of the entire War Department, many of the operational duties that had been attached to the Office and the administrative units that performed these duties were transferred elsewhere, especially to the Services of Supply.

Records.--The wartime central records of the Office of the Secretary of War are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, in two series, one for the period 1932-42 (100 feet), and the other, 1943-46 (100 feet). More voluminous are the records that were kept separately in the several divisions, offices, and committees of OS/W; of these records, which are separately described below, 3,500 feet are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and 2 feet are in the National Archives. Other records bearing on the activities of the Office are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Secretary of War, 1940-45 (5 linear inches); AG 020.1 Secretary's Office, Jan. 1940-May 1943 (18 linear inches); and AG 020.4 Divisions [of OS/W], Jan. 1940-Jan. 1943 (1 linear inch). An unpublished history of OS/W, July 1940-Dec. 1941, prepared by the Army's Historical Division, is filed in that Division.

Secretary of War [134]

The wartime Secretaries of War were successively Harry H. Woodring, September 1936-June 1940, Henry L. Stimson, July 1940-September 1945, and Robert P. Patterson, September 1945-July 1947. The Secretary, appointed by the President and serving as a member of his Cabinet, was the executive head of the War Department and the principal adviser to the President on all matters relating to the military establishment. He was charged with supervising, in person or by delegation, all the activities of the War Department and the Army, including their finances, equipment, training, and operations; with the execution of the National Defense Act of 1920; with the protection of the Nation's seacoasts, harbors, and cities; and with the policy control of the United States Military Academy. In addition to these responsibilities pertaining specifically to the military establishment.

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the Secretary of War was charged with certain "civil functions" in accordance with law or by direction of the President, such as civil-works projects administered by the Corps of Engineers and the Army's interests in the Civilian Conservation Corps, which was disbanded in 1943. The Secretary of War was also a member of several major interdepartmental boards, such as the National Munitions Control Board, the War Production Board, and the Contract Settlement Advisory Board.

The Secretary of War was assisted by the Under Secretary of War, the Assistant Secretary of War, the Assistant Secretary of War for Air, the Administrative Assistant, the policy staffs and operational units that made up the offices of these officials, special assistants and consultants on radar and other scientific problems affecting combat operations; and a Special Consultant for Biological Warfare. In military matters the Secretary of War was advised by the Chief of Staff, and through the latter his policies and directives were implemented throughout the military establishment.

Records.--The wartime correspondence addressed to the Secretary of War was frequently routed directly to various War Department agencies for action and much of it was ultimately filed in the central records of the Department, in the AGO. The chief records kept in the Secretary's immediate office were "convenience copies" of correspondence, together with "tally cards," "tally sheets," and "briefs" that indicate the nature of the correspondence and the action taken by appropriate War Department agencies. "Tally cards," 1932-41, are in the National Archives; "tally cards," 1941-42, and "briefs," 1943-46, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are a series of copies of reports or minutes of meetings in which the Secretary of War was interested, 1940-45; records kept by expert consultants to the Secretary of War, 1942-46 (15 feet); and correspondence, reports, and messages relating to activities of the Advisory Specialists Group. Headquarters United States Strategic Air Force, concerning radar and H2X radar targets, 1939-May 1945. Other files of the special assistants and expert consultants were, in 1947, in the Coordination and Records Section, Office of the Secretary of the Army. Secretary Stimson's personal papers, which presumably contain copies of his official wartime papers, are in the Yale University Library.

See Secretary of War, Annual Reports, 1939-41; and Henry L. Stimson, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York, 1948. 698 p.). Selections from Stimson's diary pertaining to policy decisions relating to atomic warfare, 1940-45, appeared in Harper's Magazine (Mar. 1945).

War Council [135]

In the War Council, the origins of which date from 1916, problems and recommendations were presented to or discussed with the Secretary of War in order to enable him to reach the decisions that constituted official War Department policy. The Council usually consisted of the Secretary of War himself, the Under Secretary of War, the two Assistant Secretaries, the Chief of Staff, and the Deputy Chief of Staff.

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Records.--The minutes, which were not systematically kept, and other records of the Council were in 1947 in the Coordination and Records Section, Office of the Secretary of the Army.

Army Specialist Corps [136]

This organization was established, in accordance with the provisions of an Executive order of February 26, 1942, to recruit scientists, business specialists, and other experts and to assign them to the Army as civilian specialists wearing uniforms but not serving as members of the combat forces.

From March to June 1942 the Director General of the Corps was engaged in studying problems of organization and policy. Between June and October 1942 he was aided by the Planning and Policy Board (made up of key personnel of the Corps and such other persons as were directed to attend meetings) and by a representative of the Surgeon General's Office; and in October 1942, by the Board to Investigate the Appointment of Specially Qualified Personnel from Civil Life. The Corps' Bureau of Engineering and Technical Personnel and its Bureau of Commercial and Business Personnel were engaged in personnel procurement. The Army Specialist Corps, among other activities, undertook studies concerning military needs for and the utilization of key specialists. It was abolished in October 1942, when the Officer Procurement Service was established in Headquarters Services of Supply to supervise the selection of civilian specialists and noncommissioned military personnel for commissioning as Army officers.

Records.--The "Final Report" of the Army Specialist Corps (Dec. 1942. xvii, 144 p., typed, with 28 appendixes totaling 18 linear inches) is in the National Archives; another set (with 29 appendixes) is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The report contains copies of administrative and procedural directives, forms developed by the Corps, its initial studies in the field of specialists' qualifications and requirements, minutes of the Planning and Policy Board, and related materials (but little correspondence). Other records of the Corps were transferred to the Officer Procurement Service; a small series of these, 1942-43 (2 feet), is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Some related papers are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AGO 029 Army Specialist Corps, June-Nov. 1942. A set of the Regulations of the Corps was in 1947 among the records of the Administrative Office, Personnel and Administration Division, General Staff.

Office of the Under Secretary of War [137]

The Under Secretary of War (US/W), who also served as Acting Secretary of War, occupied a position created by an act of December 16, 1940 (54 Stat. 1224), and carried on the duties, formerly vested in the Assistant Secretary of War (AS/W), of the highest matériel procurement officer of the War Department. This position was held by Louis Johnson

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from June 1937 to July 1940. His successor, Robert P. Patterson, became Under Secretary when that position was created and continued in office until September 1945. The function of matériel procurement included policy direction of the following activities: Research, development, and standardization of equipment; acquisition and use of patent rights by the War Department; study and analysis of legislation affecting the Department's procurement programs; industrial mobilization and demobilization; supervision of the Department's manufacturing facilities, including Federal arsenals; acquisition of new factories and industrial facilities for the Department and their lease to private contractors; administration of the "educational orders" program in 1938 and 1939; and determination of policies and procedures governing the letting of contracts (by bid after advertising or, beginning in July 1940, by negotiated contracts on either a lump-sum or a cost-plus-fixed-fee basis).

Even before March 1942 procurement operations of the War Department were decentralized among the General Staff and in the various procurement "services" (described under Army Service Forces and Army Air Forces), except it that matters involving the use of Reconstruction Finance Corporation funds or those requiring large expenditures were technically reviewed for approval in the Office of the Under Secretary of War. After March 1942 procurement operations were decentralized further to the Army Service Forces and the Army Air Forces. All these lower-echelon agencies reported directly to the Under Secretary on procurement matters and his Office served as the top coordinator and expediter for them all.

As a part of his statutory procurement responsibilities, the Under Secretary had the duty of maintaining liaison with (and in some cases sitting as a member of) the President's Liaison Committee, the Interdepartmental Committee on Strategic Materials (which dated from 1939), the War Production Board, the Joint Contract Termination Board, the Contract Settlement Advisory Board, the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion, the War Manpower Commission, the Surplus Property Board, the Foreign Economic Administration, and the Federal Specifications Board and the Procurement Division of the Treasury Department. The Under Secretary was a member of the Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board. Besides his primary procurement functions the Under Secretary of War had various duties that were delegated to him from time to time by the Secretary. These duties included the planning and supervision of sales of surplus equipment, supplies, plants, and lands, the temporary leasing of lands controlled by the War Department, the general direction of the War Department's real-estate procurement and disposal program, the granting of clemency to military prisoners, the handling of claims entered against the Department, the supervision of the "civil" activities of the War Department carried out by the Corps of Engineers, and the supervision of the Army Industrial College and the War Department's interests in the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice.

[137a] Organization, 1939-March 1942.--From 1939 to March 1942 the Assistant Secretary's Office and the Under Secretary's Office functioned

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through several units known in March 1942 as the Resources Branch, the Procurement Branch, and the Administrative Branch (each subdivided into divisions), and a separate Statistics Division. In March 1942 these units, together with their personnel and many of their records, were transferred to the new Services of Supply (see Army Service Forces).

The Resources Branch (before February 1942 the Planning Branch) prepared over-all mobilization plans such as the "M" Plans; supervised the procuring of new industrial facilities for manufacturers under War Department contract; and served as the Army staff of the Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board. It became the Resources Division of the Services of Supply in March 1942.

"Current" procurement (as distinct from planning) was supervised by the Procurement Branch. It supervised the negotiation and letting of contracts and operated a plant-protection service. In March 1942 the work of this Branch was transferred to the new Procurement and Distribution Division and to the International Division of Headquarters Services of Supply, except that plant protection and related activities were transferred to the Office of the Provost Marshal General.

The Administrative Branch performed various "housekeeping" functions and was also responsible for the "delegated duties" assigned to the Under Secretary, 1939-42. It handled various financial activities (especially tax amortization and accounting), determined requirements for military supplies, and served as a clearinghouse for information about the War Department's procurement programs. Although some of the administrative functions of the Branch remained in the Office of the Under Secretary after March 1942, others were transferred to the Office of The Adjutant General, the Director of Personnel, and the Fiscal Director of the Services of Supply (later the Army Service Forces). The informational activities relating to contracts and their status were transferred to the Bureau of Public Relations; and the matériel procurement and distribution functions were turned over to the Procurement and Distribution Division of Headquarters Services of Supply.

The Statistics Division collected and compiled statistical and other data on the progress of procurement and production; issued regular weekly reports for the information of the Secretary of War and the Office of Production Management; and prepared other studies and reports, especially on specific production delays and bottlenecks. In March 1942 the Division was transferred to Headquarters Services of Supply.

[137b] Organization, March 1942-September 1945.--Between March 1942 and September 1945 the Office of the Under Secretary of War was much smaller and less complex in organization than before, and it was concerned primarily with procurement planning and general supervision of the matériel programs of the War Department. During these years the Under Secretary was aided by a varying number of expert and special consultants in the fields of construction, economic warfare, military justice, transportation and distribution, and liaison with Congress. By September

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1945 these experts were grouped in the Office of Special Assistants and Advisers.

The Office of the Under Secretary included the following three operating divisions. The Administrative and Delegated Duties Division, renamed the Office of the Administrative Officer in 1944, handled the routine management of the Under Secretary's Office and the "delegated duties" of the Under Secretary. In collaboration with the Legislative and Liaison Division of the War Department Special Staff, the Special Legal and Liaison Division, renamed the Legislative Division in 1944, handled the over-all legal and legislative aspects of procurement activities. The Contracts and Facilities Division, established late in 1941, prepared plans for reconversion and the release of industrial plants under War Department contract.

Beginning in January 1942, the Office of the Under Secretary had as its Director of Production, William S. Knudsen, the former Director General of the Office of Production Management. He was given the military rank of Lieutenant General and assigned to US/W to expedite and coordinate the procurement and production activities of the entire War Department. He represented the Under Secretary on many occasions, was a member of the Aircraft Production Board, and dealt closely and frequently with all War Department and War Production Board agencies concerned with quantity production. His office was discontinued in 1944 when Knudsen returned to civilian life.

[137c] Records.--The following records of the Office of the Under Secretary are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files 1943-45 (94 feet), in two major series (security-classified and unclassified); miscellaneous subject files," 1941-43 (32 feet); name files containing correspondence with individuals and firms, 1941-43 (36 feet); "bulky package" file of statistical reports and other documents, 1941-48 (6 feet); geographically arranged records relating to the acquisition and use of land for military purposes, 1941-43 (12 feet); speeches and other public statements by Under Secretary Robert P. Patterson, 1940-45; press-conference transcripts, speeches, and other public statements by officials in the Under Secretary's Office, 1940-43; statistical reports of the Army's various procurement "services" and other agencies, mostly concerning the production and supply of matériel and services, 1939-42 (23 feet); and records of Special Assistants to the Under Secretary, consisting of requests from civilian and military personnel for positions in the War Department, commissions in the Army, and promotions, 1942-Oct. 1943 (8 feet), transcripts of testimony on defense matters that was given before congressional committees, 1941-43 (8 feet), and records relating to transportation matters, 1942-43. Many of the records of the units in the Office of the Under Secretary that were shifted to Headquarters Services of Supply in 1942 are among the records of the latter's successor, Headquarters Army Service Forces, in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

In the National Archives are some fragmentary and incomplete series of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of War and of its Resources Branch, 1939-42, including lists of manufacturing facilities and other procurement

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information; these records are described in National Archives, Preliminary Checklist of the Records of the Planning Branch, Procurement Division, Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, 1921-41 (1943. 86 p.).

Related correspondence is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Under Secretary of War, 1942-45 (3 linear inches). A typed history of the Under Secretary's wartime activities is on file in the Army's Historical Division; and a typed report on "Coordination of Procurement Between the War and Navy Departments" (3 vols. Feb. 1945), issued jointly by the Under Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, is in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Some wartime documents of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, 1939-40, and the Office of the Under Secretary of War, 1940-45, were printed or processed, primarily for Army distribution. These included revisions of the prewar Mobilization Regulations (MR's) series, 1939-41, dealing with personnel, organization and training, matériel, construction, transportation, and hospitalization; the Procurement Circulars series, 1939-Apr. 1942 (replaced after Apr. by the Procurement Regulations of the Army Service Forces); the "Army Purchase Information Bulletin" (Nov. 1940 and Nov. 1941 eds.); and the Planning Branch's "Army Specifications Guide," 1941. The AS/W's annual reports for 1939-41 were published in the Annual Reports of the Secretary of War.

Army Industrial College [138]

The Army Industrial College, known also as AIC, was a general staff school of the Army, established in 1924. It operated during the war under the Assistant Secretary (1939-40) and the Under Secretary (1940--45) in accordance with AR (Army Regulation) 350-110 and in accordance with general training doctrines set forth by the Organization and Training Division, G-3, of the War Department General Staff. Between 1939 and 1942 the College offered instruction in the form of lectures and seminars, and research assignments were undertaken by committees of officer students covering the procurement experiences of the United States during and after World War I. In 1943 the College was inactive; later it functioned through two departments. The Department of Instruction gave short courses for Army and Navy officers on contract termination and renegotiation; later, a course on economic warfare, matériel mobilization, logistics, contractual problems, and property disposal was given. The Department of Research undertook studies of subjects pertaining to the general work of the College and sponsored numerous seminars at which visiting authorities discussed their specialties. It was organized into several study groups: Historical studies, war organization and administration studies, industry studies, raw-materials studies, economic studies, civilian requirements, military requirements, and foreign resources.

The College and the Under Secretary were advised by two boards: The Army Industrial College Advisory Board, March 1944-July 1946; and the

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Board on Post-War Army-Navy Training in Industrial Mobilization, which was established in April 1945 and represented the Navy Department, the Army Service Forces, the Army Air Forces, and the Special Planning Division of the War Department General Staff.

In 1946 the Army Industrial College became a joint Army-Navy enterprise and was renamed the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

Records.--The records of the Army Industrial College, 1938-45, including its administrative records, its files of research materials gathered for planning and study purposes, its research reports, its course lectures and seminar reports, and its academic catalogs, are in the custody of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. Among the documents that it prepared for limited distribution (copies of many of which are in the Army Library and the National Archives Library) are mimeographed course lectures and committee reports, 1938-41, on procurement problems not only of the War Department but also of the Navy Department and the Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board; and a series of mimeographed pamphlets containing transcripts of lectures and discussions at seminars sponsored by the College's Department of Research, 1944-45, and covering many subjects related to the development, production, and distribution of matériel, to the economic potential of other nations, and to research (including historical research) in these fields. A Summary Digest of [the College's] Reports (9 p.) was issued by the College in Oct. 1946.

See J. M. Scammell, "The Industrial College of the Armed Forces: Twenty Years of Army-Navy Cooperation," in United States Naval Institute, Proceedings, 73:295-301 (Mar. 1947).

Office of the Assistant Secretary of War [139]

The name Assistant Secretary of War (AS/W) represented two different and successive positions in the War Department between 1939 and 1945. In 1939 and 1940 the AS/W served as Acting Secretary in the absence of the Secretary and performed various duties, chiefly with respect to matériel procurement; and in December 1940 the name of his office was changed to that of the Under Secretary of War. At the same time a new position of Assistant Secretary was established with responsibility for general administrative functions and for special tasks assigned from time to time by the Secretary. This position was held by John J. McCloy from April 1941 to November 1945. In effect the Assistant Secretary became the top-level adviser to the Secretary on matters other than matériel procurement, including matters relating to civil affairs, war crimes, Negro troops, and the Japanese exclusion program on the west coast.

The Assistant Secretary was aided by special assistants and consultants and by research workers, some of whom in 1942 were detached from his office to serve with the Office of the Chief of Staff and with the Western Defense Command. In 1944 he inherited a liaison office for contact with the Veterans' Administration. In March 1945 he was given general administrative

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direction over military personnel assigned to assist in preparing and prosecuting charges of atrocities and war crimes filed against European Axis leaders and their principal agents. Among the interagency committees of which the Assistant Secretary was a member were a special British-United States Army committee to prepare a "consolidated balance sheet of production [capacities]," July 1941; the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, from October 1943; and the Far. East Advisory Commission, from about November 1944.

Records.--The records of the AS/W that pertain to matériel procurement, 1939-40, are among the records of the Office of the Under Secretary of War and of certain staff divisions of Headquarters Army Service Forces. The records for 1941-45 are in the custody of the Coordination and Records Division, Office of the Secretary of the Army. Correspondence pertaining to applicants for positions as instructors in officer candidate schools and for civilian positions in the Office of the Secretary of War, 1940-43, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's report of a conference of Service Command representatives on universal military training, Dec. 1944, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Papers bearing on the AS/W's wartime activities are also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Assistant Secretary of War, 1942-45, AG 020.2 Assistant Secretary of War, 1940-43, and AG 334 American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, 1943-47 (2 linear inches).

Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War [140]

The Civilian Aide, attached administratively to the Office of the Assistant Secretary, served between 1940 and 1945, as well as afterward, as the top War Department adviser and coordinator for all matters relating to Negro troops and racial problems in the Army. All policy matters on this subject were referred to him for review before official decisions were made. He was assisted by various consultants and by an Advisory Committee on Negro Troop Policies, July 1942-May 1945 (also known as the Advisory Committee on Special Troops Policies, May 1943-May 1944), which represented the Assistant Secretary, G-1, G-3, the headquarters of the three major commands (Air, Ground, and Service Forces), and the Inspector General's Office.

Records.--Records of the Civilian Aide's office, 1940-47, which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include correspondence, reports (some by units of Headquarters Army Service Forces), radio scripts and broadcasts, and other papers relating to Negro soldiers and Negro civilian employees of the War Department. Papers relating to the origins and activities of the Advisory Committee are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334, then under both of the Committee's names.

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War Department Library [141]

This unit was created in February 1944 as the Pentagon Library to coordinate the library activities of the War Department head-quarters agencies and to consolidate some of the collections. Before that time each of the major components of the Department had independently collected reference books and other library materials required in the performance its duties. The War Department Library consolidated most of the existing libraries of the headquarters components of the War Department within the Military District of Washington. The purchasing, cataloging, and reference use of library materials were thereafter made the responsibility of the Assistant Secretary of War through the Coordinator of War Department Libraries. Security-classified documents and some other materials were separately maintained, however, especially in the Intelligence Library of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, War Department General Staff. In 1947 the War Department Library was renamed the Army Library.

Records.--The small body of records of the War Department Library, consisting chiefly of correspondence and policy papers, is in the Office of the Coordinator. The Library's extensive holdings of printed materials include copies of many War Department publications and copies of some of the publication of Army commands in the continental United States and in the overseas theaters of operations.

Office of the Assistant Secretary of War for Air [142]

The position of Assistant Secretary of War (Air), established in 1916, was vacant during the early months of World War II. Early in 1941, it was filled by Robert A. Lovett, who was officially designated the Assistant Secretary of War for Air (AS/W Air). This official had direct authority over Army Air Forces activities in the procurement of matériel and real estate, in which he collaborated with the Office of the Under Secretary of War. He advised and assisted the Secretary of War on military aeronautics generally, and he represented the Secretary in handling special public relations problems of the Army Air Forces. The AS/W Air was member of the War Aviation Council and he was represented on the Joint Army-Navy Air Transport Committee. In September 1947, the functions of his office transferred to the newly created Office of the Secretary of the Air Force.

Records.--The following records of the Assistant Secretary of War for Air, 1941--45 (94 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files; project files: minutes of committee meetings, chiefly relating to matériel procurement; and records relating to air-base agreements with foreign countries, to the Assistant Secretary's testimony before congressional committees, and to Army-Navy "duplication." A few of the records are for 1940.

Office of the Administrative Assistant [143]

The Chief Clerk of the War Department, 1939-42, and the successor Administrative Assistant, 1942-45, functioned as the chief executive officer of the Office of the Secretary of War. He supervised several operating

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divisions and offices that not only performed "housekeeping" functions for the Office of the Secretary but also handled certain general War Department administrative, policy, and procedural matters, notably those relating to civilian personnel and nonmatériel supplies and accounts. In the Administrative Assistant's immediate office the Coordination and Records Division kept the central files of the Office of the Secretary of War and recorded the flow of policy papers in the Office. The Administrative Assistant also supervised the Office of the Personnel Manager, which handled internal civilian personnel matters for the Office of the Secretary of War; the Civilian Medical Division, which gave first-aid treatment to civilian employees of War Department agencies in Washington; and the two divisions that are separately described below.

Records.--The Administrative Assistant's correspondence pertaining to "policy, precedent, and procedures cases" that originated in major offices of the War Department, 1943-45, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; and similar records for 1939 (and earlier) are in the National Archives. Records in the office of the Administrative Assistant in 1947 included minutes and reports of the War Department Housing Board, 1945-46; records of the Community Activities Branch, including correspondence, a history of the Branch, and summaries of meetings of the War Department Community Activities Council, 1944-45; and papers on Negro housing problems in Washington, 1944. The records of the Civilian Medical Division were in the custody of that Division in 1947. Correspondence relating to the Administrative Assistant's office is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020.3 [Administrative] Assistant and Chief Clerk, Jan. 1940-Feb. 1942 (1 linear inch).

Civilian Personnel Division [144]

This Division (CPD) was established in 1938 to implement within the War Department the provisions of an Executive order of June 24, 1938, whereby the Department was charged with formulating over-all policies and procedures relating to its civilian employees. Between October 1939 and February 1940 the Division, in cooperation with the War Department General Staff, prepared mobilization plans indicating the number and types of civilian employees that would be required by the Department in case of war. In March 1942, as a result of the general reorganization of the War Department, many functions of the Division were transferred to the three major commands (Air, Ground, and Service Forces). During the rest of the war the Division nevertheless exercised general policy supervision over the recruiting, training, classification, promotion, transfer, and administration of all civilian employees, both in the headquarters at Washington and in field establishments and installations.

The Civilian Personnel Division was headed by a civilian Director of Personnel and Training. The Director also served as Chairman of the Secretary of War's Council on Civilian Personnel, represented the War Department on the interdepartmental Council of Personnel Administration, and directed the work of the War Department Civilian Personnel Procedures

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Committee. The Director was aided in 1944 by an adviser on the employment of women.

The Division included various branches and offices, the designations and individual functions of which varied during the war period. The Research and Policy Branch, divided into a Personnel Research Branch and a Policy mad Regulations Branch in 1945, prepared statistical and other reports on the utilization of civilian employees by the War Department; determined policies and rules affecting employees; and appraised the effectiveness with which such regulations were carried out. The Training Branch planned and supervised the War Department's in-service training and other programs designed to prepare civilians for better positions or to fill critical vacancies. The Placement Branch formulated policies and procedures to insure that the right people were placed in the right positions, and it apparently inherited functions formerly handled by the Manpower Utilization Branch, 1942-43, by the Employee Utilization Branch. 1943, and by the Departmental Appointment Specialist Division, 1943. The Employee Relations Branch was concerned with policies and with consideration of grievances and potential grievances of Departmental civilian employees. The Inspection Branch formulated recruiting policies and supervised the Nation-wide War Department recruiting program by checking on its progress and status in each of the major headquarters and field commands of the Army in the continental United States.

Two branches of the Civilian Personnel Division were concerned with civilian employee matters that were, strictly speaking, outside the War Department. The Salary and Wage Administration Branch was responsible for policies with respect to wages and salaries paid civilian employees of Department-controlled industrial plants, primarily those leased to Army contractors. The Overseas Branch, 1943-45, handled all policy and procedural matters affecting civilian employees hired by the Department to be attached to various Army commands in the overseas theaters of operations.

Records.--Among the records of the Civilian Personnel Division, 1940-45, in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the following: Central files, to 1945; administrative memoranda, personnel letters, field-service weekly bulletins, and orders emanating from the Division; records pertaining to job descriptions, job-classification surveys, and wage or salary rates and adjustments at Army-operated facilities and at privately operated Army facilities; and requisitions for civilian personnel in overseas commands, together with related papers, 1944-45. Other records that relate to the Division's activities are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020.42 [Civilian] Appointment, 1940-43, and AG 321 Civilian Personnel Division, 1942-45 (6 linear inches). The inactive "201" files (or individual personnel folders) for former War Department civilian employees and the pay rolls for civilian employees, 1939-45, are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

Some of the Division's wartime documents were printed or processed for Army circulation. Among the procedural items are the "Civilian Personnel Regulations" (CPR's), 1942-45; "Civilian Personnel Pamphlets," 1943-45;

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"Correspondence Manual," 1940; a manual entitled "Administrative Planning Agencies in the Federal Government." 1942: and one entitled "Job Classification," 1943. A comprehensive series of CPD reports entitled "Inspection of Civilian Personnel Administration," Jan.-Sept. 1945, covers matters of placement, pay, employee relations, and training in various Army field organizations and installations in the continental United States; a partial set is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

See Donald A. Rutledge, "Civilian Personnel Administration in the War Department," in Public Administration Review, 7: 49-59 (winter 1947).

Procurement and Accounting Division [145]

This Division (P and A), which succeeded the Supplies and Accounts Division, 1939-41, was the War Department's agency for the expenditure of contingent funds and for the procurement of general supplies and services. It did not procure military equipment, war matériel, and related technical supplies, all of which were procured by the major "technical services" of the Army Service Forces and the Army Air Forces. The Division also was responsible for the accounting methods and the control of forms used throughout the Department, and in 1943 it inherited from the former Printing and Advertising Division, 1939-43, the responsibility for printing done for the Department by the Government Printing Office, the Adjutant General's Office, and contract printers. The Division was renamed the Procurement and Supply Division in December 1948.

Records.--Some records of this Division and its predecessor that relate to printing, binding, and advertising, 1939-44, are in the National Archives. Records of the Accounting Branch and correspondence with and reports to the congressional Joint Committee on Printing are with other records of the Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other wartime records are in the custody of the Procurement and Supply Division.

Bureau of Public Relations [146]

This Bureau (BPR), which was established in the Office of the Secretary of War in February 1941, inherited functions previously vested in the Public Relations Branch of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, War Department General Staff. The Bureau served as the central War Department agency to determine policies and procedures for disseminating military information to the public. After August 1942, it also directed, coordinated, and reviewed the public-relations activities of the Army Air Forces, the Army Service Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and their respective subordinate commands, in each of which there normally existed an Office (later a Division) of Technical Information or a Public Relations Office.

The Bureau itself conducted a variety of public relations activities. It collected, edited, and disseminated news and pictures relating to the activities of the War Department and the Army, including official communiques and other statements concerning military operations and casualties; supervised

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the accrediting of journalists, photographers, and reporters to be sent to the theaters of operations by private news agencies; reviewed writings and lectures prepared by military personnel; furnished technical assistance to writers and to radio and film producers and passed on their completed products; and developed a large-scale program designed to inform both industry and labor about their contributions to the prosecution of the war. Between January and July 1942 it planned and supervised the information and orientation program for military personnel, a program that was transferred later in 1942 to the Services of Supply (see entry 401). As part of this troop information program, the Bureau published two general volumes on the Army: The New Army . . . (Field Manual 100-105, Aug. 1941); and a Graphic History of the War (1942).

The work of the Bureau of Public Relations involved much collaboration with other agencies. Its clearance of security-classified information for public release was based on policies of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, War Department General Staff, and of other agencies; for a brief period, from July 1942 to February 1943, G-2 took over the functions of the Bureau's Committee for the Protection of Information, which had been organized to pass on releases where security problems were involved. The Bureau collaborated with the War Manpower Commission and the War Production Board in sponsoring the organization of joint program information committees in industrial communities to discourage worker absenteeism and to raise the morale of factory employees. Within the Bureau itself there were several reviewing boards, including the War Department Motion Picture Board of Review (from 1941), the War Department Photonews Board (from 1942), and the War Department Manuscripts Board (from 1942).

The Bureau of Public Relations, headed by a Director, had an elaborate headquarters organization in Washington. In 1941 it had several sections, most of which were redesignated as branches in 1942 and as divisions in 1943. In addition to these divisions, which are separately described below, there were three Assistants to the Director, one for each of the three major Army commands (Air, Ground, and Service Forces). For a time in 1944 an assistant to the Director was in charge of coordinating all public relations activities of the War Department and the Army.

In the fall of 1945 the Bureau of Public Relations was transferred to the War Department General Staff, where it was reorganized for postwar activities as the Public Relations Division and in April 1947 was renamed the Public Information Division.

Records.--The central files of the Bureau of Public Relations, 1941-45, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A few records of the various Assistants to the Director were kept separately; those of the Assistants for the Army Air Forces and the Army Service Forces are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; those for the Assistant for the Army Ground Forces are in the custody of the successor Public Information Division. Some sound recordings produced by BPR. 1942, are in the National Archives; others are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO (see News Division and Industrial Services Division, below).

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The Bureau's activities are also documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 029 Public Relations Division, G-2, June-Aug. 1942, AG 020.4 Bureau of Public Relations, June 1941-May 1943, AG 321 Bureau of Public Relations, Apr. 1941-45, AG 020 Office of Technical Information, Apr. 1943-Dec. 1944, AG 021.1 Office of Technical Information, Mar.-May 1943, and AG 322 "This Is the Army" Unit [a traveling show sponsored by BPR], 1942-43 (2 linear feet). BPR's weekly activity summaries, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167). Among the records of the many domestic and overseas commands of the Army there usually are record sets of local public-relations offices' written and pictorial releases, radio scripts, and speeches and other records that are regarded by the Army as permanent public relations records (see TM 12-259, July 1945, section on such records).

Executive Division [147]

This Division of the Bureau of Public Relations was responsible for the Bureau's administrative or "housekeeping" functions, including the maintenance of its central files. In 1942 and 1943 the Division included a unit responsible for preparing and handling War Department publicity exhibits; later this function was transferred to the Adjutant General's Office.

Records.--See central records of the Bureau of Public Relations, described above.

News Division [148]

This Division collected and disseminated news items, including still pictures, and arranged for radio broadcasts of interest to the War Department. In 1945 it had five major operating branches. The Analysis Branch had general responsibility for research, collection, and compilation activities and for providing a central source of current news and information in the War Department. This Branch's Radio (or Radio Intelligence) Section issued the "Daily Radio Digest" and the "Foreign Broadcast Digest," based on propaganda broadcasts of the Axis nations that had been intercepted and translated by the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service and other agencies. Its Research (later Information) Section compiled for War Department use three daily news bulletins based on the wire services of member organizations of the National Press Association. Its Press Intelligence Section operated a clipping bureau and prepared a daily "Press Digest" for dissemination within the War Department.

The Publications Branch and the Press Branch dealt with book and magazine publishers and with newspaper editors and press bureaus. The Radio Branch, with offices in Los Angeles and New York City, as well as in Washington, handled relations with radio broadcasters, planned special radio programs such as "The Army Hour" and "Command Performance," and sponsored the Army Hour Planning Board. The Pictorial Branch handled

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contracts with motion-picture producers and users of still pictures and maintained a library of photographs useful for publicity purposes. Records.--Records of the News Division in the Departmental Records Branch. AGO, include the following: (1) Portions of the records of the Analysis Branch containing digests of news, reports, studies, maps, and analyses of public and editorial opinion on a variety of subjects, 1940-47; (2) records of the Pictorial Branch, 1943-46, including correspondence with the motion-picture industry relating to film scripts submitted for approval to the War Department Motion Picture Board of Review, papers on Signal Corps films released to the "newsreel pool," scripts of motion-pictures, and War Department clearances for films as to security, propriety, and detail; and (3) records of the Radio Branch, including scripts and sound recordings of "The Army Hour," "Command Performance," and "Yanks in the Orient," together with publicity and other related materials; scripts for Army Service Forces broadcasts, 1943-May 1945; and sound recordings of selected radio addresses by the President, the Chief of Staff, and the Assistant Secretary of War, of specially recorded combat events (such as some of the landings in Europe and in the Pacific), and of ceremonies of returning theater commanders in 1945 and 1946.

Other wartime records of this Division are in the custody of the Public Information Division. General Staff, including the records of the New York Office and some records of the West Coast Office of the Radio Branch. Other records of the latter office are believed to be still in Los Angeles. Copies of some of the documents and sound recordings produced by the Analysis Branch are in the Library of Congress.

War Intelligence Division [149]

This Division was responsible for disseminating information about combat operations and the current conduct of the war, for clearing correspondents, and for otherwise arranging coverage of the war in the theaters of operations by news agencies and other information agencies. The Division's Liaison Branch, known in 1943 as the Foreign Liaison Branch, was responsible for accrediting and maintaining liaison with war correspondents and other reporters overseas and for giving out information about current operations. The Review Branch was responsible for reviewing for policy, security, and propriety all textual and pictorial materials released to the public and for approving all speeches and writings of military personnel on duty. The War Branch was responsible for advising and assisting the Chief of the Division in briefing press and radio representatives, for compiling information and statements for release concerning overseas activities and operations, and for serving as a clearinghouse and a source of information concerning combat operations.

Records.--Records of the Division, 1942-44, in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include correspondence, requests, and agreements relating to clearances for the visits of writers to military installations; publicity articles and photographs of Army personnel submitted for review and clearance; printed documents and other materials on public relations policy; monthly

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reports from public relations officers in the field; personnel security questionnaires and other papers relating to individual journalists and reporters; "master lists" of casualties released to the press, May 1943-June 1945; and a card file, 1941-45, covering important events, operations, areas, personalities, and dates having news value. Records in the Public Information Division in Aug. 1947 included correspondence of the Liaison Branch with Army field agencies regarding public relations policies and a file of that Branch's "Liaison Bulletin" (containing instructions and information to public relations officers); and correspondence of the Review Branch relating to the security clearance of manuscripts of articles and books.

Industrial Services Division [150]

This Division, which originated as the Special Labor Information Section in September 1941, functioned under the general policy direction of both the Director of the Bureau of Public Relations and the Under Secretary of War. It was responsible for publicity and similar activities designed to improve labor morale, provide work incentives, and discourage absenteeism in war plants by stimulating labor's enthusiasm for the war effort. The Services of Supply, which was organized in March 1942, gradually took on more and more responsibility for handling labor relations in the United States.

In September 1945 and earlier the Industrial Services Division functioned chiefly through four branches. The Planning Branch, which inherited functions previously handled by the Labor Branch and the Programs Branch, was responsible for planning programs for industrial morale. Its work was performed by the Industrial News, the Show-Rally-Radio, the Pictorial, the Exhibits, the Graphics, and the Research Sections. The Operations Branch, known before 1943 as the Field Operations Section, was responsible for the general informational and other activities of the Division and functioned through the Production Information Section, which made studies and collected data that were used by the entire Division; the Motion Picture Section; and the Speakers Branch, which arranged for combat veterans of the Army, preferably those who had been wounded, to speak before important meetings of civic, industrial, and labor groups throughout the Nation. The Awards Branch planned and supervised the ceremonies at which the production "E" awards, made by the Army-Navy Board for Production Awards, were presented to industrial contractors. The War Times Branch, between 1943 and 1945, edited and published War Times--a weekly newspaper of news, comment, and other morale-building information for civilian employees of the War Department.

Records.--The wartime records of the Division, all in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include (1) minutes of meetings, reports, orders, and miscellaneous correspondence of the Division and its predecessor, 1941-July 1945; (2) records of the Planning Branch, consisting of general correspondence, background material, copies of speeches and information regarding labor activities, scripts for programs, releases, films and film strips, and the original art work prepared for posters and other items of publicity, 1942-Nov.

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1945; (3) records of the Field Operations Section and the successor Operations Branch, comprising biweekly activity reports, reports of special programs within the Service Commands, and publicity reports and scrapbooks of newspaper clippings and photographs, 1943-45; (4) correspondence, directives on operating procedures, circulars, reports, scrapbooks and photographs, and copies of contracts and related papers of the Motion Picture Section of the Operations Branch, 1942-Nov. 1945; (5) correspondence, press releases, reports on the improvement of production and labor morale. and recordings and transcripts of production-incentive radio broadcasts, all originating in the Production Information Section and its predecessor, 1942-Oct. 1945; (6) Awards Branch records relating to the Army-Navy Board for Production Awards, including reports, comments on recommendations for "E" awards, correspondence, and supporting data, 1942-Oct. 1945; and (7) record copies of War Times, 1943-Oct. 1945, and related correspondence. An unpublished history of the Division and its branches (4 vols.), with related research materials (6 feet), is also in the Departmental Records

Boards and Committees [151]

The Secretary, the Under Secretary, and the Assistant Secretary of War were severally members of or were represented on a number of wartime boards and committees. Some of these boards were interdepartmental or even international agencies, largely civilian in composition, and are described in the volume for civilian agencies. Other committees, discussed elsewhere in this volume, were essentially Army-Navy in character, and some of them included the Secretary's representatives. Several internal War Department committees that functioned during the war in advisory, regulatory. or fact-finding capacities within the Office of the Secretary of War are described below.

Secretary of War's Personnel Board [152]

This Board was established, apparently in 1941, as the War Department Personnel Board and was renamed in November 1942. It reviewed cases that involved the granting of commissions and promotions in the Army of the United States and it approved or rejected recommendations made in individual cases by the Officer Procurement Service of the Army Service Forces and by other agencies engaged in nominating candidates for commissions. In 1946 this Board took over the work of the Secretary of War's Separations Board.

Records.--The wartime records of the Board, which consist of correspondence and files on individual cases reviewed, are in its custody. Copies of policy papers relating to the Board are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334, then under both Board names. Papers on individual cases, if the individual is now out of service, are among the consolidated "201" files (personnel folders) of military personnel in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

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Army Emergency Relief [153]

This nonprofit corporation, known also as AER, was organized in the District of Columbia as an integral part of the War Department in February 1942. It assumed on an enlarged scale the functions of the Army Relief Society, founded in 1900, and the Army Air Forces Aid Society, founded in 1941. AER administered a welfare fund and made loans from it to persons in the Army in need of money and to their dependents. Money for this fund was obtained from voluntary contributions, from the profits of "This Is the Army" and other Army-produced shows, and from surplus funds transferred to AER by War Department organizations such as the Army Central Welfare Fund. Between 1942 and 1944, AER functioned as part of the Army Service Forces, first in the Office of The Adjutant General and later in the Office of the Director of Military Personnel; and in July 1944 it was transferred to the Office of the Secretary of War, where it was administered under the general supervision of the Assistant Secretary of War.

In addition to its national headquarters, AER supervised at one time or another more than 600 operating sections in the Service Commands, the Military District of Washington, and other Army commands in the Western Hemisphere. The Army Air Forces field sections of AER were administered separately from those serving personnel of the other major commands. Army Emergency Relief entered into joint agreements with the American National Red Cross in 1942 and in 1944, whereby the Red Cross was made responsible for handling all military-welfare activities in civilian communities, while AER restricted its activities to Army installations.

Records.--The wartime records of Army Emergency Relief, including correspondence, financial and loan records, and receipts, are in the custody of that organization. A one-volume unpublished history of AER, prepared in its headquarters, is on file in the Army's Historical Division.

Army Board for Production Awards [154]

This Board, known also as the Army-A Award Board, was established in May 1942 to formulate and conduct a program of granting awards, called "Army A" awards, to Army industrial contractors for outstanding performance in war production of matériel and supplies. This program was discontinued in July 1942 and was replaced by a joint Army-Navy program of "E" awards (see entry 101). The Army Board apparently continued to function, however, at least on paper, until November 1945, when it was formally discontinued. Its members in 1942 represented the Under Secretary of War, including the Director of Production; the Procurement and Distribution Division, Headquarters Services of Supply; and the Matériel Command, Headquarters Army Air Forces.

Records.--The whereabouts of the records of this Board is not known. Some copies of the Board's charters, papers on its personnel, and other papers relating to the Board are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets, May 1942-Nov. 1945, filed under AG 334. A one-volume "History, Army-Navy 'E' Award" is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

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War Department Board of Contract Appeals [155]

The Contract Appeals and Adjustment Board was established by the Under Secretary of War in November 1941 to consider disputes about the administration and adjustment of contracts of the various Technical Services (known then as Supply Services). Its members were named by the Under Secretary of War and by the head of the subordinate Purchase and Contract Branch. In August 1942 the Board was renamed the War Department Board of Contract Appeals. Its members included representatives of the Purchases Division, Headquarters Services of Supply (which took over the above Branch and provided administrative services for the Board), and of Headquarters Army Air Forces. The Board, with the Under Secretary of War as Chairman, heard appeals made by War Department contractors against decisions of the Army Air Forces, the Army Service forces, and the Technical Services with respect to a given contractor's performance and obligations under a particular procurement contract. Legal assistance was provided by the Judge Advocate General's Office. After the in September 1947, the Board was redesignated the Army Board of Contract Appeals.

Records.--The wartime records of the Board, including correspondence, transcripts of hearings, and supporting documents, are in the custody of the Board.

War Department Central Deferment Board [156]

This Board was established in April 1943 to implement, within the War Department, the provisions of an Executive order of March 6, 1943. that set forth a standard procedure for requesting occupational deferments for Government employees who had been selected for induction into the armed forces through the Selective Service System. Similar functions had been performed in 1942 and early 1943 by the predecessor Central War Department Deferment Reviewing Board, which with its 200 local deferment reviewing boards was transferred to the new Central Deferment Board. The latter Board operated through 27 regional deferment committees located in major cities throughout the United States where War Department civilian employees were concentrated. The regional deferment committees were in close touch with each other and forwarded monthly reports concerning their activities to the central Board. The Board and the committees were dissolved in August 1945.

Records.--The records of the Central Deferment Board and some records of its committees are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They include correspondence between the Board and the committees and correspondence with other agencies relating to deferment matters, 1942-43; personnel-replacement schedules for the headquarters agencies and for certain field agencies of the War Department and the Army, 1944; and miscellaneous reports, schedules, correspondence, lists of essential occupations, and other papers pertaining to the general subject of the deferment of Government employees for occupational reasons. An unpublished study, "Occupational

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Deferment of Civilian Employees of the War Department, November 1942-November 1945" (38 p.), prepared in 1946 in the Office of the Secretary of War, is filed in the Army's Historical Division. Records of various regional deferment committees (among them No. 50, Military District of Washington; No. 55, Baltimore; No. 63, Seattle; and No. 64, San Francisco) are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Monthly statistical reports on the Central Deferment Board, Dec. 1943-May 1945, compiled by the Machine Records Branch, AGO, are among the records of that Branch.

War Department Board on Civilian Awards [157]

This Board, established in June 1943, was directed by the Secretary of War to develop a program for increasing the efficiency and raising the morale of civilian employees in the War Department. The Board offered monetary prizes and meritorious promotions as rewards for employees' suggestions that were expected to result in savings or increased efficiency, service ribbons to be worn by employees of more than 6 months' service, and other incentives. Its program extended to Departmental offices in Washington and to Army installations throughout the country. The Chairman of the Board was the Director of Personnel and Training for the War Department. The Board was assisted by local committees, which were established in every Army organization that employed more than 500 civilians and were authorized to grant cash awards ranging in value from $5 to $250. Suggestions deserving greater recompense were forwarded to the Board in Washington for review and award.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Board, which consist of policy and planning papers, correspondence on awards, and records of awards made, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; a few are in the custody of the Board. Incorporated in the Board's records are many papers pertaining to the civilian-awards program of the Army Service Forces. An unpublished "History of the War Department Suggestion and Awards Program, June 1943-December 1945" (37 p. and appendixes), prepared in 1946 in the Office of the Secretary of War, is filed in the Army's Historical Division.

Records of the local civilian-awards committee that was established for the Office of the Secretary of War, 1943-45, consisting of accepted and rejected suggestions submitted by civilian personnel of that Office, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Records of local committees in other major offices and commands of the War Department and the Army are normally filed among the records of those offices and commands, described elsewhere in this volume.

Secretary of War's Separations Board [158]

This Board was established in January 1944. by direction of the Secretary of War, to review and make final decisions in all cases involving the resignation (honorable or otherwise), retirement, discharge, demotion, and reclassification of all commissioned officers except those of "general" grade, warrant and flight officers, and nurses, insofar as such cases

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were submitted to the Board through channels by the Adjutant General's Office. The Board consisted of general officers. Besides studying and reviewing individual cases, it prepared, for the Secretary of War and other interested War Department officials, regular monthly reports summarizing its work and it issued special reports analyzing the first group and subsequent groups of 10,000 cases on which it acted. The Board was discontinued in January 1946 after acting on more than 46,000 cases, and its personnel and functions were transferred to the Secretary of War's Personnel Board.

Records.--The records of the Board, which include case histories and supporting evidence and papers relating to the cases handled, were in 1947 in the custody of the Secretary of War's Personnel Board. An unpublished official history, "Separations Board" (1946. 6 p. and appendixes), prepared in the Office of the Secretary of War, is filed in the Army's Historical Division. Related records are among the central records of Headquarters Army Service Forces (see file 334), in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO (see index sheets filed under AG 334), and among the statistical reports of the Machine Records Branch, AGO.

Secretary of War's Discharge Review Board [159]

This Board was established within the War Department, under an act of June 22, 1944 (58 Stat. 286), to review the type and nature of discharge certificates of former military personnel (except certificates issued as a result of the action of a general court martial), on the appeal of recipients or on the motion of the Board itself. The Board was not empowered to revoke any discharge that had been given or to recall any discharged person to active duty, but after reviewing individual cases it made recommendations as to the validity of discharge certificates to The Adjutant General for appropriate action. The Board consisted of five or more officers, appointed by the Secretary of War. It convened in Washington, while panels met concurrently (at least in 1945) in St. Louis and in San Juan, Puerto Rico. In September 1947 the Board was renamed the Army Discharge Review Board.

Records.--The records of the Board, including correspondence, reports of the results of examinations, and case histories, are in the custody of the recorder of the Board.

Secretary of War's Disability Review Board [160]

This Board was established in the War Department, under an act of June 22, 1944 (58 Stat. 287), amended December 28, 1945 (59 Stat. 623), to review the cases of officers who had been retired or released from service for disability without pay as the result of action by an Army disposition board or retiring board. At the request of officers concerned, cases were forwarded to the Board through the Adjutant General's Office, which assembled all records and made arrangements for hearings. The Board, consisting of from five to seven officers, determined whether or not the disability leading to retirement or release was incurred in line of duty or as an incident of the service, and it presented its findings and recommendations

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to The Adjutant General to be forwarded to the President for final action.

Records.--The war-time records of the Board, including correspondence, reports of exam nations, and case histories, were in 1947 in its custody. Related correspondence is in the central files of Headquarters Army Service Forces (see file 334, 1945-46) and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO (see index sheets Sled under AG 334, Sept. 1944-Dec. 1945, and later).

War Department Army Retiring Board [161]

This Board was established in July 1944 to act for the Secretary of War as the central agency to review the cases of all officers not of "general" grade who had been relieved from active duty by other Army retiring boards for disability found not incident to service. (There were similar boards earlier in the war, notably the War Department Removal Board, or Craig Board, about September 1941, and the Army Retiring Board, about September 1942, but their records have not been located, except for incidental correspondence in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO.) The membership of the new Army Retiring Board in 1944 was identical with that of the Surgeon General's Review Board, which was created at the same time. The Board was provided with legal assistance by the Office of the Judge Advocate General. It was dissolved in October 1945 after having passed on more than 7,500 retirement cases.

Records.--The records of the Board, which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include the files for individual cases appealed to the Board, the "precedent file" of actions taken by the Board, and decisions and opinions of the Judge Advocate General on the retirement of officers, July 1944-Nov. 1945. A 3-page history of the Board is on file in the Army's Historical Division.

Advisory Board on Clemency [162]

A Board of Consultants was established by the Under Secretary of War in October 1944, in accordance with a suggestion made by the Correction Division of the Office of The Adjutant General. The Board advised the War Department on problems involving the discipline and rehabilitation of military prisoners, was responsible to the Under Secretary of War, and consisted of 13 civilian experts in penology. One of these members was Chairman, two others were members at large, and the other nine were assigned to the various Service Commands to furnish assistance and guidance on penology. The entire Board met only occasionally, as, for example, at the Under Secretary of War's Conference on the Rehabilitation of Military Prisoners, at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., in November 1944. The Board appears to have been reorganized in May 1945 as the Advisory Board on Clemency and empowered to consider military-prisoner court-martial cases referred to it. The new Board consisted of two members from private

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life; representatives of the Personnel Division. G-1, War Department General Staff, and of the Judge Advocate General's Office; and a recorder from the Correction Division of the Adjutant General's Office. After the war the Board was discontinued and its work was absorbed by the Clemency and Parole Board, which in 1947 was placed in the Office of the Secretary of the Army.

Records.--Records relating to individual cases considered by this Board are among the records of the Correction Division, mentioned above. The Board's policy records and other administrative records are in the central records of the Office of the Secretary of War; and copies of its administrative records are among the records of the Clemency and Parole Board. Related records are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334, then under names of the Board.

Other Boards and Committees [163]

Some committees and ad hoc administrative units, appointed by the Secretary's Office and apparently not represented by separate groups of records, are only mentioned here, as follows: War Department Contract Board, about April-May 1941; Board for Review of Medical Service in Combat Areas, about May 1941; Evacuation Board (for civilian defense), about February 1942; Board of Officers to Develop Chemical Spray for High Altitudes, about March 1942: War Department Parking Control Board, about April 1942; Board on Military Utilization of United States Citizens of Japanese Ancestry, about July 1942; Air Raid Warning Signal Board, about October 1942; War Department Dependency Board, from about October 1942; Board . . . to Survey . . . [Army] Activities That May Be Unnecessary or Not Required, about January 1943; Board for Disposition of Pictorial Records, from about October 1943; Board for the Selection of Honor Military Schools (that is, educational institutions where Reserve Officer Training Corps training was conducted), from about March 1944; War Department Housing Board (for civilian housing matters in the Military District of Washington), about April 1944-46; the War Department Community Activities Council, 1944-45; Coordinator of Soldier Voting, about April-November 1944; Royalty Adjustment Board at Wright Field, Ohio, about October 1944: Board for Appointment of ROTC Honor Graduates in the Regular Army, about October 1944; War Department Safety Council, about 1945; and the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Military Justice, about 1945-46.

Records.--No separately organized records of any of these boards and Committees are known to exist. Some records bearing on their activities are. however, filed among other records of the Office of the Secretary of War that have been previously described. Others are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see, for example (on the Coordinator of Soldier Voting), index sheets and papers filed under AG 014.35 Voting (1 linear foot), 1940-45, and AG 020 Coordinator of Soldier Voting.

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WAR DEPARTMENT GENERAL STAFF [164]

The General Staff, in 1939 as in 1903 when it was first established in the War Department, was concerned with policy-making and planning on the highest level and with supervising all aspects of the military establishment, including the training, organization, and employment of personnel, the matériel and supply system, and the intelligence system. These major functions continued through the defense, war, and postwar periods.

In theory the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, was concerned only with "staff work" pertaining to all these military functions, but in practice it had many operational responsibilities as well. In 1939 it exercised command jurisdiction, in effect, over all the major top echelons of the military establishment, that is, over the chiefs of the various arms and services in the War Department and over the commanders of the major components of the Army in the field, including the four Armies, the General Headquarters Air Force, the nine Corps Areas, and the several overseas territorial departments. After 1939 the jurisdiction of the General Staff, known also as WDGS, was extended to major commands newly established in the Army, notably General Headquarters United States Army, from July 1940 to March 1942; Headquarters Army Air Forces, from June 1941 to the end of the war; and Headquarters Army Ground Forces and Headquarters Services of Supply (later renamed Headquarters Army Service Forces), from March 1942 to the end of the war. The establishment of the Air, Ground, and Service Forces, however, curtailed the extent of the General Staff's detailed responsibilities, especially with respect to the many arms and services that were realigned under those three commands. Consequently the General Staff was reduced in size in 1942 from more than 500 to fewer than 100 officers.

In other fields the wartime responsibilities of the General Staff grew greater after 1941. This was especially true as regards its relations with the overseas departments of the Army, which were reorganized and expanded into theaters of operations, each normally under a unified Army-Navy or Army-Navy-Allied command. The General Staff also had an active part in the work of the many committees of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, which, with the President of the United States as Commander in Chief, planned and controlled the ultimate strategic direction of the war effort of the United States. This participation in interservice matters was not entirely new, for between 1939 and 1941, as well as earlier, the General Staff had been represented on several important Army-Navy boards and committees, especially on those dealing with personnel, matériel, tactical doctrine, and war planning. But between 1942 and 1945 its preoccupation with joint Army-Navy matters was vastly more extensive than before and its collaboration with the British at the headquarters staff level was probably unprecedented. The General Staff participated in such interservice matters both through the Chief of Staff, who was one of the two Army members of both the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, and through other General Staff officers who were members of the many subcommittees of these interservice staffs.

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During the war the policy, planning, and supervisory functions within the General Staff were divided among the Office of the Chief of Staff, five major or "general" staff divisions, and several "special" staff divisions. Each of these offices and divisions is described below.

Records.--The Adjutant General's Office was the office of record for the General Staff during the war, and many of the General Staff's wartime activities are documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO. Most of the staff offices and divisions of the General Staff, nevertheless, kept separately their own files of records, described below, which were not integrated with the central records. The total quantity of these divisional records for the war period is not known, but about 6,400 feet have been transferred as noncurrent records to the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Only a few have been transferred to the National Archives.

See Otto L. Nelson, Jr., National Security and the General Staff (Washington, 1946. 608 p.).

Office of the Chief of Staff [165]

Gen. George C. Marshall succeeded Gen. Malin Craig as Chief of Staff on September 1, 1939, and served in that capacity during the entire war. The Office of the Chief of Staff (OC/S) included the Chief and his principal assistants. The Chief of Staff was the immediate adviser to the Secretary of War on all matters pertaining to the military establishment, and he was a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined Chiefs of Staff. He was assisted by the Deputy Chief of Staff (DC/S), who acted for him in his absence and was responsible to him for general supervision over the General and Special Staff divisions; by the Assistant to the Deputy Chief of Staff, a position established in 1942 (later redesignated Assistant Deputy); by the Secretary of the General Staff (S/GS); and by two "Additional" Deputy Chiefs of Staff (one for the Armored Force, from July 1940 to March 1942, and one for Air, from July 1940 to June 1941), whose functions were absorbed by the Army Ground Forces and the Army Air Forces, respectively. In addition to the subordinate units described below, there were others that existed briefly in the Office of the Chief of Staff before being transferred elsewhere. Such a one was the Budget and Legislative Planning Branch, 1939-42, the budget functions of which were transferred to the Services of Supply in March 1942 and the other functions of which were taken over by the Legislative and Liaison Division in the War Department Special Staff.

Records.--The records of this Office were kept in its Coordination and Record Section. Of these records, the following are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files, 1921-42 and 1942-45; record cards for documents seen by or acted on by the OC/S, 1921-42; papers relating to the State-War-Navy interdepartmental committee known as the Standing Liaison Committee, Feb. 1938-June 1943 (a forerunner but not an immediate predecessor of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee [SWNCC]); shorthand notebooks of General Marshall's secretary, 1942-45; transcripts of the Chief of Staff's telephone conversations, 1941-42; records pertaining

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to the proposed Department of National Defense, 1943-46; records of the Deputy Chief of Staff on the planning and development of the military program, 1941-43; and copies of minutes and other wartime records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Combined Chiefs of Staff, and their committees. A logbook of policy actions and transactions, kept for the Chief of Staff, 1939-45, is in the Office of the Chief of Staff. Many of the activities of this Office are also documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under appropriate policy subject headings and under AG 321 Chief of Staff, 1940-45 (18 linear inches), and AG 321 Deputy Chief of Staff, 1942-45 (1 linear inch).

See Chief of Staff, Annual Report, 1939; Report on the Army . . ., 1939-43; and biennial reports to the Secretary of War, 1939-45. Many of the statements of the Chief of Staff at hearings of congressional committees and his speeches have been collected and republished in Selected Speeches and Statements of General of the Army George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, United States Army (1945. 263 p.).
[See also Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations, a volume in the U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

Secretariat [166]

The Office of the Secretary of the General Staff, frequently called the Secretariat, was responsible for the administration of the Chief's immediate office, the maintenance of temporary records, and the performance of other duties as assigned by the Chief or Deputy Chief of Staff. After December 1941 it also served as liaison between the General Staff, on the one hand, and the White House and the secretariats of the Joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff, on the other. It was also responsible for providing a member of the Secretariat of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

In February 1943, as part of the decentralization of War Department civilian personnel administration, the Civilian Personnel Branch was established within the Secretariat to deal with administrative and regulatory matters affecting all General Staff civilian employees. In the fall of 1944, however, this function was transferred to the Personnel and Administration Branch of the Office, which is discussed below. The Statistics Branch of the Secretariat was designed to serve as a central office for the preparation of statistics and statistical reports for the General Staff and to supervise the reporting systems of other Army agencies. (See Strength Accounting and Reporting Office, in which the Statistics Branch was merged in 1944.) Two other staff services, the War Department Classified Message Center and the Overseas Conference Service, also functioned within the Secretariat during most of the war--after the fall of 1944 as parts of the Staff Communications Branch. The Message Center maintained files of security-classified messages and the Overseas Conference Service handled teletype and similar conferences with overseas commanders and filed transcripts of these conferences.

Records.--Certain informal records kept by the Secretariat, such as records of telephone conversations and briefs of memoranda addressed to the Chief of Staff, 1940-45, and records of the liaison office between the General Staff and the White House, 1944-45 (2 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Whether any other wartime records of the Secretariat are in the Office of the Chief of Staff is not known.

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The Message Center's central wartime message files, on two sets of microfilm, contain copies of all incoming and outgoing, domestic and overseas signal messages for War Department and Army agencies in Washington, Apr. 1942-Dec. 1945. One set consists of copies of two chronological series, one incoming and the other outgoing; the other set is a copy of a series arranged geographically, the incoming messages by source and the outgoing by destination. These microfilms are in the Staff Communications Branch, Office of the Chief of Staff. Also in that Branch are transcripts (on microfilm) of telephone conversations between officers in Washington and officers in overseas command headquarters, 1943-45, arranged chronologically; and messages about each of the major interallied military-diplomatic conferences, 1943-45.

War Department General Council [167]

This Council, established in 1936, served during the war as an agency for the regular discussion and review of all major War Department activities and plans. With the Deputy Chief of Staff as its president and the Secretary of the General Staff as its secretary, the Council was composed during the war of the Assistant Chiefs of Staff, the directors of the Special Stall divisions, the commanding generals of the three major commands (Air, Ground, and Service Forces), and various other officers from time to time. The Council met every Monday. After its discussions of high-level problems and current and projected policies, the Council presented recommendations to the Chief of Staff or to the War Council of the Secretary of War.

Records.--The General Council's activities are recorded in its weekly minutes. The record set, kept in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other sets are in the records of the Army's Historical Division; the central records of Headquarters Army Air Forces; and the records of the Air Historical Office. Related papers, including memoranda on problems to be presented to the Council and memoranda on matters to be followed up, are scattered among the records of the Army agencies that participated in the Council's deliberations. Some related papers are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 General Council.

Personnel and Administration Branch [168]

In the fall of 1944 the functions of the Civilian Personnel Branch were transferred from the Secretariat to the new Personnel and Administration Branch, which was responsible to the Deputy Chief of Staff. This new Branch was concerned with matters relating to both civilian and military personnel of the General Staff, as well as with organization planning, records administration, and other office services within the General Staff. In the War Department reorganization of 1946 the Branch was renamed the Management Branch.

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Records.--The records of the Branch, consisting of correspondence, reports, and personnel files, are in the custody of its successor, the Management Branch.

Strength Accounting and Reporting Office [169]

This Office, known also as SARO, was established in the Office of the Chief of Staff and was made responsible to the Assistant Deputy in May 1944. Merged with SARO, also in 1944, was the Statistics Branch of the Secretariat. SARO was responsible for developing a procedure whereby the over-all strength reports of the Army might be standardized, compiled more rapidly, and made more usable. After some experimentation it worked out, in close conjunction with the Machine Records Branch of the Adjutant General's Office, a technique combining machine-accounting methods with direct radio reporting of unit strengths throughout the Army. In addition to issuing studies on methods, the Office published periodic strength reports, and its files became the central repository for current information concerning the mobilization, activation, organization, reactivation, and reorganization of Army units and for data on bulk allotments of troops within the Army. In January 1946 SARO was reorganized and renamed the Strength Accounting and Statistical Office (SASO), under the Deputy Chief of Staff, and in August 1946 the Office was renamed the Central Statistical Office.

Records.--The main body of records of the Strength Accounting and Reporting Office are the basic files of data on the unit strength of the Army during the war. These records, together with related correspondence and reports, were in 1947 in the custody of the Central Statistical Office. Copies of some of the reports are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, as follows: Monthly "Strength Report of the Army," Sept. 1944-Sept. 1945 and later; monthly "Analysis of the Present Status of the War Department Troop Basis," Oct. 1944-Oct. 1945; monthly "Troop List for Operations and Supply," Apr.-Oct. 1945; semimonthly statistical report on Army personnel, 1945; parts of the "Special Reports" series, 1944; and daily radiogram reports received from the field, showing personnel strength, changes in command and location, and troop movements, 1944-45. Some of SARO's wartime activities are also documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 321 Statistics Branch, Office of the Chief of Staff.

Personnel Division, G-1 [170]

The Personnel Division, G-1, headed by an Assistant Chief of Staff, was charged "with those duties of the War Department General Staff relating to the personnel of the Army as individuals." More specifically, it formulated plans and policies for the procurement, classification, assignment, promotion, transfer, pay and finances, and separation of all officer and enlisted personnel of the Regular Army and the Army of the United States. It also prepared general rules and regulations for uniforms, decorations, the morale and well-being of troops, enemy aliens, prisoners of war, and conscientious

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objectors. It was concerned with law enforcement at Army installations, including both martial law and relations between military and civil law-enforcement agencies, and with the application of the rules of war and the provisions of international conventions insofar as they pertained to military personnel. In March 1942 most of the personnel functions concerned especially with Air, Ground, and Service Forces were transferred to those three new commands.

G-1 was concerned primarily with military personnel as individuals, while G3 was concerned with bulk allotments of personnel, the establishment of quotas for replacement training centers, and the allocation of trained combat and service units to the theaters of operations. There was not always a clear division between these two aspects of manpower, however, especially in the latter part of the war, when the pressure for replacements and the increasing shortages of manpower made it necessary to reappraise the existing personnel strength of the Army and comb the ranks for men, already trained, who might be reassigned and retrained for duties in other combat and service units. Consequently, in July 1945 the personnel functions of G-1 were enlarged to include "matters relating to manpower as a whole."

G-1's functions were internally realigned and regrouped several times during the war. In April 1945 G-1 consisted of the Personnel Group, five policy branches, and the Administrative Branch, which was responsible for "housekeeping" matters assigned to the Executive of the Division. With the exception of the Administrative Branch, these units as they were set up in April 1945 are described below.

Records.--Many of the policy and planning activities of G-1 are documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see cases filed under particular personnel-related subjects and index sheets filed under AG 321 G-1. The actions of G-1 with respect to officer and enlisted personnel as individuals are recorded in the consolidated "201" files (personnel folders) maintained by the Adjutant General's Office and now, if inactive, in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Records that were kept separately by G-1 include general files, which document the activities of all of the Division's component units, 1921-46; chronological files of incoming and outgoing messages, 1942-46; "mobilization books" of the G-1 Planning Branch, 1921-42; "Office Memoranda" of G-1, 1941-45; various editions of G-1 organization charts: files concerning Congressmen and private citizens of interest to G-1 ("095" and "032" files); and an unpublished wartime history of G-1, prepared by G-1. Some of these records, including the general files, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; others were in May 1947 in the custody of the successor Personnel and Administration Division. G-1's weekly activity summaries, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

Personnel Group [171]

This Group, as the policy staff for G-1, determined the manpower needs of the Army on the basis of the plans of G-3 and of the Operations Division and in accordance with the recommendations of the War Department Manpower Board; and it made the necessary demands on the

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Selective Service System to fill these needs. It also prepared the regulations by which incoming men were originally classified and allotted throughout the Army; it was responsible for determining personnel policies for mobilization, demobilization, and the postwar military establishment; and it fixed the policies of the Personnel Division respecting the classification and status of all military personnel except general officers. Much of the work of planning mobilization was vested in the Planning Branch of G-1 during the period 1939-March 1942.

Records.--The separately maintained records of this Group and of its predecessors, 1939-45, are probably in the custody of the successor Manpower Control Group, Personnel and Administration Division. The Manpower Control Group's "working and reference file" and "policy file," 1944-47 (25 feet), contain policy documents on selective service, recruiting, demobilization, separation, and other wartime personnel matters handled by the Personnel Group.

Miscellaneous Branch [172]

This Branch performed G-1's functions relating to the personal welfare and morale of the soldiers--their pay, promotion, uniforms, individual assignments, and the like. As a part of its morale duties it exercised general policy supervision over the Army Exchange Service and the Army's relations with the American National Red Cross.

Records.--Whether the Branch kept any records separate from the general records of G-1, described above, is not known.

Legislative Branch [173]

This Branch, known before 1945 as the Legislative and Special Branch, reviewed proposed and enacted legislation affecting the Army's personnel programs and served as the War Department clearinghouse for information on such legislation.

Records.--See especially "name" files for Congressmen among the general records of G-1, described above.

Special Projects Branch [174]

This Branch, which before 1945 was a part of the Legislative and Special Branch, performed G-1's functions relating to prisoners of war, rules of war, and law enforcement. It worked in close consultation with the Judge Advocate General's Office on these affairs.

Records.--Some separately maintained records of the Branch were in May 1947 in the custody of the Special Projects Section, Military Personnel Management Group, Personnel and Administration Division.

Statistical Branch [175]

This Branch was responsible for the preparation of statistical studies and reports on manpower needs, losses, and utilization and for clearing such information for release to other War Department agencies and to the public.

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Records.--Whether this Branch kept any records separate from the general records of G-1, described above, is not known.

General Officers Branch [176]

This Branch was charged with formulating policies for recruitment, assignment, transfer, separation, and other personnel matters as they applied to officers of general rank.

Records.--The separately maintained wartime records of this Branch include a card record of general officers of World War II and a file of notes and drafts of memoranda relating to general officers, containing notations made by the Chief of Staff. These records were in May 1947 in the custody of the General Officers Branch, Military Personnel Management Group, Personnel and Administration Division.

Replacement Adviser's Office [177]

In the April 1945 reorganization of G-1, the office of the Replacement Adviser was established within G-1. It was concerned with studying the problem of a better replacement system at a time when replacement matters were still divided between G-1 and G-3. The changes of July 1945 clarified the situation (see entry 170), and as a result the office of the Replacement Adviser was abolished.

Records.--Whether this unit kept any records separate from the general records of G-1, described above, is not known.

Office of the Director of the Women's Army Corps [178]

The Headquarters of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), May 1942-June 1943, and the successor Office of the Director of the Women's Army Corps (WAC), July 1943-September 1945 and later, served as the War Department's top staff office for the recruitment, enlistment, and training of women volunteers for military service with the Army. The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps was authorized by an act of May 14, 1942 (56 Stat. 278), and was renamed the Women's Army Corps and made an integral component of the Army by an act of July 1, 1943 (57 Stat. 371). Its personnel ultimately served in a wide variety of noncombatant positions in virtually every major command in the continental United States and overseas. The women of the WAAC and WAC were not as a rule organized separately from male personnel for any given type of noncombat duty in the field, but much of their training was conducted separately, and after September 1943 each command using WAC personnel normally had a WAC Staff Director in its command headquarters. The WAAC and WAC training organizations included training centers at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, Daytona Beach, Fla., Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., Fort Devens, Mass., and Camp Ruston, La. (with sections at Camp Polk, La., and Camp Monticello, Ark.); an officer candidate school at Fort Des Moines, July 1942-- September 1943 and March-November 1945, and at Fort Oglethorpe, September 1943-March 1945; and the School for Personnel Administration for WAC officers, at Purdue University, April-October 1945.

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This headquarters Office for the WAAC and the WAC served as part of Headquarters Army Service Forces, May 1942-September 1943, and as part of G-1, September 1943-September 1945 and later. During the earlier period this Office had both staff responsibilities in Washington and command supervision over the training organization mentioned above. Later, these command responsibilities were decentralized among the Army Service Forces, the Army Air Forces, and the Army Ground Forces.

Records.--The following records of this Office are in the custody of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Central files of the headquarters of the WAAC, 1941-Sept. 1943, and of the Office of the Director of the WAC, Sept. 1943-46; correspondence, reports, and other records of the special civilian assistant to the Director, relating to the recruiting, planning, and utilization of WAAC and WAC personnel, 1942-43; minutes and other papers pertaining to the National Civilian Advisory Committee on the WAC, 1944-45; publicity scrapbooks, copies of advertisements, and studies prepared in connection with recruiting drives, 1943-44; and a "historical file," consisting chiefly of correspondence, photographs, press releases, and information about legislation affecting the Corps, 1942--44. The above files are relatively few for the WAAC period, since much of the original group of WAAC records was dispersed among records of Army Service Forces Headquarters, especially the Military Personnel Division and the Mobilization Division.

In May 1947 the following records were in the WAC Director's Office: Later portions of some of the above series of records; a set of WAAC Circulars, WAAC Regulations, and WAC Regulations (all numbered), 1942-15; WAC budget data, 1944-45; and reports and other papers pertaining to public opinion polls on the WAAC and the WAC.

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain a separate subseries (or "project" file) of records relating to the WAAC and the WAC, 1942-45 (35 feet), and four sets of index sheets filed under 029 WAAC, 020 WAC, 322 WAC Training Commands, and AG 341 Women's Army Corps (3 linear feet), that refer not only to the above records but also to other folders in the central records. Important policy correspondence is among the records of the respective headquarters of the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Service Forces.

The records of the various training centers of the WAAC and the WAC are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. They include general correspondence, reports, records of curricula, and records of students. The operational activities of WAAC and WAC personnel in the field are documented in the records of the particular commands and units in which such personnel served. A survey of WAC activities in the European Theater of Operations constitutes vols. 12-14 of the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), about 1945-46, copies of which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

See Mattie E. Treadwell, "Establishment of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps," in Military Review, vol. 28, no. 11, p. 3-16 (Feb. 1949).

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Military Intelligence Division, G-2 [179]

This Division was responsible for "the collection, evaluation, and determination of military information," and its major staff duties from 1939 to 1945 included the supervision of United States military attachés and military missions abroad, liaison with military attachés and missions in Washington from accredited foreign countries, negative (or counterintelligence as well as positive intelligence work, the supervision of the War Department's map and photographic intelligence collections, the operation of a sen ice for War Department agencies, participation in joint intelligence collection activities with the Navy and with other agencies of the Federal Government, and the supervision of propaganda and psychological-warfare activities for the War Department.

These functions were carried on between 1942, when the War Department was reorganized, and 1945, when the war ended, by the units described below. Three other functions were performed by G-2 for a relatively short time. Its Public Relations Branch was in charge of public relations work until 1941, when that work was taken over by the Bureau of Public Relations in the the Secretary of War. Throughout the war period, however, G-2 continued to clear security-classified information for public release through that Bureau. The Information Control Branch of G-2 was engaged in preparing censorship plans from 1939 until the Office of Censorship was established soon after war was declared; for a while it carried on censorship operations for the Office of Censorship; after that G-2's censorship work was confined to activities in occupied areas overseas and the supervision of strictly military correspondence and the correspondence of prisoners of war in the United States (until 1944). In about August 1945 G-2 took over the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service from the Federal Communications Commission. In 1946 G-2 was renamed the Intelligence Division.

[179a] Membership on committees.--G-2 was represented on a number of interagency committees during the war, notably the following (listed chronologically): Interdepartmental Intelligence Committee, also called the Interdepartmental Intelligence Conference, June 1939-September 1941, established by the President; the Federal Board of Surveys and Maps, about 1939-40; the Interdepartmental Visa and Passport Committee, November 1941-March 1944; the Joint Security Control, the Joint Intelligence Committee, and other committees of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1942--45; the Combined Intelligence Committee, 1942-45; the Censorship Operating Board and the Censorship Policy Board, 1942; the Postal Censorship Board, 1942; the Joint Army-Navy Flight Information Security Committee, August 1942-November 1945; the Joint Army-Navy [Foreign] Uniform Identification Board, 1943; the Security of Information Committee, about 1943; the Security Advisory Board of the Office of War Information, about 1943-44; and the Working Security Committee, about June 1944, concerned with captured enemy records. G-2 was also represented on a number of intra-Army committees during the war.

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[179b] Records.--Some of the general files of G-2 for the early war years are among a larger body of G-2 records dating from 1917 to about 1941 (1,730 feet), in the National Archives. Of the records of G-2 for the later war years, the general files, 1941-45, are in the Intelligence Division, and the following are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Files arranged under particular domestic and overseas commands, troop units, and installations, 1941-45; files arranged under each U.S. Military Attaché station, 1941--45; files arranged by country, 1941-45; incoming and outgoing overseas radio messages, arranged by country or station, 1939-45 (320 feet); incoming and outgoing domestic teletype messages, arranged by Bomber Command, Interceptor or Fighter Command, Service Command, airfield, and post, camp, or station, 1942-46 (80 feet); and records pertaining to visits by Allied representatives to industrial plants under War Department contract, 1941-45 (52 feet).

Although most of the above G-2 files, which are preponderantly administrative in character, also contain some intelligence data on foreign countries, the major body of intelligence material (called "information" documents in G-2 parlance) is in the holdings of the so-called G-2 Library (in the Military Intelligence Service), which was renamed the Document File Section of the Intelligence Division after the war. These documents, more than 8,000 linear feet for the war period, form parts of larger series extending from 1938 that are organized in several series according to country, date, and agency of origin. Other smaller series of wartime intelligence material are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Card file on key German officers, 1939-45; and records pertaining to captured Japanese airplanes, chiefly translations of manufacturers' plates removed from components of captured airplanes and similar materials originally used in formulating intelligence estimates, 1942-45 (4 feet). Other series are parts of records of particular groups and branches of G-2, separately described later in this volume.

Copies of many of G-2's wartime reports were sent to other agencies within and outside the War Department and are therefore in other groups of records, such as the records of the Office of Naval Intelligence; the records of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Intelligence, Headquarters Army Air Forces; the reference collection of the Historical Division, Department of the Army; the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; and the records of the Office of Censorship in the National Archives. The following series are notable: "Information Bulletins," monthly, 1942; "Intelligence Bulletins," monthly, 1942-46; "Order of Battle" series, chiefly for enemy armed forces, 1942-45; "Tactical and Technical Trends" (in enemy and Allied countries), monthly, 1942-45; the "Special Series" of reports on German, Italian, British, and other foreign weapons, tactics, and other military subjects, 1942-44; the "Special Bulletin" series on particular campaigns, about 1941; the "Combat Estimates" series, 1942; "Military Reports from the United Nations" (later, "Military Reports"), 1943-46; the "Campaign Studies" series, 1942-43; the "Ratel" series of reports based on radio and radar intelligence data, 1945; and special compilations, such as a biographical directory of Japanese officials, 1937-45, and a glossary of German military

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Other series of G-2 reports include "Weekly Intelligence Summaries." about 1942-43; "Intelligence Notes," numbered, about 1943; "Weekly Summaries of World Events," about 1943; "Comments on Current numbered, about 1943; "Technical Intelligence Summaries," numbered, about 1943; "Security Summaries," numbered, about 1945; various "Surveys" on foreign areas, 1941-42; and the "Geographical Handbook Series," on foreign areas, about 1942-43. A few of these series are listed and indexed in G-2's printed "Index to Intelligence Publications" (1944. 112 p.), a copy of which is on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Important correspondence relating to G-2's intelligence activities is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see especially index sheets filed under AG 321 Director of Intelligence, 1941-45 (2 feet), and under AG 322 Military Intelligence Service, 1942-45 (2 linear inches). G-2's weekly intelligence summaries, 1942--45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167). An unpublished history of G-2's wartime activities is filed in the Historical Division, Department of the Army.

See Sherman Kent, Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy (Princeton, N.J., 1949. 226 p.), which is a discussion by a former OSS officer of some of the problems of organization, documentary control, and research in wartime military intelligence work.

Policy Staff [180]

Before March 1942 the function of evaluating and coordinating material from intelligence reports and studies for the use of the War Department and the General Staff in military planning had been the responsibility of G-2 as a whole. In March 1942 this function was made the responsibility of the Policy Staff, consisting originally of 12 officers. Early in 1943 the Policy Staff was made up of 4 sections--the Policy Section, the Evaluation and Dissemination Section, the Administration Section, and the Joint Intelligence Committees Section. This last Section engaged in coordinating Army intelligence activities with the work of the intelligence committees of the Joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff. The Policy Staff, in turn, delegated much of the actual work of evaluating intelligence, for staff as well as for operational purposes, to the Dissemination Branch of the Military Intelligence Service, which is discussed below.

The Policy Staff was discontinued in the fall of 1943 during a temporary merger of the Military Intelligence Service and the Military Intelligence Division, but at the time of the 1944 reorganization of the Military Intelligence Service, the Policy Staff was reconstituted. From that time until the end of hostilities it was divided into four groups designated merely by Roman numerals. Group I was responsible for determining plans and policies relating to the collection of military information and to its use and distribution by the War Department. It also represented the Department in planning such activities undertaken by the Army jointly with the Navy, the Allied nations, the Office of Strategic Services, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Combined Chiefs of Staff. Group II was charged with formulating

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plans and policies for the interrogation of enemy and other persons possessing useful specialized knowledge. It also established policies relating to the protection of sources of military information and to escape and evasion activities, and it exercised general policy jurisdiction over the language and intelligence schools operated by the Training Branch of G-2. Group III was responsible, for the War Department, for plans and policies respecting censorship of all military correspondence and of other correspondence in occupied areas, for safeguarding military information, and for counterintelligence and loyalty investigations. Group IV determined plans and policies relating to the security of Army signal facilities, the use and distribution of cryptographic materials, Signal Corps intelligence work, and related security matters.

Records.--Some records of this Staff, kept separate from G-2's general records, described above, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Propaganda Branch [181]

The General Staff's interests in the propaganda of enemy, Allied, and neutral countries and in psychological-warfare activities of the United States were handled successively by the Psychological Warfare Branch of G-2 from about June to December 1941, the Special Study Group from about January to March 1942, the Psychological Branch of the Operations Group of the Military Intelligence Service from March to December 1942, the Foreign Press Section of the Intelligence Group of the Military Intelligence Service from December 1942 to November 1943, and the Propaganda Branch of the Military Intelligence Division from November 1943 to the end of the war.

The Psychological Warfare Branch, assisted by an advisory board of consulting psychologists, was originally concerned not only with foreign propaganda but also with various aspects of the morale of United States troops. The latter activity, by general agreement and after some newspaper publicity, was transferred to the Morale Branch in the Office of the Chief of Staff (see Special Services Division and Information and Education Division, Headquarters Army Service Forces); and the foreign-propaganda functions were transferred to the newly designated Psychological Branch of the Military Intelligence Service. The latter Branch published a daily summary and special studies of foreign propaganda and helped plan the leaflet-dropping campaign carried out over enemy territory by the overseas commands. The Branch also prepared plans and an instruction manual for Combat Propaganda Teams and supervised the activation of one such team in December 1942. Almost immediately thereafter the Combat Propaganda Teams were transferred to the Office of Strategic Services, but in March 1943 they were retransferred to the War Department, where they were placed under the general supervision of the Organization and Training Division, G-3. The Psychological Branch was dissolved on December 31, 1942, on the assumption that its activity duplicated that of the Joint Psychological Warfare Committee, which had been established in March 1942 as a subcommittee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. From December 1942 to November 1943 the

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of preparing daily and other summaries of foreign propaganda was continued by some of the staff of the Psychological Branch temporarily transferred to the Intelligence Group of the Military Intelligence Service and known there as the Foreign Press Section. In November 1943 the Propaganda Branch was established to serve as the coordinator of all War Department propaganda activities. It prepared plans for the use of the Office of War Information and the Office of Strategic Services; coordinated the propaganda plans of those two agencies with those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and coordinated its work with a similar office of the Navy, with the State Department, with the Office of Strategic Services, and with other interested Federal agencies. The Chief of the Propaganda Branch was the Army member of the Joint Psychological Warfare Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

In 1944 the Propaganda Branch functioned through the Operations Section and the Research and Analysis Section. The Operations Section, in addition to handling administrative and personnel matters for the Branch, prepared special weekly and other reports on foreign propaganda, furnished information to the Office of War Information and the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, and in general was responsible for the liaison and coodinating activities of the Branch. The Research and Analysis Section analyzed foreign propaganda, including foreign radio broadcasts monitored by the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service, and prepared daily and periodical studies of it. In addition the Section undertook studies to determine the effectiveness of Allied propaganda. In the field, each major overseas command headquarters normally had a staff section concerned with psychological warfare. Such sections, although not supervised directly by G-2 in Washington, worked in collaboration with G-2's Propaganda Branch and with the Office of War Information.

Records.--Copies of periodic and special reports made by the Propaganda Branch are presumably among the general records of G-2, described above. Whether this Branch kept any permanent records separate from G-2's general records is not known. The activities of the psychological-warfare organization in Europe are described in vol. 135 of the reports of the General Board, d States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), 1945-46; copies are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Historical Branch [182]

In 1939 the historical research and writing activities of the War Department and the Army were largely concerned with World War I operations and were centered in the Historical Section of the Army War College, established about 1920. In August 1943 the Historical Branch was established within G-2 to supervise World War II historical activities

throughout the War Department and the Army. The Branch Chief was assisted by a chief civilian historian, a staff of historians and other specialists, and an advisory group of civilians from the historical profession. The Branch assisted the theater commands in setting up units to collect and forward historical materials for its use, and in addition to its coordinating and supervising activities it undertook certain historical writings of its own.

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especially the preparation of chronologies, a military history of World War II, and other historical studies for which no historical agency at a lower level could properly be held responsible. In November 1945 the functions and personnel of the Historical Branch were transferred from the jurisdiction of G-2 and were established as the Historical Division of the War Department General Staff. Its organization was enlarged, primarily for the purpose of preparing a comprehensive, documented official history of the Army's activities, both combat and noncombat, in World War II. This history was planned to include about one hundred published volumes, of which three volumes had appeared by early 1949. The Division also prepared brief histories of particular battles and campaigns and provided historical reference service to staff units of the War Department.

Records.--The records of this Branch are mostly in the custody of its postwar successor, the Historical Division, Department of the Army. A small body of administrative records documents the development of the Army's historical program in Washington and the field, but the major holdings are about 900 unpublished histories (some 3,000 vols.) that cover comprehensively the wartime activities of most of the units at the top echelons of the War Department and the Army, except the Army Air Forces. Most of these histories were prepared outside the Historical Division and are listed in the Division's "Accession List" (1946-47. 3 parts). (Other unit histories, especially those received from lower echelons, are filed elsewhere, chiefly in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; AAF histories are on file in the Air Historical Group, United States Air Force; fragmentary records of the Historical Sections of field commands are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.) Also in the Historical Division are the files of research notes, drafts, and manuscripts of studies in preparation by the Division's historians for the series "United States Army in World War II"; copies of its historical series entitled "Armed Forces in Action" and "Fighting Forces"; work sheets and other files relating to the "Order of Battle" compilations (some of these have been transferred to the Departmental Records Branch, AGO); special studies by the Historical Section, European Command, and interrogations of prisoners of war by that Section (about 400 feet); copies of selected operations reports and other records (on microfilm) of units of the French Army participating in the Allied campaigns in Europe, 1943-45; a collection of selected printed and processed documents pertaining to the war (about 100 feet), including about 10 series of G-2 reports, several series of Navy intelligence reports, and a set of the Joint Intelligence Committee's "Daily Summary"; a map collection; a collection of photographs; and a descriptive list of wartime and postwar records of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC) and the successor State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee (SANAC) that were transferred to the State Department in 1949.

See Victor Gondos, "Army Historiography in the Second World War," and Thurman S. Wilkins, "The War Department Historical Program," in Military Affairs, 7:60-63 (Spring 1943) and 9 (no. 3): 39-41 (Fall 1946).

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Security Branch [183]

Security investigations from 1939 to 1942 were handled by the Counterintelligence Branch of G-2 and from March 1942 through 1943 by the Counterintelligence Group of the Military Intelligence Service. From about January to July 1944 such matters were decentralized entirely from G-2 to the nine Service Commands; in July 1944 they were reestablished in the General Staff, in a new Security Section established in the Source Control Unit of the Military Intelligence Service. This Section became the Security Branch of the Military Intelligence Division in December 1944. The Security Branch and its predecessors made plans pertaining to security and determined and standardized the methods employed in making individual loyalty investigations and other investigations of "great delicacy or importance." In 1944 the Chief of the Branch represented the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, on the Security Advisory Board of the Office of War Information and served as the security officer for the Military Intelligence Division. One of the special concerns of the Branch in 1944 was to investigate the Japanese balloon "invasion" of the west coast of the United States in that year.

Records.--Records relating to the War Department security program affecting persons of Japanese ancestry in the United States, 1942-48 (488 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They include general files, personnel files, and "social data registration" files. Security-intelligence files on individual, military, and civilian personnel, and certain personnel at Army contractors' plants are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

Training Branch [184]

Staff functions concerned with planning intelligence training and with supervising the operations of the various G-2 schools were handled successively by the Plans and Training Section, G-2, from 1941 to early 1942; the Training Branch of the Operations Group, Military Intelligence Service, from March to November 1942; the Assistant Chief of Military Intelligence Service for Training, from November 1942 to April 1943; the Training Group, Military Intelligence Service, from April to September 1943; the Training Group under the Deputy for Administration, G-2, from September 1943 to about June 1944; and the Training Branch of the Military Intelligence Division, from about June 1944 to the end of the war.

Records.--Whether this Branch and its predecessors kept any permanent records separate from the general records of G-2, described above, is not known.

Military Intelligence Service [185]

The Military Intelligence Service, known also as MIS, was established in March 1942 as the operational unit of G-2, as distinct from the policy-making unit (the Policy Staff). In addition to a branch and a section then attached to the Executive's office to administer affairs relating

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to military attachés, the Service consisted of the Administrative Group, the Intelligence Group, the Counterintelligence Group, and the Operations Group. The last named Group, which functioned for a brief time and then was discontinued, consisted of the Psychological Branch (later the Propaganda Branch), the Training Branch, and the Dissemination Branch. These branches were soon absorbed by other groups in the Military Intelligence Service and are described elsewhere. In addition to its headquarters in Washington and various subsidiary units, mentioned below, that performed special work elsewhere in the United States or overseas, MIS operated four branch offices, where the collection of information and security investigation work, as well as research, were carried on. These offices were located as follows: New York, from July 1940 to December 1944; San Francisco, from July 1941 to June 1944; Miami, from April 1942 until the end of hostilities; and New Orleans, from April 1942 to February 1943. A sub-office of the New York Branch, in Chicago, existed from January to about March 1943.

In the fall of 1942 the Chief of the Military Intelligence Service was made the Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, and four Assistant Chiefs of Military Intelligence Service were named (for Intelligence, Training, Administration, and Security) to head the operating groups. In the fall of 1943 the Military Intelligence Service was discontinued, and from then until June 1944 its functions were exercised by three Deputy G-2's for Administration, Intelligence, and Air. Finally, in June 1944 the Military Intelligence Service was reconstituted and was organized into the Information Group, the Intelligence Group, and the Administrative Group. This arrangement persisted until 1946. These major groups established in 1944, as well as certain other components that were at other times a part of the Military Intelligence Service, are individually described below.

Records.--The extensive holdings of intelligence data maintained by the. G-2 Library of MIS have been noted earlier (see entry 179b). Other records of MIS are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Whether MIS kept any other permanent records separate from the general records of G-2, described above, is not known. The whereabouts of the records of the four branch offices is not known, but copies of their intelligence reports are among records of other offices, such as the records of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Intelligence, Headquarters Army Air Forces (see the "Daily Accession Lists," of this office, 1942-45, passim). A 1-volume history of the New York office of MIS, Apr. 21, 1943, is in the central "bulk" files of Headquarters AAF, under file 321.

Information Group [186]

This group, established at the time of the June 1944 reorganization of the Military Intelligence Service, was responsible for the collection and distribution of intelligence documents. From 1939 to March 1942 this work had been done by the Intelligence Branch of G-2 through a Contact and Dissemination Section. When the Military Intelligence Service

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was established, a Dissemination Branch of the short-lived Operations Group performed these functions. In the fall of 1942 and in early 1943 collection and distribution were handled by the Intelligence Group, through its Dissemination Branch, which later became the Evaluation and Dissemination Branch. Later in 1943 these functions were transferred to the newly formed Information Group, which in June 1944 operated through the Source Control Unit and the Distribution Unit.

The Source Control Unit of the Information Group selected and trained information-gathering agents, including military attachés, and supervised their work, to insure that the intelligence needs of G-2 were both understood and filled by its agents. The Unit had five branches: (1) The Maps and Photographs Branch; (2) the Washington Liaison Branch; (3) the Special Branch, which worked on certain specialized projects assigned by the Chief of the Information Group until June 1944, when that work was assumed by the research branches of the Intelligence Group; (4) the Captured Personnel and Matériel Branch, formerly the Prisoner of War Branch of the Intelligence Group; and (5) the Foreign Branch. This last-named Branch supervised the collection and reporting activities of the military attachés; and after December 1942 its Microfilm Section maintained files of the War Department's copies of films produced by the Interdepartmental Committee for the Acquisition of Foreign Publications.

The Distribution Unit of the Information Group recorded and distributed incoming intelligence documents. It consisted of the Cable Branch; the Message Center Branch; the Reading Panel Branch, which disseminated to Army, Navy, and civilian agencies incoming intelligence materials classified at a level below "top secret"; the Reproduction Branch; the Special Distribution Branch, which disseminated "top secret" and various other highly classified documents; and the Analysis Branch, which kept analytical records, including machine records, of incoming materials and their distribution and which undertook to establish and report to the originators the value of reports they had sent.

Records.--Whether this Group and its units kept any permanent records separate from the general records of G-2, described above, is not known.

Intelligence Group [187]

This Group and its predecessors studied and analyzed information and put it into usable form for military purposes by means of reports and otherwise. From 1941 until at least 1944 it also collected and disseminated intelligence, and from mid-1942 to mid-1944 it evaluated intelligence for staff as well as for operational purposes. Between 1939 and 1945 the Group had the following designations: Intelligence Branch, G-2, from 1939 to 1941; Intelligence Group of the Military Intelligence Service, in March 1942; the office of Assistant Chief of Military Intelligence Service for Intelligence, in November 1942; Intelligence Group of G-2, in April 1943; the office of the Deputy for Intelligence, G-2, in September 1943; and Intelligence Group of the Military Intelligence Service, from about April 1944 until after September 1945.

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Organization, 1942.--As established in March 1942, the Intelligence Group had an Administration Branch, a Situation and Planning Branch, and research sections arranged by theaters (14 in number, since there were 2 parallel sections for each theater, one for air and the other for ground intelligence). Later in 1942, when the Chief of the Military Intelligence Service became also Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, the Group acquired a Dissemination Branch and an Evaluation Board (later combined into an Evaluation and Dissemination Branch) and was divided into two major subdivisions called commands. The North American and Foreign Intelligence Command, also known as NAFIC, processed intelligence concerning nations of all the world except Latin America. It comprised 4 branches: European and African, North American, Far Eastern, and Air. The American Intelligence Command, also known as AIC, was an outgrowth of the former Latin American Section of the prewar Intelligence Branch, G-2, and of the early-war Intelligence Group. It processed intelligence concerning Latin America and studied Axis subversive activities there. In 1943 it was moved to Miami.

[187b] Organization, 1943.--In April 1943 the Intelligence Group reverted to a more familiar organization. The North American and Foreign Intelligence Command, as such, disappeared, and its staff continued its functions within the Intelligence Group. The American Intelligence Command was renamed the American Intelligence Service (AIS) and functioned as one of the research units of the Intelligence Group. At that time the collecting and disseminating activities, which had previously been handled together, were made separate activities by the establishment of the Collection Unit and the Dissemination Unit. There was also created at that time the Evaluation and Dissemination Staff. The former Air Unit reappeared as a component of the group.

In the fall of 1943 the Intelligence Group was subdivided into a Planning and Strategy Group, a Collection Group, an Order of Battle Branch, a Prisoner of War Branch, and a Theater Group. The Theater Group was divided into the following units: American Unit, which was still in its reports frequently and semiofficially called by its former name (American Intelligence Service); European Unit; Pacific Unit; Intelligence Liaison Section; and Foreign Press Section, which, with staff and functions temporarily transferred from the dissolved Psychological Branch, prepared summaries of Axis propaganda.

[187c] Reorganization, 1944.--In June 1944 the Intelligence Group lost by transfer to the Information Group, discussed above, its Collection Group, Dissemination Group, and Prisoner of War Branch, the name of which was changed to Captured Personnel and Matériel Branch. At the time of this reorganization, the Intelligence Group gave up handling intelligence on a geographical basis. Instead, it instituted a system by which area and regional specialists served as the top advisers and consultants in intelligence matters and the research sections were organized to perform their work according to functions or subjects involved. (After the war, in 1946, the Group returned to the processing of information on the basis

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of areas, by means of various "specialists' desks" not unlike those in the State Department for similar purposes.)

[187d] Functions.--Between June 1944 and the end of the war the Intelligence Group consisted of specialists, the Research Unit, and the Reports Unit. The specialists, who were experts on particular areas or countries, served as the chief coordinators and interpreters of intelligence materials. There were specialists on Germany, Japan, the Western Hemisphere, and the United States, as well as other areas of interest. The Research Unit digested and compiled intelligence data based on all available sources of information. It had the following six branches: The Military Branch, the Topographical Branch, the Political Branch, the Sociological Branch, the Who's Who Branch (for biographical information), and the Intelligence Library (not a research unit but G-2's central reference depository for security-classified documents and other information used by the other branches). The Research Unit's reports, called Military Intelligence Research Service reports (MIRS, for Europe, and PACMIRS, for the Pacific), were based largely on materials derived from captured German and Japanese documents. The Reports Unit prepared and issued periodical and other reports on many political, military, and economic topics. This Unit originated late in 1942 as the Order of Battle Branch in the Intelligence Group; it dealt with German (and later Japanese) order of battle and with related subjects either too large in scope or too specialized to be within the purview of the Military Branch of the Research Unit. In 1944 it was expanded and renamed the Reports Unit, with four branches: The Japanese Military Reports Branch, the German Military Reports Branch, the Political and Economic Reports Branch, and the Publications Branch.

[187e] Records--The record holdings of the G-2 Library are noted in entry 179b. The following records of the Far Eastern specialists (about 168 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Reference cards containing personal data on Japanese officers and data on the activation and organization of Japanese army units, 1939-45; and copies of "Japanese Army Transfer Lists" and other documents relating to the promotion of Japanese officers, 1942-45. A name file of "Who's Who" data cards on German army, air force, and SS officers, 1941-45 (17 linear feet), probably assembled by the Who's Who Branch, and other records of that Branch, are also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Whether other units of the Intelligence Group kept any permanent records separate from the general records of G-2, described above, is not known.

The German records used by the Research Unit, as well as other seized German records in the custody of the Department of the Army, are described in Adjutant General's Office, "Guide to Captured German Records in the Custody of Department of the Army Agencies in Washington, D.C., and Vicinity" (Apr. 1950. 40 p., processed).

Copies of reports of the American Intelligence Command are among the records of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Intelligence, Headquarters Army Air Forces; see its "Daily Accession Lists," 1943, passim. Copies of some of that Command's correspondence are in the central records of the War Department,

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in the AGO; see index sheets, 1942-44. filed under AG 322. Copies of some of the MIRS and PACMIRS reports. 1944-45, are in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch. AGO. in the following series: Monthly "Accession List," 1945; "Intelligence Research Projects," 1944; "Weekly Report," 1945; "Bulletin," 1945-46: "Translations," "Technical Service Translations," and "Special Translations." 1945-46; and "War Crimes Information Series," 1945-46.

Administrative Group [188]

This Group handled "housekeeping" matters for the Military Intelligence Service, operated G-2's language-translation service for the War Department, and after April 1943 administered affairs pertaining to military attachés. In the fall of 1942 the Administrative Group included the Psychological Warfare Branch, the Prisoner of War Branch, and the Geographical Branch, all of which were later transferred elsewhere. In 1944 and 1945 the Administrative Group was organized into the Finance Branch, the Administrative Records Branch, the Office Management and Supply Branch, the Personnel Branch, the Orientation and Instruction Branch, and the Translation Branch.

Records.--A series of reports on saboteur suspects. 1939-41 (3 feet), kept by the Administrative Records Branch, is in the National Archives. Whether any other permanent records of that Branch or of other brandies in this Group were kept separate from the general records of G-2, described above, is not known.

Counterintelligence Group [189]

This Group was responsible for the "negative" side of G-2's work. It investigated breaches of security, announced policies for safeguarding military information, supervised loyalty checks and screenings, and formulated over-all policies and procedures for these and other phases of noncombat intelligence work. As the result of an agreement with the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, made in 1940 by direction of the President and reinterpreted in 1942, the responsibility of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, was limited to counter-intelligence work in the military establishment (including its civilian personnel) in the United States, the Panama Canal Zone, the Philippine Islands, the Alaskan Department, and the Aleutian Islands.

In 1939-42 these staff functions were handled by the Counterintelligence Branch, G-2, redesignated as the Counterintelligence Group of Military Intelligence Service in March 1942 and for a short time thereafter organized in parallel air and ground sections. In the fall of 1942 the Grasp was briefly under the supervision of the Assistant Chief of the Military Intelligence Service for Security. In January 1944 counterintelligence work in the Zone of the Interior was decentralized to the several Service Commands and was made the staff responsibility of the Intelligence Division of Headquarters

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Army Service Forces. Between 1941 and the end of 1943 the Counterintelligence Group and its predecessor included, at one time or another, the following branches: The Counterintelligence Situation and Evaluation (or simply Evaluation) Branch, the Communications Branch, the Domestic Intelligence Branch, the Investigations and Investigations Review Branches, the Military Censorship (or simply Censorship) Branch, the Plant Intelligence (or Plant Protection) Branch, the Security Control (or Security) Branch, the Special Assignments Branch, and the Visa-Passport Control Branch.

As a part of its work, the Counterintelligence Group exercised general supervision over the Counterintelligence Corps (CIC), with headquarters at Baltimore beginning in 1943, and operated both a Counterintelligence Corps Local Office, which served the Office of the Secretary of War and the General and Special Staffs, and a Counterintelligence Branch, which determined policy, did other counterintelligence work on a staff level, and provided counterintelligence training for both domestic and overseas service. Known before January 1942 as the Corps of Intelligence Police (CIP), the Counterintelligence Corps was under the direction of G-2, but its representatives in the Zone of the Interior were normally attached for duty first to the Corps Areas and later to the Service Commands that took the place of the Corps Areas. Counterintelligence activities were carried out by these representatives with the assistance of the Office of the Provost Marshal General. The Counterintelligence Corps was decentralized at the same time that counterintelligence activities as a whole were decentralized, and the Military Intelligence Service personnel assigned to it was transferred to the major commands and the Service Commands and was made responsible to the Intelligence Division of Headquarters Army Service Forces. G-2 retained only general policy supervision. The Army Air Forces, the Army Service Forces, and the Manhattan Engineer District continued to be served by the Counterintelligence Corps. In the Service Commands the functions of the Counterintelligence Corps were performed by the Security Intelligence Corps (SIC), under the Provost Marshal General. In the overseas commands, CIC work was normally performed, at the staff level, by CIC staff sections, and, in the field, by CIC Detachments and by Censorship Detachments.

Records.--No information about the headquarters records of the Counterintelligence Group and the Counterintelligence Corps is available. Records of CIC staff units attached to field commands are normally among the headquarters records of such commands, in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Also at St. Louis are the wartime records of CIC Detachments; for a guide to them, see lists of series of their records (about 8 linear inches), a set of which is on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Unpublished unit histories of CIC Detachments serving with Infantry and Armored Divisions are also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A survey of CIC wartime activities in Europe is contained in volume 16 of the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET); copies are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

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Alsos Mission [189a]

The Alsos Mission was established in the fall of 1943 by the Secretary of War as a cooperative venture of the War Department General Staff, the Manhattan District, the Army Service Forces, the Navy, and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Its primary purpose was to learn what progress German scientists had made in nuclear physics. Its name was the Greek word for "grove," a code name chosen because of the relation of the Mission to the Manhattan District, which was headed by Maj. Gen. Leslie R. Groves.

The first Alsos team of American military men and scientists was sent to Italy in December 1943. After this team returned to the United States in February 1944, the Alsos Mission was formally placed under the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2. Civilian technical personnel was furnished by the Office of Field Service of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. The Navy furnished technical personnel until the fall and winter of 1944 when it set up its own Navy Technical Mission in Europe. Alsos followed the invading armies into France and Germany. When Strasbourg was captured in November 1944, it was learned that German progress in nuclear physics had been slight; thereafter, Alsos broadened its field of investigation to include enemy developments in subsonic and supersonic air travel, gas turbines, precision optics, malarial research, radar, proximity fuzes, and biological warfare. Alsos was discontinued in October 1945.

Records.--Copies of some of the Mission's interim reports, 1944, are in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Administrative records relating to the Mission are among the records of the Office of Scientific Res?arch and Development in the National Archives. Reports relating to German progress in nuclear physics and in the other sciences are with the records of the Manhattan District in the custody of the Atomic Energy Commission.

See Lincoln R. Thiesmeyer and John E. Burchard, Combat Scientists (Boston, 1947. 412 p.); and Samuel A. Goudsmit, Alsos (New York, 1947. 259 p.).

Organization and Training Division, G-3 [190]

The G-3 functions of the General Staff in 1939 were those concerned with "the organization, training, and operation of the military forces." Of these functions, training and organization normally included the military training of personnel as individuals and their training and organization into combat and service units, while operations included the allocation and commitment of men, units, matériel, and equipment to the operational theaters and commands. From 1939 to March 9, 1942, these functions were centralized in a single staff division--the Operations and Training Division, G-3. From March 9, 1942, until after September 1945, they were divided between two major staff divisions--the Organization and Training Division, G-3, and the Operations Division (see entry 197).

The training and organizational functions of the Organization and Training Division and its predecessor included the preparation of tables of

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organization (T/O's), tables of basic allowances (T/BA's), tables of allowances (T/A's), and tables of equipment (T/E's), which governed the allotment of categories of personnel and types of equipment to typical Army combat and service units. The Division's supervision of training covered military training throughout the Army; the training programs for the National Guard, the Organized Reserves, and the Reserve Officers Training Corps; and training at the United States Military Academy, the service schools of the arms and services of the Army, the Command and General Staff School, and the Army War College. G-3 also supervised the preparation of the War Department's training and tactical publications; determined plans and policies for the assignment of troop units to the major operational theaters and commands (called "allotments in bulk") and fixed the priorities for assigning replacements, both of men and equipment, in cooperation with G-4 and the War Plans Division; supervised, through the Office of the Provost Marshal General, the military police of the Army; and made policies with respect to the use of troops for civilian ceremonies. It handled mobilization planning, an activity that before 1942 had been a function of the General Staff as a whole and not of any particular staff division.

In 1944 the Organization and Training Division, G-3, was organized into two Groups, each of which is separately described below. G-3 was also concerned, during the war, with aspects of the postwar Army and military establishment.

Records.--Records of the Division that are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include the following: The central files, Mar. 1942-45 (40 feet), which document the activities of all of the Division's subordinate units; correspondence pertaining to mobilization, training, and organization of the military forces, 1941-Mar. 1942 (2 feet); a file of wartime planning documents, 1942-46 (6 feet), including "Mobilization and Training Plans," "Protective Mobilization Plans," and "War Department Mobilization Plans. 1942"; copies of reports from theater commands, including histories and selected Army units; and records of the Division's Civil Defense Branch relating to its Civil Defense Mission to England in 1941, containing papers on British civil-defense measures for transportation, public utilities, and sanitary engineering facilities. Other wartime records of G-3 were in May 1947 in the custody of the successor Organization and Training Division. They included record copies of speeches made by key officials, copies; reports and other papers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and copies of papers of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC).

Copies of the following G-3 reports are in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Monthly "Troop Basis," July 1944-Feb. 1946; "Master [Troop Unit] Activation Schedule," various editions, 1944; "Deployment of the [Troops of the] Post-War Army," Nov. 1944; and "War Department Redeployment Troop Basis," Mar. and June 1945 editions.

Records relating to G-3 are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, in which copies of much of G-3's correspondence are filed by

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subject. A useful index to G-3 papers in those records consists of the index sheets filed under AG 321 Organization and Training Division. 1940-45 (2 linear feet). G-3's weekly activity summaries, 1942-45. were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167). The various tactical-doctrine statements, training literature, and organizational and supply tables reviewed and approved by G-3 were normally printed and distributed throughout the Army by the Adjutant General's Office.

The records of the many training commands in the field are described elsewhere in this volume, under the parent arm of service concerned, and most of these records contain some documents reflecting G-3's staff supervision. Records relating to such military training activities fall in general into two types: (1) Records of individual students, containing information as to courses attended, length of each, whether or not completed, and grades attained; and (2) records that document the history of the training at particular agencies, including such records as faculty reports, class records and school rosters, school publications, technical instructional materials and training aids, and training schedules.

Organization-Mobilization Group [191]

This Group, which was charged with the nontraining functions of G-3, operated through three branches. The Mobilization Branch determined the over-all allotments of personnel to the major commands of the Army, prepared the War Department's "Troop Basis" and other schedules previously noted, and established the number of troop units of a given type that were to be made available for combat at a given time. The Allocations Branch determined the size of induction calls, allocated personnel in bulk to the major commands, established replacement training capacities, represented G-3 on personnel-replacement matters, and determined the priorities for issues of controlled items in bulk to troop units of the Army. These functions, insofar as they pertained to the allotment of personnel in bulk and to the establishment of retraining capacities, were transferred to the Personnel Division, G-1, in July 1945. The third branch, the Organization Branch, formulated basic policies governing the organization of units and standardized and approved tables of organization (T/O's), tables of organization and equipment (T/OE's), and other tables governing the supply and organization of typical Army troop units. Its work in this respect involved the review not only of the standard types of T/O's, but also, after 1940, of the organizational tables of a cellular type, which provided for troop units easily combined for special military purposes.

Records.--The following separately maintained records of this Group were in May 1947 in the custody of the Troop Control Section, Organization-Mobilization Group, Organization and Training Division: Chronological file, including messages as well as copies of troop-control directives of Headquarters Army Ground Forces, the Adjutant General's Office, and the National Guard Bureau; and a card record of Army troop units.

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Training Group [192]

With the changing concepts as to the type of training program that the Army needed, this Group underwent many internal reorganizations during the war. In 1942 training was organized separately for the three major commands of the Army. Later there was greater emphasis on the various phases of training (individual, unit, and joint training) carried on for the Army as a whole. In 1944 the group was organized into the Air Force, Ground Force, Service Force, and Miscellaneous Branches. The first three had similar functions of determining general plans and policies for the training (including joint Army-Navy training) of interest to the three major commands concerned. In addition, the Ground Force Branch represented G-3 on the Joint Amphibious Warfare Committee and shared with the Navy the supervision of the Joint Army-Navy Experimental and Testing Board. The Service Force Branch had responsibility for liaison with the Communications Coordination Committee (see entry 574). The Miscellaneous Branch allocated training ammunition, supervised the preparation and dissemination of training literature, and established general training standards. As a part of this last-named function, it exercised policy supervision over the Women's Army Corps, the National Guard and the State Guards, the Reserve organizations, the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP), and pre-induction and military rehabilitation training schools. The Miscellaneous Branch also supervised the curricula of the Command and General Staff School and the United States Military Academy, and it shared jurisdiction, with the Office of the Under Secretary of War, over the Army Industrial College.

Records.--This Group's activities are documented in the general records of G-3, described above. A series relating to officer candidate schools (4 feet), presumably kept by the Training Group, was in May 1947 in the custody of the Manpower Control Group, Personnel and Administration Division, General Staff.

Supply Division, G-4 [193]

The Supply Division, G-4, exercised staff supervision over matters "relating to the supply of the Army." Specifically the Division was charged with making plans and policies for the fixing of supply requirements; with the determination of matériel needs in terms of the characteristics and the quantities of weapons and equipment and their transportation; with the procurement and production of supplies throughout the Army; with eventual salvage, reclamation, and disposal of matériel; and with accountability for all matériel. As a part of its allocation function, G-4 reviewed and approved tables of basic allowances (T/BA's) and tables of equipment (T/E's) in cooperation with G-3 and the Operations Division. As part of its transportation function, G-4 planned the movements of service troops and supplies for noncombat purposes, the control of traffic along military routes, and the hospitalization and evacuation of personnel. G-4 also handled the War Department's interests in inventions offered by private

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individuals, and it supervised the acquisition of real estate, the construction of installations and facilities for the Department or its contractors, and the disposal of the Department's facilities.

During the war the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, was represented on the Munitions Assignments Board, the President's Soviet Protocol Committee, and some of the committees of the Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board. From March 1943 he was a member (later ex officio Chairman) of the Army Pictorial Board, which was concerned with such policies with respect to motion-pictures as the distribution of functions within the Army, the allocation of equipment and personnel, and production priorities. He served as War Department Mileage Administrator; and he supervised the War Department Printing Board and the Department's interests on the Joint Army-Navy Ammunition Storage Board. The Deputy Chief, G-4, served as the senior Army member of the Joint Advisory Board on American Republics. Late in the war, about August 1945, G-4 established the War Department Equipment Board (the Stilwell Board, headed by Gen. J. W. Stilwell) to make studies and recommendations on the development of matériel and equipment for the postwar Army.

From 1939 to March 1942, G-4 was divided into five major branches, the Fiscal, Construction and Real Estate, Development, Transportation, and Planning Branches. All of them were engaged in both planning and operational work for the Army, but in March 1942 most of their operational responsibilities were transferred to the Services of Supply, later the Army Service Forces. As a result, G-4 was left with only a small fraction of its former responsibilities and personnel. In January 1944, after a study of the supply system of the Army by the so-called McCoy Board (the War Department Procurement Review Board, which is discussed below) and on recommendations implemented by the Richards Committee (the War Department Special Committee for the Restudy of Reserves, which is also discussed below), the responsibility for planning the Army Supply Program was transferred from the Operations Division to G-4. The latter then enlarged its planning to include all of what were by then known as the "logistical" factors and problems, that is, matters related to supply and the movement of supplies, in the broadest sense of those terms. In 1946 the Supply Division, G-4, was renamed the Service, Supply, and Procurement Division. Between 1942 and 1945 many internal changes were made in G-4, but the three branches described below remained relatively constant.

Records.--All the important records known to have been kept during the war by G-4 are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They include the following: General Files, 1939-45; "top secret" files, 1943-46; inspection and special investigation reports by the Inspector General's Office and the Office of the Quartermaster General, 1941, on construction at various posts, camps, and stations; a G-4 daily journal, Dec. 1941-Feb. 1942; copies of correspondence, reports of telephone conversations, "G-4 Conference Notes," and other documents relating to the distribution of supplies through Corps Areas, Aug. 1940-Jan. 1942; copies of minutes and other papers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, 1942-46; records

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of bilateral staff conversations between War Department officers and military staffs of Latin-American countries, 1944-45, relating to Western Hemisphere defense (4 feet); records of the G-4 Transportation Branch, 1940-42, and copies of its "Status of [Water] Transportation Report," 1941. Also in the Departmental Records Branch are the records of the War Department Equipment Board, June 1945-Jan. 1946, consisting of correspondence, data used by the Board, and a set of its studies (4 feet).

Records relating to G-4 are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets, 1940-45, filed under AG 321 G-4 (2 linear feet), and AG 334 Army Pictorial Board, 1943-46. The Division's weekly activity summaries, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167), and some of its documents, especially the supply tables (TB/A's, etc.), were printed by the Adjutant General's Office for distribution throughout the Army. Published records include prepared testimony and other documents of G-4 and of its Construction and Real Estate Branch in the Hearings (parts 1, 2, and 7) of the Special Senate Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program. These include correspondence, memoranda, and statistical tabulations on such matters as the Army's use of Work Projects Administration funds for camp construction, 1938-39, and the selection of training sites and the administration of training centers, 1941.

Planning Branch [194]

This Branch of G-4 was charged with determining over-all plans and policies for the review of tables of basic allowances (TB/A's) and tables of allowances (T/A's) and with carrying out G-4's primary staff functions relating to logistical problems. Early in 1943 it absorbed the Supply Branch, which had been established in G-4 shortly after March 1942, and thereafter it performed the latter's functions pertaining to evacuation and hospitalization.

Records.--Some wartime records of the Planning Branch, 1943-45, including reports and correspondence relating to logistical planning, procedures, doctrines, and organization and to special subjects such as Arctic and Antarctic expeditions and amphibious warfare, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, as parts of a series continued until 1948 by the successor Logistics Division, General Staff.

Policy Branch [195]

This Branch of G-4 was concerned with the distribution of lend-lease matériel and supplies to other nations participating in the Allied war effort; the formulation of plans and policies for the development and the industrial resources of the United States; the allocation of supplies to liberated and occupied areas; and the handling of such other supply problems as were not the responsibility of any other branch of G-4.

In 1945 the Branch functioned through five sections. The Distribution Section determined the policies to be used in distributing, storing, issuing.

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and maintaining levels of supplies and equipment in the combat theaters and in the continental United States: made policies respecting the salvage and disposal of surplus and damaged equipment; and coordinated policies regarding the collection and distribution of captured enemy equipment and supplies. The Property Section made plans and recommendations for the acquisition and disposition of lands and facilities and the maintenance of buildings and installations; made studies and issued directives to implement the recommendations of the Joint Army-Navy Ammunition Storage Board; and determined policies concerning property claims against the Army. The Civil and Foreign Affairs Section formulated the War Department's policies for the allocation of munitions to other countries for distribution under the lend-lease program, the disposition of lend-lease and reverse lend-lease surpluses, and the disposition of captured enemy matériel and supplies. This Section also maintained liaison with the Civil Affairs Division of the War Department Special Staff as to supply requirements in occupied and liberated areas and reviewed policies in effect in such areas while under military occupation. The Logistics Reports Section, established in 1945, reviewed, studied, and standardized logistical reports, such as "G-4 Periodic Reports," prepared in the overseas theaters and in the continental United States. The War Reserve and Surplus Equipment Section was created in May 1945, to formulate policies for the disposal of surplus equipment and supplies and to serve as a clearinghouse for information on the subject.

Records.--Whether this Branch kept any permanent records separate from those filed among the general records of G-4, described above, is not known.

Program Branch [196]

This Branch of G-4, established in 1944. was concerned with the military characteristics, the determination of quantity requirements, and the production and procurement of matériel. Its field of interest included also research and development activities concerning matériel. It took over logistical staff functions previously handled by the Operations Division, which is discussed below. Its Equipment Section, concerned with the development and employment of equipment, made studies based on operational reports to determine equipment needs for future operations. The Requirements Section was responsible for assembling and issuing the "Victory Program Troop Basis" and the "Army Supply Program." The Allowances Section and its predecessor, the Organization Section of the Planning Branch, reviewed tables of basic allowances (TB/A's), tables of allowances (T/A's), and tables of equipment (T/E's). The Army Installations Section was concerned with the current and future size of Army installations, their maintenance, their fixed equipment, and the disposal of existing installations and the acquisition of new ones.

Records.--A small quantity of correspondence and memoranda of the Program Branch, 1944-45 (1 foot), relating to the testing and issuing of certain special types of equipment and to training in its use is in the Departmental

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Records Branch, AGO. Important papers on the "Victory Program Troop Basis" are in the central files of G-4.

Operations Division [197]

The War Plans Division (WPD), renamed the Operations Division (OPD) in March 1942, was responsible for preparing the Army's strategic, logistical, and operational plans and for assisting the Chief of Staff in the coordination and direction of operations in the overseas departments, 1939-42, and the theaters of operation, 1942-45. According to peacetime Army Regulations, the War Plans Division was intended, in case of war, to provide the nucleus of a general staff for field operations. Between 1940 and 1942, during the existence of the General Headquarters United States Army, the Division did furnish a part of the staff for that organization. The reorganization of the War Department in 1942 nullified this arrangement, and the War Plans Division, renamed the Operations Division, came to serve as the wartime command post of the Chief of Staff in directing the theaters. Its officers were normally rotated between the theaters and the Division in Washington.

The Operations Division was the largest component of the General Staff in the number of General Staff Corps officers assigned to it, and it coordinated, planned, and developed current and future operations in conjunction with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, on whose committees it was usually represented. The Division was also represented on the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, United States and Canada, and on the Communications Coordination Committee, the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee, and other committees and boards, as indicated in greater detail below. It provided a working member within the Civil Affairs Division of the War Department Special Staff, and was responsible for all War Department relations with Latin-American countries except in the field of intelligence work.

Late in 1943, when the supply systems of the Army were being reappraised, certain supply planning work of the Operations Division was transferred to the Supply Division, G-4. This transfer involved primarily the change of responsibility for the preparation of the "Victory Program Troop Basis," the "Overseas Troop Basis," and the "Army Supply Program" from the Operations Division to the Supply Division, G-4. The latter Division thereafter had a larger interest in and responsibility for logistics of the Army, although the former retained its interest as the over-all coordinating and planning agency. In 1946, when the War Department was reorganized, the Operations Division was renamed the Plans and Operations Division.

Records.--The following wartime records of the Operations Division and its predecessor are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: The central files of WPD, 1939-42, and OPD, 1942-45, containing correspondence, studies, war plans, operational plans, and reports relating to formulation of plans (part of a larger series, 720 feet, dating from 1921); chronological files of incoming and outgoing radio and cable messages, 1941--45 (390

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feet); daily and weekly summaries of the war situation prepared by WPD and OPD, 1941-45; a series of "Situation maps"; a series of records relating to joint Army-Navy and interallied affairs, 1940-46 (also called the "ABC files"), containing copies of papers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Combined Chiefs of Staff, their respective committees, and the State Department (132 feet); copies of "201" files (personnel folders) for OPD officers, 1942-46; periodical reports of the Office of the Chief of Transportation on the departure and arrival of troop-transport vessels, 1944-45; and card records of troop movements and of code words (3 linear feet). Other OPD records are in the custody of the successor Plans and Operations Division. Documents closely related to OPD's activities are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 321 War Plans Division, Jan.-Mar. 1942, and Operations Division, Mar. 1942-Sept. 1945 (18 linear inches).
[See also
Washington Command Post: The Operations Division, a volume in the [U.S. Army in World War II series.]

Executive Group [198]

This Group was the final coordinating authority in all matters pertaining to the Operations Division's work, and in addition it provided administrative and personnel services, security-control services, and a central filing unit to maintain the general records of the entire Division.

Records.--See the records of the Operations Division, described above.

Strategy and Policy Group [199]

This Group reviewed all directives destined for the theaters of operations, worked closely with the appropriate agencies of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, gave strategic guidance to other units of the War Department General Staff and to the three major commands, recommended action to be taken on action papers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, and in other ways served as the major planning unit of the Operations Division. The Group furnished officers for duty with the Joint Staff Planners, the Combined Staff Planners, the Joint War Plans Committee, the Aeronautical Board, the Munitions Assignments Committee (Air), and other Army-Navy and Army-Navy-Allied committees and subcommittees.

Three sections made up the Group. The Strategy Section prepared estimates of the current war situation, initiated or reviewed strategic plans, reviewed operational plans, advised on demobilization and postwar plans, and--in connection with this last function--served on the Joint Post-War Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Policy Section prepared staff studies and analyses of policy, reviewed all papers referred by the Chief of Staff to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, and served as the clearinghouse and forwarding agency for all papers on strategy and tactical operations submitted by War Department agencies to the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee and to the Air Coordinating Committee. The Army Section of the Joint War Plans Committee, the third Section of this Group, prepared war plans, studies, and estimates (other than those on strategy) as directed.

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Records.--A file of plans for theater operations in World War II, with related papers. 1943-45, arranged by code names (7 feet), is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. See also the records of the Operations Division, described above.

Theater Group [200]

This Group was, in effect, the command post of the Chief of Staff for directing the theaters of operations. It exercised ultimate planning control over all overseas troop movements and determined the War Department's over-all policy in matters relating to military strength and the movements of men and supplies within the theaters. After April 1943, it shared with the Civil Affairs Division (of the War Department Special Staff) staff responsibility for civilian affairs in liberated and occupied areas overseas.

The Theater Group was subdivided into the Liaison Section, the Troop Control Section, and various theater sections. The Liaison Section maintained daily contact with the State Department, the Navy Department, the Air Transport Command, and other agencies; and it was represented on the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee. It made studies, maintained liaison, and acted for the theaters of operations in all matters that cut across jurisdictional lines, such as soldier voting, crime, and relations with the Air Transport Command; and it performed the functions of a theater section for the defense commands in the continental United States. The Troop Control Section determined and directed the publication of orders for unit and redeployment movements to overseas theaters and to the defense commands; and it prepared and issued the monthly "War Department Troop Deployment," the "Six Months Forecast of Unit Requirements," various "Preparations for Overseas Replacement" (POR) documents, and other reports and schedules relating to the current and future troop and replacement needs of all theaters.

The theater sections attended to matters of over-all planning and policy regarding troop movements, troop training, logistics, and civil affairs, one section working for each theater of operations. In the fall of 1944 there were six such sections: The American Theater Section (which became the Pan-American Group in 1945), the Asiatic Theater Section, the European Theater Section (which in addition to its other duties had supervision over the military missions to the Soviet Union and to Iran and over the United States representatives on the Allied Control Commissions in Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary), the Mediterranean Theater Section, the Pacific Theater Section, and the Southwest Pacific Section. By 1945 these theater sections had been consolidated into three: The Asiatic Theater, the European Theater, and the Pacific Theater Sections.

Records.--The following separately maintained records of the Theater Group are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Signal messages containing daily and weekly cumulative situation reports on each theater, 1942-45 (86 feet); map files, chiefly Order of Battle maps for campaigns in each area, with photographic negatives of maps of each area, 1942-45

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(25 feet); troop movement orders and supporting papers of the Troop Control Section, 1942-July 1945 (45 feet); 6 months' forecasts of unit requirements, redeployment forecasts, and unit schedules for various theaters of operations, Oct. 1944-Aug. 1945 (4 feet); and miscellaneous records of the Southwest Pacific Section, including reports, photographs, terrain studies, and airport directories, 1942-44.

Logistics Group [201]

This Group represented the Operations Division in the formulation (by G-4 and by the Army Air and Service Forces) of the Army's logistical plans (that is, matériel distribution and transportation plans) and plans that included the requirements of the other Allies. The Group was represented on various committees of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, including the Combined Administrative Committee and the Joint Logistics Committee; and the Chief of the Group also served on the War Department Budget Advisory Committee. The Group functioned through three sections. The Projected Logistics Section analyzed, studied, and prepared recommendations on the logistical aspects of projected strategic plans. It furnished a representative on the Joint Logistics Plans Committee (the working committee of the Joint Logistics Committee), the Joint Amphibious Warfare Committee, and other committees and boards as required. The Operational Logistics Section performed functions similar to those of the Projected Logistics Section, except that its interest was primarily in current logistical plans. The Reports Section prepared periodical and other reports showing the status and deployment of the Army's combat divisions; drew up the "weekly status map" showing the over-all situation, current and projected, of troops and troop units; and was generally responsible for assembling reports on logistical and supply matters for the use of the Operations Division.

Records.--Part of the records of the Logistics Group, pertaining to troop requisitioning, allocations, and other matters related to the supplying of overseas commands, 1942-44 (2 feet), and copies of the Group's monthly "Overseas Troop Basis" report, May 1943-Jan. 1944, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Current Group [202]

This Group received, analyzed, and prepared reports on current military operations, and it operated, in the Operations Division, a school for the special training of task-force and other commanders. The assistant to the Chief of the Group was responsible for presenting a summary of activities in each theater of operations and other reports at the daily conference of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1944 the Group consisted of three sections. The Coordination and Reports Section prepared and distributed reports on military operations, including one that was reproduced in the minutes of the General Council. It also represented the Operations Division at the daily conferences of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, and at the Secretary of War's press conferences. The Combat Analysis

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Section received and reviewed incoming operational reports and prepared from them the "OPD Information Bulletin" (semimonthly), "Combat Lessons" (bimonthly), "Battle Experiences," and similar documents for staff distribution. The School, Code, and Biennial Report Section operated the OPD school, previously mentioned, supervised the assignment and use of code words, and assisted in the preparation of the Chief of Staff's biennial report to the Secretary of War. By May 1945 this Section had been abolished, its functions having been either discontinued (as in the case of the OPD school) or distributed among the other sections.

Records.--The following records of the Current Group are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Copies of records used by the War Department as exhibits during the congressional investigation of the Pearl Harbor disaster (1 foot); "military training" files, i.e., correspondence, reports, studies, programs, and procedural documents relating to the Operations Division's school for staff officers, 1942-44 (3 feet); a set of the "Daily Summary, WD OPD Decisions and Actions," Dec. 1941-Dec. 1942 and the later "WD Daily Operational Summary," Jan. 1943-Feb. 1946 (sent primarily to the Chief of Staff and the White House); a set of "OPD Diary," Mar. 1942-May 1946; special summaries, such as the "Monday Summary," and "Tuesday Summary," Sept. 1942-Nov. 1943; and a set of "Daily Situation Summary"; and copies of "Combat Lessons" and "Battle Experiences," 1944-45. OPD's weekly summaries of overseas combat operations, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

Pan-American Group [203]

This Group was established in April 1945 as an enlargement of the older American Theater Section in the Theater Group, and it served as the central agency within the War Department for determining the Army's plans and policies relating to the defense of the Latin-American republics. It coordinated and supervised the allocation of troops and supplies, reviewed or initiated defense measures involving the Latin-American countries, monitored all War Department and Joint Chiefs of Staff actions relating to Latin America, and was represented at various meetings pertaining to Western Hemisphere defense and related subjects. The chief of the Group was a member of the Joint Army-Navy Advisory Board on American Republics.

Records.--Some correspondence and reports of predecessors of the Group in the War Plans Division, relating to the Western Hemisphere problems of the General Headquarters United States Army, 1941-42, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

SPECIAL STAFF [203a]

In addition to the major divisions of the General Staff, discussed above, there were several other divisions that during the war came to known as the Special Staff. They were responsible directly to the Chief of Staff. These divisions are discussed below.

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Office of the Inspector General [204]

The Inspector General (known also as IG, or TIG, or TIGO) was charged, in war as in peace, with "the inquiry into, and the report upon, all matters which affect the efficiency and economy of the Army of the United States," and with making "such inspections, investigations, and reports as may be prescribed by law or directed by the Secretary of War, the Chief of Staff, or requested by the chiefs of the combat arms and technical services." For example, the Inspector General investigated the fairness of fees and payments provided for in War Department procurement and construction contracts; reviewed activities and records of military establishments to prevent wasteful use of funds, personnel, or equipment; and heard the grievances of military personnel. Regular inspections were usually conducted annually and extended throughout the military establishment. Special inspections were undertaken when the affairs of a specific military organization, or a specific activity, such as the letting of contracts, appeared to warrant special attention. Investigations were made when inspections revealed what seemed to be irregularities or deviations from the normal.

Throughout the military establishment in the continental United States and overseas, an inspector, inspector general, or inspection section was attached to the staff of virtually every command, major troop unit, and installation. These inspectors (called Air Inspectors in Army Air Forces organizations) served as special staff officers of field organizations, were collectively regarded as the Inspector General's Department, and frequently were trained by and made reports to the Office of the Inspector General. Beginning in February 1942, the Inspector General's Office was regarded as a special-staff division.

Records.--The wartime central records of the Office of the Inspector General are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, as part of a larger body of records, 1935-48 (380 feet), that consist of general files and annual inspection reports. A few inspection reports of f942 and earlier years are in the National Archives.

Other papers relating to the Inspector General's Office are among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 027 Inspector General's Office, Jan. 1940-Aug. 1943 (2 linear feet); under AG 321 Inspector General's Department, Mar. 1941-Sept. 1945 (5 linear inches); and under specific names or topics. The records of inspection units attached to field commands, troop units, and installations constitute parts of the records of those organizations, which (if noncurrent and permanent) are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis, or in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. A survey of the wartime activities of the Inspector General's organization in Europe is volume 81 of the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), in the AGO.

Some documents of the Inspector General's Office were reproduced and distributed throughout the Army during the War, among them the monthly

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"Information Circular," Jan. 1941-Aug. 1945; the successor "Bulletin of The Inspector General of the Army," Sept. 1945-Dec. 1946; "Practical Check Lists" (monthly) to accompany the "Circulars" and "Bulletins," June 1945-Dec. 1946; and the widely used inspection manual, "Preparation for Overseas Movement" (POM), issued in various editions during the war.

Legislative and Liaison Division [205]

This Division, established in March 1942, absorbed the legislative functions of the discontinued Budget and Legislative Branch of the Office of the Chief of Staff. The Division supervised the preparation and reviewing of drafts of all legislation, except fiscal legislation, affecting the War. Department and the Army, and it served as the center where all War Department reports and other communications to congressional committees and Congressmen were coordinated and prepared for the signature of the Secretary of War or the Chief of Staff. The Division's activities with respect to such congressional matters were performed by four branches: The Legislative Branch, for pending and enacted legislation affecting the War Department; the Congressional Investigations Branch, for investigations of War Department activities by Senate or House committees; the Military Justice Branch, for courts martial and other judicial actions involving individuals in whom particular Congressmen were interested; and the Liaison Branch, for assisting the above branches in liaison with individual Congressmen and congressional committees and for providing central clearance for communications to Congress and hearings before its committees. A fifth Branch, the Federal Agencies Branch, is separately described below.

Records.--The records of the Division consist of studies, reports on legislative activities in which the War Department was interested, and voluminous files of correspondence, largely with congressional committees and individual Congressmen, on War Department legislative matters. The Division's general files, 1944-45, records relating to the appointment of officers in the Army Specialist Corps, 1942-44, and records pertaining to legislation before the Seventy-eighth and Seventy-ninth Congresses, 1943-46, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Sound recordings of War Department testimony before the House Select Committee on Post-war Military Policy (the Woodrum Committee on Compulsory Military Training), May-June 1945 (9 disks), are in the National Archives. Other wartime records are in the custody of the Division. Records closely related to the Division's activities are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 321 Legislative and Liaison Division, 1942-45 (5 linear inches).

Federal Agencies Branch [206]

This Branch, 1944-45, and its predecessor the Federal Agencies Liaison Branch, 1942-44, were responsible for coordinating the Division's activities with those of other Federal agencies (particularly, in the early stages of the war, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Federal

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Works Agency) in connection with legislation for the construction of airports and for other matters of common interest to the Department and such other agencies. Before March 1942 these activities had been handled in G-4.

Records.--The following records of the Branch are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records pertaining to the construction and repair of various airports of value for the Army Air Forces (AAF), undertaken jointly by the Work Projects Administration (to 1942), the Civil Aeronautics Administration, and the Army Air Forces, 1936-45 (31 feet); records relating to Federal Works Agency construction projects, chiefly community facilities, at Army installations and at industrial plants under Army contract, 1940-45 (45 feet); and copies of survey reports, program statements, and other documents of the Office of Community War Services and the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, all relating to educational, recreational, housing, health, or transportation problems of war workers, 1942-44 (3 feet).

Civil Affairs Division [207]

This Division, known also as CAD, was established on March 1, 1943, to formulate and coordinate United States military policy concerning the administration and government of captured or liberated countries, to advise and assist the commanders engaged in such occupation or civil-affairs activities, to train and supply personnel for such activities, and to study, assess, and report on the extent to which United States occupation plans were being carried out. To perform these tasks, the Division exercised policy control over the selection and training of civil-affairs personnel by the Provost Marshal General's Office, served as the central office and clearinghouse where occupation plans (including surrender and related documents) were drawn up, and submitted all United States civil-affairs plans and policies to the appropriate committees of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (when Army and Navy cooperation was involved) and of the Combined Chiefs of Staff (when interallied cooperation was involved).

The Civil Affairs Division was represented on the Combined Civil Affairs Committee in Washington, at the latter's office in London, on the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, and on numerous other related civilian and military boards. It cooperated closely with the Navy's Office of Island Governments and Island Bases. Within the War Department both the Operations Division of the General Staff, through which the Civil Affairs Division cleared all its direct communications to commanders overseas, and the Army Service Forces detailed liaison officers for full-time duty with the Civil Affairs Division.

The Division consisted of several branches, described below as they existed at the end of the war, and one field agency--the Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area (see entry 254). The War Crimes Office of the

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Judge Advocate General's Office was moved to the jurisdiction of the Civil Affairs Division in March 1946, where it became the War Crimes Branch.

Records.--The following general records of the Civil Affairs Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files, 1943-49 (72 feet); "bulky enclosures" in those files (32 feet); drafts of outgoing radio messages, 1943-46 (8 feet); a record set of documents issued by the Division and by military-government authorities in the field, 1943-49 (8 feet); records of the Director's office relating to civil-affairs plans and operations, 1943-46, including clippings relating to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces (18 feet); historical reports of Civil Affairs Detachments and other troop units; and the Division's report, "Field Operations of Military Government [Troop] Units" (Jan. 1949. 217 p.), in which excerpts from some of these historical reports from both European and Far Eastern areas have been reproduced. Also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the wartime case files and other records of the Military Permit Section of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1944-45.

Some of the Division's documents, notably the "Civil Affairs Handbook" series and the "Civil Affairs Guide" series, were printed for distribution within the armed forces. Copies are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and in the Army's Historical Division.

Many of the Division's activities are documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO (see index sheets filed under AG 321 Civil Affairs Division, 1943-45, 6 linear inches); and in the records of the military-government authorities in Europe and the Far East.

Planners [208]

The Planners acted as chief aides and advisers to the Director of the Civil Affairs Division, correlated the work of the branches, prepared the Division's directives (including surrender documents), proposed adjustments of policy differences between the United States and Britain, and represented the War Department on the Working Security Committee in Washington (the advisory body to the European Advisory Commission).

Records.--Case files relating to the planning of military-government operations in occupied areas, 1943-47 (29 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Economics and Relief Branch [209]

This Branch (a consolidation in 1944 of the Civilian Relief and the Economics Branches, both organized in 1943 when the Civil Affairs Division was established) made studies and formulated policies relating to agriculture, public utilities, transportation and power systems, civilian welfare and health, budgetary and financial affairs (including the preparation and distribution of "occupation money"), and the operation of industrial and other enterprises in occupied areas.

Records.--See entry 207.

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Government Branch [210]

This Branch, called the Military Government Branch before 1944, was charged with making plans and policies for the governmental structure and administration of occupied countries. It formulated policies on relations between occupation and provisional or indigenous governments, domestic laws and courts, censorship, the preservation and safeguarding of property, intelligence work in areas under military control, and the preservation of libraries, archives, and other intellectual and cultural institutions and materials.

Records.--See entries 207 and 208.

Personnel and Training Branch [211]

This Branch planned" general and special training programs for civil-affairs officers (including the curricula of schools administered by the Provost Marshal General), formulated procedures for the selection of personnel, maintained personnel and assignment records, and prepared and kept records of authorized tables of organization (T/O's) for overseas civil-affairs units.

Records.--Policy and planning files pertaining to the organization and procedures of the Civil Affairs Division and civil-affairs organizations overseas, 1943-45 (8 feet), and applications (with related papers) of civilian personnel for duty in occupied areas, 1943--47 (69 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. See also entry 207.

War Department Manpower Board [212]

The War Department Manpower Board (also known as WDMB and as the Gasser Board, after its President, Maj. Gen. L. D. Gasser) was established early in 1943 as a Special Staff division. Its function was to study the Army's needs for and utilization of civilian and military manpower in the continental United States for the purpose of insuring that Army organizations and installations were adequately manned but not overstaffed. The Manpower Board made appraisals of personnel requirements, prepared inventories of personnel, and recommended ceilings for personnel strength in particular organizations. In 1944 it was called upon to study also the utilization of civilian personnel in the zones of communication of the North African and European Theaters of Operations. The Board prepared reports and recommendations for action by the Chief of Staff.

The five-member Manpower Board directed the work of its staff sections and field sections. As reorganized in August 1944, the staff sections corresponded to the major commands and agencies of the War Department and the Army, with each section charged with coordinating, standardizing, and ruling on the requests for personnel from particular commands and classes of installations. The staff sections were the Army Air Forces Section (for Army Air Forces Headquarters and installations), the Ground Forces and Service Command Section (for Army Ground Forces Headquarters and installations, and

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the several Service Command headquarters and their installations), and the Technical Services Section (for Headquarters Army Service Forces, the headquarters of the Technical Services of the Army Service Forces, and "Class IV" field installations). The Executive Section was responsible for explaining and defending to the Bureau of the Budget recommendations for civilian personnel allotments. A field section was established adjacent to the headquarters of each of the nine Service Commands and a tenth section was set up for the Military District of Washington. Identified by Roman numerals--I through X--these operating sections undertook surveys and studies as directed by the War Department Manpower Board and reported to the staff sections their findings and suggestions on manpower needs.

Records.--The central records of the Board, 1943-45, with related papers dating from 1940 (70 feet), and statistical survey reports on manpower recruitment and training at Army Air Forces field agencies in the United States, 1943-45 (16 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The Board's activities are also documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see documents on the origin and expansion of the Board, Jan. 1943-Jan. 1944, filed under AG 334, and index sheets referring to particular manpower projects, 1943-45, filed under AG 321 (5 linear inches). The Board's weekly activity summaries, 1943-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

See George W. Peak, "The War Department Manpower Board," in American Political Science Review, 40:1-26 (Feb. 1946).

Budget Division [213]

The Budget Division was charged with formulating and supervising all budgetary and fiscal plans for the entire War Department and Army, both in the continental United States and overseas. The Division received and consolidated all estimates of necessary funds from War Department agencies, defended requests for appropriations before the Bureau of the Budget and congressional committees, and allocated the appropriated funds throughout the War Department.

In September 1944 the Budget Division, the Director of which was also the War Department Budget Officer, had five branches. The Appropriation Language Branch reviewed and interpreted all proposed or enacted congressional legislation, Executive orders, and the like that financially affected the War Department; and it reviewed the technical language appearing in drafts of proposed appropriation legislation. The Budget Liaison Branch assisted the major commands and agencies of the War Department in drawing up their fiscal programs, consolidated and passed on their requests, and advised the Budget Officer with regard to them. The Foreign Financial Branch formulated and supervised the carrying out of the War Department's policies for lend lease, reverse lend lease, and similar activities involving the transfer to or from foreign interests, of matériel and other property purchased with War Department funds. The Allocations Branch exercised general supervision and control over all War Department funds and allocated them

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to all component agencies. The Budget Program Branch checked and studied budget estimates, kept records of those estimates and of changes made in them, and arranged for hearings before the Bureau of the Budget and congressional committees. It also prepared reports based on its studies and findings and served as the center for information regarding the War Department's budgets.

Records.--The following records of the Budget Division and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General records, 1942-46 (17 feet); records relating to "protective and unit mobilization plans," data on personnel requirements, budget estimates, records concerning the expediting of production, and related papers, f93f-41 (8 feet; another set of estimates, 1939-42, is in the National Archives); case files on legislation, 1942-43; files relating to justifications of budget estimates, 1942-43, statistical and other reports and analyses of War Department expenditures, 1932-46; correspondence relating to the Emergency Fund for the President, to the "task force" or "theater" funds, and to other special sources of income used by the War Department, 1939-42 (1 foot); and selected records of the Budget Officer, 1941-44 (8 feet).

The following records of the Budget Program Branch of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Requisitions and other data on the apportionment of lend-lease aid to various countries, f941-42 (2 feet); correspondence concerning exceptions to orders governing the strength ceilings and work hours of civilian personnel, 1941-43 (2 feet); and reports on appropriations and allocations of funds for civilian personnel, 1943 (6 feet).

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, include copies of much of the Division's correspondence, as well as other documents relating to the Division; see index sheets filed under AG 321 Budget Officer, 1941-45, and AG 321 Budget Division, 1943-45 (2 linear inches).

See Elias Huzar, "Military Appropriations, 1933-42," in Military Affairs, 7: 141-151 (fall 1943).

Budget Advisory Committee [214]

This Committee, of which the Director of the Budget Division was ex officio Chairman, was established before 1939 as an agency for the discussion and review of policies relating to the War Department's budgets. In 1942, when the Fiscal Division of the Services of Supply was made responsible for such matters, the Committee was placed under the commanding general of that command. When the Budget Division was established as a Special Staff division in 1943, the Budget Advisory Committee was moved with it to the jurisdiction of the War Department General Staff.

Records.--The Committee's records are part of the general records of the Budget Division, described above.

Army Central Welfare Fund [215]

This office was established in June 1944 under the supervision of the Budget Officer, to receive all excess funds accumulated by the Army Exchange Service, the Army Motion Picture Service, and similar

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activities at Army stations, as well as the funds of demobilized Army units, and to distribute these funds for the general benefit of military personnel. The Fund was also authorized to transfer excess funds to the Army Emergency Relief. The Fund's Recorder served as adviser on the "War Department Welfare Fund," which was managed by the Procurement and Accounting Division of the Office of the Secretary of War.

Records.--In 1946 the records of the Fund, redesignated later as the Army-Air Force Central Welfare Fund, were in its custody. They included financial reports, correspondence, and records of loans. Some papers relating to the Fund are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 123 Army Central Welfare Fund, 1944-45 (1 linear inch).

Special Planning Division [216]

This Division, known also as SPD, was established in 1943 to study and formulate plans for military demobilization, related industrial demobilization, and the postwar military establishment as affected by demobilization. The Division's primary task was to discover and state the problems involved, to assign them for study to appropriate Army agencies, to coordinate the recommendations made, and to develop a broad policy for approval by the War Department. In matters relating to industrial demobilization and kindred subjects, the Chief of the Division reported to the Secretary of War through the Office of the Under Secretary. In all other matters the Division was responsible to the Chief of Staff. Planning offices were established in all major War Department echelons to assist the Division in its work.

The Division studied current and proposed legislation in relation to its fields of interest, and it worked on plans and policies for the organization of tactical and service units of the postwar military establishment (monitoring the work of the National Guard and Reserve Policy Committees); for personnel demobilization, including procedures for and timing of discharges, and transportation of men being demobilized; for the postwar disposal or retention of industrial plants and military installations, the curtailment of matériel production, and the storage and disposal of surplus property; and for the financial aspects of the postwar military establishment.

In September 1945 the Special Planning Division was discontinued and its demobilization functions were transferred elsewhere--the industrial aspects to the Office of the Under Secretary of War and the military aspects to appropriate divisions of the War Department General Staff.

Records.--All the known records of the Division are in the Departmental rds Branch, AGO. They include correspondence, memoranda, circulars, staff studies, a copy of the "War Department Basic Plan for the Post War Military Establishment" (Nov. 1945), and papers relating to personnel planning problems. The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, include papers bearing on the Division's work; see index sheets filed under

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AG 321 Special Planning Division. 1943-45 (1 linear inch). The Division's weekly activity summaries, 1943-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

New Developments Division [217]

This Division, known also as NDD, was established in October 1943 to coordinate the preparation of studies and plans, among Army and other agencies, for research and the development in the field of military equipment. The Division originated as a result of studies prepared by groups that had investigated special combat problems, primarily in amphibious and jungle warfare, in Europe and the Pacific during 1943 and 1944. One of its important later functions was to obtain priorities for nonstandard equipment needed for experiments.

The Chief of the Division served as a member of the National Inventors Council and as a member of the Joint Committee on New Weapons and Equipment of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and members of the Division's staff served on other Joint Chiefs of Staff and interservice committees. The Division also participated in the work of the Research Board for National Security, established in February 1945. On several occasions the Division sponsored missions to combat areas to accumulate information for its purposes. Among these missions were the New Weapons Board (or the Eddy Mission), which was sent to the European Theater of Operations in 1944 and made its final report in April 1945, and the Roberts Mission (named for Col. C. H. M. Roberts) which was sent to the Pacific Theaters in March 1944.

In 1944 the Division functioned through the several sections described below. In 1946 it was abolished and its functions, personnel, and records were transferred to the newly established Research and Development Division of the General Staff.

Records.--The Division's general files, 1943-46, the records kept in the Director's office, relating mostly to ordnance research, 1943-46, and records kept by the Director of the War Research Service of the Federal Security Agency (apparently transferred to NDD), 1942-45, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO (38 feet). The general files contain correspondence, directives, planning and working papers, reports and studies of the Division's own activities and its relations with other agencies, copies of reports on research projects, correspondence relating to the National Inventors Council, 194C-46, and other records originating in the Division's sections that are described below. There is no records disposition schedule to indicate whether these sections kept separate files that were to be preserved after the war. Testimony prepared by the Division on its wartime organization is published in Hearings of the House Military Affairs Committee on H. R. 2946 (May 1945, p. 31-42 passim).

Other records relating to the Division are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 321 New Developments Division, Oct. 1943-Jan. 1946 (2 linear inches), AG 334 Eddy Mission, Mar.-Sept. 1944, and AG 334 Mission to Pacific Theaters.

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Jan.-July 1944. A copy of a report of the New Weapons Board (Apr. 1944 edition) and copies of various reports (Mar.-June 1944) of the Roberts Mission are in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Planning Section [218]

This Section of the New Developments Division was concerned with postwar planning of military research and development. It also reviewed the reports of the General Council and various operational and intelligence reports and was in charge of ordnance problems not handled elsewhere in the Division.

Records.--See entry 217.

Air Section [219]

This Section investigated barrage balloons and other defensive air equipment.

Records.--See entry 217.

Electronics Section [220]

This Section was responsible for the New Developments Division's work in the field of signal equipment, sonic equipment, radio and radar countermeasures, and the like. It was represented on the Joint Communications Board and the Joint Electronics Information Agency.

Records.--See entry 217.

Infantry Weapons Section [221]

This Section was especially concerned with jungle-fighting equip- ment, mortars, and the classification of infantry equipment. Records.--See entry 217.

Special Weapons and Fire Control Section [222]

This Section was interested in the problems of jet propulsion, guided missiles, and fire control. It was represented on the Rocket Propellant Subcommittee and on the Guided Missiles Subcommittee, both of the Joint Committee on New Weapons and Equipment.

Records.--See entry 217.

Artillery and Combat Vehicle Section [223]

This Section was concerned with field artillery, tanks, armored vehicles, and cavalry equipment and was represented on the Navy Department's Continuing Board for Development of Landing Vehicles Tracked.

Records.--See entry 217. Correspondence and organizational papers relating to this Section's ad hoc Committee on Reduction of Artillery Ammunition Types, Oct. 1944-Mar. 1945, together with its three interim reports

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and final report, are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO.

Engineer and Transportation Section [224]

This Section was concerned with engineer and transportation equipment, infrared devices, and mines and mine-clearance methods. In connection with the last phase of its work the Section collaborated with the Joint Army-Navy Experimental and Testing Board. It also administered the Army Technical Detachment, described below.

Records.--See entry 217.

Scientific and Technical Section [225]

This Section was responsible for budgetary matters for the Division, action on patents and inventions in which the Division was interested, and problems involving ammunition (except rockets), coast artillery, and recoilless weapons.

Records.--See entry 217.

Quartermaster, Chemical Warfare, and Medical Section [226]

This Section was concerned with medical projects and with military technical missions sent overseas to investigate problems bearing on the improvement of items of equipment and supply for the Medical Department, the Chemical Warfare Service, and the Quartermaster Corps.

Records.--See entry 217.

Special Projects Section [227]

This Section was interested in civilian scientific and technical missions sent to the theaters of operations. It had liaison with the Office of Field Service of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and it promoted the Army's Work Simplification Program, which was concerned with studies and courses designed to increase the efficiency of personnel throughout the Army. The first of these courses was given within the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, in the fall and winter, 1944-45. In September 1945 the Work Simplification Program was delegated to the operating agencies of the major Army commands.

Records.--See entry 217.

Army Technical Detachment [228]

The Army Technical Detachment of the New Developments Division was activated in September 1944 in order to intercept men of special scientific or technical training who were being inducted into the Army by regular Selective Service procedures and send them directly to assignments in the military establishment where their special talents might be used to advantage. The Detachment operated at first by acting on each individual

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case. When it was advised of the impending induction of a man with special qualifications, it immediately took steps to divert him from the usual induction channels into the Technical Detachment. Soon after the establishment of the Detachment, the New Developments Division sponsored the formation of the Committee on the Assignment of Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Army, with a membership made up of representatives of the Personnel Division, G-1, the New Developments Division, the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Service Forces. The Committee was given authority to take action in individual cases to reassign to the Technical Detachment or to one of the technical services men already in the Army. In April 1945 the Technical Detachment obtained permission for classification officers at reception centers, using their own discretion, to classify inductees as Technical Detachment "potentials." In June 1945 the work of the Detachment was transferred to the three major commands (Air, Ground, and Service Forces), with the New Developments Division retaining control over the general policy for the use of scientists in the Army.

Records.--Copies of the Detachment's personnel records, arranged by name and containing data from 1942 to 1946, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. See also entry 217.

Office of the Executive for Reserve and ROTC Affairs [229]

The Executive for Reserve and ROTC Affairs, f941-45, and the preceding Executive for Reserve Affairs, 1939-41, served as the adviser to the Chief of Staff on all affairs related to the Organized Reserves, the Officers' Reserve Corps (ORC), the Enlisted Reserve Corps (ERC), and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). This office made plans and formulated policies concerning the procurement of personnel for and the allocation of funds to those organizations; it also served as a center of information about the reserves and their activities. The office was relatively inactive during the war, although it engaged in limited postwar planning. In 1939 the office was under the immediate jurisdiction of the Chief of Staff; in March 1942 it was assigned to the Services of Supply; and in May 1945 it was made a Special Staff division.

Records.--The wartime records of the Executive for Reserve and ROTC Affairs include correspondence, reports on reserve affairs, and working and policy papers, primarily on postwar planning. Most of the records are in the custody of the office. In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are data used in a statistical study of the ROTC program, consisting of various listings of Reserve officers, 1940-45, and copies of charts and discussions of the proposed postwar reorganization of the ROTC, 1945 (3 feet). Documents relating to this office are also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 326, then under "Enlisted Reserve Corps," "Officers' Reserve Corps," "Organized Reserves," and "Reserve Officers' Training Corps."

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National Guard Bureau [230]

The National Guard Bureau, so designated in 1933 and also known as the NG Bureau, functioned as the War Department's agency to assist the States in the administration and development of National Guard units while these units were not in the service of the Federal Government. From 1940 on, as National Guard units were called to active duty, the Bureau's activities diminished in extent and importance. The chief activity of the Bureau during the war was handling the wartime records of the National Guard and formulating postwar policies. The Bureau also represented the War Department in policy matters pertaining to the State Guards, authorized by an act of October 21, 1940 (54 Stat. 1206), to provide an organization within the States to take the place of the National Guard in emergencies. Such State Guard units were established in 44 States and the Territory of Hawaii. The National Guard Bureau was assigned to the Adjutant General in March 1942, was made one of the "administrative services" of the Services of Supply in April 1942, and was shifted to the General Staff as a Special Staff division in May 1945. By the fall of 1945 the Bureau had five functional branches, separately described below.

Records.--The wartime records of this Bureau, 1939-45, form parts of a larger group of its records covering the periods 1924-46 (2,000 feet), in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Included are general files, a series relating to the State Guard, 1942-45, inspection reports, reports of State Guard units, training records, maneuver reports, and, for each national guard unit, "Monthly National Guard Strength Return and Report of Duty Performed," 1926-41. Published records include the Bureau's Tables of Organization (T/O NG), 1939-41 (about 100 items); and the Official National Guard Register (1939 and 1943 eds.). Related records are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 321 National Guard Bureau, AG 324.5 State Guard, and AG 325 National Guard.

See the Bureau's Annual Reports for the fiscal years 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, and 1946 (the last covering comprehensively the period 1940-45).

Budget, Fiscal, and Construction Branch [231]

This Branch was established in March 1942 by the consolidation of two earlier administrative units of the Bureau, the Budget and Fiscal Division and the Construction Division. The Branch and its predecessors made plans for the allocation of funds to the National Guard and the procurement, maintenance, and development of buildings and other facilities for National Guard training and other uses.

Records.--See entry 230.

Personnel Branch [232]

This Branch developed plans and policies for keeping personnel records, processing applications of officer candidates, and handling promotions and status of members of the National Guard. It also kept the

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wartime records of activities of National Guard units and members and of awards and citations conferred on them. In peacetime the Branch had published the yearly Official National Guard Register. Although during the war only one edition was published, the Branch kept records for use when normal publication could be resumed.

Records.--See entry 230.

Regulations Branch [233]

This Branch was responsible for preparing the regulations by which the National Guard was governed while not on Federal duty and under Army Regulations. It was also responsible for assembling historical information about the National and State Guards, for providing a public-relations service and a center for information about Guard activities, and for studying pertinent legislation.

Records.--See entry 230. A record set of the National Guard Regulations is in the Administrative Office, Personnel and Administrative Division, General Staff.

Planning Branch [234]

This Branch was charged with preparing studies and formulating policies and plans relating to the postwar National Guard. It surveyed current legislation, studies, and directives and made its own studies of the position of the National Guard in the over-all postwar plans of the War Department. The Branch also analyzed organizational changes planned by the War Department and their effect on individual National Guard units, and it made recommendations relating to the utilization and development of training camps, armories, and other facilities in the States.

Records.--See entry 230.

Organization, Training, and Supply Branch [235]

This Branch made plans and formulated policies for the organization (including recommended tables of organization) of National Guard and State Guard troop units and for the allocation and allotment of supplies to such units.

Records.--See entry 230.

Intra-Staff Boards and Committees [236]

Each of the committees and boards described below functioned within the War Department General Staff or was controlled by one of the staff divisions. They are arranged in the order of their establishment.

War Department Dependency Board [237]

This Board was established about October 1942, under the terms of the Missing Persons Act of March 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 143), and was responsible for policies governing the release of casualty information to

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next-of-kin. G-1 and the Adjutant General's Office were the major agencies represented on the Board.

Records.--The general records of the Board, which contain data on the study, development, and supervision of plans and basic policies for the "casualty clearance project," and its alphabetical (name) files, 1942-46 (7 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Board to Investigate Communications [238]

This Board was established in May 1943 to investigate the Army Communications Board and other War Department agencies concerned with the procurement of radio and radar equipment and to make recommendations for the coordination and control of such procurement both within the Army and between Army and Navy agencies. The members represented the General Staff's Military Intelligence Division, G-2, Supply Division, G-4, and Operations Division, and the Inspector General's Office.

Records.--Transcripts of the Board's proceedings and hearings, May-June 1943, are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, filed under AG 311 (5-10-43).

Army Communications Committee [239]

This Committee was established in July 1943 by the Deputy Chief of Staff to "formulate methods of determining and coordinating policy in communications and electronics," and to make recommendations on the reorganization of the Army Communications Board and the Army's membership on the Joint Communications Board. The members of the Committee represented the General Staff, the Army Service Forces, the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the office of the Expert Consultant to the Secretary of War.

Records.--Records relating to the Committee are among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 Army Communications Committee.

War Department Procurement Review Board [240]

This Board was known also as the McCoy Board because it was headed by Maj. Gen. F. R. McCoy. It was established in July 1943 to survey the War Department's entire wartime procurement program and organization in terms of progress made and difficulties encountered, especially with reference to the relationships between the Army Service Forces and the Army Air Forces, between Army procurement for its own needs and Army-sponsored lend-lease procurement, and between the Army and the War Production Board. The Board included a representative of the Under Secretary of War and a nonvoting member from the Office of War Mobilization. It heard about 75 witnesses and on August 31, 1943, submitted its report.

Records.--Testimony, minutes, and the report of the Board, July-Aug. 1943 (8 vols.), are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, filed under AG 334 War Department Procurement Review Board (July 2.

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1943). Other records of the Board, consisting of correspondence, reports, charts, and other papers, 1943 (4 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Related correspondence is among the records of the Control, Production, and Requirements Divisions of Headquarters Army Service Forces, and a volume entitled "Notes used by the Requirements Division" in connection with the Board's work is in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Airborne Operations Board [241]

This Board, known also as the Swing Board because Maj. Gen. Joseph M. Swing was its presiding officer, was directed in August 1943 to study and make recommendations on troop-carrier requirements for a typical airborne division, including requirements for replacement crews, the proportion of troop-carrier groups to airborne units, and the revision of training doctrines. The Board members represented the Organization and Training Division, G-3, the Operations Division of the General Staff, Headquarters Army Air Forces, and Headquarters Army Ground Forces.

Records.--A few papers relating to the Board, Aug.-Oct. 1943, are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334.

War Department Special Committee for the Restudy of Reserves [242]

This Committee, headed by Brig. Gen. G. J. Richards and also known as the Richards Committee, was established in the fall of 1943. It made a "preliminary interim report" and a "final report," the latter about December 15, 1943, on the Reserve personnel components of the Army.

Records.--The whereabouts of the Committee's records is not known. A few related papers are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334. Summaries of testimony before the Committee are in the records of the Planning Division, Headquarters Army Service Forces.

Army Pearl Harbor Board [243]

Pursuant to a joint resolution of Congress, June 14, 1944 (58 Stat. 276), this Board inquired into the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Its members were detailed from (but not as representatives of) various Army commands, and the Recorder and his staff were supplied by the Judge Advocate General's Office. The Board completed most of its hearings by October 1944 and reported in late 1944 and early 1945.

Records.--The records of the Board (40 feet), which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include transcripts and shorthand notes of proceedings, reports and exhibits, correspondence, personnel records, and certain records (dated 1941) segregated from the files of the Inspector General's Section, Hawaiian Department. The Board's Report (2 vols.) was published in 1944 and 1945 and was republished as part 39 of the Hearings of the

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Congressional Joint Committee on Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack (1946); its proceedings were published as parts 27-31 of the same Hearings. Many of the Board's organizational and administrative papers and letters from the public, July 1944-Dec. 1945, are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334.

Field Organizations Directly Under the General Staff [244]

Throughout the continental United States and overseas there were a number of agencies that were "exempt" activities, that is, they operated not as field commands of the arms and services but directly under one or more divisions of the War Department General Staff. Administrative services for each of these agencies were usually provided by the appropriate Army command where the agency operated, but technical and policy direction derived from the General Staff.

Intelligence Schools [245]

The schools administered during the war by the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, were of two types. Functionally there were those that provided general and special instruction in intelligence methods and subjects (including some incidental language work) and those that specialized primarily in language study for translation, interrogation, and similar purposes. Administratively some schools were operated at Army installations and some were operated under contract by civilian educational institutions. Within G-2 these training programs were administered and supervised by the Counterintelligence Group (for counterintelligence, censorship, and related instruction until mid-1944), and by the Training Branch (for all other instruction and after mid-1944 for counterintelligence training) Training included both the training of individuals and the organization and training of field units or troop units. Among such units were Intelligence Detachments, Counterintelligence Detachments, Censorship Companies, Censor or Censorship Detachments, a Press Censorship Detachment, a Prisoner of War Censorship Detachment, Interrogation Teams, Language Detachments, Photo Interpreter Teams, and Order of Battle Teams.

Records.--Records of the separate schools are described below.

Counterintelligence Corps Advanced Training School [245a]

From November 1941 to January 1944 counterintelligence training activities were centralized at this School in Chicago. It was the direct successor to the Corps of Intelligence Police Investigators Training School, which had been operated by G-2 at the Army War College, February-November 1941. The students were drawn from the major commands and the Service Commands, and until 1943 they were trained primarily for work in the Zone of the Interior. In 1943 an effort was made to adapt the courses to meet the needs of the overseas theaters of operations. After November 1942, when all Service Commands and Departments established Counterintelligence Corps Preliminary Training Schools, the Chicago School became in

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practice as well as in theory a postgraduate school. Between April and June 1942 an officer candidate school functioned in the Chicago School; it graduated one class. This was the only time during the war that the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, sponsored an officer-training course.

Records--No information is available about the records kept by this School. Records relating to the School are among the records of the G-2 agencies that had jurisdiction over it.

Schools Under the Training Section of the Counterintelligence Corps [245b]

Diminishing Zone of the Interior requirements for counterintelli- gence personnel and increasing demands from the overseas theaters of operations led to the establishment of the Training Section in the Office of the Chief of the Counterintelligence Corps, at Baltimore, which functioned from June 1943 to February 1944. Under that Section was the Counterintelligence Corps Staging Area, located first at Logan Field, Md., July-August 1943, and later at the Holabird Ordnance Depot, Md., August 1943-February 1944. The last 2 weeks of the 6 weeks' Staging Area course were given at Camp Ritchie, Md. Other counterintelligence instruction was offered by G-2 at Fort Hunt, Va., where certain types of interrogation and related work were taught, about 1943-44; at Fort Belvoir, Va., where practical courses on booby traps and other obstacles encountered in the field were given, October 1943-January 1944; and in Special Air Mechanics Schools at Middletown Air Depot, Pa., Chanute Field, Ill., and Hill Field, Utah, July 1943-February 1944, where Counterintelligence Corps personnel was trained in those aspects of aircraft maintenance inspection that were related to security. The Counterintelligence Corps Overseas Pool (the CIC Casual Detachment) at Fort George G. Meade, Md., December 1943-April 1944, had charge of Army Ground Force CIC men awaiting shipment.

From September 1944 to May 1945 all Counterintelligence Corps training was centralized at Camp Ritchie, Md., under the direction of the Intelligence Division of the Army Service Forces in collaboration with the Commandant of Camp Ritchie and under the over-all policy supervision of G-2. In May 1945, while basic CIC training continued to be given at Camp Ritchie, the Army Service Forces established a Counterintelligence Center at Fort Meade to provide advanced training to those who had completed basic courses at Camp Ritchie. Additional counterintelligence courses, mainly for the study of French and German, were given by the Berlitz School of Languages under contract with G-2, September-December 1943, at New York, Chicago, Baltimore, and San Francisco. All this training given in the United States was supplemented in the overseas theaters of operations by various courses, in many cases given by the Allies of the United States.

Records.--The wartime records of the schools at Camp Ritchie, Md., were transferred to the Intelligence Division, General Staff, shortly after the war. Some records of the Counterintelligence Center are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Records relating to the schools are among the records of the G-2 agencies that had jurisdiction over them.

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Censorship Training [245c]

From 1941 to 1944 training for military censorship at staging areas and ports of embarkation was a responsibility of G-2. To carry out this task G-2 operated the Censorship School, offering a 4 weeks' course, at Fort Washington, Md. In connection with the School the Military Censorship Officers Pool was organized. The School ceased to function and the Officers Pool was transferred from G-2 in March 1944, when both the training of censorship personnel and censorship operations in the Zone of the Interior were transferred to the Army Service Forces. The last activity of this sort in which the Military Intelligence Service participated was a series of Nation-wide conferences on military censorship policies and procedures, February-April 1944.

Records.--No information is available about the records of the Censorship School. Records relating to censorship training are among the records of the G-2 agencies that were responsible for it.

General Intelligence Schools [245d]

General intelligence training, as distinguished from counterintelligence and censorship training, was not a significant function of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, until 1942. During 1941 four groups of officers were sent overseas by the War Department as students enrolled in British intelligence courses, since there were no facilities for such training in the United States. In November 1941 the Fourth Army organized a language school at the Presidio, San Francisco. Calif., to train selected Nisei in the military use of the Japanese language. The school was taken over by the Western Defense Command when the latter was created. In January 1942 courses for interrogators of prisoners of war were instituted at Camp Blanding, Fla. In June 1942 the Military Intelligence Training Center (MITC) was activated at Camp Ritchie, Md. This was the first of a group of intelligence schools supervised by the Training Branch of the Operations Group, Military Intelligence Service. They included the Military Intelligence Service Language School (MISLS). discussed below, contract language schools at California, Michigan, Cornell, Indiana, and Yale Universities, and various special courses given at the Pentagon Building in Washington for personnel on duty with Military Intelligence Service.

Records.--No information is available about the records kept by these schools. Records relating to them are among the records of the G-2 agencies that had jurisdiction over them.

Language Schools [245e]

Several Japanese-language schools were managed by G-2. The Military Intelligence Service Language School (MISLS), originally called the Military Intelligence Service Japanese Language School, was the successor to the School for Nisei established in 194f at the Presidio. It was moved to Camp Savage, Minn., in 1942 (when it was taken over by G-2) and to Fort Snelling, Minn., in 1944. The School was charged with training

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not only individual students, but also teams made up of interpreters, interrogators, and translators working together. The Army Intensive Japanese Language Course given at the University of Michigan, October 1942-December 1945, was administratively associated with the Military Intelligence Service Language School in Minnesota, for which it served at first as a preparatory school. When the school at the University of Michigan was abandoned its military personnel and its functions were turned over to the school at Fort Snelling.

G-2 also supervised other language schools. Training in the Chinese language was given from 1943 to September 1945 at the University of California to officer personnel and at Yale University to enlisted personnel. A Russian language course was given for the Army at Indiana and Cornell Universities, May-July 1945. Special courses arranged and administered by the Training Branch were given at the Pentagon Building in Washington for personnel attached to the Military Intelligence Service. These courses, usually short and intensive, were designed to turn out specialists in various phases of the work done by G-2.

Records.--Records of the Language School at Fort Snelling. Minn., are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. No information is available about the records of the other schools, but related records are among the records of the G-2 agencies that had jurisdiction over them.

Military Attachés [246]

Military attachés (M/A's) served long before World War II as War Department representatives attached to State Department diplomatic missions abroad for the purpose of sending regular and special reports on foreign military establishments to G-2, War Department General Staff. The attaché system was continued and expanded during the war. Attachés received advice from the Information Group of the Military Intelligence Service as to the content and value of their reports and were informed of special intelligence needs by means of Periodical Intelligence Questionnaires. During the war the military attachés were under the general administrative jurisdiction of the chiefs of the diplomatic missions to which they were attached, but they were under the immediate supervision of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, which relied on reports of the attachés as its main source of information on foreign military trends in the years 1939-41.

Before being sent to their duty stations, military attachés were given special training in Washington by the Orientation and Instruction Branch of the Military Intelligence Service. The courses included such topics as the finances of a military-attaché office, German order of battle (later also other nations' order of battle), and codes and ciphers and the study of languages, including Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, German, French, Japanese, and Russian.

The locations (sometimes changing) of the many military attaché offices during the war, and the names of the incumbents of these offices, are given in the semiannual "Army List and Directory," 1939, and the "Army Directory,"

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1940-42, but not in the successor "Directory of the Army . . . ," 1943-- 45. Military attachés were supplemented as reporting agents by military observers (MO's), who were assigned to localities where there was no attaché office, and by various military missions (see below).

Records.--The major wartime records of each military attaché are the reports that were sent to Washington and filed in G-2 and other War Department agencies. These reports were forwarded in the form of master copies, from which the necessary number of copies could be reproduced in Washington. They were written and indexed by the writers in accordance with a G-2 manual that was issued in various editions successively entitled "Standing Instructions to Military Attachés" (SIMA), 1939-43, "Standing Instructions of Military Intelligence Service" (SIMIS), 1943-44, and "Basic Intelligence Directive" (BID), from 1944 until the end of the war. The consolidated files of the military-attaché reports are in the custody of the Intelligence Division, General Staff. Copies of some, at least, of the reports are also in the records of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, Headquarters Army Air Forces, in the records of the intelligence unit in each other major command and technical service of the Army in Washington, and in the records of the Office of Naval Intelligence.

Each wartime military-attaché office abroad currently kept its own set of its reports, as well as correspondence, radio messages, logs of reports sent, and reference materials such as copies of maps and reports of foreign origin. Many of these records, when they became noncurrent, were destroyed by the office that had filed them. Some of them, however, have survived as separate bodies of records. For example, the central files of the office of the military attaché in London (in the custody of that office in 1947) include copies of outgoing correspondence, 1941-45; intelligence and other reports from United States and British sources for the war period; and administrative papers of the office (100 feet). Records of a few attaché offices (for example, Paris, 1945-46; 2 feet) were transferred to the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. As to the files of messages kept overseas by the military attachés, most of those that were exchanged with Washington, especially those on administrative (nonintelligence) matters, are duplicated in G-2's records. A set of messages exchanged between the military-attaché offices and the headquarters agencies of the War Department is in the extensive master files of messages (now on microfilm), kept in the Office of the Chief of Staff (see entry 166). Of special interest are those messages that are filed (in separate incoming sets, Apr. 1942-45, and outgoing sets, Apr. 1942-Mar. 1944, each chronologically arranged) under the locations of military-attaché offices.

Military Missions [247]

Military missions overseas, including training missions to Latin America and the Middle East, were under the direction of various staff divisions, according to the particular subject matter involved. The missions were usually sent abroad by arrangement between the Chief of Staff

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of the United States and the Chief of Staff of the nation to be visited and were usually composed of officers listed either as military instructors or military observers. The missions lacked diplomatic status and did not necessarily go to the capitals of foreign countries concerned.

United States Military Missions to Latin America [248]

Army missions were sent to virtually all the nations of Latin America between 1941 and 1945, to assist their military establishments in integrating their forces in Western Hemisphere defense, and in particular to assist in training those forces in the use of United States matériel and tactics. Some of these missions were concerned primarily with ground equipment and were variously called United States Military Missions or United States Ground Missions; others were concerned with air training and were called United States Military Air Missions or United States Military Aviation Missions. Most of these missions were controlled by the General Staff, although late in the war some of them were responsible to the United States Army Forces in the South Atlantic. The Caribbean Defense Command provided services for the missions. The missions operated under "Standing Instructions," such as the edition of January 17, 1945. Many of these missions were continued after the war ended in September 1945, when jurisdiction over them was transferred to the Caribbean Defense Command.

Records.--In Oct. 1945 the noncurrent wartime records of at least some of the missions were transferred to the Military Missions Division, Headquarters Caribbean Defense Command. Copies of monthly reports, special reports, correspondence, and "histories" or "final reports" of the missions are among the records of the General Staff and other War Department agencies in Washington.
[See The Framework of Hemisphere Defense and Guarding the Unied States and Its Outposts, two volumes in the U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

United States Military Mission to the U.S.S.R. [249]

This mission (known also as AMRUS), November 1941-May 1942, assisted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in handling the receipt of United States war matériel and equipment being transferred under the lend-lease program and advised Soviet Union agencies regarding the training of troops to use the matériel. The Mission was located first in Washington, November-December 1941, and later in Tehran, January-May 1942. After the Mission was discontinued, some of its personnel was reassigned to the United States Military Mission With the Iranian Army (see below).

Records.--The Mission's general files, 1942, radio messages and memoranda, 1942, and Special Orders, 1941-42, were in June 1947 in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. A few related papers pertaining to the organization, personnel, and work of the Mission are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 (8 folders, 1941-46).

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United States Military Mission With the Iranian Army [250]

This Mission (known also as AMSIR) was established about May 1942 to assist the Iranian Army in handling its problems of organization, training, and equipment and to help in the transfer of military equipment to Iran under the lend-lease program. The Mission, with headquarters in Tehran, functioned through the war and in the early postwar period.

Records.--A few papers pertaining to the organization, personnel, and supply and training operations of the Mission are in the central records of the War Department, in the ACO; see index sheets filed under AC 334, United States Military Mission With the Iranian Army, 1941-45 (6 folders). No information is available on the Mission's own records.
[See The Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia, a volume in the

U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

United States Military Academy [251]

The United States Military Academy (USMA), at West Point, N.Y., operated during the war under the general policy and curriculum supervision of the Organization and Training Division, G-3. The function of the Academy, in war as in peace, is to prepare qualified cadets for duty with the Army as junior officers. The principal effect of the war on the institution was the increase of its student body after 1941 from about 1,800 to some 2,400 and the shortening of its course from 4 years to 3. In order to obtain qualified cadets a preparatory course for the Academy was instituted as a part of the Army Specialized Training Program and a system of competitive examinations was worked out to enable members of the Army of the United States to obtain appointments. When the 3-year course was introduced, the Academy named a faculty Postwar Curriculum Committee (originally the Four-Year Committee) to make general and specific recommendations concerning the curriculum for peacetime instruction. The Committee's recommendations were presented in August 1945. After the end of hostilities and a period of readjustment, the Academy reverted to its 4-year course.

Records.--The wartime records of the United States Military Academy are in its custody. Among the major series of printed documents originating in the Academy during the war are the following: Official Register of Officers and Cadets . . . (annual vols., f939-45); Information Relative to Appointment and Admission (annual eds., 1939-45, entitled Information Pamphlet in 1945); various series of numbered administrative regulations, 1939-45, including General Orders, Special Orders, General Court Martial Orders, Special Court Martial Orders, and Memorandums; "Blue Book"-- or "Orders, U.S. Corps of Cadets"--(looseleaf eds., 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942); and Post Regulations (June 19, 1940 ed., and "Changes," 1940-45). Copies of instructional materials compiled by the Academy's Department of Military Art and Engineering, 1939-45 (1 foot), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Related to the Academy's records are papers among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, which include an entire separate "project" series pertaining to the Academy, 1940-45 (20 feet).

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Command and General Staff School [252]

This general service school at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., the origins of which antedate the war, was administered by the Army Service Forces under the policy direction of the Organization and Training Division, G-3. During the war the School trained officers in basic command and staff doctrine for duty as general-staff officers of divisions, corps, and analogous air components of the Army. A subsidiary function was to publish an official magazine on command and staff affairs, based largely on research by the faculty and graduates of the school.

Although the School's major function remained unchanged during the war, there were internal changes during the period. In 1939, as in earlier years, the School offered a 1-year course of study, training officers in the individual needs of the divisions of the General Staff. Beginning late in 1940, however, a 4-month curriculum was adopted (later reduced to about 10 weeks), and various new courses were introduced. After numerous modifications, the instructional program as developed by 1944 consisted of seven courses given concurrently, two for Army Air Force officers (AAF Staff Course, Air Staff Service Course), three for Army Ground Force officers (Infantry Course, Armored Course, Antiaircraft Course), and two for Army Service Forces officers (Service Staff Course, Zone of Interior Course).

In addition to these courses several special programs were offered by the School from time to time. A New Divisions Course was designed to give final training to the officers and cadre of divisions just before their activation. Two courses dealing with industrial procurement in the War Department were given to civilians in key positions. During 1943-45 the School also gave training to classes of the Army and Navy Staff College. Courses in the organization and methods of the Army of the United States were offered to Brazilian officers at the request of the Joint Brazil-United States Defense Commission, and a pre-General Staff Course was given for other Latin-American officers. After VE-day a Philippine Postgraduate Course, dealing with the differences between the Army of the United States and that of the Philippines, was introduced.

In 1944 the library of the School included the Historical Map Section and the Archives Section (established in 1943 to care for the classified documents flowing in from theaters of operations and retained for instructional and research purposes).

Records.--The wartime records of the Command and General Staff School include correspondence, policy and working papers, documents collected, and studies prepared during the war. These records are in the custody of the School, except for a few miscellaneous maps, charts, and memoranda of the School's Artillery Branch (1944), a draft of a field manual entitled "Administration" (Jan. 1946), and an interim report, "Logistic Corps" (Apr. 1945), which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Documents issued by the School include General Orders, Special Orders, and Memoranda; Instruction Circulars, July 1939-Sept. 1943; "Schedule . . . Governing Regular and Special Classes," in various editions, 1939-43; course data on antimechanized defense, field-service regulations, the triangular infantry division.

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and other subjects; and the School's official magazine, successively entitled the Quarterly Review of Military Literature, 1939-Mar. 1943, and the monthly Military Review, since Apr. 1943.

Army War College [253]

Before the war, this long-established general service school in Washington, under the policy direction of G3, trained officers for command and staff duties with field armies. After the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939 the College suspended instruction, and its faculty was used to help staff the General Headquarters, United States Army, 1940-42, and for similar staff purposes thereafter. Peacetime functions of the Army War College that continued during the war included its library service (operated primarily for the benefit of the Army Ground Forces, the headquarters of which made use of the College buildings) and the work of its Historical Section.

The Historical Section, established shortly after World War I, was the central agency for War Department and Army historical activities between 1939 and 1943, and all components of the War Department and the Army were required to submit historical information and records of their activities to it. The main activity of the Section during World War II was to compile historical studies relating to World War I and to American experience in military government between 1846 and 1920. Its jurisdiction over historical activities pertaining to World War II was transferred to the Historical Branch established in 1943 in the Military Intelligence Division, G-2. The Historical Section continued to do some work related to World War II, however, such as the preparation of chronologies. Shortly after the war ended, this activity was transferred to the Historical Division, War Department General Staff (successor to the Historical Branch), and the Historical Section was abolished.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Army War College are in its custody. The Historical Section's administrative correspondence and its histories of individual units are in the Army's Historical Division; copies of its studies on World War I and the postwar period, 1917-20, prepared in 1942-43, are in the National Archives Library. The College's Library published two wartime bulletins of general interest: The Library Bulletin (monthly), listing accessions to the Library; and Abstracts of Selected Periodical Articles of Military Interest (monthly), Apr. 1944-Dec. 1945.

Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area [254]

This organization (known also as CASA) served as the final advanced training center where teams made up of civil-affairs personnel were organized and given instruction just before shipment to the Far East. Authorized by War Department directive in June 1944 and activated in July at Fort Ord, Calif., the Area was moved in February 1945 to the Presidio of Monterey, Calif. The Area was directly under the supervision of the Civil Affairs Division, with administrative services furnished by the

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Ninth Service Command. Students were received from other civil-affairs schools, directly from civilian life, or from other Army assignments. In October 1944 the Naval CASA was established in conjunction with the Army CASA, and thereafter the venture was conducted jointly. The Area's function for the Far East was analogous to that of a similar establishment operated by the European Theater of Operations in Shrivenham, England, where civil-affairs personnel for Europe were given final training.

As the Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area expanded, it went through many reorganizations until it reached an organizational pattern like that of the War Department General Staff, with a special staff to serve its own needs. Four divisions of CASA's general staff were analogous to the "G" divisions of the War Department General Staff--the Personnel, S-1, Intelligence, S-2, Operations and Training, S-3, and Supply, S-4, Divisions. The fifth division, established in December 1944, bore the name of Theater Planning and Research Division, S-5, and represented a consolidation and expansion of the activities of the former Functional Division and of parts of the Operations and Training Division, S-3. S-5 thus came to be responsible for most of the training and indoctrination for which CASA was primarily responsible, and the other general-staff divisions apparently came to perform, each within its own field, work relating to the administration and operation of the organization as a whole. Most of the special-staff divisions in CASA between the fall of 1944 and September 1945 had functions analogous to those of the Technical Services of Army Service Forces. CASA was discontinued in February 1946.

Records.--The wartime records of the Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area and of its predecessor at Fort Ord, 1942-46, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Related papers are among the records of the Civil Affairs Division, described in entry 207. A copy of CASA's military-government technical manual, "Administration of Japanese Public and Private Finance" (Aug. 1945), is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

ARMY AIR FORCES [255]

Although the Army's air arm was not formally designated as the Army Air Forces until June 1941, its fundamental functions pertaining to the development and employment of military aviation had been basically established earlier, during a long period of rapid technological development and slow administrative growth that began in 1907 when the Aeronautical Division was established in the War Department and assigned to the Signal Corps. In 1918 air matters were delegated to the new Air Service, established separately from the Signal Corps and confirmed by an act of June 4, 1920; and under an act of July 2, 1926, the air arm was renamed the Air Corps. This name was used until June 1941, when the Air Corps was renamed the Army Air Forces (AAF), the designation that continued through the war. After the war, late in 1947, the Army Air Forces became the Department of the Air Force. The various wartime staff agencies of AAF in

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Washington, the AAF commands in the continental United States, and typical AAF combat and service units in the field are separately described below.

Records.--Records were created during the war by AAF organizations at virtually all echelons in Washington and in the field. The activities of the Army Air Forces were also extensively documented in the records of higher and parallel headquarters within the War Department. Records of wartime AAF organizations were administered in accordance with regulations and practices prescribed by The Adjutant General, and in 1944 and 1945, in accordance with supplementary directives prepared by the Records Administration Office, Office of the Air Adjutant General, AAF Headquarters. A comprehensive directive of this sort is Records Administration: Disposition of Records (AAF Manual 80-0-1, March 1946. 69 p.).

Besides the records kept separately by the many AAF agencies in Washington and the field, which are individually described below, there are certain specialized types of AAF records, chiefly field records, that have been centralized by the postwar United States Air Force (USAF) in the following special Air Force records depositories: The Air Force Contract Records Depository, the Air Force Matériel Engineering. Research, and Development Records Depository, and the Air Force Motion Picture Film Depository, all at Wright Field, Ohio; the Air Force Weather Records Depository, in New Orleans, La.; and the Air Force Still Photography Depository and the Air Force Aeronautical Charts Depository, both in Washington. Records of another specialized type--individual records of trainees in the AAF--have been integrated, along with other individual personnel records, in the consolidated "201" files (personnel folders) for demobilized military personnel, in the Records Administration Center. AGO. St. Louis; individual flight records (form AAF 5) are at Langley Field, Va.

See Air Historical Group. United States Air Force, The Army Air Forces in World War II (2 vols. published, 1948-49; 5 other vols. in preparation); Army Air Forces, AAF, the Official Guide to the Army Air Forces (Pocket Books, 1944, 380 p.) which is complete in coverage; H. H. Arnold. Global Mission (New York, 1949. 626 p.); and George E. Stratemeyer, "Administrative History of U.S. Army Air Forces," in Air Affairs, an International Quarterly, 1: 510-525 (Summer 1947), which emphasizes the organizational status of AAF in World War II. Important articles on AAF in World War II have been published in the monthly magazine Air Force, 1943-45, and the Air University Quarterly Review, Spring 1947-date. Monthly listings of all major field commands, subordinate administrative units, troop units, and airfields and bases of AAF in the United States, 1943-45 are in the AAF section (averaging about 175 p.) of the monthly "Directory of the Army . . .," issued by the Adjutant General's Office.

Headquarters Army Air Forces [256]

In 1939 the headquarters functions of the Air Corps in the continental United States were divided between the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps (OCAC), which was concerned with matériel, training, and related noncombat air matters, and the General Headquarters Air Force, which was established at Langley Field in 1935 for unit training and tactical employment. The General Headquarters Air Force became increasingly

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independent after 1939. except for the interval between July 1940 and June 1941, when combat air units in the continental United States reverted to the nominal jurisdiction of the newly created, ground-controlled General Headquarters, United States Army. In November 1940 Maj. Gen. H. H. Arnold, Chief of the Air Corps, was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff for Air, and in June 1941 he was appointed to the newly created position of Chief of the Army Air Forces, with control over both the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps and the General Headquarters Air Force. The latter was renamed at the same time the Air Force Combat Command and was located at Boiling Field, D.C.

Shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Chief of the Army Air Forces was appointed a member of both the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff. The higher status of AAF Headquarters was confirmed in February and March 1942 when a general reorganization of the War Department was put into effect. By this reorganization AAF was placed directly under the Secretary of War and the War Department General Staff and was made coordinate with the Army Ground Forces and the Services of Supply (later the Army Service Forces). By the same move, the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps and the General Headquarters Air Force were merged into the single Headquarters Army Air Forces, which was given centralized staff control over all Air Corps organizations and installations in the continental United States. By 1942 a few overseas functions had also been placed under the staff control of AAF Headquarters, a deviation from the traditional Army pattern of delegating overseas operations to autonomous theater commands.

Thus AAF, through its representation on the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, was directly concerned with the over-all strategic direction of the war, including the commitment of men and matériel to the air forces in the combat theaters. Most of the staff divisions of AAF Headquarters were also constantly concerned with preparing policy studies for the Commanding General and serving on the many subcommittees of the joint and combined staffs on behalf of AAF. By 1942 certain global organizations were under the staff supervision of AAF Headquarters, notably the Air Transport Command, the AAF Weather Service, and the Army Airways Communications System, each of which had a network of organizations operating with substantial autonomy in the several theaters of operations (see Global Air Services). In November 1944 another major function was transferred to AAF Headquarters--the responsibility (previously exercised by the Signal Corps) for the development, procurement, and installation of air-related radio and radar equipment and for the related electronics personnel and training functions.

[256a] Staff organization.--Command responsibility for these air ma- teriel, training, service, and operational planning functions was exercised concurrently by the Chief of the Air Corps and the Commanding General, General Headquarters Air Force, 1939-June 1941; by the Chief of the Army Air Forces, June 1941-March 1942; and by the Commanding General, Army Air Forces, 1942-45.

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In 1939 the activities of Headquarters were handled by 7 major divisions, which in June 1941 were made subordinate to several Assistant Chiefs of the Air Staff. In March 1942 these staff offices and divisions, and certain functions and personnel shifted from the staff sections of the discontinued Air Force Combat Command at Boiling Field, D. C, were reorganized. In March 1943, as a result of another reorganization, 6 air staff offices were established, with the remaining field commands--14 in number--decentralized outside of Washington except for the Air Transport Command. These 6 staff offices, together with several special-staff offices organized in 1942 and later, persisted until the end of August 1945. Their functions and records, together with those of their predecessors, are separately described below.

[256b] Records.--Most of the central records of AAF Headquarters, 1939-45, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The records for 1939-45 are in several major series that usually antedate 1939 and extend beyond 1945. The two chief ones are the security-classified central files and the unclassified central files, each of which is organized first by several major chronological periods and next under several hundred decimal numbers corresponding (with many consolidations and deviations, however) to the War Department Decimal File System.Other major series include: An extensive "foreign file," arranged by foreign areas or overseas commands, which contains correspondence and other papers bearing not only on AAF's relations with foreign countries but also on AAF operations in them; "201" files (personnel folders) for Women Air Service Pilots (WASP) personnel; name files on civilian employees in AAF or employed by AAF contractors about whom there were employee-relations problems and questions of transfers to military service, 1942-47; several small series of miscellaneous wartime papers kept in AAF Headquarters by key officers; the central files of the General Headquarters Air Force and its successor Air Force Combat Command, 1934-42; and an extensive body of so-called "bulk" files, originally kept by the central records unit of AAF Headquarters, which consist of many subseries of narrative reports, statistical reports, documentary compilations, and selected accumulations of office files that remain intact and separate from the main series.

These central records are a massive and comprehensive record of the Army Air Forces. They contain correspondence, intra-Headquarters memoranda, daily and weekly "diaries" of staff offices, minutes of staff meetings, staff studies, tables of organization and manning tables for AAF field organizations and troop units, narrative and statistical reports, and other papers that in subject matter cover the whole range of AAF interests and activities during the war. Also in these records, especially in the "bulk" files, are copies of documents (frequently in series) that originated in other agencies. For example, in the "bulk" files are selected State Department dispatches, Feb.--Apr. 1941 (filed under 311.22); copies of some of the documents of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Combined Chiefs of Staff, and their committees, 1942-45 (filed under 313.3, 319.1, 350.06); bulletins of the National Research

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Council's Committee on Aviation Medicine, 1940-42 (filed under 300.5); copies of unpublished research reports of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (filed under 400.112); copies of the War Production Board's "Official Munitions Production of the United States," 1943 (the monthly statistical summary, also called "OMPUS," filed under 400.17); copies of monthly progress reports and research reports of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, 1941-45 (filed under 319.1 and 400.112); and partial sets of some of the documents issued by the Royal Air Force, for example, the monthly "Coastal Command Review," Dec. 1942-May 1943 (filed under 322).

Records that were kept separately in the several offices of AAF Headquarters are described below. Further information about some of them (including data on the types of papers kept only temporarily in particular offices) is in the Records Disposition Schedules prepared by the various offices about May-June 1946 for the Records Administration Office of AAF Headquarters; these schedules are on file in the National Archives and in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Of all these wartime records, about 14,000 feet are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; about 8,000 feet are in the Air Historical Group; and a small but undetermined quantity of records are in the successor offices of Headquarters, United States Air Force.

In addition to the above-mentioned bodies of records of the Army Air Forces, there are several series of related records that contain important data on AAF Headquarters. The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain many AAF-related items, some of which (but by no means all) are duplicated in AAF's central records. As a guide to these AGO materials, there are index sheets for each subject as well as lengthy series of index sheets for AAF as a whole; the latter are filed under AG 020 Chief of the Army Air Forces (6 linear feet, 1940-45), AG 029 Air Corps (12 linear feet, 1940-43), AG 029 Army Air Forces (6 linear feet, 1941-43), AG 322 Army Air Forces (6 linear feet, 1941-45), and AG 322 Air Force Combat Command (including predecessor General Headquarters Air Force, 3 linear feet, 1940-42). There is also a lengthy "project" series in those central records, arranged alphabetically by AAF organization. Weekly activity summaries by AAF Headquarters, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

Office of the Commanding General [257]

The Commanding General of the Army Air Forces and his predecessors were responsible to the Chief of Staff and (for matériel procurement) to the Undersecretary of War for all activities of AAF Headquarters, the AAF commands and air forces in the continental United States, and the four AAF global service organizations. In practice, however, the Commanding General was at the same time directly responsible to the Secretary of War, the Assistant Secretary of War for Air, and (by virtue of his membership on the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff)

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the President of the United States as Commander in Chief. The Commanding General also served as Chairman of the Joint Aircraft Committee and as a member of the Aeronautical Board.

The Commanding General's immediate staff included the Chief of the Air Staff (C/AS), 1941-45--an official who was known also after 1943 as the Deputy Commanding General, AAF--and from one to three officers entitled Deputy Chief of the Air Staff (DC/AS). Various operating units were attached from time to time to the Office of the Commanding General or its predecessors. Between 1939 and 1941 the Medical, Buildings and Grounds, Fiscal, and Legal Divisions were directly responsible to the Executive, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps. Between June 1941 and March 1942 the Budget Section, the Statistics Section, and the Office of the Air Adjutant General were directly under the Chief of the Air Staff. In 1944 and 1945 the Office of the Secretary of the Air Staff was a unit in the Office of the Commanding General. In 1945 the Scientific Advisory Group was set up in the Office. Three other units that were in the Office of the Commanding General when the war ended, Management Control and its Statistical Control Division, and the Air Historical Office, are separately described below.

Records.--Most of the activities of the Commanding General and his immediate office are extensively documented in the central records of AAF Headquarters, mentioned above, and in the records of various units that are described below. Among the central records are General Arnold's monthly letters to the senior air commanders overseas, about 1942-45. Some records that were kept for the Commanding General, the Chief of the Air Staff, and the Deputy Chief, 1941-45 (34 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The radio messages of AAF Headquarters, 1941-45, consisting of copies of virtually all incoming and outgoing radio messages of the War Department that dealt with AAF and AAF-related matters, are in two groups. One group consists of the top-secret messages, including "limited distribution" messages, which were in the Message and Cable Division, AAF Headquarters, early in 1947. The other group consists of two sets of the other messages, slightly different in coverage and arrangement, which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. These are all duplicated, item for item if not in exact arrangement, in the master files of War Department messages in the Office of the Chief of Staff. Copies of 11 of the studies of the Scientific Advisory Group, dealing with aviation medicine, guided missiles, fuels, aircraft power plants, radar, explosives, and weather, are in the custody of the Air Historical Group.

Management Control[257a]

This office appears to have inherited functions and records of the Administrative Division of about the period 1940-42, and it was known for a part of the period 1942-43 as the Directorate of Management Control. In 1945 the office had five divisions. The Organizational Planning Division controlled changes in functional assignments, jurisdictions, and responsibilities within AAF Headquarters and, in part, in AAF field commands;

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and it also controlled the issuance of AAF administrative publications. The Operations Analysis Division, 1944-45, was concerned with the recruitment, selection, training, and overseas assignment of operations analysts, who were usually organized into Operations Analysis Sections in overseas air commands. These analysts were experts who, like the official historians throughout AAF and the experts attached to the United States Strategic Bombing Survey in Europe and the Pacific, were concerned with preparing comprehensive studies of the effectiveness of air power in the war. The Manpower Division in 1943 received from the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Personnel, certain functions with respect to bulk allotments and authorizations of AAF military and civilian personnel throughout the continental United States, and it represented AAF on the War Department Manpower Board. The Administrative Services Division handled office space, supplies, communications, and other "housekeeping" services for AAF Headquarters. It controlled AAF printing and publishing in the continental United States, through the AAF Printing Control Board and the Area Printing Control Offices, one of which was located adjacent to each of the 12 regional Air Technical Service Commands; and it was responsible for the selection and procurement of field technical libraries for AAF installations. The Statistical Control Division is separately described below.

After the war Management Control was broken up and most of its divisions and other units were transferred with their records to the Office of the Air Adjutant General.

Records.--Records of Management Control are intermingled with those of the Office of the Air Adjutant General in that Office. Among the records of the two offices are Special Orders, General Orders, and letter orders to military personnel issued by AAF Headquarters; a card record of officers stationed at AAF Headquarters; the Records Administrator's correspondence with records administrators in the Adjutant General's Office, in AAF Headquarters, and in AAF field commands; the Publications Division's record copies of forms and administrative publications of AAF Headquarters and field commands; copies of periodicals and newspapers issued by AAF installations and organizations; and an unpublished card index to theAir Corps News Letter(to 1942, when theLetterwas discontinued). The following records are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: The Air Adjutant General's reading file of correspondence, 1942-45 (14 feet); Records Disposition Schedules for AAF Headquarters agencies and field commands and reports on records destroyed, 1944-45; and records of the AAF Printing Control Board and of five regional Area Printing Control Offices, 1943-45 (14 feet). The diaries of operating units of Management Control and of the Air Adjutant General, 1942-45, a history of the Air Adjutant General's Office, 1941-43, various studies on AAF organization and administrative control (prepared by the AAF Historical Office), a set of Management Control's "Organization of the Army Air Forces," about 1942-45, reports and other records of the Operations Analysis Division, 1944-45, are in the custody of the Air Historical Group.

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Statistical Control Division [257b]

This Division, 1942-45, which originated in the Research and Statistics Section of the Administrative Division, had control over the statistical reporting system throughout the Army Air Forces, with responsibilities for the organization and training of statistical control units (SCU's) for field duty, the use of machine tabulating and teletype services for statistical reporting, and the preparation of statistical analyses on aircraft and equipment, personnel and training, combat operations, and the strength, trends, and disposition of foreign air forces. The Division was placed under the office of Air Controller in 1946.

Records.--Most of the records of the Division are in its custody. They consist of record copies, some of them microfilm copies, of most of its reports, analyses, and tabulations. These records cover comprehensively the matériel, training, and combat operations and other activities of AAF during the war and are arranged primarily according to the Division's "Statistical Digest, World War II" (1945) and its "List of Recurring Reports" (various eds., 1942-45). Other records of the Division include administrative correspondence on AAF statistical and machine-records activities in Washington, in the continental United States, and overseas; records of statistical-training activities, including applications of persons graduated from the AAF Statistical School at Harvard University and rosters and "201" personnel folders for AAF statistical personnel, both military and civilian; "organization status files" with a related card index to AAF units in the continental United States and overseas; and copies of published and unpublished reports of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey, 1945-46. Records of the Statistical Control Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include copies of movement orders and related papers, 1942-45; weekly status and operations reports (form 34) for all overseas Air Forces except the XX Air Force, for the air commands at Atlantic bases, and for the French Air Force in the Mediterranean, 1942-45 (104 feet). Another set of these weekly reports and some of the other recurring and special reports are in the custody of the Air Historical Group.

Air Historical Office [258]

The Historical Division, established in the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, in July 1942, was renamed the Air Historical Office and assigned to the Secretary of the Air Staff in August 1945. It performed supervisory, writing, and records-preservation functions relating to the preparation of official histories of AAF units in World War II. It supervised the historical program, which extended to AAF commands and air forces both in the continental United States and overseas; reviewed, accessioned, and filed organization histories and supporting documents received from air historical officers in the field; prepared about 100 unpublished monographs on phases or areas of precombat and combat operations

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of the AAF; and planned the postwar program for a comprehensive 7-volume history, Army Air Forces in World War II, of which 2 volumes (covering the early war years) had been published by the end of 1949. The division also maintained a historical reference service for the air staff and other War Department offices concerned with air matters and a biographical information service on key AAF personnel; and it prepared various chronologies of AAF activities for the period 1909-44. After the war the Office was renamed the Air Historical Group and made a part of the Air University, and in September 1949 it was moved to the University's headquarters at Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.

Records.--The records of the Air Historical Office, in the custody of the successor Air Historical Group, consist of its small body of administrative records, which contain documents on the evolution of the wartime historical program of the AAF, and its large Historical Collection (8,000 feet). The latter group consists chiefly of official, unpublished histories of AAF air forces, commands, subordinate commands, airfields and air bases, and troop units and extensive quantities of supporting documents that were assembled by the historical officers chiefly in the overseas air forces and commands and were forwarded to AAF Headquarters, mostly from 1943 to 1947. These documents, together with the series of "AAF Historical Studies" and "Reference Histories" prepared in the Office and the diaries, historical summaries, and related historical documents prepared or assembled by offices within AAF Headquarters, are listed in a shelf-list catalog and are being described and arranged according to echelon and organization under the following major categories: AAF Headquarters, AAF Commands in the Zone of the Interior, Global Air Services, Western Hemisphere Theater, European Theater, Mediterranean Theater, Pacific Theaters, China-Burma-India Theater, and Lower-Echelon Units (groups, squadrons, and other troop units that were common in type to more than one major AAF command or theater). Some of the major items or categories of material in this collection are listed in the periodic "Accession Lists" (Nos. 1-29, Jan. 1945-July 1949) of the Historical Division and its successors, a set of which is on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Also in the custody of the Air Historical Group are records of the historical sections of some of the overseas Air Forces, interfiled in the above collection; a series of "project books" kept in AAF Headquarters, June-Dec. 1941, on a program for developing military air routes to the Philippine Islands; and several other series of records that represent parts of the records of AAF or related agencies (for example, the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Plans; the Air Staff, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces; and the Anti-Submarine Command). Such series are usually separately mentioned elsewhere in this volume, in the appropriate agency entry.

See "The AAF Tells Its Story," in Air Force, 29: 20 (May 1946); and Army Industrial College, Historical Program of the Army Air Forces (1945. 30 p.), which contains statements on the historical program by representatives of the Historical Division.

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Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Personnel [259]

The personnel functions of AAF Headquarters were performed by two units (one for military and one for civilian personnel), 1939-41; by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, A-1, and its subdivisions, 1941-43; and by the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Personnel (AC/AS Personnel), and its subdivisions, 1943-45.

From 1939 to June 1941 the Personnel Division of the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, renamed the Military Personnel Division in March 1941, was concerned with commissioned officers, enlisted men, aviation cadets, and personnel in Reserve and National Guard aviation. It had responsibility also for air medical personnel until this responsibility was transferred about November 1940 to the Medical Division (see entry 305). At the same time the Civilian Personnel Section (later Division) of the Administrative Division was concerned not only with personnel matters in Headquarters but also with the recruitment, training, and use of civilians in the growing field establishment for technical training, supply maintenance, and other air specialties. In June 1941 the position of Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-1, was established and superimposed on these divisions, an arrangement that continued until March 1943.

In March 1943 staff functions concerning personnel were redistributed within the new Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Personnel, which remained in existence until after the end of the war. It continued the major military and civilian personnel programs; expanded others, notably programs for personal welfare, decorations, and awards; and in late 1943 and early 1944 undertook planning for the demobilization of personnel and for the postwar air force. AC/AS Personnel represented the Army Air Forces on the Joint Army and Navy Personnel Board during the war; had line authority over the Redistribution Center (later renamed the Personnel Distribution Command), 1943-45; and served as personnel director for Headquarters XX Air Force. The staff work and headquarters operations involved in these personnel functions were handled between 1943 and 1945 by the divisions described below.

Records.--The records of the Office and of its divisions that are scheduled for permanent or indefinite retention include policy correspondence, memoranda, and studies pertaining to officer selection, efficiency ratings, flying status, the pay of enlisted men, military manpower in the AAF, the naming of airfields, and personnel organization and administration in headquarters and in the field. Among these records also are reports from AAF installations on civilian personnel inspections, audits, and manpower surveys; copies of "exact manning tables"; card files on overseas shipments of personnel; and reports on missing aircrews and indexes of individual military casualties. Most of these records in Dec. 1946 were in the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-1.

Records now in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include correspondence relating to accident and life insurance for Air Corps military personnel, 1937-41; correspondence relating to the commissioning of civilians

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as AAF officers, Jan.-Sept. 1942; records relating to surveys of civilian and military manpower, of manpower requirements, and personnel utilization in field commands and agencies, 1943-48; movement orders assigning AAF personnel overseas, 1943-46 (32 feet); "exact manning tables" and related correspondence and statistical summaries on the reduction of the civilian strength in AAF Headquarters, 1945-46 (1 foot); record cards for individual trainees, 1922-44, and for officers (Reserve, National Guard, and Army of the United States) formerly on active duty, 1943-47; and several series of name files pertaining to various programs of civilian awards from 1943, notably the Emblem for Exceptional Civilian Service, the Certificate for Meritorious Civilian Service, and the Ideas for Victory award.

Many other records that document the activities of AC/AS Personnel are in the central records of AAF Headquarters, the cable and radio messages of AAF Headquarters, and the consolidated "201" files (individual personnel folders) in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Copies of selected correspondence and reports of AC/AS Personnel, about 1939-45, daily diaries of virtually all its divisions and branches, 1943-45, several personnel studies by the Air Historical Office, 1943-46, and a 1-volume unpublished history of "The WAC Program in the Army Air Forces" (about 1946), are in the Air Historical Group.

Military Personnel Division [260]

Personnel matters concerning officers and enlisted men were handled by this Division. In 1945 it consisted of the following eight branches: Officers Branch, Enlisted Branch, Aviation Cadet Branch, Requirements and Resources Branch, Analysis and Selection Branch, Classification and Separations Branch (in which all except aircrew tests were handled), Foreign Assignments Branch (with a section for each of the theaters of operations), and Demobilization and Personnel Readjustment Branch. In addition, AC/AS Personnel provided the recording and administrative services for the Officers Selection Board of the Army Air Forces and maintained the Unit Personnel Office, which served as the personnel adjutant for AAF Headquarters.

Records.--See entry 259.

Civilian Personnel Division [261]

This Division supervised civilian personnel and training throughout AAF and handled AAF staff relations with the Civilian Personnel Division of the Office of the Secretary of War and with the Civil Service Commission. By 1945 the Division consisted of seven branches: Classification and Wage Administration Branch; Standards Branch (with a Deferment Section); Training Branch; Employee Relations Branch; Pay Roll Audit and Survey Branch; Placement Branch; and Time and Pay Roll Branch. The last two were concerned only with AAF Headquarters civilian personnel.

Records.--Among the Division's records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are its central files, 1941-46 (77 feet); a chronological series

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of correspondence about officers assigned to civilian-personnel work, 1943-46; a series on the use of uniforms by shop employees, guards, and other civilian employees in the field, 1943-46; and records of the Classification and Wage Administration Branch on local wage problems of ungraded positions in the field (arranged by AAF field command), 1942-46. See also entry 259.

Air Chaplain Division [262]

This Division, known also as the Air Chaplain's Office, was responsible for AAF interests in chaplain personnel and services. It dealt with the Office of the Chief of Chaplains; prepared and submitted requirements for chaplain personnel and services throughout the Army Air Forces; made recommendations for the improvement of chaplain personnel, training, and services; and conducted inspections of the activities of chaplains in the field.

Records.--See entry 259.

Air WAC Division [263]

Established in March 1943 as the Air WAC Office in the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution and transferred to AC/AS Personnel about October 1943, this Division represented AAF needs and interests to the Director of the Women's Army Corps; engaged in research and planning for the procurement, utilization, and welfare of WAC personnel in the Army Air Forces; and inspected WAC personnel and units in AAF organizations in the field.

Records.--See entry 259.

Air Provost Marshal Division [264]

The interests of the Army Air Forces in military police units in the field were handled by this Division, June 1944-August 1945. It had functioned earlier as the Air Provost Marshal's Office, first under the Director of Base Services, March 1942-March 1943, and later under the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution, March 1943-June 1944. The Division dealt with the Provost Marshal General's Office on such matters as AAF personnel and training requirements for guard squadrons and military police units; the protection of industrial facilities under contract to AAF; security enforcement at AAF installations; and the rehabilitation of garrison prisoners at AAF installations.

Records.--Among the Division's records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are records of investigations of trainees and officer candidates, 1941-43 (103 feet); reports of security violations in AAF Headquarters and papers on the clearance of foreign nationals to visit AAF field installations, 1943-44; and correspondence and reports about the rehabilitation of garrison prisoners, 1944-47, arranged by AAF field command. See also entry 259.

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Personnel Services and Personal Affairs Divisions [265]

Morale activities for Army Air Forces military personnel were handled by the Special Services Division, established in March 1943 and later divided into the Personnel Services and the Personal Affairs Divisions. The Personnel Services Division was concerned with the various morale, orientation, and educational services available to AAF military personnel through the "special services" and the "information and education" programs of the Army Service Forces and of the Personnel Division, G-1, War Department General Staff. In August 1945 the Personnel Services Division functioned through the Information and Education Branch (including a Library and Hostess Section); and the Special Services Branch (with sections for Army Exchange Liaison, Bands and Music, Entertainment and Recreation, and Insignia and Uniform). The Personal Affairs Division was concerned with the staff aspects of various types of personal assistance to AAF military personnel and their dependents, including financial guidance, family-welfare assistance, veterans' assistance and help given by the Army Emergency Relief, the AAF Aid Society, and the American National Red Cross; and it handled directly the notifications and condolences to next-of-kin of AAF personnel who were missing, wounded, or killed in action. The Division also administered the Personal Affairs School in New York City.

Records.--See entry 259.

Awards Division [266]

Awards to military personnel throughout the AAF, and to civilian personnel in Headquarters, were handled by this Division, established in 1944 as a division separate from the Military Personnel Division and the Civilian Personnel Division, which previously had handled awards functions. The Awards Division provided the recording and administrative services for the AAF Board on Military Awards and the AAF Board on Civilian Awards; prepared citations; and processed, reviewed, recorded, and otherwise handled decorations and awards.

Records.--See entry 259.

Ground Safety Division [267]

Established in 1944, this Division had staff functions pertaining to the elimination of nonflying hazards and accidents and the prevention of injury and loss of life by AAF military and civilian personnel while on the ground. The Division was small, without any subdivisions, and confined its safety activities primarily to AAF operations at depots, training centers, and other AAF installations in the continental United States.

Records.--Much of this Division's wartime correspondence and its other records were currently interfiled in the central records of AAF Headquarters (see entry 256b) and in the general records of AC/AS Personnel (see entry 259). The following records, separately kept by this Division, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Correspondence, manuals, and other papers on ground-safety courses given for AAF at various civilian colleges.

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and minutes of and other papers relating to meetings of the AAF Safety Council, the War Department Safety Council, and the National Safety Congress, 1943-46.

Plans and Liaison Division [268]

In 1944 planning for the demobilization of AAF military personnel at the end of the war and the personnel aspects of the postwar air force was provided for by the establishment of this Division.

Records.--See entry 259.

Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence [269]

The air intelligence functions of Army Air Forces Headquarters included the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information about AAF combat activities and about the strength, vulnerability, and tactical and technical trends of foreign air forces and foreign military powers-- Allied, enemy, and neutral; the analysis of the effect of Allied air attacks on the enemy's military and economic strength; counterintelligence activities; and training activities related to the above functions. From 1939 to November 1940 some of these functions were performed by the Intelligence Section of the Information Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps. In November 1940 this Section became the Intelligence Division, on which there was superimposed in June 1941 the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-2 (AC/AS A-2). Certain additional air intelligence responsibilities were subsequently transferred to AC/AS A-2 from the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, War Department General Staff. In March 1943 the office was renamed AC/AS Intelligence, and it bore this name until the end of August 1945, when it became AC/AS-2.

The staff functions of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, included certain activities outside AAF Headquarters. The Office had line authority over the Air Intelligence School at Harrisburg, Pa., 1942-43, and the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Information Center, 1943-44; represented the Army Air Forces on the Combined Intelligence Committee and the Joint Intelligence Committee, 1943-45; provided the Director and part of the staff of the interallied, interdepartmental Joint Target Group, which prepared target data for use in the war against the Japanese, 1944-45; and participated, with staff personnel and other facilities, in the work of the joint Army-Navy Technical Air Intelligence Center at Anacostia, D.C., 1944-45.

Various nonintelligence matters were handled from time to time by AC/AS Intelligence and its predecessors. The Information Division, 1939-Novem-ber 1940, had a Public Relations Section, which later became a special staff office for public information, and a Map, Photo, and Library Section, the three aspects of which ultimately were absorbed in the Aeronautical Chart Service, the Photographic Division of AC/AS Intelligence, and the War Department Library, respectively. The Historical Division, first under AC/AS A-2 and later under AC/AS Intelligence, July 1942-August 1945.

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was concerned with the AAF historical program and not primarily with current combat intelligence and enemy intelligence; it was transferred in August 1945 to the Secretary of the Air Staff in the Office of the Commanding General.

In August 1945 AC/AS Intelligence had a Plans and Policy Staff and six major divisions, each of which is described below.

Records.--The major body of records of AC/AS Intelligence are the holdings of the Air Intelligence Library (see entry 271). Among the important series of reports originating in or reproduced and disseminated by AC/AS Intelligence are the following: "Air Forces General Information Bulletin" (AFGIB), monthly, about 1942-44; "Informational Intelligence Summary," semimonthly, about 1943-44; "Impact," 1943-45; "Photo Intelligence Reports" (PIR's) on European and Far Eastern bombing targets, about 1943-45; "Technical Air Intelligence Summaries," monthly, about 1942-45; "Counter Intelligence Bulletins," semimonthly, about 1942-43; "Air Objective Folders" on particular European and Far Eastern bombardment targets, numbered, 1942-44; "Airport Directories" and "Air Route Guides" for selected foreign countries and areas, 1942-44; and reports of the Survey of Foreign Experts, 1943, describing the economic, social, and psychological situation in enemy, enemy-occupied, and neutral countries. Extra sets of many of these reports are in the "bulk" central records of AAF Headquarters and in 1945 were among the records of the Office of Strategic Services.

Other records of AC/AS Intelligence are the administrative records of the Office Services Section, pertaining mostly to budgets and to personnel, both civilian and military, assigned to intelligence duties in AAF Headquarters; comprehensive estimates of air capabilities and strategic vulnerability of enemy nations and coalitions; reports on the capture of enemy equipment and records; and copies of reports of counterintelligence units in the continental United States and related administrative correspondence on such matters. Some of these records have been transferred to the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Copies of some of the intelligence studies prepared by AC/AS Intelligence, 1940-45, selected copies of its correspondence, copies of aeronautical correspondence censored by the Counterintelligence Division, 1942-45, and a set of virtually all diaries kept by AC/AS Intelligence and its divisions and branches, 1942-45, are in the Air Historical Group. A file of historical data on the Air Intelligence School, Harrisburg, about 1942-43 (6 vols.), is in the central records of AAF Headquarters (filed in the "bulk" files under 352).

See Assistant Chief of Air Staff, <>Intelligence, Mission Accomplished: Interrogations of Japanese Industrial, Military, and Civil Leaders of World War II (1946. 110 p.), which contains (p. 1-42) a history of AAF's interrogation and related intelligence work.

Plans and Policy Staff [270]

This organization and its predecessors handled AAF intelligence interests in the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff; served as part of a permanent working subcommittee of the Joint

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Intelligence Committee; and prepared and revised the Policy Manual governing such matters as organization and personnel within AC/AS Intelligence. Under this Staff was an Administrative Control Office, which not only provided administrative services (chiefly personnel and records services) for AC/AS Intelligence but also was concerned with recruiting, training, and assigning air intelligence officers in the field. This Office also prepared intelligence curricula for the AAF School of Applied Tactics after March 1944.

Records.--See entry 269.

Collection Division [271]

This Division and its predecessor managed the Air Intelligence Library and performed related staff and operational functions concerned with extending the sources of intelligence information, such as interviewing Army Air Forces personnel returned from combat theaters, analyzing captured enemy documents, and stimulating the exchange of data with other collecting organizations. The Division also handled AAF interests regarding the clearance of foreign visitors to AAF installations, the release of military air information to foreign nationals, the assignment and supervision of American military air attachés abroad, and the control over AAF personnel and aircraft flying over or interned in neutral countries. Staff members of the Division represented the AAF on the Joint Electronics Information Agency and the Weekly Summary Editorial Board, which operated under the Joint Intelligence Committee.

Records.--The holdings of the Air Intelligence Library include printed, typewritten, and photostatic copies of documents dealing comprehensively with the air power, the tactical and technical trends, and the organization and administration of the Army Air Forces and the air establishments of the Navy, the allies of the United States, and enemy and neutral countries; transcripts of interviews obtained by AC/AS Intelligence; target data and analyses; reports originating in AC/AS Intelligence; and intelligence reports of the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Office of Strategic Services, and intelligence units of other overseas and domestic commands and agencies. Most of this material is organized under the 4-digit system of the "Index-Guide for Military Information," and most of the significant items are listed and described in the "Daily Accession Lists" of AC/AS Intelligence (and of its predecessors), 1942-45. Some segments of the Library's holdings are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and a small quantity of materials has been transferred to the Air Force Matériel Engineering, Research, and Development Records Depository at Wright Field, Ohio.

Analysis Division [272]

This Division and its predecessors prepared, in relation to air warfare, analytical reports on all enemy countries and air forces, except that after mid-1944 the target work on Japan was transferred to the Joint Target Group. These reports included descriptions of strategic targets;

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estimates of the effect of Allied air attacks on the enemy's industrial, naval, and air strength; information about "Tactical and Technical Trends"; analyses of maps and other intelligence documents providing information about foreign airfields; and "radar intelligence" studies, involving the interpretation of radar-scope photographs. The Division also prepared air intelligence reports on Allied and neutral countries and represented the Army Air Forces on the Joint Intelligence Studies Publishing Board, under the Joint Intelligence Committee. Records.--See entry 269.

Photographic Division [273]

This Division and its predecessors collected photographs and made them available both for air intelligence and for public relations purposes. The Division managed the Photographic Library of AAF and conducted a photographic reproduction service for AAF Headquarters.

Records.--The Photographic Library's holdings, in the custody of the Air Force Still Photography Depository, consist of negatives and prints of AAF, Navy, and Allied air activities, mapping and charting photographs, reconnaissance-mission survey sheets, bomb-damage photographs, and photo-interpretation reports. The following AAF wartime photographs have been transferred to the National Archives: Portraits of air officers, aviation cadets, and graduates of flying schools, forming part of a series extending from 1923 to 1946 (about 258,000 prints and 260,700 negatives); and aerial mapping film of areas in 20 States and Alaska, 1940-41 (about 1,350 rolls). Photographs of Japanese aircraft, 1942-45, arranged by model (6 feet), are in the custody of the Air Matériel Command, Wright Field, Ohio. See also entry 269.

See Israel Horowitz, "Army Air Forces Keep Pictorial Record," in Library Journal, 71: 1751-1754 (Dec. 15, 1946).

Technical Air Intelligence (Japanese) Division [274]

In 1944 and 1945 this Division furnished the AAF's share of personnel and facilities for the Army-Navy Technical Air Intelligence Center at the Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D.C. The staff members of this Division were administratively under AC/AS Intelligence but served at the Center in the work of sending out Technical Air Intelligence Detachments to the Pacific Theaters and evaluating captured Japanese air equipment and technical data sent back to the Center.

Records.--See entry 269.

Counterintelligence Division [275]

This Division had staff responsibility for countersubversive, counterespionage, countersabotage, and other negative-intelligence policies, functions, and procedures of AAF agencies; and it effected necessary coordination on such matters with the Military Intelligence Division, G2.

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War Department General Staff, and with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. One of the Division's special duties was to censor correspondence and technical data directed to United States aeronautical manufacturers from their overseas representatives; another duty was to provide the chairman of the AAF Committee on Release of Technical Information. Records.--See entry 269.

Motion Picture Services Division [276]

This Division and its predecessors planned, supervised, and co-ordinated all motion picture projects within the Army Air Forces except training films (which were the responsibility of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training), films used in experimental engineering (which were the responsibility of the Air Technical Service Command), and the Air Transport Command's route-briefing films. It was responsible for obtaining a pictorial record of the Army Air Forces during the war for use in training and public information purposes. The Division was importantly concerned with the training and overseas assignment of the Combat Camera Units, replacement personnel for such units, and the supervision of two AAF field organizations in the continental United States--the AAF Combat Film Service (known also as the 5th AAF Base Unit), at New York, and the AAF Motion Picture Unit (known also as the 13th AAF Combat Camera Unit and the 18th AAF Base Unit), at Culver City, Calif.

Records.--The AAF motion picture collection, which was maintained by the Motion Picture Services Division in New York City, is in the Air Force Motion Picture Film Depository, Wright Field, Ohio. The administrative records of the AAF Combat Film Service, 1943-45, and the central files, special orders, and other records of the AAF Motion Picture Unit, 1943-46, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. See also entry 269.

Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training [277]

The AAF staff functions pertaining to preflight training, flying training, and ground-duty training, both at Army air installations and at civilian contract schools, were performed successively during the period 1939-42 in various units in Headquarters. Through the Chief of the Air Corps, these units had line authority over "individual training" in the continental United States, that is, over the training centers, schools, and airfields that were later (July 1943) to become part of the AAF Training Command; and, to a less extent, over "unit training" activities of the General Headquarters Air Force and the Air Force Combat Command and their subordinate wings, air districts, and airfields. From June 1941 to March 1943, the Office of Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-3, was importantly concerned not only with training but also with operations, that is, relations with the air forces and commands in the combat theaters. Additional echelons with training functions were the Assistant for Personnel and Training Services,

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December 1941-March 1942; and the Director of Individual Training, March 1942-March 1943. Between March and September 1943 the training functions in AAF Headquarters were consolidated under the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training (AC/AS Training), and were continued under his jurisdiction until about the end of the war. In 1945 AC/AS Training included the divisions separately described below.

Records.--Most of the wartime activities of the Office are documented chiefly in the general records of AAF Headquarters (see entry 256b) and in the records of the AAF Training Command (see entry 323d). A few separately maintained records of the Training Division, 1941 and earlier, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A set of the training films entitled "Target for Today," 1944, is in the National Archives.

The daily diaries of AC/AS Training and of its divisions, branches, and predecessors, 1942-45, and copies of selected correspondence and studies of these units, 1942-45, are in the custody of the Air Historical Group. Some unpublished historical studies of AAF wartime training, also in the Air Historical Group, relate to the organization of the training programs, basic military training, pre-flight training, bombardier training, navigator training, flexible gunnery training, aircraft maintenance training, and unit and individual training in the overseas air commands. Other historical studies on training, prepared by the Historical Office, constitute chapters of an unpublished Army-wide history of training that is on file in the Army's Historical Division. Two series of periodical reports by the AAF Statistical Control Division are on training: The "T" series, on training, and the "0" series, on AAF troop units ("organizations") in training or in combat.

Training Division [278]

Four divisions handled various parts of the Army Air Forces training program. The Flying Training Division was concerned with individual training of pilots and aircrew members (except radio, radar, and gunner personnel) and with unit training of all types of air units. The Technical and Services Training Division was responsible for ground-duty training, preflight training, the training of service units, and supervision over National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol (see also Office of Civilian Defense in the volume for civilian agencies). The Flexible Gunnery Division gave its attention to the training of flexible gunners for bombers; and the Communications Training Division to the training of radio and radar personnel both for air and related ground duties.

Records.--For the records of the Division see entry 277. Records of National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol (known also as the 32d AAF Base Unit and located successively in Washington, D. C, Fort Worth, Tex., and Boiling Field, D. C), 1941-46 (196 feet), are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Related papers are also in the central records of the War Department in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 324.5 Civil Air Patrol.

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Training Aids Division [279]

Serving all these categories of training was the Training Aids Division, which with its predecessors was responsible from 1942 to the end of the war for selecting and standardizing synthetic training devices and for cooperating with the Air Technical Service Command and the latter's contractors in the development and production of these devices. The Division also had technical supervision over the preparation of training motion pictures and film strips and represented the AAF on the Joint Clearing Committee on Army-Navy Training Aids. Most of the staff of the Division was in the 4th AAF Base Unit in New York City.

Records.--Some records of the Division, 1942-45 (50 feet), including the manuscript for one of the "Technical Manuals" (TM1-435), are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Other records are in the Air Force Matériel Engineering, Research, and Development Records Depository at Wright Field, Ohio. See also entry 277.

Flight Operations Division [280]

Although a part of AC/AS Training, this Division did not participate in training. It was in charge of plans and regulations for all the Army's noncombat flying in the continental United States, including procedures and standards for base operations offices and procedures for the handling of control towers, weather information, and communications. The Division had line jurisdiction over the AAF Flight Service, an AAF field command located at Gravelly Point, D. C, with a branch at Winston-Salem, N. C. In addition the Division provided the War Department member for the Interdepartmental Air Traffic Control Board; maintained liaison with the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Navy Department on noncombat flying procedures; and in cooperation with the Foreign Liaison Office of G2, War Department General Staff, it regulated the movement of foreign friendly aircraft into, through, or out of United States territory.

Records.--See entry 277.

Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements [281]

This Office, known as AC/AS OC&R or merely as OC&R, and its predecessors performed AAF Headquarters staff functions as to operations, that is, functions concerned primarily with the needs of the overseas air forces. These were the coordination and processing of combat requirements for aircraft, equipment, supplies, trained air and ground crews, and trained tactical and service units; troop-basis planning and the organization and activation of new air units; the preparation of troop-movement orders; and the other aspects of the allocation, commitment, and ordering of men and matériel to their overseas assignments. Comparable functions affecting air commands in the continental United States were also performed by OC&R.

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Aside from the strategic-planning phases of requirements and commitments, which were handled by the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans, these operational functions were performed from 1939 to 1943 by a series of headquarters staff offices in the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, the Air Force Combat Command, and AAF Headquarters. From June 1941 to March 1943 these staff units were responsible to the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-3, which was established as a policy office for both operations and training. In March 1943 this Office was abolished and its requirements, commitments, and related functions were merged in the new Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements--a staff office which, with its subordinate divisions and offices, functioned until late in August 1945 with only minor internal organizational and functional changes.

In addition to having various direct relationships with overseas air forces, OC&R and its predecessors were concerned with related matters in the continental United States. These were the handling of the personnel and matériel requirements of the domestic AAF commands and organizations; the review of tests of new or improved items of aircraft and equipment, whether those tests were conducted by the AAF Proving Ground Command or the Air Technical Service Command; and line authority at one time or another, in behalf of AAF Headquarters, over the Proving Ground Command, the AAF School of Applied Tactics (later reorganized as part of the new AAF Center), and the AAF Weather Service. In addition, special activities were occasionally assigned to OC&R, such as the functions of the Director of Women Pilots, primarily a staff office for the recruiting and training of Women Air Service Pilots (WASP personnel), June 1943-December 1944; the functions of the Special Assistant for the AAF Glider Program, established in April 1943 and disbanded in November 1943 when its training and matériel functions were reabsorbed by the offices of AC/AS Training and AC/AS Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution, respectively; and the functions of the AAF Combat Film Service, July 1943-August 1944. In August 1945, OC&R's functions were being performed through the special offices and divisions that are described below.

Records.--OC&R's activities are documented in the central records of AAF Headquarters, described above. The "bulk" files contain special series of OC&R documents, such as notes of staff meetings, Apr. 1942-Nov. 1943 (filed under 337); sets of the Program Advisor's "program books," 1944 (filed variously under 319.1 and 370); and weekly weather forecast reports (filed under 000.93).

A few series of permanent records of OC&R and its predecessors were in Dec. 1946 in the Office of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff-3. These included "project books," pertaining to the activities of each subordinate unit of the Office; the "AAF Troop Basis Historical File," consisting of Army publications, staff studies, and related papers covering comprehensively the composition of each type of AAF command or unit during the war; records pertaining

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to matériel tests by the Proving Ground Command, including copies of test reports, status and progress reports on tests, and related indexes. Records of the Directorate of Air Support, 1941-43, and records of the Aeronautics Chart Service Section, Photographic Aviation Branch, 1942-43, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A file of "unit records" (on cards) of all AAF combat and service troop units was (in 1946) in the AAF Statistical Control Division. Another, different card file of "history" data on air units was maintained by the Organization and Directory Section, Adjutant General's Office, as part of an Army-wide compilation; the air-related records were transferred, sometime after Sept. 1947, to Headquarters United States Air Force. The diaries of OC&R and its predecessors, some of the diaries of subordinate divisions and branches, and an unpublished 2-volume "Organizational and Functional History of AC/AS-3 [and predecessors], 1939-45," were in 1946 on file in the Air Historical Office.

Records relating to WASP personnel ("201" files) were in a separate series in the central records of AAF Headquarters in 1947. Policy and operational papers relating to this organization are in the central records of AAF Headquarters and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO. For a guide to such papers in the latter records, see index sheets filed under AG 324.5 WASP.

Special Offices [282]

There were three special offices in the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements. The Office of the Advisor for Program Control and its predecessors had the broadest functions. It prepared comprehensive programs for insuring a coordinated flow of aircraft, equipment, and trained personnel to fulfill objectives formulated by the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans, and its "program books" served as guides for the Commitments Division of OC&R. Another office, the AAF Board Control Office, represented OC&R in its supervision over and liaison with the AAF Board, the AAF Center, and the Proving Ground Command. The Boiling Field Liaison Office was the supervisory unit for Boiling Field, D. C, the only Army airfield that was assigned directly to AAF Headquarters.

Records.--See entry 281.

Requirements Division [283]

In this Division (known as the Office of the Director of Military Requirements, March 1942-March 1943) was centralized the responsibility for quality and quantity requirements for air matériel and personnel, although some of the responsibility was shared with other divisions of the air staff. The Division was also responsible for approving tactics, techniques, and doctrines for (1) air operations, including operations involving fighter, bomber, reconnaissance, transport, glider, and utility airplanes; (2) land.

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sea, and aerial rescue of AAF combat personnel; and (3) air defense (except antiaircraft), including aircraft warning and control systems. Records.--See entry 281.

Troop Basis Division [284]

This Division formulated official schedules or troop-basis documents for the activation of AAF units, including units of other arms and services attached to the AAF. In behalf of AAF Headquarters it directed the activation, deactivation, constitution, and reorganization of units. These and related record-keeping and statistical functions were handled through three branches: Activations, Review and Control, and Schedules.

Records.--See entry 281.

Commitments Division [285]

In this Division were centralized the commitment and overseas movement of AAF units, replacement crews, and aircraft. It monitored the status of commitments and prepared warning and movement orders; controlled the transfer of aircraft between domestic commands and air forces; and monitored the processing and movement of AAF troops and accompanying equipment through the AAF staging areas and aerial ports of embarkation.

Records.--See entry 281.

Weather Division [286]

This Division and its predecessors were responsible for the plans, policies, and programs of the weather service for the Army; supervised the AAF Weather Wing, Asheville, N. C, which in turn operated the global AAF Weather Service; recommended requirements for weather equipment, personnel, and organizations; prepared and disseminated long-range forecasts, climatological studies, and other research studies necessary for global air operations; and maintained liaison with the Weather Bureau, the Navy Department, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the National Defense Research Committee, and other research agencies. These weather functions-of AAF Headquarters were handled between 1939 and 1945 by the Communications and Weather Section, Training and Operation Division, 1939-42; the Directorate of Weather, 1942-43; and the Weather Division, OC&R, 1943-45. Another of the Division's activities was to represent AAF on the United States Trans-Atlantic Service Safety Organization Committee (TASSO), 1942-44. In August 1945 the Weather Division was composed of three branches: Requirements and Procedures, Forecast, and Special Studies.

Records.--In 1946 some records of this Division, including weather studies, were in the Office of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff-3. Materials-relating to a meteorological project at the California Institute of Technology, 1943, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

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Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services [287]

This Office (known also as AC/AS M&S) and its predecessors performed "A-4" staff functions of matériel, supply, and related services. These functions extended to AAF-procured aircraft and equipment and also to matériel, supplies, and services procured for the Army Air Forces by the Technical Services of the Army Service Forces, by the Navy's procurement bureaus, and by certain Allied governments. They included the formulation of military characteristics of weapons, research and development, proving and testing, standardization, production resources (plant facilities, machine tools, material, and labor), contracts and purchases, storage, distribution and supply, reclamation and salvage, and disposal of surplus matériel. In addition, A-4 functions during the war included two major nonmatériel functions--the acquisition and construction of air installations and AAF interests in rail, water, and highway transportation.

[287a] Organizational changes.--Throughout the war AAF's matériel responsibilities were divided between a matériel staff in Washington and a matériel command at Wright Field (see entry 321), each known successively by different names. The staff in Washington had line jurisdiction over the command at Wright Field, and was known successively as the Office of the Chief of the Matériel Division, October 1939-March 1942; Matériel Command Headquarters in Washington, March 1942-March 1943; the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution (AC/AS MM&D), March 1943-July 1944; and the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services (AC/AS M&S), July 1944-August 1945.

The supply, maintenance, and related service-training phases of matériel were handled in part, between 1941 and 1943, by a series of separate organizations. Chief of these were the Maintenance Command, March-October 1941; the Air Service Command, October 1941-March 1943; and the Directorate of Base Services, March 1942-March 1943, which was concerned largely with AAF interests in non-AAF equipment, supply, and services procured and handled by the Ordnance Department, the Quartermaster Corps, and the other Technical Services of the Army Service Forces. During the same period, 1941-43, there were two other staff offices in AAF Headquarters concerned with AAF matériel and supply--a small Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-4, June 1941-March 1943; and the Office of the Assistant for Procurement Services, December 1941-March 1942. All the functions of these various organizations were reabsorbed into the main matériel staff office in March 1943, when it was renamed the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution.

These successive air matériel-and-service staffs and commands were collectively regarded between 1939 and 1945 as one of the Technical Services, in terms of general Army procurement responsibilities, but they were the one service that was coordinate with, rather than under, the Army Service Forces. Like the other procurement services, AAF's matériel and service

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staff reported (through the Commanding General, AAF) to the Under Secretary of War rather than to the Chief of Staff, War Department General Staff. Both AC/AS M&S and the Air Technical Service Command (and their respective predecessors) were represented from time to time on the Munitions Assignments Committees and on other committees of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and of the Joint Chiefs of Staff that were concerned with matériel, supply, and related service matters; on the Working Committee of the Aeronautical Board for Army-Navy standards for aeronautical equipment, materials, and processes; on the Joint Aircraft Committee and its many subcommittees; on the War Production Board and its predecessor and subordinate units; and on the A-4 staff of Headquarters XX Air Force.

In August 1945 the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services included the organizational units separately described below and a Special Advisory Group concerned with the special investigation of contracts and contractors for AAF-procured matériel.

[287b] Records.--Certain records of AC/AS M&S, its predecessors, and its divisions were in June 1946 in the custody of its successor, the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff-4. Among them were records of the Special Advisory Group, arranged by firm, 1942-45. Other records of the Office may be among the "bulk" files in the central records of AAF Headquarters. A postwar file of wartime interest is a series, compiled in Headquarters United States Air Force about 1947, of copies of correspondence, studies, and reports used in connection with the investigation, by the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program, of the activities of Maj. Gen. B. E. Meyers, Deputy AC/AS M&S during the war; this file (6 feet) is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Records created by the divisions are discussed below, under the appropriate headings. In the Air Historical Group are several AAF historical studies relating to such aspects of air matériel as research and development, production, plant expansion, and standardization, and copies of daily diaries of AC/AS M&S and its subordinate units, 1943-45 (12 feet). The recurring reports by the AAF Statistical Control Division (see entries 257a and 257b) contain one series (the "A" series, with several subseries) on airplane production, deliveries, inventories, and losses.

Control Office [288]

This Office coordinated the planning throughout the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services, especially the planning of quantity requirements for aircraft and equipment and of procurement budgets. It also prepared statistical studies on procurement and supply for both scheduling purposes and progress reporting; supervised, in cooperation with the War Department Price Adjustment Board, the renegotiation of Army Air Forces contracts; and handled other control functions. The Office was divided into five branches: Analysis and Reports (for statistical work), Organization (for organizational planning within AC/AS M&S), Financial (for budgets), Price Adjustment, and Aircraft Distribution Control. This last-named Branch collaborated with the Commitments Division

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of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements, in issuing orders and controlling the movement of AAF aircraft allocated to the Army Air Forces, the Navy, and Allied organizations by the Munitions Assignments Board and its subcommittees and by the President's Soviet Protocol Committee; and it had direct line authority over the Aircraft Distribution Office at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, which handled most of the details of airplane movements before ferrying by the Air Transport Command.

Records.--Wartime records of the Control Office that were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS-4 included statistical and narrative studies by its Analysis and Reports Branch on air matériel and supply matters generally, 1942-45, and Control Office correspondence and papers pertaining to the distribution of air matériel to the Allies, including copies of minutes, agenda, and case papers of the Munitions Assignments Board and its subcommittees, the Joint Aircraft Committee and its subcommittees, and the President's Soviet Protocol Committee.

Matériel Division [289]

This Division, which had been a section of the earlier, more inclusive Matériel Division in 1939-42 and continued as a division within AC/AS M&S until after the war, was responsible for research and development, production, and aircraft modification programs and policies, except for industrial resources and contracts, which were supervised by the Resources Division and the Procurement Division, respectively. The Matériel Division consisted of the Research Liaison Office, responsible for dealing with the National Defense Research Committee and the National Inventors Council; the Office of Technical Assistants, consisting primarily of aeronautical and other engineers, civilian and military; the Aircraft Projects Branch; the Engineering Branch, responsible for equipment other than airplanes, including the standardization of both equipment and materials; and the International Branch, which handled the interests of the Army Air Forces in lend-lease and reciprocal aid.

Records.--Wartime records of the Division that were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS-4 included its records pertaining to aeronautical research and development, chiefly a series on most phases and types (and, in some cases, models) of aircraft and air equipment, containing minutes and reports of the National Inventors Council, the National Research Council, the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Records of the Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include some of its project files and subject files pertaining to individual types and models of aircraft and equipment, 1942-45, the so-called "Col. A. J. Lyon project books," 1939--41, "historical" materials on Signal Corps air-related radio and radar equipment, about 1939-45, correspondence with the Signal Corps up to Dec. 1941, the records of the Division's International Branch, 1942-48 (the last amounting to about 335 feet and including copies of documents originating in the Munitions Assignments Board and the Joint Munitions Allocations Committee), and a record set

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of specifications for air matériel, materials, and processes (U.S. Army, Army-Navy, Army-Navy Aeronautical, Federal, and non-Government), 1929-48. Some records of the Division pertaining to aircraft modification, 1942-45 (18 feet), are in the custody of the Air Matériel Command, Wright Field, Ohio.

Resources Division [290]

This Division and its predecessors represented AAF Headquarters with respect to the construction and financing of industrial facilities for the aircraft production program; the production and allocation of aluminum, machine tools, and other materials and equipment for that program; the handling of problems of aircraft labor supply, labor utilization, and labor disputes, through its Labor and Manpower Branch and its AAF Industrial Manning Board; contract termination and the redistribution of AAF-controlled industrial property; and special problems such as containers and packaging for overseas shipment. The Division served in a dual capacity, both as a division of AC/AS M&S and as the AAF staff membership in the Aircraft Resources Control Office, an AAF-Navy-War Production Board office that served as the "executive agency" for the Aircraft Production Board of the War Production Board.

Records.--Wartime records of the Division that were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS-4 included its correspondence pertaining to the expansion of industrial facilities for air production, especially those that were Government-financed, and to contract termination. In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the Division's records pertaining to the procurement of machine tools and their allocation to AAF contractors, 1941-43, the production and distribution of critical materials and components, 1942-44, and problems of industrial labor (including records of the AAF Industrial Manning Board), 1942-44.

Procurement Division [291]

This Division and its predecessors were concerned with purchasing, contracting, and other financial and legal activities affecting both AAF industrial contractors and AAF contractors who conducted factory training and other training courses for the Army Air Forces through the AAF Training Command. The Division supervised the Air Technical Service Command on contractual matters; represented the Army Air Forces on the Procurement Assignment Board, which arbitrated questions of procurement responsibility; and was represented on the Procurement Policy Board of the War Production Board.

Records.--Wartime records of the Division that were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS-4 included copies of AAF contracts for aircraft and equipment and for AAF training programs at colleges and other institutions. In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are selected contract files of the Division, 1943-47 (90 feet), including separate series for negotiated "purchase actions" in the field, 1943-46, purchases for the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics.

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1940-45, and purchases of privately owned aircraft, 1942-43. The main records pertaining to wartime contracts are in the AAF's consolidated contract files at Wright Field, Ohio.

Air Services Division [292]

This Division, 1943-45, and its predecessors, 1939-43, supervised the supply and maintenance activities of the Air Service Command, which was merged into the Air Technical Service Command in August 1944, except that the Command's training of units for such supply and maintenance activities was supervised after September 1943 by the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training. Related to this supply and maintenance staff work, which was handled by the Supply and Maintenance Branch, was the work of the Logistics Planning Branch, which maintained comprehensive logistical data, on a global basis, for planning quantity requirements for air equipment (except airplanes), prepared logistical doctrines, and planned the training and organization of service units for use by the overseas Air Forces. The Logistics Planning Branch cooperated with the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans, and it represented AAF logistical needs on the Joint Logistics Committee, the Combined Administrative Committee, the Joint and Combined Staff Planners, and the Joint Logistics Plans Committee. The third branch of the Air Services Division was the Aviation Petroleum Branch, which controlled AAF interests in the development, production, and distribution of aviation gasoline, lubricants, and related petroleum products; represented the Army Air Forces on the Army-Navy Petroleum Board and the Aviation Petroleum Products Allocations Committee (a subcommittee of the Munitions Assignments Board); and maintained liaison, regarding these materials, with the Petroleum Administration for War and the War Production Board.

Predecessors of the Air Services Division, 1939-43, were known as the Field Service Section, Office of the Chief of the Matériel Division, 1939-42; the Directorate of Base Services, March 1942-March 1943; and the Supply and Services Division, AC/AS Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution.

Records.--Records of the Division's Supply and Maintenance Branch, including policy papers on the storage, issue, repair, salvage, and disposal of AAF equipment, 1942-47 (47 feet), and records used in the preparation of certain AAF "Technical Orders," 1945 (2 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Records pertaining to the preparation of AAF "Technical Orders" for training equipment sets, Mar-May 1945 (2 feet), are in the custody of the Air Matériel Command, Wright Field, Ohio.

Traffic Division [293]

This Division and its predecessors were concerned with the domestic and overseas transportation of both AAF matériel (except the ferrying of airplanes) and AAF personnel. It reviewed and approved requirements of the Army Air Forces for rail, motor, water, and air traffic; handled these requirements in the appropriate subcommittees of the Joint

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Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff; and submitted them to the Army's Transportation Corps for action, except for air transportation matters, which were handled by the Air Transport Command. Outside Washington the Division functioned through field offices in New York, Atlanta, Dayton, New Orleans, Chicago, Dallas, Kansas City, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. The Division had line authority over the carrier functions of the Air Transport Command and over local feeder and similar air transport services of other AAF commands in the continental United States. It maintained liaison with the Office of Defense Transportation, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Office of the Chief of Transportation (of the Army's Transportation Corps), the Civil Aeronautics Administration, the War Department Code Marking Policy Committee, and such trade associations as the Association of American Railroads and the American Trucking Association.

Records.--Wartime records of the Division that were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS-4 included policy papers pertaining to motor, rail, water, and air transportation for the Army Air Forces and correspondence relating to freight rates, customs, bill-of-lading procedures, and training courses for transportation officers. Records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include materials relating to travel duty of Headquarters personnel, from 1942 (27 feet), and to the supply and maintenance of passenger vehicles throughout AAF, from 1942 (6 feet); records of five of the Division's district offices, 1943-45; and records of its air sections at various ports of embarkation, 1942-45.

Air Installations Division [294]

This Division (and its predecessor Buildings and Grounds Section, 1941-44) constituted the air-staff office responsible for the acquisition, construction, and maintenance of all airfields, air bases, bombing and gunnery ranges, and other "class III" (that is, AAF-controlled) Army installations in the continental United States. Industrial facilities, such as AAF-controlled" aircraft production plants, were handled by the Resources Division. To a less extent, foreign and territorial airfields operated by the overseas Air Forces were also included in the staff work of the Air Installations Division. The Division's interests included construction standards and design criteria for buildings, runway pavements, airfield drainage systems, and fuel storage systems; safety standards for approach zones, runways, taxiway clearances, markers, and lighting systems--matters that in some cases involved interservice collaboration through the Aeronautical Board or the Joint Aircraft Committee; real-estate purchases and leases, and the construction and maintenance of facilities--matters that were the operational responsibility of the Corps of Engineers and (for flight strips) the Public Roads Administration; and the utilization, assignment, and disposal of installations, including collaboration with the Interdepartmental Air Traffic Control Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration, and the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, United States and Canada.

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Records.--Records of the Division that were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS-4 included records pertaining to the design, construction, and maintenance of airfields, runways, pavements, drainage systems, technical air buildings, fuel systems, airfield lighting, and bombing and gunnery ranges in the continental United States; minutes of the Air Facilities Board for the disposal of installations in the continental United States; and airport directories for the continental United States and overseas. Records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include maps pertaining to the airport development program, correspondence relating to requirements, repairs, and maintenance of airfields and other Army Air Forces installations, 1941-44, and miscellaneous construction records of the predecessor Buildings and Grounds Section, to 1943.

Special Staff Offices [295]

In addition to the major staff divisions just discussed, there were four special staff offices in the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services, that procured special types of matériel and services and performed specialized types of ground-duty training of personnel destined for use by the overseas Air Forces. These offices were the Air Ordnance Office, Air Chemical Office, Air Engineer Office, and Air Quartermaster Office; they handled AAF interests with the Ordnance Department, the Chemical Warfare Service, the Corps of Engineers, and the Quartermaster Corps, respectively. Each of these advisory offices in its particular field formulated AAF requirements for research and development, quantity production, and organization and training of service personnel and units, and each office usually had subordinate branches or divisions corresponding to these functional responsibilities. The special offices, functioning within AC/AS M&S after March 1943, earlier had been parts of other staff offices, as follows: In 1939-40 the General Headquarters Air Force; in 1940-41 the Air Force Combat Command; and in 1942-43 the Directorate of Base Services, AAF Headquarters.

Records.--Project records, reports, and technical data of the above-mentioned offices pertaining to Ordnance, Chemical Warfare, Quartermaster, and Engineer matériel and services for use by AAF were in 1946 in the Office of AC/AS--4. In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the general files of the Quartermaster Section of the Air Force Combat Command (predecessor of the Air Quartermaster Office), including records extending from 1935 to 1942; records of the Air Ordnance Office, especially a series of printed reports, drawings, charts, and correspondence relating to the investigation of ballistics, weapons, fuels, and aircraft devices, 1942-46 (23 feet), and correspondence with Ordnance sections in overseas air commands, 1944-46; and records of the Air Chemical Office, 1942-45 (2 feet), containing intra-AAF correspondence, AAF-Chemical Warfare Service correspondence, copies of Chemical Warfare Board reports, copies of "Chemical Warfare Intelligence Bulletins," and other papers relating to the development and employment of air-related Chemical Warfare matériel. A single-volume

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Records.--Records of the Division that were in 1946 in the Office of Division.

Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans [296]

The functions of preparing, reviewing, and revising AAF plans for air operations were a continuing responsibility of AAF Headquarters during the entire war. From time to time between 1939 and 1941 this responsibility was informally delegated by the War Department General Staff to, or was assumed by, the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps. In March 1942 it was formally assigned to AAF as a command function. Within AAF Headquarters this responsibility was concentrated in the office successively named the Plans Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, 1939-41; the Air War Plans Division (AWPD), AAF Headquarters, June 1941-March 1942; the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operational Plans (AC/AS Operational Plans), March 1942-March 1943; and the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans (AC/AS Plans), March 1943-August 1945. Near the end of the war, about September 1, 1945, this office was renamed AC/AS-5.

The AAF's planning functions involved continuous collaboration and liaison with members of higher staffs and authorities that controlled national policies and objectives, notably the committees of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined Chiefs of Staff; the staff of the President of the United States; and interdepartmental committees on which the AAF and the State Department were represented. Planning also involved continuous relations with the headquarters of the overseas theater commands that were to direct and execute the combat operations growing out of the plans. Within AAF Headquarters, many individual phases and details of these functions were shared with other staff officers, notably with AC/AS Matériel and Services, which was responsible, under monitoring of AC/AS Plans, for preparing the logistical plans covering aircraft and certain major types of air equipment to support the operational plans.

The activities of the planning unit took two main forms between 1939 and 1945. During the defense period, 1939-41, the Plans Division was concerned primarily with the air plans for Western Hemisphere defense, the air phases of conversations between the United States Army planners and their British counterparts early in 1941, and the subsequent air war plan, September 1941. The Division also had line authority over the Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, Ala., where some of the planning studies were made during this period. After December 7, 1941, planning for possible eventualities was replaced by planning for strategic bombardment and tactical air operations over German-held and Japanese-held areas. At the same time cooperative planning with the Navy staffs and the British staffs was formalized through the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, respectively. In these operational planning activities, 1942-45, AC/AS Plans functioned through the major organizational units described below.

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Records.--The records of the Plans Division, dating from before 1939 to 1941 (60 feet), are in the Air Historical Group. They consist of planning correspondence and planning studies on all aspects of military aviation. Some records of AC/AS Plans and its other predecessors were in 1946 in the custody of its successor, AC/AS-5. Many related documents, especially copies of memoranda and correspondence, are in the central records of AAF Headquarters. The daily diaries of AC/AS Plans and of its predecessor and subordinate units, 1942-45, are in the Air Historical Group.

Combined and Joint Staffs Division [297]

This Division was the recording and coordinating office of AAF for all actions, directives, agenda, minutes, and reports of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff and their respective committees, and for all briefs, extracts, studies, memoranda, and recommendations on joint or combined affairs undertaken within the Division or elsewhere in AAF Headquarters. Among its duties was collaboration with the Strategy and Policy Group, Operations Division, War Department General Staff, and with the Joint Strategic Survey Committee.

Records.--Records of the Division were in 1946 in the custody of AC/AS-5, successor to AC/AS Plans.

Operational Plans Division [298]

This Division formulated plans for the types and numbers of AAF combat units to be deployed and redeployed (subject to the availability of aircraft and air matériel); served as AAF liaison with the theater groups in the Operations Division, War Department General Staff; represented the AAF on the Joint Brazil-United States and the Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commissions; and made recommendations on aircraft and other major items of air matériel to be allocated to the air forces of the Allies.

Records.--Some records of the Division, 1942-45 (100 feet), are in the Air Historical Group. They consist of studies, plans, and other documents prepared by AC/AS Plans and related agencies, together with supporting correspondence, memoranda, and messages. A series of "shipment lists" of these records has been prepared by the Air Historical Office. Other records of the Division were in 1946 in the custody of AC/AS-5, successor to AC/AS Plans.

Logistics Division [299]

This Division monitored the preparation of AAF aircraft and equipment plans by the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services, analyzed the needs of Navy and Allied air forces for airplanes produced by AAF contractors, and submitted these requirements to the AAF Requirements Board. In connection with these duties, the Division was represented on the Joint Aircraft Committee and two of its subcommittees (Production Programs and Aircraft Preference List); on the Munitions

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Assignments Committee (Air) and two of its subcommittees (Aircraft, and Bombs and Ammunition); the Joint Munitions Allocations Committee and the Joint Allocations Committee (Air); and the Joint Logistics Plans Committee.

Records.--Records of the Division were in 1946 in the custody of AC/AS-5, successor to AC/AS Plans.

Postwar Division [300]

This Division performed in 1945 one of the two special functions of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans. This was to plan for the postwar air force, a function shared in part with the Special Projects Office, which is discussed below, and with the Special Planning Division of the War Department General Staff. The Postwar Division was especially concerned with the postwar disposal of AAF's foreign airfields and in this connection represented AAF on the Joint Staff Planners Special Subcommittee, the State-War-Navy Committee on United States Requirements for Postwar Military Bases, and the Interdepartmental Committee on Civil Aviation and Technical Training Assistance to Foreign Countries.

Records.--Records of the Division were in 1946 in the custody of AC/AS-5, successor to AC/AS Plans.

Civil Affairs Division [301]

This Division performed the other special function of AC/AS 301 Plans, the handling of AAF interests with respect to military government of liberated areas. It acted as AAF liaison agent with the Civil Affairs Division, War Department Special Staff; the Military Government Section, Central Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations; and the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. The Chief of the Division represented AAF on the Joint Civil Affairs Committee and made recommendations for the designation of AAF members on that Committee's subcommittees.

Records.--Records of the Division were in 1946 in the custody of AC/AS-5, successor to AC/AS Plans.

Office of the Air Inspector [302]

Between 1939 and 1945 inspector-general and related technical air-inspection functions were performed in AAF Headquarters by the following units: Inspection Section, Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Corps, 1939-40; Inspection Division, 1940-41; Office of the Air Inspector (known also as TAI or AI), 1941-45; and an additional office in 1942 named the Directorate of Technical Inspection. These functions, derived from the Inspector General's Office and from special directives of the Commanding General of AAF, included all types of periodic and special inspections except procurement inspection of plants holding AAF industrial contracts, inspections concerned with counterintelligence and personnel loyalty, and inspections

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concerned with aircraft accidents. Besides the office in Washington, there were numerous field offices throughout the continental United States, each of which was headed by a Field Air Inspector. These field offices were supervised in Washington by the Executive for Field Operations and the Office of Field Air Inspectors. In addition to these offices, in September 1945 the Office of the Air Inspector included the Contract Inspection Division, the POM Inspection Division (for inspections of AAF units, crews, and casuals during their "Preparation for Overseas Movement"), and the Investigations Division (for handling alleged irregularities and deficiencies throughout AAF).

Records.--In addition to the central records of AAF Headquarters (especially class 333), where the Air Inspector's activities and policies are extensively documented, the following wartime records kept in his Office were scheduled in 1946 for permanent or indefinite retention: Records on the organization, functions, and personnel of the Washington and field offices; originals of daily diaries of division chiefs and copies of the diary of the Office as a whole (other copies are in the Air Historical Group); reading files of copies of correspondence of the Personnel and Administration Division; personnel record cards for Air Inspectors in the field; and notebooks on contract inspections and contract inspection reports, 1944-45. The following records of the Office are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Copies of AAF and War Department circulars, technical bulletins, office memoranda, and forms, with background correspondence, 1939-42 (part of a larger file going back to 1927); survey reports by Field Air Inspectors on the personnel situation in AAF commands in the United States, Nov. 1944-Jan. 1945 (2 feet); and "Final POM [Preparation for Overseas Movement] Summary" reports of various AAF units, 1943-44 (14 feet). An unpublished study of inspection control, prepared about 1945 by the Air Historical Office, is in the Air Historical Group.

Budget and Fiscal Office [303]

Budget and fiscal staff functions for AAF Headquarters and AAF field commands were performed between 1939 and 1945 by the following offices: The Finance Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, 1939-March 1942; the separate Budget Section under the Chief of the Air Staff, June 1941-March 1942; the Budget Office, March-December 1942; and the Budget and Fiscal Office, 1943-45. In 1944 and 1945 the Budget and Fiscal Office had staff supervision of the procedures, personnel, and operations of the finance offices attached to all AAF organizations and installations in the field, a responsibility that previously had been handled by the Air Finance Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel, Maintenance, and Distribution. The budgetary work of the Budget and Fiscal Office was coordinated with that of the Budget Division, War Department General Staff, and its fiscal work with that of the Office of the Fiscal Director, Headquarters Army Service Forces.

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Records.--Most of the activities and policies of the Office are documented in the central records of AAF Headquarters. The following records of the Office were in its custody in 1946: "Historical" file of AAF budget estimate data, 1920-42; copies of AAF budget estimates, 1941-45; daily diaries of the Office (other copies of which are in the Air Historical Group); statistical and accounting analyses of AAF financial matters; and records pertaining to "nonappropriated" funds for the AAF Officers Association, the various noncommissioned officers' clubs, and the "Commanding General, AAF, Fund."

Office of the Air Judge Advocate [304]

The Legal Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, 1939-42, and the successor Office of the Air Judge Advocate (AJA), 1942-45, served as legal counsel to AAF Headquarters and its field commands during the war and had staff responsibility for the procurement, assignment, and administration of judge advocates, legal officers, claims officers, and legal-assistance officers attached to AAF organizations in the field. For a brief period in 1943 the AJA also handled legislative planning. In August 1945 the Office functioned through the following branches: Patents, with direct line authority over the Patents Liaison Branch at Wright Field, Ohio; Contracts and Claims; Legal Assistance; Military Justice (for court-martial matters); Military Affairs (for the interpretation of congressional legislation, Army Regulations, and international law affecting the Army Air Forces); and Litigation. The Patents Branch represented the Army Air Forces on the Army and Navy Patent Advisory Board.

Records.--Many activities and policies of the Air Judge Advocate's Office are documented in the central records of AAF Headquarters and in the following records that were kept within AJA in 1946: Copies of policy correspondence with and relating to AJA officers in the field and copies of AJA legal opinions; contract opinion files; contract litigation files; claims jackets for claims processed by AJA; and records pertaining to Army Air Forces patents and to patents of interest to it, including copies of applications for patents, files on the investigation of infringement claims, litigation files, records relating to the Manufacturers Aircraft Association's patent arbitrations, and records relating to the Army and Navy Patent Advisory Board. Some of these patent records were transferred to the National Archives in 1949. Diaries of AJA and of some of its subordinate units, 1943-45, are in the Air Historical Group. The case files of the Contracts and Claims Branch that relate to settled damage claims arising from aircraft accidents, 1943-45 (8 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Office of the Air Surgeon [305]

Army medical functions that were peculiar to air operations, excluding the Army-wide medical responsibilities of the Surgeon General's Office (see Medical Department), were handled between 1939 and 1945 under the staff supervision of the Medical Division, Office of the Chief

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of the Air Corps, 1939-42, and the Office of the Air Surgeon (known also as TAS or AS), 1942-45. The Air Surgeon planned and directed the administration of all AAF hospitals and medical installations, including the convalescent centers of the Personnel Distribution Command; the development and procurement of medical, dental, and veterinary supplies and services peculiar to the Army Air Forces; the aeromedical and aviation-psychology research programs and the altitude-training program; the medical training of AAF Medical Department personnel; and the organization, training, and movement of AAF medical units, notably Medical Air Evacuation Squadrons, Veterinary Detachments (Aviation), and Medical Dispensaries (Aviation). In August 1945 all these functions of the Office of the Air Surgeon were handled by seven divisions under three directors.

Under the Director of Administration, the Operations Division supervised hospital construction and equipment, the allocation of medical equipment, and the air evacuation work of the I Troop Carrier Command and the Air Transport Command; operated the AAF Medical Regulating Service; and supervised the AAF School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), Randolph Field, Tex., 1939-45, the AAF Medical Service Training School, Warner Robins Field, Ga., 1942-45 (moved to Randolph Field, Tex., about 1946), and the School of Air Evacuation, Bowman Field, Ky., 1942-44. The Personnel Division was concerned with all staff phases of the administration of AAF Medical Department personnel, including flight surgeons, aviation medical examiners, and flight nurses. The Supply Division handled quantity requirements, storage and issue, and fiscal aspects of medical supplies.

Under the Director of Research, the Research Division studied physiological and psychological factors in the selection and efficiency of AAF flying personnel; supervised the equipment and related research in the Aero-Medical Laboratory (AML) at Wright Field, Ohio; published the Air Surgeon's Bulletin, which was distributed throughout the AAF and to other service and professional organizations; and supervised the Historical Section, organized separately from the Air Historical Office. The Medical Statistics Division prepared estimates on aviation cadets medically fit for flying training and made other statistical analyses on such aeromedical problems as disorders induced by flying and physical factors involved in flying accidents.

Under the Director of Professional Services, the Professional Division supervised the medical, surgical, nursing, dental, and neuropsychiatric services in AAF Regional Station Hospitals (about 27 in 1945), Convalescent Hospitals (about 11 in 1945), and similar medical installations. The Convalescent Services Division planned and directed the convalescent services in such medical installations, including medical, vocational training, and physical reconditioning services.

Records.--The following wartime records were among those kept in the Office of the Air Surgeon in 1946: Unpublished annual reports of the divisions of TAS; unpublished histories of AAF medical units in the continental United States and overseas and other documents assembled by the Historical Section of TAS; records pertaining to medical associations and colleges; records of assignments and transfers of Dental Corps officers in AAF; card

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files pertaining to the Army Retiring Board and the Disposition Board; and certain records primarily of aeromedical research interest. Among the last-named records are copies of medical research reports of the School of Aviation Medicine, the Aero-Medical Laboratory, the National Research Council, the Navy Department, and the AAF Proving Ground Command; documents received from units in the continental United States and overseas for use in the Aviation Psychology Abstracts series and in the Aviation Psychology Program Research Reports series; medical intelligence records; microfilm copies of rosters of psychological tests of pilots, navigators, bombardiers, and aviation cadets; reports of the Research and Medical Statistics Divisions; AAF weekly morbidity and mortality reports; "Essential Technical Medical Data" reports; a file copy of the "AAF Rheumatic Fever Control Program News Letter"; orthopedic files; and clinical investigation files, including reports from overseas air surgeons, on internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry.

Among the wartime TAS records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the central files of administrative correspondence and related papers; Cadet Board cards, 1943-44, relating to physical and mental examinations of aviation cadet candidates; a chronological series of the weekly "Care of Flyer Report," 1944-46, submitted to TAS by medical officers in the field and used in preparing weekly summaries; a chronological series of the "Report of Aircraft Accident," 1943-44, received from the field; and special "201" files (personnel folders) for officers and civilian consultants in TAS and in the AAF training commands, up to 1944.

The central records of AAF Headquarters contain copies of much of the Air Surgeon's administrative correspondence; and the "bulk" files in those central records contain important, lengthy series, such as reports received from Air Surgeons in each of the overseas Air Forces, 1942-44, the Research Division's "Survey" of aircrew personnel in the European and Mediterranean Theaters, about April 1944, and histories of AAF medical units in the field, about 1943-45. The daily diaries of the Air Surgeon and of some of the subordinate divisions of his Office, 1943-45, and an unpublished wartime administrative history of the Office are in the Air Historical Group. The records of the AAF Medical Service Training School, 1942-46 (5 feet), are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO; they include general files, record copies of the School's General Orders and Special Orders, and "historical photographs." Also in Kansas City are records of the School of Air Evacuation, 1942-44 (14 feet). The wartime records of the School of Aviation Medicine, including the School's administrative and research records and certain medical records of flying personnel of the overseas Air Forces, are presumed to be in that School's custody at Randolph Field, Tex.

Special Projects Office [306]

This Office was established about March 1943 to perform special functions as directed by the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces. In practice the Office represented AAF in the Special Planning

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Division, War Department General Staff, and was concerned with monitoring and coordinating the preparation, throughout AAF Headquarters, of AAF plans for the end of the war and the postwar period. These plans covered the redeployment of combat and service units, aircraft, and equipment from the European, Mediterranean, and American Theaters to the Pacific and the partial demobilization of personnel after the European phase of the war (the "J" Plans); the demobilization of personnel, the reduction of training activities, the demobilization of aircraft and related industrial production under AAF contracts, the disposal of airfields and other air installations, and the reduction of other wartime AAF activities after the collapse of Japan (the "V-J" Plan); and the organization and composition of the Interim Air Force and the Postwar Air Force. The Office was discontinued about August 1945, and its functions were absorbed into the previously established Postwar Division of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans.

Records.--The records of the Special Projects Office were in 1947 in the Classified Records Branch, AAF Headquarters. They consisted of copies and drafts of the various plans and segments of plans, together with related papers, all arranged in general by type and phase of plan. A guide to some of these records is in the footnotes and bibliography of the AAF Strategic Air Command's unpublished historical study, "Manpower Demobilization in the AAF" (1946). A copy of the "J" Plan (July 1, 1944, ed. 10 vols.) is in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Air Communications Office [307]

This special staff Office, known also as ACO, 1943-45, and its predecessors in AAF Headquarters, 1939-43, constituted the planning office for handling AAF interests and requirements in electronics equipment and techniques, including the development and production of radio and radar equipment, the procurement of leased-wire systems, the training and organization of communications personnel, and the use of cryptographic devices and systems throughout the Army Air Forces. These duties included the formulation of AAF quality and quantity requirements and the preparation of tables of organization and equipment, training standards, and tactical doctrines for radio and radar equipment. From September 1943 to December 1944, the function of monitoring guided-missiles projects (in which electronics controls constituted only one factor) was assigned to the Air Communications Office; subsequently this function was performed by the Requirements Division of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements.

Major dealings of the Air Communications Office outside AAF Headquarters were with the Joint Communications Board and the Combined Communications Board, on each of which the Air Communications Officer was the AAF member; the committees of these boards, on which other members of ACO served; the Signal Corps (1939-November 1944) and the Air Technical Service Command (November 1944-45), which were the two procurement services successively concerned with the development, production, and installation

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of air communications equipment; the AAF Board, concerned with operational requirements; and the AAF Training Command, the Air Service Command, and the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces, which at various times were concerned with the individual training and unit training of radio and radar personnel. At the same time ACO had line authority, for AAF Headquarters, over two AAF field commands--the Army Airways Communications System and the 136th Radio Security Detachment.

The Air Communications Office and its predecessors in AAF Headquarters, 1939-45, were successively designated as follows: Communications Section, Training and Operations Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, 1939-March 1942; the Directorate of Communications, March 1942-March 1943; the Air Communications Division, AC/AS Operations, Commitments, and Requirements, March-September 1943; and the Air Communications Office, October 1943-August 1945. Near the end of the war, about September 1, 1945, ACO was transferred to the new AC/AS-3 and was renamed the Air Communications Division.

In August 1945 the subordinate units of the Air Communications Office included the four divisions separately described below. In addition, the Office had a separately organized group of civilian consultants who advised on research and development trends and possibilities, made recommendations as to the most effective techniques for the employment of radio and radar equipment and systems in aerial warfare, and evaluated the operational requirements evolved by the AAF Board for personnel, equipment, systems, and techniques.

Records.--Most of the records of the Air Communications Office and of its predecessors, 1942-45, were in 1947 in the custody of the successor Air Communications Division, AC/AS-3, AAF Headquarters. These records included administrative correspondence on all matters handled by the Office; monthly progress reports, daily diaries, and morning reports of ACO; copies of minutes, case papers, and other papers of the Combined Communications Board, the Joint Communications Board, the Joint Methods and Procedures Board, the Joint Security Control, and the Combined Security Control; copies of documents describing or appraising radar and radio equipment, including Signal Corps engineering reports, National Defense Research Committee reports (including its "U.S. Radar Survey"), AAF instruction books, Joint Communications Board manuals and handbooks, and Army Ground Forces Review Board reports; and copies of manning tables (M/T's) and tables of organization (T/O's) for communications units in the field.

Copies of some of ACO's correspondence, memoranda, studies, and related papers are in the central records of AAF Headquarters. In the Air Historical Group are historical studies that were prepared on various communications subjects and functions at various echelons of the AAF, including studies made by the Air Historical Office, an administrative history of AC/AS-3, monthly progress reports of ACO (1944-45), and studies by the historical sections of domestic and overseas AAF commands and other units that were concerned with phases of electronics matériel, training, and operations.

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Plans Division [308]

This Division represented AAF on the planning committees of the joint and Combined Communications Boards and functioned through the Operations Branch, for liaison with the Operational Plans Division, Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans; the Postwar Branch, for liaison with the Postwar Division, AC/AS Plans; and the Program Control Branch, for maintaining current information on research and development, production, and distribution of air communications equipment throughout AAF.

Records.--No separately maintained records of this Division are known to be in existence. Its activities are documented in some of the records mentioned in entry 307.

Operations Division [308a]

This Division had line authority over the operations of the Army Airways Communications System and the 136th Radio Security Detachment. It assembled quantity requirements (personnel and equipment) for these two commands; handled codes, cipher systems, and cryptographic devices and materials; obtained and prescribed radio frequencies and call signals for the Army Air Forces in the continental United States; determined AAF policies for leasing fixed-wire circuits, networks, and systems; represented AAF on committees of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff that were concerned with any of these matters; represented AAF on the United States Trans-Atlantic Service Safety Organization Committee (TASSO), about 1942-44; and supervised the training and use of pigeons in Army communications.

Records.--Records of cryptographic security administration, 1942-44 (40 feet), including copies of instructions and manuals, reference materials on devices and signals, and accounting documents governing the assignment and distribution of codes and ciphers to field units, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Records relating to communications by means of pigeons, 1942-44, including training schedules, data on birds used overseas, and statistical summaries, are filed under 311.9 in the "bulk" files of the central records of AAF Headquarters.

Equipment Division [308b]

This Division formulated and reviewed proposals for military characteristics of new or improved radio and radar equipment for air operations, advised on quantity requirements for such equipment, and reviewed electronics test programs, including those of the AAF Proving Ground Command.

Records.--This Division's records relating to the development and employment of items of radar and radio equipment, 1942-46, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The Division's activities are documented also in some of the records mentioned in entry 307.

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Organization and Training Division [308c]

This Division handled radio and radar personnel allotments for AAF; determined the composition of AAF communications units; prepared related training standards, curricula, tables of organization and equipment, and tactical doctrines; and recommended deployment and redeployment of communications units to the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements.

Records.---No separately maintained records of the Division are known to be in existence. Its activities are documented in some of the records mentioned in entry 307.

Office of Flying Safety [309]

The Office of Flying Safety (OFS), 1943-15, and its predecessors, 1939-43, were concerned with the prevention of flying accidents, the investigation and analysis of such accidents, and the enforcement of regulations governing AAF noncombat flight operations and air traffic in the continental United States. Before December 1943 these functions were handled successively by the Safety Section of the Inspection Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, 1939-42; the Directorate of Air Traffic and Safety, March 1942-March 1943; and the Flight Control Command, March-December 1943. The Office of Flying Safety consisted of a small staff in AAF Headquarters and a larger field establishment at Winston-Salem, N. C. The field organization functioned through seven major operating divisions: Accident Analysis, Matériel and Maintenance (for studying safety and accident factors in aircraft and air equipment), Training and Operations (for studying accident and safety factors in the AAF flying training program), Safety Education (for handling training films and similar aids on safety subjects and for preparing the "Pilot's Information File"), Medical Safety (for reporting to the Air Surgeon regarding medical aspects of accidents), Safety Enforcement, and Administrative Service.

In addition to the main field office at Winston-Salem, the Office of Flying Safety functioned through regional safety offices located at Mitchel Field (N.Y.), Atlanta, Memphis, Kansas City, Fort Worth, Santa Ana (Calif.), and Oakland (Calif.). These regional offices assisted aircraft-accident investigating boards, made safety surveys and inspected fire-fighting and crash equipment at AAF installations, and performed other safety functions.

Records.--The wartime records of the Office of Flying Safety are either in the Flying Safety Division of the Office of the Air Inspector, AAF Headquarters, at Langley Field, Va., or, if noncurrent, in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. These records include central files, 1943-45; incoming and outgoing telegrams, teletypes, and related papers, 1944-45; record copies of the Office's General Orders, Special Orders, Administrative Memoranda, General Court-Martial Orders, Special Court-Martial Orders, and Daily Bulletins, 1943--45; record copies (on microfilm) of AAF forms 5 and 5A (individual flight record); and record copies of AAF form 14 (major aircraft accident report). Diaries of OFS, Washington, 1943-45, and its monthly

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historical reports, December 1943-November 1944, are in the Air Historical Group. Copies of the OFS series of reports on "Accident Trends," about 1941-44, are among the central records of AAF Headquarters (filed in "bulk" files under 360.33); other copies were in 1946 in the Air Intelligence Library. The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, also contain some papers on flying safety; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Flight Control Command, 1943.

Office of Legislative Services [310]

This Office was not established until December 1943, although liaison with committees of Congress and the planning of legislation of interest to the Army Air Forces had been carried on previously in one office or another of AAF Headquarters. The Office of Legislative Services, 1943-45, had AAF staff responsibilities for all bills and acts of Congress and all Executive orders relating to AAF (except those on budget and fiscal matters, which were handled by the Budget and Fiscal Office, AAF Headquarters), investigations by congressional committees, and replies to inquiries about the AAF received from Members of Congress. On all these matters the Office maintained liaison with comparable offices in the War Department General Staff (see Legislative and Liaison Division) and in the Office of the Under Secretary of War (see Legislative Division).

Records.--The Office's activities are documented extensively in the central records of AAF Headquarters. In 1946 the Office had a separate file of copies of its reports, both manuscript and printed, that had been submitted to committees of Congress or to the Bureau of the Budget. Its daily diaries for the war period and two unpublished studies by the AAF Historical Division on legislation relating to matériel, personnel, and training, are in the Air Historical Group. Two small series relating to legislation and to inquiries by congressional investigating committees, 1943-45 (14 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Office of Special Assistant for Antiaircraft [311]

This special staff office was created in 1943 to advise the Commanding General, AAF, on all matters involving AAF requirements for antiaircraft artillery, including tactical and technical doctrines, matériel (artillery, equipment, and tow targets), training, units of trained personnel, and officers for assignment to staffs of air commands in the field. The Office also supervised, in effect, the antiaircraft training at the AAF Center, Orlando, Fla., and maintained liaison, with respect to antiaircraft matters, with the Navy, the Army Service Forces (on matériel and related services), and the Army Ground Forces (on training matters).

Records.--The records of the Office were in 1946 in the custody of AC/AS-3, to which the Antiaircraft Office was transferred in Sept. 1945. These included general correspondence of the Office, 1944-45; records of the Guided Missiles Liaison Officer with the Navy, including copies of Navy reports on antiaircraft and guided missiles; antiaircraft artillery training

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circulars, bulletins, and instructions; copies of reports on radar, radio, and ordnance bearing on antiaircraft; and copies of "Intelligence Summaries" by AC/AS Intelligence.

Office of Information Services [312]

The public information functions and activities of Army Air Forces Headquarters were handled successively by the Public Relations Section (first of the Information Division, later of the Intelligence Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps), 1939-August 1942; the Office of Technical Information, Office of AC/AS Intelligence, August 1942-October 1944; and the Office of Information Services (OIS), from November 1944. These activities involved the use of all the common mediums for disseminating information, including magazines, newspapers, radio, and motion pictures. In 1945 the Office consisted of the Office of Technical Information, which prepared statements and handled security clearance; the Air Force Division, which edited the monthly service journal Air Force, 1943-45; the Special Events Division, which planned special presentations, such as the "Winged Victory" theatrical show and the various presentations to workers employed by the aircraft industry and other AAF contractors; and the Radio Division, which supervised the 1st and 2nd Radio Units (the 38th and the 39th AAF Base Units) at Santa Ana, Calif., and New York City, respectively. Many of these war information activities were handled in collaboration with the Bureau of Public Relations of the Office of the Secretary of War and with the Office of War Information.

Records.--Many of this Office's activities are documented in the general records of AAF Headquarters. Its separately maintained records in 1946 included the following: Chronological file of speeches, radio scripts, and other statements by general officers of AAF Headquarters, 1942-46 (copies of some of these are also in the Air Historical Group); transcripts of press conferences by the Commanding General, AAF, and other key officers, 1944-46; manuscript and printed copies of various "popular" histories of AAF; and file copies of selected photographs of AAF aircraft, equipment, installations, personalities, and "special events." A file pertaining to speeches, radio programs, motion pictures, exhibits, and security clearance of publicity, 1943-46 (10 feet), and certain "Air Force Day" scrapbooks, arranged by airfield or other AAF installation, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Also in the Departmental Records Branch are records of the Air Force editorial staff, 1942-46, together with a record set of that service journal and its predecessors: Air Corps News Letter, 1935--41 (and earlier); Air Force News Letter, 1941-42; and Air Force, 1942-46. Sound recordings, July-Nov. 1945, of the radio program first entitled "The Fighting AAF" and later, "Your AAF," which contain interviews with combat airmen, are in the National Archives. The records of the 1st and 2nd Radio Units, 1943-45, and of the "Winged Victory" unit (31st AAF Base Unit), 1943-45, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

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Headquarters XX Air Force [313]

The XX Air Force, which employed the AAF's new B-29 very-heavy bombers over Japanese targets in 1944 and 1945, operated not under the appropriate Pacific Theater commands but directly under the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, who received his directives from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Headquarters of this special Air Force was located in Washington and was distinct from the headquarters of its two major components in the Pacific--the 20th and 21st Bomber Commands. Most of the staff members and civilian assistants in Headquarters XX Air Force served at the same time in the major air staff offices of AAF Headquarters.

Records.--The records of Headquarters XX Air Force are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They consist of general files, personnel folders ("201" files), incoming and outgoing radio and cable messages, General Orders, Special Orders, statistical summaries and other reports, and mission reports by the 20th and 21st Bomber Commands, Apr. 1944-Aug. 1945. In addition, many of the regular staff offices of AAF Headquarters kept their own records of their XX Air Force staff activities. Still other related papers are in the central records of AAF Headquarters and the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Boards and Committees Within AAF [314]

Of the numerous committees that functioned at one time or another within the Army Air Forces during the war, separately maintained records for those shown below are known to exist. Other intra-AAF committees have been described earlier, as parts of their parent offices.

Air Corps Technical Committee [315]

This Committee, the origins of which within the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps antedate the war, functioned in 1939 and 1940 as a requirements committee and was concerned chiefly with proposed military characteristics for new and improved airplane models. It ceased to function about 1941.

Records.--Several series of minutes, procedural statements, and "project folders" of the Committee are in the central records of AAF Headquarters, filed in the "bulk" files under 334, 334.8, and 337.

AAF Naming Board [316]

This Board was concerned with the problem of naming the hundreds of airfields that were built by the AAF or were taken over from civilian authorities for the duration of the war.

Records.--Proceedings of the Board and name files pertaining to the various fields are among the central records of AAF Headquarters, filed in the "bulk" files under 680.9.

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Air Force Material Planning Council [317]

This Council, presided over by the Director of Military Requirements, functioned between June and September 1942. It studied quantity requirements and reviewed military characteristics of fighter and bomber airplanes.

Records.--Minutes and other documents of the Council are among the central records of AAF Headquarters and the records of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans.

AAF Requirements Board [318]

This Board, which functioned chiefly in 1944 and 1945, was another airplane requirements committee of AAF Headquarters.

Records.---The Board's minutes are among the records of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Plans.

AAF Evaluation Boards [319]

Beginning about June 1944, these Boards were sent out as teams from Headquarters to each major combat theater to study the effectiveness of air attacks and evaluate air operations from the point of view of such factors as available types and models of airplanes, types of air ordnance, formations, weather and climate, communications, and intelligence. The studies of some of these Boards paralleled in scope the work of the later United States Strategic Bombing Survey. The Boards were designated according to the theaters to which they were sent: AAF Evaluation Board, ETO (for the European Theater of Operations); AAF Evaluation Board, NATO (for the North African Theater of Operations), later MTO (Mediterranean Theater of Operations); AAF Evaluation Board, CBI (for the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations); AAF Evaluation Board, CPTO (for the Central Pacific Theater of Operations), later POA (Pacific Ocean Areas); and AAF Evaluation Board, SWPA (for the Southwest Pacific Area). The boards were all discontinued by the end of 1945.

Records.--The administrative records of the ETO Board, 1944-45 (4 feet), are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis; they include copies of its studies and selected reports of the operations of the 8th Air Force. The SWPA Board's records, 1944-45 (8 feet), also in St. Louis, include its general files; Orders, Operations Orders, Bulletins, and Administrative Memos of the Board; and incoming and outgoing telegrams and teletype messages. The whereabouts of the records of the other boards has not been determined. Copies of the many reports and studies of the boards are in the collection of the Air Historical Group, in the central records of AAF Headquarters (particularly in the "bulk" files, under 319.1), and in the records of AC/AS Plans, AAF Headquarters. A few papers on the origins of the boards are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334.

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Air Force Combat Command [320]

General Headquarters Air Force, March 1935-June 1941, origi- nally located at Langley Field, Va., and the successor Air Force Combat Command (AFCC) at Boiling Field, D. C, June 1941-March 1942, were less a "field command" of the Air Forces than a part of what in March 1942 became Headquarters Army Air Forces (see entry 256).

Records.--The central files of these two successive headquarters, 1935-42 (98 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. For records of field commands under the General Headquarters Air Force and the Air Force Combat Command, see Continental Air Forces. Monthly military-personnel strength reports on AFCC, 1941-42, compiled by the Machine Records Branch, AGO, are among the records of that Branch.

Field Commands of the Army Air Forces

Air Technical Service Command [321]

The Air Technical Service Command, known also as ATSC, and its predecessors provided the field establishment for the Army Air Forces that was responsible for the development, production, maintenance, and distribution of aircraft, related airborne equipment, and ground equipment and supplies peculiar to air operations. It was responsible also for the training of engineering and procurement officers (at the AAF Engineering School at Wright Field, Ohio) and for the training of supply and maintenance units for overseas duty. These matériel and service-command functions, exercised under the ultimate staff supervision of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Matériel and Services, AAF Headquarters, were performed at the command headquarters at Wright Field, Ohio, and nearby Patterson Field (in 1944 renamed Area A and Area B, respectively, of Wright Field) and through a large field organization in the continental United States. This organization consisted of various procurement districts, regional air service commands, and other subordinate units located at Army air fields, air bases, industrial plants and university laboratories under contract with AAF, and experimental centers of other Federal agencies.

[321a] Functions of the Command.--These matériel and related service functions ranged from the inception of an idea for a new or improved airplane or weapon, through mass production, to the observation of combat performance. Air matériel included the basic types of military aircraft, functionally classified as bombers, fighters, transports, trainers, photographic airplanes, liaison airplanes (primarily for use by the ground arms), and gliders. It also included airplane components, such as engines, propellers, and jet power plants; defensive and offensive armament, such as fire-control devices and bombsights; aviation gasoline, lubricants, and hydraulic fluids; navigation aids and other flying aids; personal equipment, such as clothing, oxygen equipment, and rescue aids; synthetic training devices; and special ground equipment for air maintenance and supply work

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in the combat theaters. In addition, Wright Field was responsible for barrage balloons until the work on them was reassigned to the Corps of Engineers in March 1942. It was responsible for air-borne and air-related radio and radar equipment after November 1944, when the functions pertaining to air communications equipment were transferred to AAF from the Signal Corps.

Usually a given airplane or other item of matériel went through most of the following consecutive phases in the Air Technical Service Command. Research and development involved theoretical studies, design, experimental procurement, and ground and flight testing, both at the Command's own laboratories and test bases and through the experimental work of industry, universities, and various Federal agencies, including the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Then followed standardization of an item for quantity procurement and, when possible, standardization also for common use by the Navy and the British air services. These interservice phases were handled through the Command's representation on the Joint Aircraft Committee and on the Working Committee of the Aeronautical Board.

Meanwhile the Air Technical Service Command carried on the major function of expanding economic resources for quantity production of the airplane or other item of matériel in collaboration with the War Production Board and the Joint Aircraft Committee and their predecessors, an activity that emphasized plants and machine tools in 1939-42 and materials and industrial manpower in 1943-44. The command prepared and supervised production programs, schedules, and controls for quantity production, again in collaboration with the Joint Aircraft Committee and such units of the War Production Board as the Aircraft Resources Control Office in Washington and the Aircraft Scheduling Unit at Wright Field; it expedited production and inspected and controlled the quality of matériel at the factory; and through modification centers, air depots, and industrial plants it modified aircraft for use either as lend-lease airplanes by the various Allies or for special AAF combat uses. The Command established quantity and quality requirements for these items of air equipment procured through the various technical services of the Army Service Forces; and it handled the storage, stock control, issue, and shipment of matériel to ports of embarkation or to depots in the

Abo among the functions of the Command were the maintenance of aircraft and equipment (including the engineering aspects of analyzing the combat performance of items of equipment); the preparation, publication, and distribution of technical orders and other instructions for the maintenance and operation of airplanes and equipment; the training of civilian employees for supply and maintenance work in the continental United States; and the training of military personnel as Air Service Groups and other units for overseas duty.

[321b] General organization.--These various matériel and service func- tions were performed or supervised at Wright Field from 1939 to 1945 by the command headquarters that was successively designated as the

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Matériel Division, 1939-March 1942; the Matériel Center, March 1942-March 1943; the Matériel Command, March 1943-August 1944; and the Air Technical Service Command, August-1944 until after the end of the war. For most of this period (March 1941-August 1944), however, the command's functions were limited to the development and production phases of matériel, while the various supply and maintenance phases were handled by a separate command designated successively as the Provisional Air Corps Maintenance Command (March-April 1941), the Maintenance Command (April-October 1941), and the Air Service Command (October 1941-August 1944), which was located at nearby Patterson Field after October 1941. In July 1944 the Air Service Command and the Matériel Command were combined, in effect, under a single Director of Matériel and Services (Lt. Gen. William S. Knudsen, who was also Director of Procurement, Office of the Under Secretary of War); and in August 1944 these commands were abolished in name and their matériel and service functions were merged formally into the new Air Technical Service Command which had functions about as broad as those of the Matériel Division of 1939.

By September 1945 Air Technical Service Command Headquarters was organized in 8 divisions, 23 offices, and many more subordinate sections and branches, all grouped under 5 deputy commanding generals: Personnel, T--1, for technical supply and maintenance personnel and surgeon, chaplain, and other nonspecialized personnel, and their training; Intelligence, T-2, especially for handling Allied and captured enemy technical data on air matériel; Engineering, T-3, for both experimental engineering and maintenance engineering; Supply, T-4, for both quantity procurement and distribution; and Plans, T-5. This last-named unit included offices for program planning (including industrial planning), organization planning, statistical control, and historical work. Also part of ATSC Headquarters was the AAF Engineering School, at Wright Field, Ohio. Early in 1946 the Air Technical Service Command was renamed the Air Matériel Command.

[321c] Organization for development and production.--That part of Air Technical Service Command Headquarters concerned essentially with experimental development and quantity production underwent changes from 1939 to 1945 that reflected the changing emphases of the war. In 1939 it consisted of five major sections of the Matériel Division: Experimental Engineering; Production Engineering (for production programs, scheduling, controls, and engineering changes); Contracts (primarily for the legal and financial aspects of production and experimental contracts); Inspection (the "quantity control" of finished aircraft, components, and equipment); and Industrial Planning (primarily for plant and and machine-tool expansion in the aeronautical industries).

In 1942 these five sections were reorganized as four divisions of the Matériel Center--Engineering, Production (a merger of the functions of the former Production Engineering and Industrial Planning Sections), Inspection, and Contracts; and on January 1, 1943, the Contracts Division was renamed the Procurement Division. In July 1944 the Readjustment Division was added to these four divisions (all now under the newly designated

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Matériel Command), absorbing those functions of the Procurement and Production Divisions pertaining to the termination of war contracts and the handling of Government-owned surplus plant equipment and materials in the plants of AAF industrial contractors.

Soon thereafter (September 1944) the remaining functions of the Procurement and Production Divisions and those of the Inspection Division were consolidated into the new Procurement Division, to handle all matters pertaining to quantity production. The Procurement and the Engineering Divisions, under the redesignated Air Technical Service Command, continued through the remainder of the war. The Readjustment Division was abolished early in 1945 and its termination functions were absorbed by other divisions--surplus matériel by the Supply Division (see below) and surplus machine tools and materials by the Procurement Division (see above). Each of these divisions and their many sections, branches, and offices underwent many minor internal changes from 1939 to 1945.

By September 1945 the Engineering Division was responsible for the following experimental and test laboratories: Engineering Shops, Aircraft, Aero-Medical, Materials, Personnel Equipment, Armament, Photographic (for airborne photographic equipment and related ground equipment), equipment (confined to electrical, control, navigation, training, and marine equipment and instruments), Power Plant, and Propeller Laboratories. It was responsible also for the following electronics laboratories: Communication and Navigation, Special Projects, Radar, Engineering Services, and Systems Engineering. The Engineering Division had a number of Engineering Liaison Officers to deal on experimental matters with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the War Department's Ordnance Department, the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics, the Ice Research Base, the California Institute of Technology, and the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University.

The Procurement Division handled not only contractual and legal matters but all matters concerned with quantity procurement and production engineering. In September 1945 it had the following sections: Control (requirements and reports); Aircraft; Aeronautical Equipment (engines, propellers, armament, radio, and radar); Services (contracts, local purchases, price control, and property accountability); Inspection (quality control, not to be confused with inspector-general functions handled by the Air Inspector); Industrial Facilities (plants, production equipment, materials, and industrial scrap and salvage); and Readjustment (of contracts and production programs). There was also from 1944 to 1946 the Contract Audit Branch (known also as the 6th AAF Base Unit) at nearby Dayton, Ohio, which was responsible jointly to the Air Technical Service Command and to Headquarters Army Air Forces.

[321d] Organization for supply and maintenance.--From 1939 to 1945 the supply, distribution, and maintenance organization of the Air Technical Service Command and its predecessors underwent many changes, mostly in name, size, and emphasis rather than in basic function. In 1939 this service organization consisted only of the Field Service Section of the

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Matériel Division at Wright Field. In March 1941 this Section was expanded and named the Provisional Air Corps Maintenance Command, with both maintenance and distribution functions; and in April 1941 it was renamed the Maintenance Command, still a part of the Matériel Division. In October 1941 it was renamed the Air Service Command and was moved from Wright Field to nearby Patterson Field, where it functioned as a command separate from the Matériel Division (Matériel Command) until August 1944, when the service and matériel commands were again consolidated into the new Air Technical Service Command. At Patterson Field, Air Service Command Headquarters was organized for most of 1941-44 in three major functional divisions: The Supply Division, the Maintenance Division, and the Personnel and Training Division, the last concerned primarily with the technical training of civilians for air-depot work in the continental United States and the training of military personnel as Air Service Groups and related troop units for overseas duty.

[321e] Records.--The central records of Air Technical Service Command Headquarters and its predecessors, 1939-45, were, in 1946, in the custody of the Records Section, Adjutant General, Air Matériel Command Headquarters (successor to ATSC), Wright Field, Ohio. They were divided, first, into two major groups, one for Area A of Wright Field (records of experimental engineering and production activities) and the other for Area B (records of supply, maintenance, and related training activities). Many of the individual "blocks" of records are arranged according to the War Department Decimal File System, but with severe consolidations and expansions of many of the headings; other segments consist of project files and subject files; and still others are files kept separately by particular offices, sections, and laboratories and turned over to the central Records Section. All these records have been scheduled for transfer, when they become noncurrent, to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The records of the Contract Audit Branch, 1944-46, some records of the AAF Engineering School, and certain other records of the Command are in Kansas City. In the Command's special records depository at Wright Field, Ohio, are the wartime records of the Industrial Planning Section; and the AAF's consolidated files of contract records, which were originally filed not only in this Command Headquarters but in all AAF contracting agencies.

The Historical Division of Command Headquarters has an extensive collection of (1) administrative histories of the Command and its predecessors, 1926-45; (2) about 25 historical monographs on particular categories of air matériel, such as bomber turrets and transport airplanes, or on particular phases of matériel or service functions, such as plant-facility expansion, labor, inspection, and maintenance; (3) about 150 case histories (narrative and documentary) of selected development and production projects involving specific airplane models, items of equipment, or types of materials; (4) copies of "Production Analyses Studies" of selected AAF-controlled industrial plants, made after the war by the Harvard School of Business Administration and the Command's Logistics Planning Division; (5) official histories of the Command's subordinate organizations, 1939-45; (6) copies of about 20

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of printed reports and other documents that were disseminated by the Command; and (7) copies of other selected documents pertaining to the administrative and technological aspects of the Command's war activities. Categories 1, 2, 3, and 5 are duplicated and category 6 is partly duplicated in the collection of the Air Historical Group. Other Command records include a large body of technical intelligence data on Allied and enemy air matériel, covering roughly the period 1920-47, which in 1946 was in the custody of Intelligence, T-2.

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain some papers relating to the Command; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Air Force Matériel Command, 1942-44 (8 linear inches), and AG 322 Air Service Command, 1941-44 (8 linear inches). Copies of some of the Command's reports and tabulations are in the central records (in the "bulk" files) of AAF Headquarters, notably the following series: The "Model Designation of Airplanes" handbook (filed under 452.1), the monthly "Tactical Planning Characteristics and Performance Chart" (under 452.02), the monthly "Matériel Division Consolidated Statistical Report" for 1939-42 (under 319.1 and 452.1; another set is in the Air Historical Group), the monthly chart, "Armament and Bomb Installations" (under 470), and "AAF Industrial Expansions, Status and Progress" (under 004). Various wartime editions of the Command's handbook, "Research and Development Projects," are in the collection of the Air Historical Group and the records of the Assistant Secretary of War for Air. Copies of interviews in Air Service Command Headquarters with returning overseas representatives of the aircraft industry and with returning supply and maintenance officers, 1943-44, were in 1945 in the Air Intelligence Library. Other series of Command documents for the war period are "Army Air Forces Specifications," "Stock Lists," "Technical Orders," and the Technical Data Digest.

After the war the Air Technical Service Command established an office, in collaboration with the Navy, to administer captured enemy records containing technical aeronautical data. The processing of such records at Dayton, Ohio, and at London by this office (in 1949 known as the Central Air Documents Office, or CADO) is described in Eugene B. Jackson's "CADO Uses Varied Skills," in Library Journal, 74: 778-783, 883 (May 15, 1949).

Field Establishment [322]

Besides its Headquarters at Wright Field, the Air Technical Service Command consisted of a large field establishment, scattered throughout the continental United States, which performed many of the Command's operations, especially some of those activities that pertained to quantity procurement, storage and distribution, maintenance and repair, and the training of service troop units.

Organizations for Matériel Production [322a]

The Procurement Districts, of which there were three in 1939, six in 1943, and three again in September 1945, embraced geographically the entire United States, with the district offices located near the

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centers of the aircraft and other aeronautical industries. In 1943 these offices were at Los Angeles, Wichita, Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Atlanta. They handled matters pertaining to production, contracts, inspection, and related procurement matters that were decentralized from time to time by Command Headquarters. The district offices in turn decentralized some of their functions to branch offices, renamed "area" offices about 1942, and beyond them to "resident representatives" who were located at the plants of the AAF's larger industrial contractors. A given district office, by September 1945, was headed by its commanding general and was organized under four deputies: Personnel, T-1; Intelligence, T-2; Supply, T-4; and Plans, T-5. There was no deputy for engineering, because most of the relations with industry on experimental engineering matters were handled directly by Command Headquarters.

There were still other field organizations concerned with phases of matériel production, notably 2 "GFE Depots" and 11 Modification Centers (in 1945), all of them under the immediate jurisdiction of Command Headquarters at Wright Field. The GFE Depots, at Rochester, N.Y., and Dayton, Ohio, stored and distributed "Government furnished equipment," that is, airplane components produced by one AAF industrial contractor for use by another at a final-assembly airplane plant. Modification Centers, which began to be organized in 1942 and functioned until nearly the end of the war, were located either near the shops of commercial airlines or at Government-built airplane plants; they made various nonstandard changes on particular models of airplanes or on airplanes destined for particular theaters or Allied air forces. For example, they handled the installation of special equipment or the installation of equipment that was not available when the plane was in the final-assembly line of the AAF contractor. Later in the war several AAF Audit Districts (6 by August 1945) were also added to the ATSC field establishment.

Records.--The records of these field organizations are at the particular installation where the organization is stationed, if the records are still regarded as active. Noncurrent records are scheduled for transfer to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Wartime records of the following agencies are in that depository: The headquarters of the Procurement Districts at New York, Chicago, Wichita, and Los Angeles; the Resident Representative at the Boeing Aircraft Co., Seattle; the Modification Center at Denver; and the GFE Depots. Copies of official histories of these organizations are normally filed among the organization's records in the Kansas City Records Center (usually under 314.7); in the Air Historical Group; and in the Historical Division, Air Matériel Command Headquarters.

Organizations for Experimental and Developmental Work [322b]

There were relatively few field organizations of this type for air matériel, except for the Muroc (Calif.) Flight Test Base;a test base for gliders at Wilmington, Ohio, about 1942-44; two Electronics Experimental Squadrons (the 4149th and 4150th AAF Base Units) at Fort Dix,

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N.J., and at Boca Raton Army Airfield, Fla., respectively, beginning about 43; the "Experimental Project" on rocket development (the 4146th AAF Base Unit) at Dover, Del., 1943-45; and two Field Communications Laboratories, one at Eglin Field, Fla., where the AAF Proving Ground Command was located, and the other at the Indianapolis Municipal Airport. After functions pertaining to air-related radio and radar were transferred from the Signal Corps to AAF in November 1944, the former's Watson Laboratories at Red Bank, N.J., also became a field organization of the Air Technical Service Command.

Records.--The records of these field organizations are at the particular installation where the organization is stationed if the records are still regarded as active. Noncurrent records are scheduled for transfer to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Organizations for Supply and Maintenance [322c]

The major ATSC field organizations of this type were the 12 regional Air Technical Service Commands located at installations where large air depots and shops were built and staffed for the warehousing, distribution, maintenance, and servicing of aircraft, airplane components, and related air equipment. In 1939 there were 4 such major air depots, at San Antonio, Tex., Middletown, Pa., Fairfield, Ohio, and Sacramento, Calif. Between 1939 and 1943 these were expanded and others were constructed at Miami, Mobile, Ogden, Oklahoma City, Rome, N.Y., San Bernardino, Calif., Spokane, and Warner Robins Army Air Field, Ga. In June 1941 the major depots were controlled by 4 Maintenance Wings of the Maintenance Command, each located near the center of one of the air districts of the General Headquarters Air Force. In December 1941 these Wings were redesignated as 4 Air Service Area Commands, and each of the air depots (11 by then) serviced a region called an Air Depot Control Area. In February 1943 these 2 related regional jurisdictions were consolidated into a single series of Air Service Area Commands, one for each major air depot installation. Later in 1943 these commands were renamed area Air Service Commands, each prefixed by the name of the installation, such as the San Antonio Air Service Command. In July-August 1944, when the Air Service Command was merged into the new Air Technical Service Command, the area commands were renamed area Air Technical Service Commands, with their functions still confined, however, to supply, maintenance, and related unit-training activities. In September 1945 each of these regional service commands, headed by a commanding general, was organized under 4 major deputies: Personnel, T-1; Engineering, T-3; Supply, T-4; and Plans, T-5.

Two special subordinate commands were concerned with overseas shipments by water (see Air Transport Command, for shipments by air) of air matériel through the ports of embarkation on the east and west coasts. These two commands were the Atlantic Overseas Air Technical Service Command and the Pacific Overseas Air Technical Service Command, located respectively at Newark, N.J., and San Francisco. The Atlantic Command grew out of the Defense Aid Depot, organized in 1941 for the handling of shipments

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to the Allies under the lend-lease program, and the Port Air Office of the New York Port of Embarkation, established in 1942. The functions of these organizations were transferred to AAF in 1942 and were organized into an agency known as the New York Air Service Port Air Command and about September 1944 as the Atlantic Overseas Air Technical Service Command. The Command's functions included warehousing, packing, stevedoring, storing, and deck inspection of aircraft and of other AAF equipment that was being shipped by water to the supply zones of the combat theaters. The Pacific Overseas Air Technical Service Command and its predecessors, October 1943-45, handled comparable functions at the San Francisco port, inheriting the functions relating to air matériel previously handled by the San Francisco Port of Embarkation. Each of these port commands was headed, in September 1945, by its commanding general and was organized under four deputies: Personnel, T-1; Engineering, T-3; Supply, T-4; and Plans, T-5. In addition to the AAF offices at New York and San Francisco, there were Port AAF Liaison Sections (known also as AAF Base Units and Air Sections of ports of embarkation, and earlier as Port Air Offices) at Charleston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, and Seattle.

Other subordinate supply and maintenance field organizations peculiar to the Air Technical Service Command were Specialized Depots (40 by 1945), for warehousing particular types of air equipment for eventual overseas shipment; Intransit Depots (6 by 1945), located near the ports of embarkation; 2 AAF Regional (electronics) Crystal Banks (the first at Newark, N.J., and the second at San Francisco); Replacement Depots, for handling supply and maintenance personnel destined for training in overseas service units; the Air Technical Service Command Staff School, formerly the Air Service Command Staff School, at Warner Robins Army Air Field, Ga., which trained key military personnel for the overseas air service commands, air service groups, and air service squadrons; certain other training centers; and several experimental "service groups, special," and "service groups, training," located at several of the area service commands.

Records.--The records of each field organization are at the particular installation where the organization is stationed if the records are still regarded as active. Noncurrent records are scheduled for transfer to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Wartime records of the following agencies are in that depository: The headquarters of the regional Air Technical Service Commands at Middletown, up to 1944, Ogden, 1942-46, Sacramento, 1941-46, Spokane, 1942-46; the Atlantic Overseas Air Technical Service Command; the Port AAF Liaison Sections at the ports of embarkation at Charleston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, and Seattle; the Specialized Depots at about 20 cities; Intransit Depot No. 5 at Newark and No. 8 at Long Beach; the 1st and 2d Regional Crystal Banks; ASC Replacement Depot No. 3 at Fresno, Calif.; and the ATSC Training Center at Fresno, 1942-45. Copies of official histories of these organizations are normally filed among the organization's records in the Kansas City Records Center (usually under 314.70); in the Air Historical Group; and in the Historical Division, Air Matériel Command Headquarters.

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AAF Training Command [323]

The AAF Training Command, 1943-45, its predecessor training commands and centers, 1939-43, and their respective subordinate organizations in the continental United States, 1939-45, constituted the major Army Air Forces field establishment for the individual training of flying personnel and ground-duty personnel for air operations during the war. This "individual" phase of training was preparatory for the later "unit training" phase, administered by other AAF commands (see Continental Air Forces and Air Technical Service Command), by which crews, squadrons, and groups were trained as operational units ready for assignment to the combat air forces in the overseas theaters of operations. Individual training was given to officers, enlisted men, aviation cadets, and aviation students at AAF installations and civilian schools under contract with AAF. At the peak of wartime training activity, such stations and institutions numbered over a thousand throughout the United States.

The two broad categories of AAF trainees--flying and ground-duty personnel--were handled from 1939 to 1943 by two corresponding commands, the Flying Training Command and the Technical Training Command, and by their predecessors and subordinate field units. In July 1943 the two major commands were merged into a single AAF Training Command, which functioned beyond the end of the war. In 1946 this Command was renamed the Air Training Command.

[323a] Flying training.--Flying training included the training of pilots, bombardiers, navigators, gunners, and other flying personnel destined to be either members of the crews of bombers and transports or pilots of fighters and other small military airplanes. Between 1939 and 1943 this training was controlled in the field successively by (1) the Air Corps Training Center, 1939-November 1940, located at Randolph Field, Tex.; (2) three regional training centers, November 1940-January 1942, consisting of the center at Randolph Field (reduced in status to a regional center and renamed the Gulf Coast Training Center in November 1940), the East Coast Training Center at Maxwell Field, Ala., and the West Coast Training Center at Moffett Field, Calif.; and (3) the Flying Training Command, located first in Washington, D.C. (January-June 1942), and later at Fort Worth, Tex. (July 1942-July 1943).

The consolidated Flying Training Command was organized in three subordinate regional commands, which corresponded to the previous three centers at Maxwell, Randolph, and Moffett Fields and were respectively renamed the Eastern, Central, and Western Flying Training Commands. The Flying Training Command and its predecessors, 1939-43, reported to AAF Headquarters, where it was under line authority, in effect, of the staff office that came to be designated as the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training. This Command and its subordinate regional commands in turn had direct jurisdiction over the many air fields and air bases and the numerous AAF detachments at civilian schools where phases of individual preflight and flying training were conducted. Flying Training Command Headquarters

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was organized in 1942 along general-staff lines with sections variously designated either as G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 or S-1, S-2, S-3, and S-4, and with several special-staff sections corresponding to the various technical and administrative services of the Army.

[323b] Ground-duty training.--From 1939 to 1943 ground-duty training, usually called technical training and ultimately covering a score or more of technical air specialties, was conducted in the continental United States by two field commands: (1) 1939-March 1941, by the Air Corps Technical School at Chanute Field, Ill., and its two branches at Lowry Field, Colo., and Scott Field, Ill.; and (2) March 1941-July 1943, by the Technical Training Command, located successively at Chanute Field, 111., Tulsa, Okla., and Knollwood, N. C. Their line responsibility was to the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training (and his predecessors) in AAF Headquarters. Technical Training Command Headquarters was organized in September 1941 along general-staff lines in G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 sections and in special-staff sections for budget and fiscal, public relations, real estate, physical fitness, and statistical control matters.

[323c] Consolidated flying and ground-duty training.--Between July 1943 and September 1945 the two kinds of training of individuals were handled by the consolidated AAF Training Command, in which were merged the functions of the predecessor Flying Training Command and Technical Training Command. The new Training Command Headquarters, at Fort Worth, Tex., was organized into functional staff sections for personnel, training, supply, and intelligence and into special staff sections for budget and fiscal, finance, statistical control, air inspector, judge advocate, public relations, special services, and Army Emergency Relief matters. The Management Control Office and the Plans Office were added in October 1943 and August 1944, respectively.

[323d] Records.--The wartime records of AAF Training Command Headquarters and its predecessors, 1939-45, were in Dec. 1946 in the Air Training Command Headquarters, Barksdale Field, La. These records consisted of central files, 1944-45; record copies (called the "authority library") of the Command's administrative issuances, including Memoranda, General and Special Orders, Letters, Staff Memoranda, Circulars, Bulletins, station lists, organization charts, telephone lists, and flying and post regulations; copies of official, unpublished histories of the Command, its predecessor and subordinate commands, and its installations; policy files or "SOP" (standard operating procedure) files of sections of Command Headquarters; some course outlines and other training material; film-strip project files and originals of art work for film strips (record copies of the film strips are in the Photographic Library, AAF Headquarters); other visual-training records; psychological-research data; records of American and foreign visitors to the Command; records of the Flying Evaluation Board; budget records; records pertaining to the Command's air installations, including reports of site boards, construction plans, financial data, and property records; and general and special court-martial records. Some of these records are now in the Kansas

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City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Records pertaining to individuals trained in AAF at this and other commands during the war were in 1946 being processed for interfiling with other individual personnel records in the consolidated "201" files (personnel folders) in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

The Command's activities are documented also in the records of AAF Headquarters, notably the central records and the records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training, which had line jurisdiction over the Command. The "bulk" files contain, for example, a partial set of the Flying Training Command's diary (filed under 319.1) and a partial set of its monthly station lists (under 319.26). The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, also contain important papers relating to the Command; see various sets of index sheets filed under AG 322 Air Force Technical Training Command, subdivided into a general decimal series and several series for the various subordinate commands, 1941-43 (about 3 linear feet); AG 322 Air Force Flying Training Command, similarly subdivided, 1942-43 (3 linear inches); and AG 322 Air Force Training Command, arranged decimally, 1943-46 (8 linear inches). Copies of unpublished official histories of the various Command headquarters, notably the seven-volume summary history for 1939-45, are on file both in the Historical Section of Air Training Command Headquarters, Barksdale Field, La., and in the Air Historical Group.

See Training Division, AC/AS-3, Headquarters Army Air Forces, An Appraisal of Wartime Training of Individual Specialists in Army Air Forces (June 1946. 51 p.).

Field Establishment [324]

An elaborate field establishment of the AAF Training Command and its predecessors was developed during the war. For flying training there were three regional commands from July 1942 to July 1943: The Eastern Flying Training Command, Maxwell Field, Ala.; the Central Flying Training Command, Randolph Field, Tex.; and the Western Flying Training Command, Santa Ana Army Air Base, Calif. Concurrently, for ground-duty training there were two series of regional organizations, known as Technical Training Districts and Civilian School Areas. Four Technical Training District offices were established in March 1942 and a fifth was added in November 1942, to decentralize the work of supervising and inspecting the increasing number of AAF airfields and air bases at which ground-duty training was conducted. At the same time several regional Civilian School Area offices were established in 1942, growing out of the four Civilian Mechanic School District offices established in 1940, for the supervision and

inspection of training at civilian schools under contract with AAF. The Civilian School Area offices, eventually increased to seven, were located in Boston, Buffalo, Detroit, Kansas City, Los Angeles, New York, and Seattle.

In July 1943, when the Training Command was organized to merge flying and technical training functions under a single command, some of the regional commands were likewise reorganized. The regional Flying Training Commands and the Civilian School Area offices continued essentially as

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before. The five Technical Training District offices, on the other hand, were consolidated into three regional commands, as follows: Eastern Technical Training Command, Greensboro, N. C.; Central Technical Training Command, St. Louis; and Western Technical Training Command, Denver. In March 1944 these regional agencies were further consolidated by discontinuing the Central Technical Training Command.

Subordinate to the regional training commands were various units established from time to time for the further decentralization of training administration. Several Flying Training Wings functioned between 1942 and 1944 as intermediate supervisory and inspection units between the commanders of the regional Flying Training Commands and the commanders at the air installations. A Wing at first handled all training airfields in a particular geographical area, and later all airfields in the entire region that were training particular categories of trainees, such as pilots or bombardiers.

The Training Command's administrative units at the individual schools varied in organization and function. Each school at an AAF airfield or similar Army air installation had a particular type designation, such as Pilot School (Basic), Pilot School (Advanced), Instructor School (Pilot-Four Engine), and Radar Observer School. The civilian schools under AAF contract, on the other hand, were served until May 1944 by AAF administrative detachments of various types; each detachment was usually designated by one of the following type designations, each prefixed by "AAF": Training Detachment, Technical Training Detachment, Flying Training Detachment, War Service Training Detachment, College Training Detachment, and Glider Training Detachment. After May 1, 1944, each of these detachments was redesignated as an AAF Base Unit or as a part of such a unit.

Other types of lower administrative units in the field, most of them located at AAF installations adjacent to the school organization, included Academic Groups; Training Groups, each with special prefixed designations such as Preflight, Basic Flying, Single Engine Flying, Twin Engine Flying, Pilot Transition, Bombardier, Navigation, Flexible Gunnery, Observation, and Glider; Mess Groups; and Technical School Groups. Another agency was the AAF Institute (at Scott Field, Ill., later at St. Louis), which offered correspondence courses in vocational subjects to enlisted men during the defense period and the early months of United States participation in the war. In addition there were squadrons with comparable designations: Training, Mess, School, and Technical School Squadrons. There were a few other types of minor units peculiar to the Training Command, such as Medical and Psychological Exam Units, Psychological Research Units, Film Strip Preparation Units, Training Film Preparation Units, Visual Training Units, Tropical Weather Units, and the AAF Classification Center (at Nashville, Tenn.). Most of these units were reorganized in May 1944 as numbered AAF Base Units or as parts of such units.

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Records.--The records of regional commands are somewhat similar in subject matter and type to those of Training Command Headquarters, previously described, and, if noncurrent, are in the custody of the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The records of field units subordinate to these regional commands frequently were filed with the records of the Army airfields or air bases where they were stationed, and, if noncurrent, they, too, are at the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center; the records of other field units were kept separately. The official histories of these agencies and the histories of the fields and bases at which they functioned are filed both in the Historical Section, Air Training Command headquarters, Barks-dale Field, La., and in the Air Historical Group.

Continental Air Forces [325]

The Continental Air Forces, known also as CAF, from December 1944 until early in 1946 constituted AAF's major field organization for redeployment after the defeat of Germany and for demobilization after the defeat of Japan. CAF was also given jurisdiction over the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces in the continental United States and over the I Troop Carrier Command. Thus CAF was charged with supervising the combined activities of these five organizations, which consisted of the reception of individually trained specialists from the AAF Training Command and the welding of these specialists into combat crews and service units; the conduct of unit and tactical air training, sometimes jointly with the Army Ground Forces; the organization and use of the "Continental Strategic Reserve"; and the air defense of the United States.

Records.--See records of CAF's component parts, discussed below.

Headquarters Continental Air Forces [326]

This Headquarters was superimposed on the above four numbered Air Forces and the I Troop Carrier Command between December 1944 and early 1946. It served as an administrative link between them and Headquarters Army Air Forces and developed AAF redeployment and demobilization plans and programs in accordance with basic policies devised by the War Department and adapted for air use by Headquarters Army Air Forces This planning role in the redeployment program in 1945 involved the prep; ration of detailed plans for the allocation of units returning from the European and Mediterranean Theaters to the several major AAF commands for retraining; the computation of personnel requirements stemming from redeployment reorganization; the computation of aircraft and equipment requirements; the scheduling and phasing of training programs to meet readiness dates assigned to shipping commitments made by Headquarters Army Air Forces; and the planning of movements of retrained and reassembled units to staging areas. Apart from planning, CAF Headquarters monitored and closely directed the actual redeployment operations of processing, ramanning, retraining, staging, and shipping, carried out by its subordinate commands and their units in the field.

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The functions of CAF Headquarters, set up for redeployment, were closely associated with those designed for its second and subsequent task--the demobilization of AAF manpower in the continental United States. Shortly after the Japanese collapse in August 1945, the major task of releasing all officers and enlisted men in the continental United States who were eligible for release under War Department Readjustment Regulations fell to the Continental Air Forces. CAF Headquarters, within the framework of the "AAF Separations Program" formulated by Headquarters AAF and the War Department, established various AAF separation bases, scheduled and controlled the separation flow of all male personnel released at AAF installations in the Zone of the Interior, and supervised demobilization processing, which was conducted not only by the four numbered Air Forces and the I Troop Carrier Command but also by other major AAF commands, including the AAF Training Command, the Air Technical Service Command, the Air Transport Command, and (for a brief period) the Personnel Distribution Command.

CAF Headquarters was activated in December 1944 at Bolling Field, D.C. For a few months its organization corresponded in general to that of AAF Headquarters. In May 1945 it was reorganized to conform to the traditional general-staff and special-staff structure; and it remained unchanged until early in 1946, when CAF Headquarters was discontinued and its personnel, installations, and active records were absorbed by the Strategic Air Command. This new structure included 6 Assistant Chiefs of Staff (AC/S), as follows: AC/S A-1, Personnel; AC/S A-2, Intelligence; AC/S A-3, Operations and Training; AC/S A-4, Supply and Maintenance; AC/S A-5, Plans; and AC/S A-6, Communications and Electronics. There were also 14 special-staff sections corresponding to the technical and administrative services of the Army and including, among others, the Adjutant General's Office and the Historical Division of CAF Headquarters. Directly under the Commanding General was a separate Operational Analysis Section.

Records.--The central files of CAF Headquarters, December 1944-March 1946 (125 feet), are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Other records, including those of its staff offices, were in 1947 in the custody of the successor Strategic Air Command Headquarters. Copies of the historical studies prepared by the CAF Historical Division are in the historical offices of the Strategic Air Command and of AAF Headquarters.

First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces [327]

The operating Air Forces of the Continental Air Forces, when placed under the jurisdiction of CAF in April 1945, were the First Air Force, with headquarters at Mitchel Field, N. Y.; Second Air Force, Colorado Springs; Third Air Force, Tampa; and Fourth Air Force, San Francisco.

From 1939 to April 1945, these four Air Forces and their predecessors were organized as follows: As the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Wings under the General Headquarters Air Force, 1935-40; as the Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest Air Districts under General Headquarters Air

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Force. 1940-41; and as the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces under the Air Force Combat Command, beginning about March 1941. These orations constituted the basic operational and tactical commands of the Army air arm within the continental United States. Until December 1941 the common functions of these organizations included training bomber, fighter, and service-troop units for air task-force operations, supervising the training of units to provide air support for ground organizations, processing and dispatching individual replacements, crews, and organizations to the overseas air commands, and planning and preparing for air defense operations within the continental United States.

After December 7, 1941, the First and Fourth Air Forces ceased to be training commands under the jurisdiction of the Air Force Combat Command and became active defense forces in the Eastern and the Western Theaters of Operations (see American Theater of Operations). Under this arrangement, lasting from late 1941 until September 1943, the First Air Force became the air arm of the Eastern Defense Command in the Eastern Theater, while the Fourth Air Force was assigned to the Western Defense Command in the Western Theater. The defense task of these two Air Forces covered a wide variety of tactical operations such as the development and use of aircraft warning and control systems, providing both for defense against enemy air attack and for ground control of friendly aircraft within the theater; the establishment and maintenance of wire and radio networks and ground-observer programs; the operation of radar and direction-finding stations; the conduct of aerial operations, including joint Army-Navy defense exercises, bombing missions, fighter interception, and antisubmarine patrols; and the employment of antiaircraft weapons, automatic weapons, and barrage balloons.

During the period of active defense (1941-43), the Second and Third Air Forces in the interior of the United States continued as training establishments under the jurisdiction first of the Air Force Combat Command and later (after March 1942) of AAF Headquarters. These Air Forces were classed as "Zone of Interior" organizations, even though many of their stations and units were actually within the territorial limits of either the Eastern or the Western Defense Commands. The Second and Third Air Forces, joined after September 1943 by the First and Fourth Air Forces, which returned to the jurisdiction of AAF Headquarters on that date, were responsible for the second broad phase of AAF training--unit and crew training---designed to make effective teams out of individual specialists trained by the AAF Training Command and other commands.

Individually and collectively, the four Air Forces throughout the period 1942-45 were engaged in an intensive program of unit and crew training that fell into two main classifications--air-unit training and ground-unit training. As part of air-unit training, these Air Forces and their subordinate commands and units supplied operational unit training for Medium, Heavy, and Very Heavy Bombardment Groups and Squadrons and for Fighter, Fighter-Bomber, and Night-Fighter Groups and Squadrons. Simultaneously, a replacement-unit training program was undertaken by the Air

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Forces and their commands to provide replacements for air crews and flying personnel. Similar programs were handled by the Air Forces for Photo Reconnaissance and Tactical Reconnaissance Groups and Squadrons. The four Air Forces controlled the training of ground units, chiefly units made up of men from Army arms and services other than AAF, such as aircraft-warning units, airway detachments, chemical companies, depot-repair-and-supply squadrons, engineer units (including engineer-aviation, depot, topographic, and utility units), fighter-control units, ordnance companies, quartermaster organizations, and signal units. On the other hand, AAF's own service units, such as air-service and air-depot groups and squadrons, were given unit training in the Air Technical Service Command.

[327a] Headquarters organization.--Each of the headquarters of the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces was organized like AAF Headquarters, with certain deviations reflecting varying functions. Between 1941 and 1944 these headquarters were organized along general-staff lines into divisions designated either G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4, or A-1, A-2, A-3, and A-4, and into several special staff sections corresponding to the various administrative and technical services of the Army. Between mid-1944 and mid-1945 each headquarters regrouped most of its administrative activities around Directorates of Administration, of Operations and Training, and of Supply and Maintenance. Late in 1945 the directorate system was discontinued and the headquarters of the four Air Forces reverted to the conventional military pattern of a general staff (or more properly an "air" staff) and a number of special-staff sections.

[327b] Subordinate organization.--Under the headquarters of the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces was an elaborate and shifting command pattern that was developed during the war to carry out their changing duties. In general, the defense and training operations from 1941 to 1945-were grouped under major subordinate commands, either Bomber, Fighter, Air Support, and Air Service Commands (usually prefixed with roman numerals) or operational training wings and groups. With the notable exceptions of the First and Fourth Air Forces during the period of active defense (1941-43), these subordinate commands provided unit and crew training for bomber, fighter, support, and service groups and squadrons. In the First and Fourth Air Forces, the Fighter Commands (1941-43) became the key subordinate commands that integrated the elements of the fixed air-defense system, directed the activities of fighter aircraft, antiaircraft batteries, aircraft-warning networks, and ground-observer corps. The IV Fighter Command in the Fourth Air Force had the additional task of supervising the 4th Antiaircraft Command, which embraced the defense units furnishing antiaircraft, barrage balloons, and searchlight batteries for the protection of the Pacific Coast against air attack. Simultaneously, the I and IV Bomber Commands handled active defense missions within their respective areas of operations. The IV Bomber Command remained under the jurisdiction of the Fourth Air Force. The I Bomber Command (absorbed in October 1942 by the AAF Anti-Submarine Command, a special combat command responsible directly to AAF Headquarters) had the major operational responsibility

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of protecting the vital sea lanes in the North and Middle Atlantic from Newfoundland to Trinidad, the Bay of Biscay, and the approaches to North Africa. In August 1943 the I Bomber Command was returned to the First Air Force after the inactivation of the AAF Anti-Submarine Command.

In addition to these major subordinate commands and supervisory wings, there were established from time to time within the four continental Air Air Forces various organizations, operating either under the direct jurisdiction of the various Air Force headquarters or under one of their subordinate commands, to handle ground-unit training, special training, and in-processing and out-processing functions related to staging for overseas movement or, later in 1945, to redeployment operations and demobilization. In the First Air Force these organizations included the Eastern Signal Aviation Unit Training Center, the Engineer Aviation Unit Training Center, the Combined Air-Defense Training Center ("combined" in the air-ground sense, not in the interallied sense), and the Tactical Forecast Center (at Mitchel Field, N.Y.). In the Second Air Force these organizations included the Engineer Aviation Unit Training Center, Staging Wings, Replacement Wings, the Heavy Bombardment Processing Wing, and the Combat Training Wing. In the Third Air Force these organizations included the AAF Chemical Training Center, the Aircraft Warning Unit Training Center, the Military Police Training Center, Replacement Depots, and various schools for liaison training, for camouflage training, and for photointelligence training. In the Fourth Air Force these organizations included the Replacement Depot, the Aviation Engineer Training School, the Western Signal Aviation Unit Training Center, and several AAF Staging Areas.

Central Assembly Centers for redeployment activity were set up in mid-1945 in the First Air Force at Seymour-Johnson Field, Goldsboro, N. C.; in the Second Air Force at Sioux Falls, S. Dak.; in the Third Air Force at Drew Field, Tampa, Fla.; and in the Fourth Air Force at Lemoore (Calif.) Army Air Field and at McChord Field, Tacoma, Wash.

[327c] Records.--The wartime records of the headquarters of the Air Forces named above were in 1947 in the custody of their successors. Some, at least, of the records of each of these headquarters are now in the. Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The central files of the - Wing, 1935-40, and of the successor Northeast Air District, 1940-41 (15 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Records of certain subordinate field organizations are at the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, among them the records of the IV Fighter Command, 1944, the 4th Antiaircraft Command, 1942-45, the Los Angeles Air Defense Wing, 1942-45, the Aircraft Warning Unit Training Center (at Drew Field, Fla.), the Western Signal Aviation Unit Training Center, several AAF Staging Areas, and AAF Base Units at about 50 airfields controlled by the Second Air Force.

The wartime records of Headquarters Fourth Air Force (by way of example) included in 1946 the following major series: Central files, some of them security-classified and others not, 1941-45; record copies of the administrative issuances of this Headquarters, including General Orders.

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Special Orders, Memoranda, Regulations, and Circulars; copies of official, unpublished historical studies of the Fourth Air Force and research notes compiled by its historical unit; histories of subordinate units and installations of the Fourth Air Force; records pertaining to real estate and construction matters affecting air installations in the region; records pertaining to "live and dead" airplanes assigned to the Fourth Air Force; and reports of air inspectors.

In addition to the organized records of the four Air Forces, copies of important documents originating in or otherwise relating to them are among the records of higher headquarters. For example, the central files of AAF Headquarters contain separate folders on each of these Air Forces, and the "bulk" files (also part of these central records) contain the following series of documents: Copies of the four "Program Books" governing the above Air Forces, about June 1944 (filed under 320.2); the "Command Book" of the Second Air Force, Jan. and Apr. 1944 editions (filed under 322); and station lists of each of the four Air Forces, in various editions, 1942-44 (filed under 319.26). The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain important correspondence relating to the four Air Forces; see index sheets filed under AG 322, thereunder separately filed for (1) each of the Air Forces, 1940-45 (3 linear feet), and (2) each of their respective subordinate Bomber, Fighter, Interceptor, Air Defense, and Air Support Commands, 1940-45 (8 linear inches). Historical reports of each of these four Air Forces, including their headquarters, their major subordinate commands, and some, at least, of their training centers, troop units, and airfields and air bases, are in the Air Historical Group.

The only known organized body of records of the Anti-Submarine Command consists of those selected by the Command's historical unit and transferred late in 1943, after the Command was discontinued, to the Air Historical Office, AAF Headquarters (now known as the Air Historical Group). These records, Dec. 1942-Sept. 1943 (40 feet), include selected subject files; journals and logbooks kept by A-4 and other sections of Command Headquarters; reports of operational missions; monthly intelligence summaries; monthly, semiannual, and other statistical summaries of the Command's activities; selected station lists; and histories of staff sections in Headquarters and of subordinate wings and groups. Copies of many of the Command's intelligence summaries were in 1945 in the Air Intelligence Library, AAF Headquarters. Copies of correspondence relating to the Command are among the central records of AAF Headquarters. Related correspondence is also filed in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Anti-Submarine Command, Nov. 1942-July 1943 (2 linear inches).

I Troop Carrier Command [328]

Like the four continental Air Forces, the I Troop Carrier Command (with headquarters at Stout Field, Indianapolis) was placed under the command of Headquarters Continental Air Forces in April

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1945. The I Troop Carrier Command's predecessor, April-May 1942, was the so-called Air Transport Command at Stout Field, not to be confused with another, later Air Transport Command at Gravelly Point, D.C. The I Troop Carrier Command and its predecessor and subordinate organizations

instituted the AAF's major field organization for conducting the flying-unit and ground-unit training for airborne operations. This Command operated for most of the war period (March 1942-April 1945) directly under the supervision of AAF Headquarters and provided the training for all troop-carrier units, combat-cargo groups and squadrons, airborne engineer-aviation units, glider units, medical air-evacuation units, and air-cargo resupply units. The I Troop Carrier Command integrated the technical and flying training-school graduates into these specialized organizations, and it activated, manned, and equipped these organizations for movement overseas. In addition, the I Troop Carrier Command from time to time assisted the Air Transport Command in the purely operational functions of transporting key personnel, troops, and freight in the continental United States and participated in air-evacuation programs for the transfer of battle casualties from aerial ports of debarkation to medical installations within the United States. Late in 1945 the I Troop Carrier Command furnished personnel and facilities for redeployment and demobilization activities.

The organization of I Troop Carrier Command Headquarters was typical, in its changes, of the headquarters of the other major AAF continental commands. The Command had a general-staff and special-staff structure, 1942-44, a directorate system, 1944-45, and a general-staff and special-staff structure late in 1945. The Command carried out its functions through subordinate Troop Carrier Wings, schools, training centers, and other units and air installations. The Command was discontinued in 1945.

Records.--Wartime records of the I Troop Carrier Command were in 1947 in the War Department's records depository at Columbus, Ohio; whether they were in turn transferred to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center in 1948 has not been determined. At Kansas City are, however, certain records of the Glider Crew Training Center. There are a few related papers in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Troop Carrier Command, 1942-44 (3 linear inches). An undated 1-volume report, "Tactical Employment in U.S. Army of Transport Aircraft and Gliders in World War II," apparently prepared by the Command, is on file in the Air Historical Group.

Air Corps Tactical School [329]

The Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, Ala., functioned in 1939 and part of 1940 as a postgraduate staff school for senior Air Corps officers. It was under the line authority of the Plans Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps. The School's faculty and officer students engaged in research on phases of Air Corps tactical doctrine, combat organization, and air strategy, the results of which were usually circulated within the Air Corps as doctrinal studies. The Director of the School was ex officio

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President of the Air Corps Board. Instruction was suspended in June 1940, and in November 1942 the school was replaced by the AAF School of Applied Tactics at Orlando, Fla., a somewhat similar school but on a larger scale (see entry 332).

Records.--The whereabouts of the records of the Air Corps Tactical School is not known. The School's activities are extensively documented elsewhere, however, especially in the records of the Plans Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps (in the custody of the Air Historical Group), and in the central records of AAF Headquarters. Among the "bulk" files in the latter records are selected course data, 1939 (filed under 381), and a compilation, "Reference Data" on the School, 1939 (filed under 319.25).

Air Corps Board [330]

The Air Corps Board at Maxwell Field, Ala., which originated in the Air Service Board established in 1922, functioned actually until June 1940 but nominally until March 1942, as an adjunct of the Air Corps Tactical School. In 1939 the Board was operating under a broad directive, issued in 1935, "to formulate a uniform tactical doctrine" for the employment of all types of Air Corps units and standard models of aircraft. Under this directive the Board undertook about 50 projects between 1935 and 1940 covering various aspects of air preparedness, including studies on the tactical employment of particular airplanes and air weapons, the composition of special types of tactical units, and other subjects. Some of these studies were based on operational tests performed by the 23d Composite Group, which the Board directed in 1940. Some time after the Board was discontinued, a similar board--the Army Air Forces Board--was activated under a new directive at Orlando, Fla.

Records.--The records of the Air Corps Board, 1935-40, are in the Air Historical Group. They consist of file copies of the Board's studies, progress and status reports on the studies, and a few other administrative papers.

Army Air Forces Center [331]

The Army Air Forces Tactical Center (AFTAC) at Orlando, Fla., established in October 1943 and renamed the Army Air Forces Center in June 1945, was under the line authority, in effect, of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements, AAF Headquarters. It functioned during and after the war (until 1946) as an AAF field command for the supervision of the AAF School of Applied Tactics (later, the AAF School), the AAF Board, and the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Information Center, all located at Orlando. After June 1, 1945, the AAF Center also had supervision over the Proving Ground Command at Eglin Field, Fla. Each of these subordinate organizations is separately described below.

The AAF Tactical Center and the AAF Center also provided personnel and services for the AAF Demonstration Air Force, a model "combat" air

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force that was established at Orlando in 1942 as part of the AAF School plied Tactics. This model air force was used primarily for the training of staff officers enrolled at the School, for the development of tactical doctrines, and for conducting operational-suitability tests of airplanes, air equipment, and air tactics for the School or for the AAF Board. It was first organized in "commands" for bombardment, fighter and interceptor, air-ground cooperation, and air-service operations. In October 1943, when it was transferred to the Tactical Center, the Demonstration Air Force was reorganized in strategic and tactical air commands based on the organizational experience of the theater commanders in the air campaigns of North-west Africa in 1942 and 1943. The Orlando operational "theater" covered some 8,000 square miles in central and western Florida and included, besides the Orlando Army Air Base, about 10 airfields and several service depots and radar stations. Personnel and administrative services for this air force were supplied successively by the AAF School of Applied Tactics, the AAF Tactical Center, and the AAF Center.

Records.--The wartime records of the AAF Center, according to their subject matter, were transferred in 1946 to the Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Field, Fla., and the Air University, Maxwell Field, Ala., which absorbed respectively the testing and training functions. The Center's records include its General Orders and Special Orders; records of its Historical Office, including copies of its unpublished historical studies, histories of subordinate units of the Center, and reference manuals and bulletins of the AAF School of Applied Tactics; records of the Center's Air Inspector; and correspondence of the Center's Counterintelligence Branch. Certain as yet unidentified records of the AAF School, probably parts of the above, were later transferred to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center. Copies of the unpublished historical monographs of the AAF Center predecessors, and its subordinate organizations are filed (under classes 240 to 249) in the Air Historical Group as well as in the Center's records described above. A study by the Air Historical Office on the "Development of Tactical Doctrines . . .," is based partly on this Center's records.

AAF School [332]

The AAF School of Applied Tactics (AAFSAT), established in November 1942 and renamed the Army Air Forces School in June 1945, functioned at the Orlando Army Air Base, Fla., until 1946 as a tactical school for the training of selected key officers under simulated combat conditions and for the preparation of doctrinal literature on air strategy and tactics. The School had its origin, broadly speaking, in the former Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, Ala. More specifically, it was a direct outgrowth of an earlier school, also at Orlando, that specialized in air-defense tactics and the employment of aircraft-warning radar, radar-controlled fighter-interceptor airplanes, and antiaircraft artillery. This school, which functioned from March to November 1942, was successively designated as the Air Defense Operational Training Unit (under the Third Air Force), March

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1942; the Interceptor Command School (under the Third Air Force), April 1942; and the Fighter Command School (an "exempt" field organization directly under the Directorate of Air Defense, AAF Headquarters), May 1942. These air-defense training functions became the basis in November 1942 for the Air Defense Department of the new AAF School of Applied Tactics. At the same time three additional major training programs were added, under three other departments--Bombardment, Air Support, and Air Service.

Some of the School's functions not primarily concerned with the training of staff officers were shifted elsewhere in 1943. Thus the School's Director of Training Aids, who was concerned with reviewing and coordinating the development and quantity production of synthetic training devices and their application throughout the AAF training program, was transferred in July 1943 to New York and was absorbed into the Training Aids Division of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training, of AAF Headquarters. The Director of Tactical Development, concerned with the development and testing of tactical doctrines and techniques, was transferred to the AAF Board in October 1943.

Subsequently, chiefly in 1944, the training duties of the School of Applied Tactics were clarified and extended to cover additional training specialties and courses, some of which were transferred to Orlando from other AAF commands. In January 1944 the AAF Training Command's Administrative Inspectors School (at Fort Logan, Colo.) and Technical Inspectors School (at Lowry Field, Colo.) were transferred to Orlando. In March 1944 the School of Applied Tactics also absorbed the Air Intelligence School (AAFAIS) at Harrisburg, Pa., which since April 1942 had been an "exempt" field activity under the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, AAF Headquarters. Other courses were added in 1944, notably courses for training key personnel for very heavy bombardment (B-29 airplane) groups, senior medical-staff officers, AAF junior officers who had graduated from the United States Military Academy, and noncommissioned WAC officers for statistical control work. Still other instructional programs dealt with flying safety, rescue and survival, over-water operations, personnel management, and logistics.

Between 1942 and 1945 the School was under the line authority, in effect, of three successive officials in AAF Headquarters: Director of Military Requirements, November 1942-March 1943; Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements, April 1943-May 1945; and Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Training, from June 1945 until after the end of the war. In 1946 the School's training functions were transferred to the new Air University at Maxwell Field, Ala.

Records.--Except for some records in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, the wartime records of the School and its predecessors are probably in the custody of the Air University, Maxwell Field, Ala. Copies of some of the documents originating in the School are among other records: Various series of reference manuals and bulletins, among the records of the AAF Center; tactical manuals on sea-search radar and other subjects, 1943.

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in the Air Intelligence Library, AAF Headquarters, in 1945; "Intelligence Digests" and "Intelligence Reports," June 1943-November 1945, filed under 319.1 in the "bulk" files of the central records of AAF Headquarters; and Headquarters Office Instructions, General Orders, and Special Orders, 1945, in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

AAF Board [333]

The AAF Board was established at the Orlando Army Air Base, Fla., in November 1942 as an adjunct to the AAF School of Applied Tactics but under the control of the Director of Military Requirements, AAF Headquarters. The Board supervised the testing of tactical techniques developed by the School, and the School's Commandant was ex officio President of the Board. There were subboards for air defense (which absorbed the Air Defense Board established at Orlando in June 1942), air support, bombardment, and air service. An additional subordinate board--called the AAF Equipment Board--was established in January 1943.

From July 1943 to May 1945 the Board functioned as an adjunct, not to the School of Applied Tactics, but to AAF Headquarters, where it was under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements. The Board was directed, in a restatement of its duties in July 1943, to coordinate the activities of the Proving Ground Command and the School of Applied Tactics, especially the latter's Directorate of Tactical Development, and to review and approve the development, testing, and military requirements for all types of tactical aircraft, equipment, units, and doctrines, excluding only certain nontactical matters that were defined as training programs, nontactical medical services, and the programs of the Air Transport Command.

In practice the Board confined itself largely to directing and reviewing a program of tactical tests of matériel, ultimately amounting to more than 2,000 projects that covered particular models of airplanes, weapons, and equipment such as the P-51 fighter airplane, jet-propelled airplanes, gliders, antiaircraft artillery for amphibious operations, instrument-landing devices, tail-warning radar devices, life rafts, parachutes, and gas masks. Several nonmatériel tests and studies were also made, such as those on the B-32 bomber-training program and on the composition of the B-29 bomber crew. Most of these tests were made by other organizations, notably the Demonstration Air Force, the Proving Ground Command, the Air Transport Command, the Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces, the I Troop Carrier Command, and the proving grounds of the Chemical Warfare Service. The reports and recommendations based on the tests were prepared and circulated as Board studies.

In October 1943 the subboards were reorganized as divisions of the Board. Between that date and September 1945 the AAF Board consisted of the Board proper, its administrative section, and six divisions concerned with directing and reviewing tests: Aircraft Division (for all types of aircraft as well as guided missiles after April 1945); Armament Division for AAF-procured armament and for ordnance items procured for AAF by the Army's

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Ordnance Department and Chemical Warfare Service); Communications Division (for radio and radar equipment); Equipment Division, formerly the AAF Equipment Board (for clothing, other individual equipment, and medical, weather, navigation, and rescue equipment); Tactics Division, which was renamed the Policy Division in June 1944 and the Evaluation Division in September 1944 (concerned with field manuals and other doctrinal literature); and Organization Division (for revising AAF tables of organization, a function that in June 1944 was transferred to the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements, in AAF Headquarters.

On June 1, 1945, jurisdiction over the AAF Board was shifted from AAF Headquarters to the newly designated AAF Center; and later it was shifted to the Proving Ground Command. In June 1946 the Board was discontinued and its functions were divided between the Proving Ground Command and the Air University.

Records.--The wartime records of the AAF Board are in the custody of Headquarters Air Proving Ground, Eglin Field, Fla. They consist of central files, a partial set of the Board's interim and final reports on tests, and copies of various reports of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. A 122-page inventory of the records is on file at Eglin Field and also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A single-volume unpublished official history of the Board is in the Air Historical Group. Copies of the Board's test reports, monthly status reports on Board projects, semimonthly "Air Operations Briefs," and other documents originating in the Board are also to be found, at least in partially complete sets, in the central records of AAF Headquarters (filed in the "bulk" files under 319.1 and 452.03); in the Air Historical Group; and in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Copies of the Board's correspondence with higher headquarters are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 AAF Board, July 1943-June 1945 (1 linear inch).

Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Information Center [334]

This Center, known also as ADTIC, functioned from 1942 to 1946 as an AAF field agency for the collection and compilation of scientific information and the development of "survival" procedures for use by AAF combat personnel who might operate or become lost in nontemperate zones. The Center was established in September 1942 as part of the Proving Ground Command at Eglin Field, Fla.; it included the Arctic Section, which was established in November 1942 at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. In 1943 the Center was relocated in New York City and was transferred as an "exempt" activity to the jurisdiction of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, AAF Headquarters. In September 1944 the Center was transferred to Orlando, Fla., where it became a component first of the AAF Tactical Center and later of the AAF Center. It had liaison officers at various Army and civilian organizations that were concerned with matériel or training phases of survival activities, such as the Air Technical Service Command, the AAF Training Command, the Office of Flying Safety, the Cold Weather Test Detachment (Ladd Field, Alaska), the Mountain

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Training Center (of the Army Ground Forces), the Desert Training Center (also of the Army Ground Forces), and the Stefansson Library.

Records.--The wartime records of the Center were transferred in 1946 to the library of the Air University, Maxwell Field, Ala., except for certain materials that earlier had been transferred to the Arctic Institute of North America, at Montreal. Copies of some of the Center's reports are among the records of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, and among the central records of AAF Headquarters (filed in the "bulk" files under 319.1 and 461); copies of its historical summaries are in the Air Historical Group; and microfilm copies of its unpublished "Bibliography and Glossary" on Arctic matters are in the National Archives, the Office of Naval History, the Eastern European Division of the State Department, and the library of the Air University.

AAF Proving Ground Command [335]

The AAF Proving Ground Command, from April 1942 until after September 1945, and the predecessor Air Corps Proving Ground, from May 1941 to March 1942, functioned at Eglin Field, Fla., and at several satellite airfields nearby as the AAF field command for conducting operational-suitability and combat-simulated tests on aircraft, air weapons, and other air matériel. Matériel for testing included both aircraft and equipment procured by the Air Technical Service Command and equipment procured for the AAF by the technical services of the Army Service Forces. In 1941 and 1942 the emphasis was on armament and accessory equipment for bombardment and fighter airplanes. Later the Command's functions embraced virtually all categories of air matériel, including radar countermeasures and other electronics equipment. In addition, the Command had various non-matériel functions; it maintained a fixed gunnery school for pursuit pilots, inherited from the Southeast Training Center in July 1941 and continued until about 1943; and for a time in 1942 and 1943 it supervised the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Information Center

The Proving Ground Command was successively under the jurisdiction of the Air Corps Board, May 1941-March 1942; the Directorate of Military Requirements, AAF Headquarters, March 1942-March 1943; and the Requirements Division, Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Operations, Commitments, and Requirements, AAF Headquarters, April 1943-May 1945. From July 1943 to May 1945 the AAF Board served as an additional intermediate authority between the Command and AAF Headquarters, and in June 1945 the Command was placed under the AAF Center at Orlando, Fla.

The Proving Ground Command had virtually no field establishment beyond its laboratories, ranges, and other installations at Eglin Field and vicinity. It did, however, control several Proving Ground Squadrons and Proving Ground Detachments stationed at such testing centers of the Ordnance Department and the Chemical Warfare Service as Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., Edgewood Arsenal, Md., Jefferson Proving Ground, Ind., and the Southwestern Proving Ground, Ark. In 1943-45 the Command also supervised the Cold Weather Test Detachment at Ladd Field, Alaska.

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The organization of the Proving Ground Command Headquarters and its predecessor underwent the following changes between 1941 and 1945. In

May 1941 the organization consisted essentially of the 23d Composite Group. This Group was transferred to Eglin Field from Orlando, Fla., in June 1941 and was successively renamed the Air Corps Proving Ground Detachment, in August 1941, and the AAF Proving Ground Group, in April 1942. The Proof Department, added in September 1941, became the major organization for the planning and execution of tests, the analysis of test data, and the preparation of test reports. In April 1942 all these functions were combined in a Proving Ground Command headed by the Commanding General (before May 1942, the Director of the Air Corps Proving Ground).

Records.--The wartime records of Proving Ground Command Headquarters were, in 1947, in the custody of its successor, Headquarters Air Proving Ground, Eglin Field, Fla. Later some of the files, as yet unidentified, were transferred to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The wartime records consisted in 1946 primarily of administrative records kept by the adjutant, technical records kept in the Proof Department, and records of the Command's Historical Branch. The historical records are both administrative and technical and include about 15 historical monographs on the Command, copies of test reports, transcripts of staff meetings and conversations involving the Commanding General and his staff, and copies of policy documents selected from the central records of AAF Headquarters. The test reports are listed and indexed by title, subject, and date in the cumulative "Index and List . . ." prepared by the Historical Branch. Copies of the monographs and list are in the Air Historical Group. Other copies of the test reports are in existence; some were on file in 1947 in the office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff-3, AAF Headquarters; most of them appear as appendixes to the pertinent historical monographs of the Command, mentioned above; and a few are in the central records of AAF Headquarters (filed in "bulk" files, under 319.1). Copies of the Command's correspondence with higher headquarters are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 AAF Proving Ground Command, 1942-45 (3 linear inches). Records relating to the Cold Weather Test Detachment are in the Air Force Matériel Engineering, Research, and Development Records Depository at Wright Field, Ohio.

Global Air Services [336]

During the war several AAF field organizations were established to function not only in the continental United States but also in the overseas theaters of operations. These global AAF organizations were primarily concerned with providing various types of technical air services needed for the movement of men and matériel by air transport from the continental United States to their air or ground combat destinations in the overseas theaters of operations. They consisted of the Air Transport Command (and its predecessor Ferrying Command), the AAF Weather Service,

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the Army Airways Communications System, and the 136th Radio Security Detachment. In 1946 these services (except the 136th Radio Security Detachment, which was discontinued) were reorganized as component parts of the new Air Transport Command, within which the wartime Air Transport Command was renamed the Air Transport Service. Later, about 1947, these organizations were renamed the Military Air Transport Service.

Records.--The records of each of the global air services are discussed below.

Air Transport Command [337]

The, Air Transport Command (ATC), with headquarters at Gravelly Point, D. C, was established in June 1942 as a major AAF field command to ferry AAF-procured airplanes to their overseas destinations; to transport men, equipment, and mail by air between the continental United States and overseas points, both for AAF commands and for the other armed services and the Allied forces; to control the transport operations of commercial airlines that were militarized under contract with the AAF; and to assist in the training of transport and ferrying crews and medical air-evacuation units.

[337a] Headquarters organization.--Air Transport Command Headquarters in September 1945 was headed by the Commanding General and was organized into 5 major staff offices, each headed by its Assistant Chief of Staff, and into special-staff sections corresponding to the Army's technical and administrative services, including an adjutant and a historical unit. The major staff offices were: Priorities and Traffic (including special offices for handling liaison with the Air Transport Association and the Naval Air Transport Service), Personnel, Operations, Supply and Service, and Plans.

[337b] Field establishment.--Outside of ATC Headquarters the Command's ferrying and air-transportation operations were handled by several major field divisions, all of them located outside the District of Columbia and many of them outside the continental United States. The Ferrying Division at Cincinnati was the successor of the Air Corps Ferrying Command (May 1941-June 1942), which had functioned as a separate AAF field command, at first for ferrying AAF-procured airplanes to the British under the lend-lease program and later for the dispatch of planes both for lend-lease recipients and for AAF's overseas Air Forces. Eventually the Ferrying Division's field organization included various Ferrying Groups, each with a numerical designation; several numbered Ferrying Squadrons; several ATC Operational Training Units, some of them successors to the Ferrying Groups; several Ferrying Service Stations; the 1st and 2d Military Air Transport Groups; and the 2d and 3d Air Transport Squadrons.

Another major ATC field division was the Domestic Transportation Division (DTR), New York City, which handled the Army's air-freight and air-passenger traffic in the continental United States and which also trained ATC transport pilots at Transport Transition Training Detachments located at about 20 airfields in the United States. In addition, there were about 20

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Regional Air Priorities Control Offices and about 70 Air Freight Terminals in the continental United States. Overseas air shipments of personnel and equipment and ferry flights of airplanes were processed through the Air Transport Command's various ports of aerial embarkation, located in 1945 at 19 airfields in the United States, and at Edmonton, Canada.

The overseas ferrying and air-freight organizations of the Air Transport Command were successively designated as ATC Wings (1942-44) and ATC Divisions (1944-45). Shortly after June 1942 there were the North Atlantic, Caribbean, South Atlantic, Africa-Middle East, European, India-China, Alaskan, and South Pacific Wings. The geographical jurisdiction of a given Wing varied from time to time, and some of the Wings were subdivided into Sectors. In August 1944 the Wings were redesignated as ATC Divisions, and some of them were organized into subordinate Wings. Each of these ATC Divisions and subordinate Wings had command jurisdiction over certain air installations in or near a given theater of operations served by the Division. Some of the overseas Divisions had special functions. Thus, the Alaskan Division handled lend-lease aircraft and equipment flown from the United States to the Soviet Union's fly-away points in Alaska. The Commanding General of the South Atlantic Division also headed the United States Army Forces in the South Atlantic, and the Division maintained liaison with the Brazilian and Paraguayan military forces and supervised four Northern Brazil Training Groups (Nos. 1-4). The North Atlantic Division provided administrative services to the "Crimson Project" for the construction of air bases in eastern Canada (see United States Army Forces in Central Canada).

[337c] Records.--The wartime records of Air Transport Command Headquarters are either in the custody of the Military Air Transport Service or, if noncurrent, in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. They included the following in 1946: Central files; copies of wire messages; record copies of ATC Regulations, Memoranda, Letters, and Headquarters Office Instructions; unpublished official histories of ATC Headquarters, its field divisions, wings, and other organizations and installations (copies of which are in the Air Historical Group); materials assembled by the Historical Branch, ATC Headquarters; summaries of operations, monthly statistical reviews, aerial reports, and other reports of the Statistical Control Office, ATC Headquarters; record copies of the ATC "Intelligence Digest and Summary," route books, and station surveys prepared by the Intelligence and Security Office, ATC Headquarters; transport schedules for overseas movement and weekly activity reports on staging and movement; reports on traffic flow through ports of aerial embarkation; records of the Plans and Transportation Control Office, including records of "completed special missions," transportation control directives, and weekly progress reports; records of the Revenue Traffic Division; personnel records, including policy files on personnel assignments and promotions; copies of manning tables of ATC divisions; copies of opinions of the ATC Judge Advocate and court-martial and disciplinary statistics; and medical reports of the ATC Surgeon. Records pertaining to contracts for the construction and installation of aviation

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petroleum storage systems at overseas stations were transferred about 1947 to the Joint Army-Navy Petroleum Purchase Agency.

The following series of ATC Headquarters documents are in the central records of AAF Headquarters, in the "bulk" files: ATC periodic reports, including annual reports (filed under 322), monthly "Summary of Operations" (under 322), and weekly reports to the Commanding General of AAF (under 319.1); ATC station lists (under 318.26); and "Air Pilot Manuals" (under 300.7). Copies of ATC's "Intelligence Digest and Summary" and intelligence reports of subordinate ATC wings and divisions were in 1945 in the Air Intelligence Library, AAF Headquarters. Copies of ATC's correspondence with higher headquarters are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322, then under Air Corps Ferrying Command, 1941-42 (3 linear inches); Air Transport Command, 1942-45 (15 linear inches); and names of subordinate divisions, wings, and sectors, 1941-45 (6 linear inches).

The records of the following ATC field divisions are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO: The Ferrying Division, the Domestic Transportation Division, the Atlantic Division (which absorbed the North Atlantic and South Atlantic Divisions after the war), the Caribbean Division, the European Division, the Alaskan Division, the Pacific Division, and the India-China Division (a few records of the predecessor India-China Wing are, however, in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis, including files of Memo Regulations, 1944, Regulations, 1944-45, and Special Orders, 1944). Also at Kansas City are the records of the following subordinate ATC agencies in the continental United States: The Ferrying Division's Air Freight Terminals at Kearney, Nebr., Omaha, Nebr., and Salina, Kans.; the 39th Air Freight Wing, Brownsville, Tex.; 18 of the Regional Air Priorities Control Offices; the Ports of Aerial Embarkation (POAE's) at Newark, N.J., Brownsville, Tex., and Sacramento, Calif.; 18 of the Transport Transition Training Detachments; the ATC Replacement Training Center, Camp Luna, N. Mex.; and ATC stations, variously called AAF Base Units and Operating Locations, at about 60 airfields and other air installations. Also at Kansas City are records of the following subordinate overseas organizations of ATC: The Northern Brazil Training Groups (Nos. 1-3); the Recife (Brazil) General Depot; and ATC stations, variously called AAF Base Units and Operating Locations, at about 60 airfields and other air installations abroad.

See Arthur J. Larsen, "The Air Transport Command," in Minnesota History, 26: 1-18 Mar. 1945); and Oliver La Farge, The Eagle in the Egg (Boston, 1949. 320 p.).

AAF Weather Service [338]

This field command was established as the Air Corps Weather Service in 1937 to prepare and disseminate long-range and on-the-spot weather forecasts. Headquarters of the Weather Service during the war operated under the staff authority of the Weather Division of AAF Headquarters. Subordinate Weather Regions, numbering 26 in 1945, covered all areas of the world in which air-combat and related operations were conducted by the Army, Navy, and Allied Air Forces. The headquarters of

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each Weather Region supervised several Weather Squadrons, and each squadron in turn controlled one or more Weather Detachments, which operated at the air installations or at other bases in a given geographical area. Weather data were assembled from all these sources and either were transmitted by the Army Airways Communications System to AAF Headquarters for use in global weather maps and forecasts or were made available locally for on-the-spot short-range forecasts for use by the tactical air units in that area. In 1946 the AAF Weather Service was renamed the Air Weather Service.

Records.--The records of Weather Service Headquarters were in 1946 in the custody of the Air Weather Service, Langley Field, Va. None have been transferred to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Certain types of records important for weather research are being consolidated at the Air Force Weather Records Depository, New Orleans. The Headquarters records for the war period in 1946 included the following series: Central files, 1943-45; copies of radio messages; record copies of the Service's administrative and technical issuances; historical materials, including copies of unpublished official histories of the Service and its subordinate units (other copies are filed in the Air Historical Group); record copies of press and magazine releases and of speeches originating in the Weather Service; copies of minutes and working papers of the Joint Meteorological Committee, the Combined Meteorological Committee, their subcommittees, and other interservice and interdepartmental weather committees; intelligence records on German, Japanese, and Soviet air-weather services; research materials on meteorology; daily weather maps of the Northern Hemisphere; training records, including forecaster-proficiency examinations, and course data and related correspondence on forecaster and weather-observer schools; records concerning special weather equipment and techniques, such as radar, sferics, storm detection, and hurricane warning; microfilm copies of AAF Forms 94 and 201 (weather observation data); and rosters and other personnel records of weather officers and enlisted men in the Weather Service. Correspondence relating to the Weather Service is in the central records of the War Department; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Weather Service, 1942-45 (1 linear inch).

Army Airways Communications System [339]

The Army Airways Communications System (AACS) originated in 1938, and its headquarters functioned in 1939-42 within AAF Headquarters and in 1943-45 as a field command of the Army Air Forces. AACS supervised radio, teletype, and other AAF communications facilities that were used in guiding flights and controlling air traffic between Army air installations In the continental United States, between theaters of operations, and within theaters (except strictly combat flights). Between 1938 and 1940 AACS served the Air Corps in the continental United States only, but between 1941 and 1945 its operations extended to overseas Army air traffic as well. Its services to aircraft in flight emphasized flying safety, security, aids to navigation, and the dissemination of weather data for flight operations.

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The headquarters for AACS between 1939 and 1942 was a part of AAF Headquarters, first within the Training and Operations Division, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, and later in the Directorate of Communications. Early in 1943 a separate headquarters for AACS was established at Asheville, N. C. It was called the Communications Wing of the Flight Control Command, which was technically a part of AAF Headquarters. Later in 1943 this Wing was renamed AACS Headquarters.

The AACS field organization (known also as the Control Airways System or CONAS) consisted in 1939 of the 1st, 2d, and 3d Communications Regions, all located in the continental United States and each served by a similarly numbered Communications Squadron. During the war these Regions were extended globally, and increased in number to 8. In 1943 they were renamed AACS Wings, each headed by a Regional Communications Control Office. Subordinate to the AACS Wings were 24 AACS Groups, 57 AACS Squadrons, and about 750 AACS Detachments, one detachment for each Army air installation in a given locality. The airways communications facilities that were supervised, operated, and maintained by this global system were procured largely through the Signal Corps and included such fixed and mobile ground equipment as airdrome control towers; fixed point-to-point and ground-to-air radio stations, weather circuits, teletype and radio-teletype circuits, and other fixed equipment; and radio aids to navigation, such as radio ranges, direction finders, homing beacons, instrument landing and approach devices, radar beacons, marker beacons, and long-range navigation radar stations. In 1946 AACS was renamed the Airways Communications Service.

Records.--The wartime records of Army Airways Communications System Headquarters and its predecessors were in 1946 in the custody of the Airways Communications Service, Langley Field, Va. The records included central files, 1943-45; record copies of outgoing radio and teletype messages, 1945; record copies of documents issued by the AACS Publications Division; and several short, unpublished histories (in installments) of virtually all subordinate units of AACS and a 3-volume unpublished history of the organization as a whole. Other copies of the unit histories and of the general history are in the Air Historical Group.

136th Radio Security Detachment [340]

The 136th Radio Security Detachment and its subordinate Radio Security Sections located throughout the world functioned between 1942 and 1946 as a special global air service for monitoring, from the security point of view, the interception of radio messages handled by the Army Airways Communications System and by other AAF communications units. This Detachment, located first in New York City and later at Reading Army Air Field, Pa., functioned as an "exempt" activity directly under the Air Communications Office, AAF Headquarters. The 21 Radio Security Sections were located principally at overseas points in the European, North African, Pacific, Alaskan, and Caribbean areas. Five of the sections, however, were located in the United States.

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Records.--The permanent wartime records of this Detachment and its subordinate field sections were scheduled in 1947 for transfer to the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Copies of the unpublished official histories of the Detachment and its sections are on file in the Air Historical Group.

I Concentration Command [341]

The AAF Foreign Service Concentration Command (or Center), established in June 1942 and renamed the I Concentration Command in August 1942, functioned for about 5 months as an AAF field command for expediting the staging and movement overseas of AAF combat groups and squadrons that had completed their unit-training phase in the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces. The Command was responsible for completing the organization and equipping of tactical units, completing equipment changes necessary for ferrying flights to specific theaters of operations, dispatching ground echelons of such units under movement orders, and dealing with the ports of embarkation and fly-away points. In August 1942 these functions were narrowed to cover only air echelons of combat units, and in November 1942 the Command was discontinued and its functions were transferred to the four Air Forces.

The Concentration Command was under the jurisdiction of AAF Headquarters and reported to the Director of War Organization and Movement. Command Headquarters, located at Luken Field, Cincinnati, was organized in four general-staff sections and several special-staff sections corresponding to the administrative and technical services of the Army. Outside of Luken Field the Command controlled a "concentration area" of about 10 airfields and air bases located in the Middle West, where combat units were prepared for overseas movement.

Records.--The secret and confidential central files of Concentration Command Headquarters (50 feet) are in the National Archives. The following records of the Command (8 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Central files that were not given security classification, rosters of officers, transcripts of telephone conversations, General and Special Orders, security regulations, and records of the Transportation Section. A 3-volume unpublished history of the Command is on file in the Air Historical Group. Correspondence with the Command is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Air Force Concentration Command, 1942-43 (1 linear inch).

Personnel Distribution Command [342]

The AAF Redistribution Center, August 1943-June 1944, and the successor Personnel Distribution Command, first at Atlantic City and later (after about June 1, 1945) at Bowman Field, Louisville, Ky., constituted a special AAF field command to handle AAF personnel who were being returned by the overseas Air Forces. Such personnel were processed

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through the Center's Redistribution Stations and in some cases through its Redistribution Rest Camps, and from these places they were reassigned to other AAF commands for retraining before redeployment to the Far Eastern theaters or for separation from military service.

The Personnel Distribution Command was responsible for the physical and psychological rehabilitation and the convalescent training of returned personnel. For this work, the Command operated several AAF Convalescent Centers (renamed Convalescent Hospitals) that were intended to provide "a combination gymnasium, school room, machine shop, and New England town hall" for returned personnel during their period of rest and rehabilitation after combat. At several Overseas Replacement Depots (before July 1944 under the AAF Training Command) replacement personnel destined for overseas duty were processed, staged, and provided with personal "consultation service." In September-October 1945 a few of the separation bases of the Continental Air Forces were assigned to the Personnel Distribution Command.

The responsibilities of the Personnel Distribution Command covered the following kinds of treatment for returnees: Reception and port liaison; control of flow to Redistribution Stations; classification; orientation and indoctrination; completion of pay and service records, many of which were incomplete for the period of overseas duty; medical checking and processing; convalescent training; reassignment to other AAF commands; and separation. Special aspects relating to these functions included the work of "air intelligence contact units," which interviewed the returned personnel on their opinions and observations as to AAF training, matériel, tactics, and personnel administration; venereal-disease control; disciplinary activities; and the special handling of WAC personnel, Negro officers and enlisted men and women, and "recovered" personnel who had escaped or evaded imprisonment by the enemy or who had been repatriated.

Personnel Distribution Command Headquarters between June 1944 and June 1945 was organized, under the Commanding General, into various functional divisions for handling all these personnel matters. In July 1945 the entire Command Headquarters was realigned along general-staff lines into A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5, and A-6 offices and into several special-staff offices. The Command, which had been under the staff supervision of AAF Headquarters from 1943 to 1945 (see AC/AS Personnel), was placed under the Continental Air Forces late in 1945. In 1946 it was discontinued.

Records.--Records of Personnel Distribution Command Headquarters in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, include its central files, 1945, record copies of the Command's issuances, 1945, and copies of incoming and outgoing messages, 1945. Also at Kansas City are the general files of the Redistribution Center at Atlantic City, N.J., and some records of Redistribution Station No. 4, Santa Ana, Calif. Correspondence with the Command is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Personnel Distribution Command, 1944-46 (1 linear inch).

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Aeronautical Chart Service [343]

Between 1941 and 1945 this organization and its predecessors served as the agency for providing aeronautical charts and related aids needed by the Army Air Forces that were not provided by the Army Map Service and by other Army, Navy, and Federal mapping agencies. The Aeronautical Chart Service (ACS) compiled, revised, printed, and distributed the Aeronautical Chart Series and such other aids to navigation as airfields directories, instrument approach and landing charts, chart-correction notices, radio-navigation charts, air-route manuals, and pilot handbooks. Some of this work was done for ACS by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Geological Survey, the Army Map Service, and (to a lesser extent) private contractors.

The Aeronautical Chart Service as an AAF field command was known also as the 36th AAF Base Unit. Between 1943 and 1945 it operated under the supervision of AAF Headquarters (under AC/AS Operations, Commitments, and Requirements); and in 1946 it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Air Transport Command.

Records.--The Service's wartime records include map records and related correspondence, administrative papers, and research materials. Some of the Service's map records and map-research materials are being centralized, with similar records of other air organizations, in the Air Force Aeronautical Charts Depository at Washington. Other records, including its central files, 1941-44 (10 feet), are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The central records of AAF Headquarters contain correspondence about the Service and a compilation of documents on that agency (the latter filed in the "bulk" files under 063).

See Gerald FitzGerald, Aerial Photography's Contribution to Geographical Knowledge (Washington, 1946. 9 p., processed), a paper delivered by the Acting Chief of the Topographic Branch, United States Geological Survey, before the American Geographical Society, New York, on November 19, 1946.

AAF Flight Service [344]

The AAF Flight Service at Gravelly Point, D. C, 1944-45, and its predecessors at Winston-Salem, N. C. (Directorate of Flight Control, December 1942-March 1943, the Flight Control Command, March-October 1943, and part of the Office of Flying Safety, October 1943-August 1944), provided one major phase of traffic control over aircraft of the Army Air Forces operating in the continental United States. The function of Flight Service Headquarters (known also as the 33d AAF Base Unit) and its field offices was to review all proposed flight plans and to monitor all flights in AAF airplanes within the continental United States. The field offices consisted of regional headquarters at Chicago, Atlanta, Kansas City, and Hollywood, Calif., and about 25 AAF Flight Service Centers located in as many cities. In 1946 the functions of the Service were transferred to the Air Transport Command.

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Records.--The central files of this organization, 1943-44 (35 feet), are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Later records were in 1946 in the custody of the Air Transport Command.

Army Air Installations, Continental United States [345]

Airfields, air bases, auxiliary airfields, and satellite airdromes, each designated by an official station name (for example, Ellington Field or Jackson Army Air Base), provided the basic ground facilities and administrative services for AAF air operations. They grew in number in the continental United States from about 60 in September 1939 to about 150 in December 1941 and about 850 in December 1944, the high point of war-time airfield expansion. By the end of the war their number had declined to some 740.

Within the Army Air Forces each airfield was assigned to some higher echelon, such as an air force, a command, a district, a center, or even (in the case of Bolling Field, D.C.) AAF Headquarters. During the course of the war many airfields were transferred from one AAF command to another; some installations were shared jointly by two or more major AAF organizations or jointly with Navy or other non-AAF organizations. These changes jurisdiction over individual stations during the war can be conveniently traced either through the official histories of the airfields or the monthly Army Air Forces Installations Directory . . . Continental United States (issued by AAF Headquarters), copies of all of which are in the Air Historical Group.

The organization at each airfield, headed by a commanding officer, was frequently referred to as the "permanent party personnel," and it normally functioned as the "housekeeping" agency both for the various tactical and service units that were temporarily based there during their periods of precombat training and for the AAF organizations permanently stationed there, such as an air force headquarters, a command headquarters, a training center, a training group or squadron, a subdepot, or a detachment of the Weather Service or of the Army Airways Communications System.

These "housekeeping" activities included the management of the special air facilities at the base, such as runways, airplane-parking stands, flight-control facilities, storage and supply systems for fuel and oil, maintenance shops, supply warehouses, armament buildings, bombing and gunnery ranges, photographic facilities, and synthetic training equipment; and the administration of other station activities peculiar to the Army Air Forces, such as those of the armament officer, the oxygen officer, and the flight surgeon. Each base organization normally had sections or units for performing the many general Army administrative services. These included at first those of the adjutant, judge advocate, quartermaster, surgeon, and engineer, and those pertaining to finance, ordnance, signal, and chemical activities. Later in the war units were added to handle services of the Women's Army Corps and the chaplains and those pertaining to statistical control, transportation, and morale, personal-welfare, public-relations, historical, and veterans-assistance activities.

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These many base functions were usually organized at each airfield under general-staff sections (designated S-1, S-2, S-3, and S-4) and special-staff offices until May 1944, when they were all consolidated under one or more numbered AAF Base Units, each normally consisting of lettered sections (A, B, C, etc.), which in turn were sometimes further subdivided into numbered "Flights" (1, 2, 3, etc.).

Records.--The active records of each AAF airfield or base are at that airfield or base; noncurrent records are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The records of each installation usually include a copy of its official history and another copy is usually on file in the Air Historical Group.

AAF Troop Units [346]

During World War II the troop units that were trained, organized, and equipped by the Army Air Forces for overseas duty numbered into the thousands, and each of them usually kept records. Many of these units were flying units (mostly for combat, some for noncombat duty); others were ground units that serviced the flying units. Those units that were common or typical to two or more overseas air commands are outlined below, while those that were peculiar to one command (such as Air Commando Groups in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations) are noted under the command concerned.

Each of the thousands of troop units noted below normally underwent several phases in the course of its training and overseas history. Each was usually activated, organized, equipped (at least in part), and staged in the continental United States by the Army Air Forces, or jointly by the Army Air Forces and the Army Service Forces; and each, upon its arrival at an overseas destination, was transferred to the control of a given air force or other air command in a theater of operations. For many troop units in the European theaters remaining on duty there after the defeat of Germany in 1945, there was also likely to be a redeployment and retraining phase prior to combat duty in the Pacific theaters, and in this phase the Army Air Forces again participated.

[346a] Flying units.--The major combat unit was the group. In 1945 there were several types of groups, and within each type, each group was separately numbered. The bombardment groups, which had offense as their major mission, included Light Bombardment Groups, using A-20 and A-26 bombers; Medium Bombardment Groups, using B-25 and B-26 bombers; Heavy Bombardment Groups, using B-17's and B-24's; and Very Heavy Bombardment Groups, using B-29's. The fighter organizations, with an essentially defensive mission, consisted of Single Engine Fighter Groups, using P-40, P-47, and P-51 airplanes, and Twin Engine Fighter Groups, using P-38 airplanes; earlier in the war these were known collectively as Pursuit Groups. The major air transportation troop units were Troop Carrier Groups, using C-47's; and Combat Cargo Groups, using C-46's and C-47's. Other major functional types of flying units were Tactical Reconnaissance Squadrons, Photo Reconnaissance Squadrons, and Combat Mapping Squadrons,

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each of them using airplanes equipped with cameras; and Emergency Rescue Squadrons. The typical composition of each of these major flying organizations varied from time to time during the war. Usually each group included subordinate squadrons (such as Bombardment Squadrons, Fighter Squadrons, Night Fighter Squadrons, and Troop Carrier Squadrons, depending on the parent group involved), and each major flying unit was made up, as well, of subordinate ground units that serviced the flying units and their equipment.

[346b] Ground-service units.--These units were of two major categories--those trained within the Army Air Forces and those trained in the Technical Services of the Army Service Forces. The major units in the former category were the Air Depot Groups and the Air Service Groups, which handled the major operations of supply and maintenance of airplanes and air equipment used by the flying groups. Subordinate types of servicing units included Air Depot Supply Squadrons, Air Depot Repair Squadrons, Air Service Squadrons, Airdrome Squadrons, Air Base Security Battalions, Altitude Training Units, Mobile Training Units, Statistical Control Units, AAF Bands, and Aircraft Repair Units (Floating) and Aircraft Maintenance Units (Floating), which operated a number of merchant vessels converted into "mobile" machine shops for specialized air equipment and which served primarily in the Pacific. Other types of ground units were the Photo Interpreter Teams, Photo Technical Squadrons, Emergency Rescue Boat Crews (and Squadrons), Weather Squadrons, Fighter Training Squadrons, and Station Complement Squadrons.

Other ground-service units, also peculiar to air operations, were organized, trained, and equipped outside the Army Air Forces by the Technical Services, chiefly by the Quartermaster Corps, the Ordnance Department, the Corps of Engineers, the Signal Corps, and the Chemical Warfare Service. These special air troop units of the Technical Services are described later in this volume in the "troop units" entry at the end of the discussion of each Technical Service concerned.

[346c] Records.--The wartime "organization records" of most troop units are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis, although the active records, if any, remain with the unit or with its postwar successor. For a guide to these unit records, see lists of series (called "processing work sheets") compiled by that Center, one set of which (2 linear feet) is on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A given unit's records are likely to consist of general files; General Orders and other administrative issuances; morning reports and other recurring reports; and records of its staff sections (if any). There is usually an unpublished official history of the unit, sometimes in several chronological installments and frequently accompanied by appendixes of supporting documents, in the Air Historical Group and a duplicate copy is usually in the unit's records at St. Louis. Since the war some of the unit histories have been published in part, usually in unofficial popular versions by former members of the unit.

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Many records relating to troop units are in the records of the overseas air commands, of Headquarters Army Air Forces, and (in some cases) of the War Department General Staff. These related documents include various types of orders (such as activation orders and movement orders) and related correspondence; tables of organization (T/O's) and other tables and schedules governing the composition and equipment of a given type of unit, together with related correspondence; statistical reports and operational summaries in which the activities of the unit may be described; and papers relating to citations and decorations awarded or considered for the unit. Summary statistics on AAF troop units and on their combat activities appear in the AAF Statistical Control Division's recurring reports, especially its "O" series (on organizations, that is, on troop units) and the "C" series (on their combat operations).

ARMY GROUND FORCES [347]

Described below are the records of the Army's ground-force training organizations, 1939-42, and of the Army Ground Forces, 1942-45. In 1939 and early 1940 the training of soldiers and troop units for ground combat was divided among four of the Army's "arms"--the Infantry, the Field Artillery, the Coast Artillery Corps, and the Cavalry-- each headed, in Washington, by an Office of the Chief of the arm. In 1939 these arms were supervised at the General Staff level by the Chief of Staff, mainly through the Operations and Training Division, G-3. In July 1940 the General Headquarters United States Army, also known as GHQ, was established as an additional staff organization for ground-force training affairs.

As a part of the general reorganization of the War Department, in March 1942, the Army Ground Forces, known also as AGF, was established as a means of consolidating ground-force training responsibilities, and the new AGF Headquarters replaced GHQ and the chiefs of the four arms, whose offices were simultaneously discontinued. At the same time AGF inherited in the field the service schools and service boards of those arms, and later it acquired other field organizations. After the war AGF was reorganized and renamed the Army Field Forces.

These ground-force training functions and activities included these phases: Training of ground troops as individual combat soldiers; organization of such troops into combat divisions and other tactical units; training of such combat units; and training in the use of the appropriate ground weapons and equipment. Some of these training responsibilities were not handled exclusively, however, within AGF and its predecessor organizations. Thus, some functions were shared with the Army Service Forces and its Technical Services, notably the "basic" training of troops during the period immediately after their induction and the training of special combat troops such as Chemical Warfare mortar battalions and combat Engineer troops. Other types of ground training, especially the training of noncombat troops for supply.

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maintenance, and other service functions, were a responsibility of the various Technical Services of the Army Service Forces.

Besides its major function of tactical training AGF performed certain duties closely related to the training processes. AGF and its predecessor arms assisted the General Staff and the Army Service Forces and its Technical Services in formulating quality and quantity requirements for ground weapons and ground equipment. This included requirements both of AGF's troops in training and of the ground Armies that operated in the combat theaters. AGF also shared with the Army Service Forces the testing of new and improved ground weapons and equipment, and with the General Staff the formulating of tactical doctrine and operational techniques used in land warfare.

Records.--See separate entries below. The "201" files (personnel folders) for wartime officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

See Historical Division, Department of the Army, The Army Ground Forces . . . (1947, 1948. 2 vols.). Important articles on the wartime experience of the ground arms, based in part on Army records, appeared during and after the war in the Infantry Journal, the Field Artillery Journal, the Cavalry Journal, and the Coast Artillery Journal.

Office of the Chief of Infantry [348]

This Office was the headquarters for the Infantry arm of the Army until March 1942, when it was discontinued and its functions were merged into Headquarters Army Ground Forces, where the work was divided among several functional sections and divisions.

Records.--Parts of the central files of this Office extending to March 1942 are in the National Archives; they amount to some 50 feet, form part of a series going back to about 1920, and relate primarily to the procurement, development, and testing of Infantry weapons and equipment. There are related papers in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 029 Chief of Infantry, 1940-42 (2 linear feet), and others of less extent under AG 020 Chief of Infantry and AG 321 Infantry.

Office of the Chief of Field Artillery [349]

This Office was the headquarters for the Field Artillery arm of the Army until March 1942, when it was discontinued and its functions were merged into Headquarters Army Ground Forces, where the work was divided among several functional sections and divisions.

Records.--Correspondence, photographs of field artillery equipment, reports of the Field Artillery Board, and other records of this Office, 1917-43 (420 linear feet), are in the National Archives. This series includes some papers dated later than March 1942 that were added by the successor Field Artillery Branch, Requirements Section, of Headquarters Army Ground Forces. There are related papers in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 029 Field Artillery.

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1940-42 (18 linear inches), and other index sheets filed under AG 020 Chief of Field Artillery and AG 321 Field Artillery.

Office of the Chief of Coast Artillery [350]

This Office was the headquarters for the Coast Artillery Corps, one of the major arms of the Army, until March 1942, when the Office was discontinued and its functions were merged into Headquarters Army Ground Forces, where the work was divided among several functional sections and divisions. The Coast Artillery arm was responsible for the care and use of fixed and movable elements of land and coastal fortifications, including submarine mine and torpedo defenses.

Records.--Parts of the central files of this Office, 1906-42 (49 feet), are in the National Archives. Other records of the Office are interfiled with the records of successor sections and divisions of Headquarters Army Ground Forces, discussed below. Among the published records of the Office are the annual Results of Coast Artillery Target Practice for the calendar years 1939, 1940, and 1941.

There are related records in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 029 Coast Artillery Corps, 1940-43 (2 linear feet), AG 020 Chief of Coast Artillery, and AG 321 Coast Artillery (1 linear inch).

Office of the Chief of Cavalry [351]

This Office was the headquarters for the Cavalry arm of the Army until March 1942, when the Office was discontinued and its functions were merged into Headquarters Army Ground Forces. There the work was divided among several functional sections and divisions.

Records.--The parts of the central files of this Office that relate to training and equipment, 1919-42 (30 feet), are in the National Archives. Related records are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 029 Cavalry, 1940-42 (1 linear foot).

General Headquarters United States Army [352]

This Headquarters, also known variously as GHQ, GHQ Field Force, and GHQ War Department, was established in July 1940 to provide assistance to the Chief of Staff in his capacity as commanding general of the four field Armies in the continental United States. According to a directive of July 26, 1940, from the Chief of Staff, GHQ was to exercise jurisdiction over these four Armies, particularly over their organizing and training of troop units. In addition, GHQ was given jurisdiction "over all harbor defense and mobile troops, including GHQ aviation [that is, General Headquarters Air Force] and the Armored Force, but excluding the overseas garrisons [departments]." In June 1941 this broad directive was modified to transfer control over aviation to the newly established Army Air Forces.

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Subsequently GHQ's efforts were concentrated primarily on the activation and organization of ground troop units, chiefly at the division level; the planning and establishment of theater commands, base commands, and defense commands; and the determination of changing requirements of land warfare.

In theory GHQ was headed by the Chief of Staff of the United States Army acting as "commanding general of the field forces," but in practice it was directed by its own Chief of Staff, Lt. Gen. Lesley J. McNair. His staff was organized into a "general staff" and a "special staff." The general-staff sections included, in addition to the offices of the Deputy Chief of Staff and the Secretary of the General Staff, five numbered sections, G-1 to G-5. The special-staff sections were the Aviation Section, concerned primarily with Air Corps support of ground troops; the Antiaircraft Section, for Coast Artillery matters; several sections corresponding to the Army's Technical Services (Engineer, Medical, Quartermaster, Signal, Chemical Warfare, and Ordnance); several sections corresponding to the Army's Administrative Services (Adjutant General, Finance, Judge Advocate General, Inspector General, and Provost Marshal); the Civilian Component, for handling National Guard and Selective Service affairs; and the office of the Headquarters Commandant. In March 1942, when GHQ was discontinued, these sections were in most cases merged into comparable sections of Headquarters Army Ground Forces.

Records.--The central records of GHQ, 1940-42 (105 feet), which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, pertain generally to the organization, training, equipping, and operations of ground troop units; the relationships of the ground forces to the air arm; and the planning and activation of the theaters of operations, the base commands, and the defense commands in the early period of the war. Records of some of the staff sections of GHQ are also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, including records of G-1, 1940-42 (6 feet), and a part of the intelligence files of G-2, 1940-41 (3 feet), containing data on economic, social, psychological, political, and military situations and trends in foreign countries. Other section records became part of the records of the corresponding sections of Headquarters Army Ground Forces in the reorganization of March 1942. Important papers relating to GHQ are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under GHQ, 1940-42 (1 linear foot).

Headquarters Army Ground Forces [353]

This Headquarters, established in March 1942, served during the remainder of the war and in the early postwar period as the Army's top command for directing the organization and training of troop units for ground combat, insofar as that work was carried on within the continental United States. Closely related to this major function was the staff work involved in the selection and procurement of ground-combat soldiers for training, the development of training doctrines and training literature, and the operational testing of ground weapons being developed and procured

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by the Army Service Forces. In all these activities, Headquarters Army Ground Forces inherited functions previously exercised by the General Headquarters United States Army and by the Chiefs of Infantry, Field Artillery, Coast Artillery, and Cavalry. The new headquarters was organized into general-staff and special-staff sections somewhat similar to those of the predecessor General Headquarters United States Army and was headed successively by Lt. Gen. Lesley J. McNair and Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of AGF Headquarters are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They consist of central records, 1942-45 (360 feet), and records kept by individual sections of Headquarters (450 feet), which are separately described below. The central records, which are divided into two chronological blocks (1942-43 and 1944-45), include a wide variety of documents, such as correspondence with higher and lower headquarters, radio and cable messages, staff memoranda and other intra-Headquarters correspondence, reports, directives, orders, and special studies. The 1942-43 block includes documents constituting a so-called "policy" file. Other wartime records of this Headquarters are in the custody of its successor, Headquarters Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va.

In addition to these central records there are several other smaller series of records, noted here because they are general to the entire Headquarters and have not been attributed to any particular section. Of these series, the following are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Lt. Gen. L. J. McNair's correspondence files, pertaining both to AGF and to the predecessor General Headquarters United States Army, 1940-44 (4 feet); daily journals and alphabetical subject files of the Secretary of the AGF General Staff, 1942-45 (1 foot); investigation reports pertaining to camp sites, housing, and training of AGF troop units, Nov. 1941-44 (7 feet); "maneuver area" records, 1941, including correspondence, memoranda, orders, lists, and maps pertaining to maneuvers in the Carolinas, Louisiana, and the California-Arizona area, with papers pertaining to the transfer of the latter maneuver area to the 9th Service Command in 1944 (5 feet); incoming and outgoing radio and cable messages, 1942-43 (2 feet); machine-records tabulations on the location of ground troop units and units scheduled for activation, 1942-43 (6 feet); task force movement and troop movement orders, 1943-45 (112 feet), arranged by AGF movement order number; records relating to the McNair Plaque Fund, established in memory of General McNair; and a miscellaneous collection of photographs, maps, charts, and statistical reports, 1942-43. Some of the series mentioned above, it will be noted, are dated earlier than March 1942, when AGF was established. Such pre-1942 materials presumably originated in the predecessor General Headquarters United States Army or in the. predecessor ground arms.

Records of other commands and agencies include important documents bearing on AGF's activities. These commands, the records of which are described elsewhere in this volume, include higher authorities such as the War Department General Staff, parallel commands such as the Army Air

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Forces and the Army Service Forces, and Navy organizations that had close functional relationships with the AGF. For example, the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, include a vast number of items pertinent to AGF, filed by subject; see index sheets filed with those central records under AG 020 Army Ground Forces, 1942-45 (7 linear feet); AG 029 Army Ground Forces, Mar. 1942-May 1943 (3 linear feet); and a "project" series entitled "Army Ground Forces," 1942-46 (4 linear feet). The central records of Headquarters Army Air Forces contain a set of AGF's "Status of Equipment and Personnel" volumes, 1945 (filed under 319.1 in the AAF "bulk" files), and some of the issues of AGF's "Antiaircraft Information Bulletins," 1945 (filed under 300.5 in the AAF "bulk" files). Also containing information on AGF are the various series of statistical summaries on the strength of particular commands, compiled by the Machine Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office; one series, for example, is entitled "Military Strength of Army Ground Forces, by Organization . . .," Nov. 1942-May 1946. AGF's weekly activity summaries, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

G-1 Section [354]

This Section was the staff organization for dealing with personnel problems within the Army Ground Forces. It handled officer and enlisted personnel matters, including requirements, selection, allotments, and troop welfare throughout AGF, as well as civilian personnel matters within AGF Headquarters. G-1 inherited the personnel functions of the former Chiefs of Infantry, Field Artillery, Coast Artillery, and Cavalry. In addition to its staff work in building up AGF's troop strength, the Section also participated in 1943 in demobilization planning and in 1945 in the preparation of Readjustment Memoranda (RM's) governing redeployment and retraining of ground troops about to be withdrawn from Europe.

Records.--Records of the G-1 Section in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include the following: General files, 1945 (1 foot); "stay-back" files of the Executive Officer, 1942-43 (2 linear inches); "stay-back" copies of correspondence and statistical reports of the Control Division, 1943-46 (8 linear inches); records of the Miscellaneous Division relating to the wearing of the uniform, flags, guidons, courts martial, and inspection, 1942-45 (2 linear inches); and records of the Women's Army Corps Division, 1943-45 (4 linear inches). Records relating to individual military and civilian personnel are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

G-2 Section [355]

This Section dealt with incoming foreign-intelligence data of interest to the Army Ground Forces, handled AGF's staff work in counterintelligence matters affecting AGF installations and personnel (in collaboration with the counterintelligence units of the War Department General Staff), and planned and supervised the training of AGF's intelligence personnel.

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Records.--The general files of the G-2 Section, 1945 (7 feet), are in the custody of the successor Intelligence Section of the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va. An alphabetical file of correspondence, policy documents, intelligence reports, and investigation reports, 1942-45 (6 feet), is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

G-3 Section [356]

This Section handled the major burden of AGF's staff work relating to troop training and to the organization and activation of troop units. Originally this work was performed by the Section's Operations Division, Training Division, and New Divisions Division, the last concerned with the activation of new combat divisions. Later in the war the Section was reorganized and its work was carried on by the Mobilization Division, for activations and for formulating "troop-basis" data; the Training Division, for training doctrine and training standards; and the Task Force Division, for inspections and other work in preparation for overseas movements of troop units.

Records.--This Section's general files were in 1947 in the custody of the successor Training Section of the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va. Other records are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, as follows: Records of the New Divisions Division, 1940-43 (4 feet); records relating to maneuvers, 1940-44 (11 feet), containing manuals, reports, critiques, maps, and photographs; records of the Troop Basis Branch of the Mobilization Division, 1940-45 (1 foot); correspondence of the Training Division relating to air and airborne, antiaircraft, armored, cavalry, and field artillery training and to maneuvers and special projects, 1942-45 (3 feet); correspondence relating to the issuance and revision of training literature, 1935-46 (24 feet); and other records, 1942-45 (35 feet), including reports of the Desert Warfare Board, reports of the Mountain and Winter Warfare Board, papers on the "Sphinx Project" (the testing of armored equipment and tactics for detecting and reducing Japanese field fortifications), and periodical reports (statistical and narrative) on the strength, disposition, and condition of troop units.

G-4 Section [357]

This Section, which maintained close liaison with the Army Service Forces, was concerned primarily with expediting the movement of Army Ground Forces troops, while in training, throughout the continental United States, with insuring the supply of equipment to such troops, and with monitoring the work of equipping and inspecting combat units before their movement overseas. In 1945 the Section was organized into four major divisions: Control, Supply and Distributing, Maintenance and Transportation, and Task Force.

Records.--The following records of the Section are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records of the Maintenance Branch of the Maintenance

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and Transportation Division, 1942-45 (8 feet); records of the Task Force Division, 1942-45 (16 feet), that relate to the distribution and movement of the equipment of troop units and to the operations of the Elmira (N.Y.) Holding and Reconsignment Point; and "policy books" of directives, charts, and manuals relating to supply, preparation for overseas movement, and transportation, 1941-46 (1 foot). Other records of the Task Force Division, including statistical records relating to its work, are in the successor Logistics Section of the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va.

Requirements Section [338]

This Section, although not numbered, was regarded as one of the "G" or general-staff sections of Headquarters Army Ground Forces. In 1945 it consisted of the Planning and Consulting Group, apparently the successor to an earlier Plans Section; the Training Literature and Visual Aids Division; the Development Division, for handling staff matters relating to the quality requirements and the tactical testing of ground weapons being developed by the Army Service Forces; and the Organization Division, for preparing and revising tables of organization (T/O's), tables of organization and equipment (T/O&E's), and tables of allowances (T/A's) for troop units of the ground arms.

Records.--The following records are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Miscellaneous unarranged papers of the former Plans Section, 1944-45 (1 foot); records relating to requirements for matériel and supplies, 1942-45 (3 feet); and the Development Division's chronological series of action letters to the Army Service Forces, 1941-44 (5 feet), its copies of ASF letters to the Technical Services, 1943-45 (2 feet), its central files, 1942-45 (7 feet), and records of its Airborne, Armored Vehicle, Cavalry, Coast Artillery, Field Artillery, and Infantry Branches, 1941-46 (86 feet). Other records of this Section are in the successor Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va., including project files on the organization and equipping of typical troop units in World War II (15 feet), project files of the Training Literature and Visual Aids Division, 1940-45 (10 feet), and a series of "Policy Memos and Bulletins," of the Organization Division, 1943-45 (1 foot).

Special-Staff Sections [359]

In addition to the 5 general-staff sections just described, 12 other sections, called special-staff sections, formed part of AGF Headquarters. Each of these sections corresponded, in general, to one of the Administrative Services or one of the Technical Services of the Army Service Forces, with which these sections had liaison duties relating to equipment and services needed by AGF troop units. The administrative sections were the office of the Ground Headquarters Commandant, the Ground Adjutant General Section, the Ground Historical Section, the Ground Statistics Section, the Ground Special Information Section, and the Ground Fiscal Section.

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There were no sections for inspector-general, provost-marshal, and judge-advocate-general affairs. The technical sections were the Ground Engineer, Ground Medical, Ground Quartermaster, Ground Signal, Ground Chemical, and Ground Ordnance Sections.

Records.--Wartime records of a few of these sections are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. For the Ground Statistics Section, there are a file of its compilation, "Status of Equipment and Personnel," 1942-43 (6 feet), and other files of statistics on the changing strength of the Army Ground Forces according to command and type of troop unit, 1942-443 (4 feet). For the Ground Adjutant General Section, there are its Classification and Replacement Division's statistical reports and charts on officer and enlisted replacements and requirements, 1944-45 (1 foot), and a history of this Division, which was a major personnel unit of AGF Headquarters but outside of G-1 Section. For the Ground Historical Section there are copies of its 38 studies of the wartime history of AGF; historical data on AGF and the predecessor General Headquarters United States Army, including notes, reports, correspondence, diaries, photographs, and histories of AGF organizations, 1940-46; and central files of the Section. Additional wartime records collected by the Historical Section are in the Historical Division, Department of the Army.

Other sections represented by records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the following: Ground Quartermaster Section, general files, 1944-45, and daily journals, 1941-45 (3 feet); Ground Ordnance Section, general files, 1944-45 (1 foot); Ground Chemical Warfare Section, general files, 1943-45 (2 feet); Ground Signal Section, records relating to the War Department Equipment Review Board, integrated communications in the field, and other subjects, 1945; Ground Medical Section, general files, 1942-45, and copies of reports and studies by the Armored Medical Research Laboratory, 1942-45 (16 feet); Ground Fiscal Section, general files, 1942-45 (7 feet); and Ground Special Information Section, general files, 1941-45, papers on the "Here's Your Infantry" show and on Infantry Day, 1944-45, press releases, 1944-45, and records on war-bond drives in the AGF, 1944 45 (17 feet). The following wartime records of special-staff sections were in 1947 in the custody of successor sections in the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va.: Budget estimates of the Ground Fiscal Section for the fiscal years 1943-45 (4 feet); and records of the Ground Engineer Section, 1944-45 (2 feet).

Army Ground Forces Equipment Review Board [360]

This Board was established, probably late in 1944, to study the matériel needs of the postwar Army Ground Forces and was discontinued after its final report was submitted in June 1945.

Records.--The Board's preliminary report, Apr. 1945, and its final report, June 1945, with annexes and enclosures, are in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

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Ground-Force Field Commands

Replacement and School Command [361]

This Command, known also as R&SC, was established as part of the new Army Ground Forces in March 1942 to provide centralized jurisdiction over training conducted by the separate arms at their respective replacement training centers and at the Infantry School, the Field Artillery School, the Coast Artillery School, and the Cavalry School. After February 1944 the Command also had jurisdiction over the training activities of the Armored Center, the Tank Destroyer Center, and the Parachute School. The Command's headquarters was at Birmingham, Ala.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of this Command's headquarters were in 1947 in the custody of AGF. Related records are among the wartime records of AGF Headquarters and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO. For a guide to the latter records, see index sheets filed as a "project" series under "Replacement and School Command," 1942-45 (2 linear feet). An unpublished history of the Command is on file in the Army's Historical Division. The records of the Command's subordinate schools and other major training agencies are separately described below.

Infantry School [362]

This School, established before World War II, operated at Fort Benning, Ga. Until March 1942 it was responsible to the Chief of Infantry; later in the war, to the Replacement and School Command. The School provided advanced professional training in the weapons and tactics of the Infantry arm and developed tactical doctrines and training literature in that field. The School also included parachute training until March 23, 1942, when that function was transferred to the new Airborne Command, discussed below.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of this School are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO; at the School are rosters and record cards of "academic course" students, rosters of students in "officer-candidate courses," and faculty board proceedings on both types of courses. Papers relating to the School's wartime activities are also among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, especially in correspondence and index sheets filed as a "project" series entitled "Infantry School," 1940-45 (3 feet).

Field Artillery School [363]

This School, of prewar origin, operated at Fort Sill, Okla. ft was responsible to the Chief of Field Artillery until March 1942, when it became part of the Replacement and School Command. The School provided advanced professional training in the weapons and tactics of the Field Artillery arm and developed tactical doctrines and training literature in that field.

Records.--Wartime records of this School are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

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Coast Artillery School [364]

This School, established before the war, was at Fort Monroe, Va. It was at first a part of the Coast Artillery arm and after March 1942 it was within the Army Ground Forces. The School provided advanced professional training in Coast Artillery weapons and tactics and was responsible for formulating tactical doctrines and developing training literature in that field. After the war the School was renamed the Seacoast Artillery School and was relocated at San Francisco.

Records.--Some wartime records of this School are at the School's headquarters at the Presidio, San Francisco. Others are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Cavalry School [365]

This School, also of prewar origin, was located at Fort Riley, Kans., and served first as part of the Cavalry arm and after March 1942 with the Army Ground Forces under the Replacement and School Command. The School provided advanced professional training in Cavalry Weapons and tactics, including reconnaissance (with horses) and mechanized Cavalry combat, and was responsible for formulating tactical doctrines and developing training literature in that field.

Records.--Wartime records of this School are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Papers relating to the School's wartime activities are among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, especially in a "project" series of correspondence and index sheets entitled "Cavalry School," 1940-45 (2 feet).

Parachute School [366]

This School, first a part of the Airborne Command (discussed below) and after February 1944 under the Replacement and School Command of the Army Ground Forces, was responsible for the training of parachute infantry and the development of tactical doctrines and training literature for parachute troops. It was located at Fort Benning, Ga.

Records.--Records of this School are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Papers relating to its wartime activities are among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, especially in the "project" series of correspondence and index sheets entitled "Parachute School" (6 linear inches).

Armored Center [367]

This training center, with headquarters at Fort Knox, Ky., originated in July 1940 as the Armored Force, a separate command of the Army, and was shifted to the Army Ground Forces in 1942. In June 1943 it was renamed the Armored Command, and in February 1944 it became the Armored Center and was assigned to the Replacement and School Command. The Armored Center and its predecessors were regarded in many respects as one of the ground combat arms, with responsibilities that included the

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training of tank units and individual replacements for such units; the operation of an officer candidate school; the administration of replacement pools for tank personnel; and, for a time, partial control over the distribution of tanks to motorized divisions and mechanized Cavalry units in the continental United States. In 1944 the Armored Center's major subordinate units were the Armored School and the Armored Replacement Training Center.

Records.--Wartime headquarters records of this Center and its predecessors, 1940-45, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Related records are also among the records of Headquarters Army Ground Forces and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Chief of Armored Force, 1941-43; AG 029 Armored Force, 1940-43; and AG 020 Armored Command, 1943 (1 linear foot). Tabulations of Armored Force officers, 1942, are among the records of the Machine Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office.

Wartime records of the Armored School are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Papers relating to its wartime activities are among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, especially in a "project" series of correspondence and index sheets entitled "Armored School," arranged decimally (1 foot).

Tank Destroyer Center [368]

This organization, with headquarters at Camp Hood, Tex., originated in December 1941 as the Tank Destroyer Tactical and Firing Center, a service school at Fort Meade, Md., where antitank battalions (later called tank-destroyer battalions) were trained. In March 1942 the Center was renamed the Tank Destroyer Command, was transferred to the Army Ground Forces, and was put under the Replacement and School Command. Later in 1942 it was renamed the Tank Destroyer Center. The Center was expanded to include a tank destroyer (TD) replacement training center, officer candidate school, and service board and the TD School. The board Was transferred to the jurisdiction of Headquarters Army Ground Forces in February 1944.

Records.--Records of the headquarters of this Center, its predecessors, and the TD School, 1942-46, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Related records are among the records of Headquarters Army Ground Forces and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see "project" series of correspondence and index sheets entitled "Tank Destroyer Command," 1942-45 (6 linear inches).

Army Ground Forces Replacement Depots [369]

The Army Ground Forces Replacement Depot No. 1 at Fort Meade, Md., conducted certain phases of the training of enlisted men destined for unit training in AGF's various replacement training centers. (See also Army Service Forces, for other aspects of individual training.) A similar depot, AGF Replacement Depot No. 2, was located at Fort Ord, Calif., and another, AGF Replacement Depot No. 3, at Fort Riley, Kans.

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Records.--The records of the 1st through 8th "Regiments" of Depot No. 1 and the records of Depots No. 2 and No. 3 are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Antiaircraft Command [370]

This Command, known also as the AAA Command, served between 1942 and 1945 as the Army Ground Forces' major wartime command for the training of antiaircraft artillery (AAA) troop units. Its headquarters during most of that period was at Richmond, Va., but by the end of the war it was at Fort Bliss, Tex. The AAA Command functioned in most respects as one of the ground combat arms, and its organization in 1944 included an AAA School; six AAA Unit Training Centers; several AAA Replacement Training Centers; an AAA Board, located at Fort Monroe, Va., and Camp Davis, N. C, in 1942-44 and at Fort Bliss, Tex., in 1944-45; and a Barrage Balloon Center (and Board) at Camp Tyson, Tenn.

Records.--The wartime records of this Command's headquarters, 1942-45, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Related records are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Antiaircraft Command, 1942-45 (2 linear feet). Historical reports prepared by the Command and one prepared by the Historical Section of Headquarters Army Ground Forces are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Copies of some of the Command's "Intelligence Circulars" and "Intelligence Memos," which discuss AAA operations in the combat theaters, are among the central files of Headquarters Army Air Forces, filed in the "bulk" files under 319.1.

The records of subordinate agencies are also in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, as follows: Records of the AAA School, 1943-46; records of the Unit Training Centers at Fort Bliss, Tex., 1943-45, at Camp Hulen, Tex., 1940-44, and at Camp Stewart, Ga., 1942-45; records of the AAA Replacement Training Centers at Fort Bliss, Tex., 1941-45, at Camp Callan, Calif., 1941-45, at Camp Stewart, Ga., 1941-45, and at Camp Wallace, Tex., 1942-44; and a few records of the AAA Board. The major series of AAA Board records (300 feet) are in the custody of the Board's successor (known since Apr. 1948 as Army Field Forces Board No. 4), at Fort Bliss, Tex., among them preliminary and final reports on equipment-testing projects of the AAA Board.

Papers relating to the wartime activities of these field agencies are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see a "project" subseries of correspondence and index sheets entitled "AAA School," arranged decimally (1 foot); and index sheets filed under AG 334 Barrage Balloon Board, Mar. 1942-Apr. 1944 (1 linear inch), and under AG 334 AAA Board, Mar. 1942-Feb. 1945 (1 linear foot).

Airborne Center [371]

The Airborne Command at Camp Mackall, N. C, was established in March 1942 as part of the Army Ground Forces and was renamed the Airborne Center in February 1944. One of the newer but major ground

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combat arms in World War II, this Command was responsible for the tactical training of parachute infantry units (a function inherited from the Infantry School) and of glider infantry units, but its only training center was at Camp Mackall. The Center's organization included the Airborne Board (also called the Airborne Operations Board), which studied glider tactics and in collaboration with the Army Air Forces tested special equipment used by airborne troops. After the war the Center was relocated at Fort Bragg, N. C.

Records.--The Center's records, 1942-46, including some papers for 1941, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The records of the Airborne Board are in the custody of the successor Army Field Forces Board No. 1, at Fort Bragg, N. C. Related records are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 Airborne Operations Board, 1943-45, and under AG 334 Airborne Board, 1944-46 (2 linear inches).

Desert Training Center [372]

This Center, located at Coachella, Calif., was established in March 1942 to assist the Army Ground Forces in preparing combat personnel for desert warfare in North Africa, ft conducted tactical maneuvers under desert conditions in southern California and Arizona but developed no special desert troop units. The Center's organization included the Desert Warfare Board, which conducted field tests of tanks, vehicles, mines and mine detectors, clothing, and protective ointments. The Center was inactivated before the end of the war, apparently in 1944.

Records.--Some of this Center's central files, 1942-43 (5 feet), and an unpublished, 10-volume history of the Center (2 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other records are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Copies of the test reports of the Desert Warfare Board are at the Army Field Forces Board No. 2, Fort Knox, Ky.; other copies, together with correspondence about the Board, are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 Desert Warfare Board, 1942-44 (2 linear inches).

Mountain Training Center [373]

This Center was established about March 1942, in New Hampshire, to conduct the tactical testing of troop units, especially the Mountain Division, for warfare under Arctic conditions. By 1943 the Center was located at Camp Hale, Colo. Through the Mountain and Winter Warfare Board, activated in November 1941, and also located at Camp Hale, Colo., field tests of snowshoes, snow tractors, sleds, and skis were made. The Board and the Center were discontinued, apparently late in 1943.

Records.--Some general records of the Center are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The records of the Mountain and Winter Warfare Board, 1941-44 (6 feet), in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include test reports, weather data, reports of training conducted by the Board, and personnel records. Correspondence relating to the Center and its Board is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO;

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see index sheets filed under AG 334 Mountain and Winter Warfare Board, 1942-44 (1 linear inch), and a separate "project" series of correspondence and index sheets entitled "Mountain Training Center" (6 linear inches). An unpublished history of the Center prepared by the Historical Section, Headquarters Army Ground Forces, is filed in the Army's Historical Division.

Amphibious Training Center [374]

This Center, also known as the Amphibious Training Command, was established at Camp Edwards, Mass., about May 1942, as part of the Army Ground Forces, to train standard ground-force troop units in the tactics and equipment of amphibious landings. The Landing Vehicle Board at Fort Ord, Calif., made field tests for evaluating amphibious vehicles (such as the DUKW), anchors, radio and radar equipment, vision aids, and oilier items of amphibious-landing equipment. All this work involved collaboration with the Navy's training commands, particularly with the Amphibious Training Command of the Atlantic Fleet and the Amphibious Training Command of the Pacific Fleet. The Amphibious Training Center was discontinued in 1944.

Records.--The whereabouts and character of the records of this Center are not known, except that some records of the Army Section of the headquarters of the Amphibious Force of the Pacific Fleet are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Most of the Landing Vehicle Board's records, Apr. 1944-Sept. 1945, are in the custody of Army Field Forces Board No. 2, Fort Knox, Ky.; others are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records. Center. Related records are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed in a "project" series under "Amphibious Training Center" (1 linear inch) and under AG 334 Landing Vehicle Board, 1944-45 (4 linear inches). An unpublished history of the Center has been prepared by the Historical Section, Headquarters Army Ground Forces.

Second, Fourth, and Ninth Armies [374a]

Three of the field Armies that had served as tactical commands earlier in the war were assigned to the Army Ground Forces as training commands between September 1943 and August 1945. In September 1943 the Fourth Army, which had been part of the Western Defense Command on the Pacific coast, was discontinued as a tactical force and its name was given to what was, in effect, a new Fourth Army, with a different function (unit training) and with a new location. The headquarters of the new Fourth Army was located successively at San Jose, Calif., September-November 1943, the Presidio of Monterey, Calif., November 1943-January 1944, and Fort Sam Houston, Tex., January 1944-46; and its activities included training inspections and tests, field maneuvers and exercises, amphibious training (in collaboration with the Navy's Amphibious Training Command), air-ground training (in collaboration with the III

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Tactical Air Command), and redeployment training of combat units returned from Europe in 1945. Similarly, the Second Army was transferred from the Eastern Defense Command to Army Ground Forces in June 1944, although the location of its headquarters (at Memphis) did not change. The Ninth Army, on its return from the European Theater of Operations in August 1945, was also made an Army Ground Forces training command, with its headquarters at Fort Bragg, N. C, until October 1945, when it was inactivated. The Second and Fourth Armies were discontinued later.

Records.--Wartime records of the headquarters of the Second and Fourth Armies (as AGF commands) are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Other records of the Fourth Army are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, at St. Louis. Records of the Ninth Army at Fort Bragg are interfiled with its records as a combat Army, in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. A 1-volume history of the Fourth Army, Sept. 1943-Sept. 1945, prepared in 1945-46 by the Historical Section of AGF Headquarters, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; its prefatory note and footnotes contain useful references to the records.

Service Boards [375]

For each of the four ground combat arms--Infantry, Field Artillery, Coast Artillery, and Cavalry--there was a "service board" in charge of formulating military characteristics for new and improved weapons and equipment and for conducting field tests of such matériel. In 1939 each of these boards was responsible to the chief of its particular arm. After March 1942, when these arms were combined in the Army Ground Forces, the boards were made responsible to Headquarters Army Ground Forces. At that time two additional service boards--for armored and tank-destroyer matters--were assigned to Army Ground Forces. Two other service boards--for antiaircraft and airborne matters--were assigned not to AGF Headquarters but to the two field commands concerned--the Antiaircraft Command and the Airborne Center, which have been discussed above.

Records.--The records of the several boards are separately identified below. Supplementary to the information in the records of the boards themselves, there is related or duplicated information in correspondence, reports, and other records kept at higher echelons, notably in the records of AGF Headquarters and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334, and then under the names of the boards.

Infantry Board [376]

This Board, located at Fort Benning, Ga.; was the service board for Infantry weapons, most of which were under development and procurement by the Ordance Department and other Technical Services of the Army Service Forces. Among the types of equipment tested were machine guns, grenades, rocket launchers, optical sights, radar, bayonet wire-cutters, and weapons for jungle warfare. British-developed and captured enemy-developed items were also tested. Another testing board, the Rocket Board.

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1944-45, was also located at Fort Benning and served apparently as part of the Infantry Board.

Records.--Wartime records of the Infantry Board, including copies of its test reports and related correspondence, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Field Artillery Board [377]

This Board, known also as the FA Board, was located at Fort Bragg, N. C., and was the service board for Field Artillery matériel developed and procured by the Ordnance Department and by other Technical Services of the Army Service Forces. Among the types of matériel tested were artillery guns, sights, fuzes, motor carriages, and artillery transport equipment to be used in jungle and in Arctic warfare. Some British-developed and captured enemy-developed items were also tested.

Records.--The wartime records of the Board, including its test reports (usually in several editions), its status reports, and related correspondence with higher headquarters, are in the custody of its successor, Army Field Forces Board No. 1, at Fort Bragg, N. C.

Coast Artillery Board [378]

The Coast Artillery Board (known also as the CA Board) dated from before the war and was located at Fort Monroe, Va. It conducted firing tests of Coast Artillery weapons, tested related equipment (such as radar, camouflage devices, and trainers), recommended standardization of equipment (so that it could go into quantity production by Ordnance contractors and other contractors working for the Army Service Forces), reviewed parts of the Army Ground Forces training program (for example, the training of harbor defense units), and recommended changes in military characteristics of weapons and equipment. The Board operated under the Chief of Coast Artillery before March 1942 and under Headquarters Army Ground Forces, 1942-45, except that between December 1944 and September 1945 it reported to the Commandant of the Coast Artillery School.

Records.--Some records of the Board antedating Mar. 1942 are in the custody of Army Field Forces Board No. 4 at Fort Bliss, Tex. Other wartime records are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Cavalry Board [379]

This Board, located at Fort Riley, Kans., conducted field tests of weapons and equipment to be used by Cavalry horse units. Rocket launchers, antitank mines, pack equipment, radar, and riding equipment were among the items tested.

Records.--Some wartime records of the Board are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Copies of the Board's reports are in the custody of the Development Section of the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va., and of Army Field Forces Board No. 2, Fort Knox, Ky.

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Armored Board [380]

This Board, established as the Armored Force Board in 1940 and renamed the Armored Board in 1943, was located at Fort Knox, Ky., and until February 1944 was a part of the Armored Force and its successor, the Armored Command. At that time it was transferred to the Replacement and School Command. The Board conducted field tests of tanks, antitank and antipersonnel mines, mine detectors, radar, gun sights, and other equipment to be used by armored units.

Records.--The wartime reports and other records of this Board, July 1940-Sept. 1945, are partly in the custody of its successor, Army Field Forces Board No. 2, Fort Knox, Ky., and partly in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Tank Destroyer Board [381]

This Board, known also as the TD Board, was established early in 1942 at Camp Hood, Tex., and served as a part of the Tank Destroyer Center until February 1944, when it was transferred to the jurisdiction of Headquarters Army Ground Forces. The Board conducted field tests of various types of equipment, such as antitank gun carriages, brakes, guns and sights, radar, and ammunition.

Records.--The wartime reports and other records of this Board, Dec. 1941-Sept. 1945, are partly in the custody of its successor, Army Field Forces Board No. 2, Fort Knox, Ky., and partly in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Copies of its reports are in the custody of the Development Section of the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va.

Armored Vehicle Board [382]

This Board, a special service board rather than one of the continuing service boards, was established in October 1942 to make comparative tests of armored vehicles, to evaluate their field suitability, and to outline further development. The Board's final report and recommendations were made in December 1942.

Records.--The Board's interim reports and final report, Dec. 1942, together with related correspondence, some of it containing comments by other agencies, Dec. 1942-May 1943, are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, filed under AG 451 (10-13-42).

Observer Boards [383]

Beginning in 1943 the Army Ground Forces sent boards to most of the overseas combat theaters to observe and evaluate the effectiveness of Army Ground Forces training and of the Army's ground weapons and tactics. These boards--variously called AGF Observer Boards, AGF Boards, AGF Observer Teams, and War Department Observer Boards-- functioned in the North African, Mediterranean, and European Theaters, in the South Pacific Area, and in the Southwest Pacific Area; and sometimes they worked with representatives of the Army Service Forces. They usually

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were temporarily assigned to a theater headquarters but reported to Headquarters Army Ground Forces.

Records.--Whether separate groups of records for each board have survived is not known. Many copies of reports from Observer Boards, with related correspondence and critiques, are in the records of AGF Headquarters and of the various theater headquarters, and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334, and then under the names of the boards.

Ground-Force Troop Units [384]

During World War II thousands of troop units were trained by the Army Ground Forces and served overseas, and each of them made records that were usually preserved. These troop units were at several organizational levels, such as the Army, the Corps, the Division, the Regiment, and the Battalion. At these levels there were several specialized types of units, usually corresponding to the various ground combat arms. The troop units in each type were designated by number. For the Infantry, there were Infantry Divisions, Infantry Regiments, and Ranger, Armored Infantry, Glider Infantry, and Parachute Infantry Battalions. Among the Field Artillery (FA) troop units there were FA Regiments, FA Groups and Armored FA Groups, and FA Battalions, Armored FA Battalions, FA Observation Battalions, Parachute FA Battalions, Glider FA Battalions, and Rocket Battalions. Coast Artillery (CA) troop units included CA Regiments, Brigades, and Battalions. Antiaircraft Artillery (AAA) and Coast Artillery troop units included AAA Groups, AAA Brigades, AAA Gun Battalions, AAA Aircraft Warning Battalions, AAA Searchlight Battalions, AAA Gun Batteries, Mine Planters and Mine Planter Batteries, and "Harbor Defenses." Cavalry troop units included the 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Regiments, Cavalry Groups, Cavalry Reconnaissance Troops, and Mobile Combat Reconnaissance Squadrons (also called Peep Units). Among the Armored units, in addition to those already mentioned, were Armored Corps, Armored Regiments, Armored Groups, Tank Battalions, Amphibious Tank Battalions, and Amphibious Tractor Battalions. There were Tank Destroyer Groups, Brigades, and Battalions.

Each of the thousands of numbered troop units indicated above normally underwent several phases in the course of its training and combat history. Each was usually activated, organized, and staged in the continental United States, within the Army Ground Forces; and each, upon its arrival at an overseas destination, was transferred to the control of the authorities of a given theater of operations. For many troop units on duty in the European and Mediterranean Theaters at the time of the defeat of Germany in May 1945, there was a later redeployment and retraining phase in the continental United States preceding combat duty in the Pacific theaters, and in this phase the Army Ground Forces again participated.

A special, major troop unit for ground combat was the 1st Special Service Force, a "commando" type organization, composed not only of United States troops but of Canadians as well, which served in the Aleutians, Africa.

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Italy, and France during the war. While this Force was made directly responsible to the Chief of Staff, United States Army, its organization and training were influenced by the Army Ground Forces.

Records.--The "organization records" of each troop unit for the war period are in general in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. A given troop unit's records are likely to consist of general files organized according to the War Department Decimal File System; General Orders and other administrative issuances originating in that unit; and morning reports and other routine reports of the unit. Important guides to these records of troop units are the lists of series (called "processing work sheets") compiled by the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. An extra set of these listings is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, filed under "Armored," "Armies," "Cavalry," "Coast Artillery," "Corps," "Field Artillery," and "Infantry" (9 linear feet of lists).

Unpublished histories of most troop units are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and in many cases a duplicate is among each unit's organization records at St. Louis. Some of these histories are in several chronological installments and many are accompanied by appendixes of supporting documents. Since the war some of the unit histories have been published in part, in popular versions, in some cases by the Army's Historical Division (in its series entitled American Forces in Action), and in other cases unofficially by former members of the unit involved. Reference copies of the published histories are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

In addition to records of the troop units, many related papers are among the records of higher headquarters in the field or in Washington. These related documents include activation and movement orders and related correspondence; tables of organization (T/O's) and other tables governing the composition and equipment of each different type of unit, together with related correspondence; statistical reports and operational summaries in which the activities of a unit are described or evaluated or its strength indicated; and papers relating to citations and decorations awarded or considered for a given unit. Each of 11 of the major types of troop units mentioned above are evaluated in the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), copies of which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

The records of the 1st Special Service Force, 1943, its historical reports, and historical reports of various Special Service Companies are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Related papers are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 1st Special Service Force, 1942-45.

ARMY SERVICE FORCES [385]

The Services of Supply (SOS) was established in March 1942 as a part of the general reorganization of the War Department and was renamed the Army Service Forces (ASF) in March 1943. It was one of the three major Army commands, to which many responsibilities of the War

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Department General Staff and the Office of the Secretary of War were decentralized during the war. Most ASF responsibilities were inherited from the Personnel Division, G-1, from the Supply Division, G-4, and from the Office of the Under Secretary of War. ASF supervised the Technical Services of the Army (such as the Ordnance Department and the Quartermaster Corps), the Administrative Services (such as the Adjutant General's Department and the Judge Advocate General's Department), their respective field organizations in the continental United States, and the nine regional Service Commands (which superseded the Corps Areas in 1942).

Through these service organizations and through Headquarters Army Service Forces, ASF was in charge of a wide range of activities vitally affecting the mobilization and preparation of the Nation's material and manpower resources for war. Among these activities were the development and procurement of matériel for the ground combat arms and of many matériel and supply items common to ground, air, and naval arms; the acquisition of real estate and the construction of buildings and other ground facilities for use as industrial plants by the Army's contractors and as Army posts, camps, and stations by organizations of the Army Service Forces and of the Army Ground Forces in the continental United States; the recruiting, training, and organizing of noncombat troops for overseas duty and the recruiting and basic training of troops destined for ground-combat training in the Army Ground Forces; and the transportation of men and matériel by water, land, and rail.

Between 1942 and 1945 several reorganizations of the Army Service Forces caused functions to be realigned and subordinate agencies shifted. These changes, insofar as they affect the wartime records of ASF, are described later. In June 1946 ASF was discontinued and its functions were divided among units of the War Department General Staff and among the Technical and Administrative Services, and the regional Service Commands were simultaneously reorganized and renamed Army Areas.

Records.--Records were created at all echelons of ASF in Washington and in the field and are separately described below, according to subordinate units of ASF. In addition, ASF activities are extensively documented in the records of higher and parallel echelons of the Army; in the records of the Navy Department agencies with which ASF collaborated on matériel, manpower, and related matters; and in the records of civilian war agencies, particularly the War Production Board.

See John D. Millett, "The Direction of Supply Activities in the War Department; an Administrative Survey," in American Political Science Review, 38: 249-265, 475-498 (Apr., June 1944); and Millett, "The Organizational Structure of the Army Service Forces," in Public Administration Review, 4: 268-278 (Autumn 1944).
[See also the Army Service Forces volumes in the U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

Headquarters Army Service Forces [386]

Headquarters Services of Supply, renamed Headquarters Army Service Forces in March 1943, was located in Washington and constituted the highest echelon in the elaborate organization of matériel, manpower,

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and related service agencies that made up ASF during the war. ASF Headquarters was headed during the war by Lt. Gen. Brehon Somervell, Commanding General. After many changes it consisted in 1945 of the Office of the Commanding General, 5 directorates, and 26 staff divisions and offices, which are separately described below. The several Technical Services and Administrative Services that were responsible either directly to the Commanding General or to one of the directorates are described later in this volume.

Records.--The central files are limited to the period Mar.-July 1942, when Headquarters Services of Supply maintained a central-filing unit primarily for the Commanding General's Office and the Control Division's correspondence. The other central records for that period (called "SP" files) were later interfiled with the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, after the SOS filing unit was discontinued. The greater part of SOS and ASF Headquarters records were kept in the divisions and other units. Most of them (7,000 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; a few may still be in the custody of successor agencies in the General Staff, especially in the Logistics Division.

There is important correspondence on ASF activities in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see the several lengthy series of index sheets filed under AG 020 Army Service Forces, 1942-46 (20 linear feet), AG 029 Services of Supply Divisions, 1942-43 (14 linear feet), AG 322 Army Service Forces, 1942-46 (6 linear inches), and AG 020 Chief of Administrative Services, 1942-44 (1 linear inch). Other series bearing on particular ASF divisions and agencies or on particular ASF-related subjects are also in the central records of the War Department.

Many ASF Headquarters records exist in printed or processed form, including reports, directives, and informational circulars that were distributed mostly among military agencies. Among these were the ASF "Annual Report," 1942-45 (each usually in two editions, one for public release and a longer one for restricted distribution); the ASF "Monthly Progress Reports" (MPR's), 1942-46; the comprehensive "Services of Supply Organization Manual," 1942, and the successor looseleaf "Army Services Forces Manual," 1943-45; S Circulars of SOS Headquarters, and the successor ASF Circulars, 1942-46; ASF General Orders, 1945; Procurement Regulations, from 1942, which superseded the Army Regulations "S" subseries and the Under Secretary's Procurement Circulars; the "Army Supply Program" series from 1942, issued jointly with the Army Air Forces; and the ASF "Supply Catalog" series. Some of these and other series are indexed in the "List and Index of ASF Publications" (section M-800 of the ASF "Manual"). Brief weekly summaries of SOS and ASF activities, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167).

Office of the Commanding General [387]

The Commanding General of the Army Service Forces and of the predecessor Services of Supply was responsible to the Under Secretary of War on matériel and related procurement matters, and to the Chief of

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Staff of the Army on other matters. The Commanding General's immediate assistants included a Chief of Staff, SOS and ASF, 1942-45; a Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands, 1943-45; and, for a brief period in 1942, two other Deputy Chiefs of Staff, one for Procurement and Distribution and one for Requirements and Resources (see the successor Director of Matériel). In addition, various offices and divisions were attached to the Commanding General's Office from time to time during the war, and some of these are described below. The Commanding General was a member of, or was otherwise represented on, several committees outside the War Department, including the Munitions Assignments Board and the President's Soviet Protocol Committee.

Records.--The Commanding General's office files, 1942-46, containing his testimony before the War Department Equipment Board, Nov. 1945, his speeches, 1942-45, proceedings of major interallied military conferences conducted by the Combined Chiefs of Staff, 1943-45, War Production Board reports relating to munitions production, industrial-facility expansion, and other procurement subjects, 1942-45, and Chemical Warfare Service reports on bacteriological warfare, with related papers, 1944-45, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Records of the Chief of Staff of SOS and ASF are also in the Departmental Records Branch. Records of subordinate divisions and offices of ASF Headquarters are separately described below.

Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands [388]

This office was established in May 1943 to provide a single responsibility for the supervision of the Army's nine regional Service Commands and the Military District of Washington. Previously this work had been done by the Control Division, July-October 1942, and by the Service Command Division in the Office of the Chief of Administrative Services, October 1942-May 1943. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands also supervised the following units in ASF Headquarters at various times during the war: The Executive for Project Planning, May--July 1943 (see entry 216 for the successor Special Planning Division, War Department Special Staff); the National Guard Bureau, November 1943-May 1945; the Intelligence Division of ASF Headquarters and the Office of the Provost Marshal General, November 1943-June 1945; the Italian Service Units, March 1944-June 1945 (later a part of the Office of the Provost Marshal General); and the Morale Programs Section, April 1944-June 1945 (see entry 400 for the successor Special Services Division of ASF Headquarters).

Records.--The following are among the records of this office in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records assembled early in 1946 from papers formerly in the office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands and in the Control Division, 1942-46 (176 feet), divided into secret, confidential, and unclassified groups; monthly progress reports from the Service Commands and the Military District of Washington and from the predecessor Corps Areas, 1940-45; transcripts of telephone conversations, 1942-45; and records of the "Pratt Committee" (named after Col. Curtis G.

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Pratt, and responsible to this office), July 1945-46, relating to its investigation of the Army's construction and facilities-maintenance activities in the "Airport Development Program" (ADP) in Latin America and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere, 1938-45 (22 feet).

The assembled records mentioned above contain not only correspondence relating to the Service Commands but also material on other agencies and on other subjects. There are, for example, copies of reports and related correspondence on the following committees and boards outside the War Department with which ASF was involved: War Production Board, 1943-45 (file 031.2); War Manpower Commission, 1944 (file 334); Combined Production and Resources Board, 1942 (file 334); the Technical Industrial Disarmament Committee, 1945 (file 334); the President's Soviet Protocol Committee, 1945 (file 031.1); the National Technological Advisory Committee, 1944-45 (file 334); and the Federal Fire Council, 1945 (file 334). War Department committees and agencies represented in the files are the Army Exchange Fund, 1942 (file 123), the Central Welfare Fund (file 123), the General Staff Committee on National Guard Policy, 1944-45 (file 334), the Committee to Study War Department Intelligence Activities, 1945 (file 334), and the Board to Study the Organization of the War Department, 1945-46 (file 334).

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain some papers relating to the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands; see index sheets filed under AG 321 Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands, 1943-46 (1 linear inch).

Control Division [389]

This Division of ASF Headquarters served from 1942 to 1946 as the agency for studying and improving administrative management throughout the Army Service Forces. It inspected ASF organizations and activities in Washington and in the field, developed standardized organizational patterns and reporting methods, and studied special problems as they arose. In 1942 the Control Division planned the reorganization of the Services of Supply, organized the Service Commands, and, for a time (July-October 1942) supervised the Service Commands and the Military District of Washington. The Division also supervised activities under the War Production Board's Controlled Materials Plan insofar as ASF was involved. In 1943 management-control work was largely decentralized among the various subordinate agencies and commands of ASF, and, although the Control Division had no line authority over such offices, it continued to function as an adviser on management and organizational problems throughout ASF; it sponsored Nation-wide and regional conferences of control officers; and it continued to issue manuals and other literature on management subjects.

In addition to its management-control work, the Control Division published statistical and other over-all progress reports on ASF activities, supervised the historical program of ASF, and prepared the historical studies of Headquarters activities. It also sponsored the ASF Procedures Committee, the so-called "Red Tape" Committee (formed in October 1942 to

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eliminate unnecessary paper work throughout ASF), and the ASF Survey Board (succeeded by the ASF Publications Review Board), established in 1943.

In September 1945, the Control Division was organized into three branches. The Administrative Management Branch developed and coordinated control techniques, prepared management-control literature, prepared the "Army Service Forces Manual," directed the ASF historical program, and conducted the ASF Work Simplification Program. The Statistics Branch and its predecessors (including the Statistics Branch of the Office of the Under Secretary of War before March 1942) supervised the reporting system of ASF, prepared the ASF monthly progress report, reviewed or prepared other reports about ASF activities, and served as a clearinghouse for statistical information about ASF. The Procedures Branch analyzed procedures in order to simplify and standardize work methods, prepared manuals on the subject, and reviewed organizational and procedural directives (such as Army Regulations, War Department Circulars, and ASF Circulars) affecting ASF policies.

Records.--The records of the Control Division that are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO (260 feet), include the following: A comprehensive file of statistical tabulations and progress reports that relate to personnel, training, matériel, production, and facility construction, originating in the Technical Services, 1939-43, in the Statistics Branch of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of War (later, of the Under Secretary of War), 1939-42, and in the Control Division, 1942-45; the Control Division's 1-volume "Statistical Review, World War II," 1941-45; a chronological reading file of correspondence of the Division, 1942-45; records of the ASF historical officer, including administrative correspondence on the activities of historical units throughout ASF, 1941-45, and assembled materials relating to the Army Service Forces such as copies of reports, organizational charts, and minutes of staff meetings, 1943-45; "logs" (diaries) of units in ASF Headquarters, Jan-Sept. 1945; reports and studies resulting from management investigations and surveys made by the Control Division and others, 1940-44; "Congressional Lecture Books," prepared in the Division and elsewhere, 1941-43, for use in War Department conferences with Members and committees of Congress; reports on ASF Headquarters conferences with the commanding generals of the Service Commands 1943-44; monthly reports, reports of surveys, and related papers on the ASF Work Simplification Program, 1943-44; and the records of a special assistant, 1942-45, relating to ASF reporting, public-relations, and publishing matters. Also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, is a set of the Control Division's monthly reports entitled "Progress Charts," Jan. 1943-Mar. 1945, "Review of the Month," Mar.-Sept. 1945, "Work Measurement," Apr. 1945-Jan. 1946, and other reports forming sections of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" (MPR) series.

Other reports by the Control Division were the "Survey of the Controlled Materials Plan [in the various Technical Services]," Dec. 1942-Feb. 1943, and its "Spare Parts . . . Reports" on the various Technical Services, Mar.-Apr.

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1943. Much of the Control Division's correspondence is interfiled with records of the office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands, 1942-46, in the assembled series described in entry 388. A 2-volume history of the Control Division, 1942-45, is on file in the Army's Historical Division; a copy of volume 1 is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Intelligence Division [390]

This Division, known earlier as the Security Services Division (March 1942-April 1943) and the Security and Intelligence Division (April-May 1943), was responsible for planning, coordinating, and supervising the intelligence activities of the Army Service Forces. The scope of these activities increased greatly during the war. In 1942 and 1943 the intelligence functions of the Services of Supply were largely restricted to problems of internal security and the safeguarding of military information in Headquarters, while intelligence activities in the Service Commands were supervised by intelligence sections that reported directly to G-2, War Department General Staff, and to the Office of the Provost Marshal General. In January 1944 when the domestic intelligence functions of G-2 were decentralized, mainly to the Army Service Forces, the work of the Intelligence Division of ASF Headquarters expanded. At the same time the increasing attention of ASF to the collection and study of technical intelligence information received from overseas was also centralized under this Division.

By September 1945 the Intelligence Division had the following responsibilities: Security control for the Army Service Forces; preparing various intelligence bulletins and reports; collecting, evaluating, and disseminating technical intelligence materials, including enemy equipment; reviewing combat and other films to assess their value for the Army Service Forces; and determining policies and procedures relating to domestic counterintelligence and military censorship activities. In addition, the Division undertook in 1945, on behalf of the War Crimes Office of the Office of the Judge Advocate General, to collect evidence to be used in trials of war criminals. The Intelligence Division, in connection with all these matters, supervised the CIC Center at Fort Meade, Md., and an intelligence network in the Technical Services and in the Service Commands, collaborated with the Office of the Provost Marshal General, and sent missions overseas. Outside of the Army Service Forces the Intelligence Division coordinated its work with G-2 and maintained liaison with the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Intelligence, the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Office of Strategic Services, the Foreign Economic Administration, the Office of War Information, the Munitions Control Unit of the Department of State, and the Office of Censorship.

The Intelligence Division was responsible to the Chief of Administrative Services, March 1942-May 1943; to the Commanding General of ASF, May-November 1943; to the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands, November 1943-June 1945; and again to the Commanding General, from June 1945 until ASF was discontinued in 1946. In August 1945 the Division consisted of the branches and units mentioned below.

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Domestic intelligence.

[390a]--Three branches were concerned primarily with intelligence matters in the continental United States. The Domestic and Counterintelligence Branch (originally known as the Operations and Inspection Branch) supervised internal or domestic security matters and counterintelligence matters throughout the Army Service Forces in the continental United States; the Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) Branch collaborated with G-2 in the training and equipping of CIC troop units for overseas service; and the Security Branch supervised security controls and the safeguarding of military information within ASF Headquarters and its field organizations.

Foreign intelligence. [390b]--Certain foreign-intelligence matters were handled by the Foreign Industrial Information Branch, July-November 1943, which continued the work of the Conservation Branch (from August 1942) in recruiting and utilizing the services of foreign industrial and commodity experts as consultants and advisers on intelligence matters; after November 1943 this work was handled by G-2. Another foreign-intelligence matter, relating to enemy matériel and equipment, was handled by the Technical Intelligence Branch. This Branch issued a periodical "Intelligence Bulletin," a "Technical Intelligence Bulletin," and other reports, chiefly on foreign matériel and equipment, and organized and supervised the Enemy Equipment Intelligence Service (EEIS) program. Under that program, which originated about September 1943 and replaced similar programs of the Technical Services, various EEIS teams of observers and technicians were sent to the overseas theaters to collect and evaluate samples of and data on enemy matériel and equipment. The work of planning and supervising this work was shared by the Branch with G-2, the Joint Intelligence Committee (especially its Technical Industrial Intelligence Committee), the Combined Intelligence Committee (especially its Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee), and the overseas theaters concerned. An additional foreign-intelligence staff unit was the office of the Chief Military and Civil Censor. This office, which originated as the Special Overseas Planning Group (SOPG) in October 1944, planned a civil censorship program for use by the occupation forces in Japan, sponsored the Army-Navy Civil Intelligence School at Stanford University, and supervised the Civil Censorship Group at San Francisco, where censorship units were trained and staged.

Records. [390c]--The following records of the Intelligence Division (167 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General records, 1942-46, including the Division's central files, a geographically arranged series of intelligence reports and correspondence, and a series relating to security control and censorship; records of the Domestic and Counterintelligence Branch, 1945; records of the Security Branch, 1942-45; card records of students who attended Army military censorship schools, Dec. 1942-Feb. 1944; reports of the Interdepartmental Visa Review Committee on applications for immigration visas, 1942-44; copies of the report of the Army Intelligence Officers' Conference, Nov. 17-19, 1943; correspondence regarding violations of security regulations and resulting investigations; papers relating to the organization and administration of the Technical Industrial

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Intelligence Committee, 1945; reports of the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee; "Technical Intelligence Reports" (AGO form 600) summarizing interviews of the Technical Intelligence Branch with ASF personnel returned from overseas duty, 1944-45; files of the Technical Intelligence Branch in the exchange of technical information with Allied and other friendly governments, 1944-46; a bibliography by the Intelligence Division entitled "Reference Literature for Requests for Continuing Technical Information . . ." (Aug. 1944); and reference files of intelligence reports, bulletins, special studies, summaries, manuals and other documents, 1943-45. A 3-volume history of the Division is filed in the Army's Historical Division.

Records relating to this Division's activities are among the wartime records of the Military Intelligence Division (War Department General Staff), the central records of the War Department, in the AGO, and (for technical intelligence) the overseas records of the theaters concerned. For example, certain daily logs, circulars and directives, and other records, 1944-45, of Enemy Equipment Intelligence Service units attached to the Third Army were in June 1947 in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Copies of EEIS Reports, Special Reports, and other documents were in 1945 in the files of the Research and Analysis Division, Office of Strategic Services.

Civil Defense Division [391]

This Division served, between early 1942 and late 1943, as the War Department's staff agency for the civilian-defense program in the continental United States. It reviewed plans for Army participation in civilian-defense operations, prepared training literature on passive defense measures, recommended legislation pertaining to civilian defense, and handled other matters related to the training and equipping of civilians for possible hostilities in the continental United States. The Division served under the Chief of Administrative Services of Headquarters Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces) and, in its staff work, dealt chiefly with the Office of Civilian Defense and the Army's regional Service Commands. The Division was discontinued late in 1943, but certain civilian-defense functions were continued in the Provost Marshal General's Office.

Records.--The central files of this Division, 1942-Nov. 1943 (24 feet), a file of publications (with translations) of British, Russian, Swedish, and Philippine civilian-defense agencies, 1940-43 (4 feet), and records of the War Department Liaison Officer for the Office of Civilian Defense are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Office of the Director of Plans and Operations [392]

The Office of the Director of Plans and Operations (also known as P and O; not to be confused with the P and 0 Division of the postwar General Staff) was established in November 1943. It exercised staff supervision over the following activities of the Army Service Forces: Logistical operations; the organization, assignment, and domestic and initial

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overseas movements of troop units of ASF and the Technical Services; the review of supply levels and housing requirements of the overseas theaters; the movement of supplies; the administration of the Army Supply Control Program, involving supervision over the control and utilization of military supply inventories (including surpluses), other than matériel processed by the Army Air Forces; the construction and use of command installations in the United States and, in certain cases, overseas; and demobilization planning, including collaboration with other agencies in the preparation of the War Department's Readjustment Regulations (RR's) on personnel demobilization.

Before November 1943 these activities had been supervised principally by the Director of the Operations Division, Headquarters Services of Supply, March-July 1942; the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations, July 1942-May 1943; and the Director of Operations, May-October 1943. These officials reported to the Commanding General of the Army Service Forces through his Chief of Staff.

The Director of Plans and Operations reported directly to the Commanding General. The staff work supervised by him was organized in three major divisions, which are separately described below, and in the latter part of the war the Director's immediate office included the following additional units: The Deputy Director for Demobilization, April-August 1944; the Special Projects Branch, which evaluated and reported on the effectiveness of ASF planning, August-December 1944; and the Review Unit on Combined and Joint Chiefs of Staff Subjects, which for a while reviewed and filed certain papers of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, represented the Army Service Forces on some of their subcommittees and at the agenda meetings of the Strategy and Policy Group of the Operations Division, War Department General Staff, and maintained listings of operational and geographical code names in current use. Two committees, the India Committee and the Ammunition Committee, were established within the Director's office to advise him with respect to developing lines of communication from India to China, September 1943--March 1944, and to forecasting production requirements for ammunition, from about July 1944.

Records.--The following records of this Office and its predecessors, 1942-46 (14 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Copies of correspondence, memoranda, and reports originating in the Office, including its monthly reports entitled "Storage and Issue," June-Aug. 1944, "Demobilization Planning," Aug. 1944-Aug. 1945, and "Supply Control Summaries," Nov. 1944-Aug. 1945, which formed sections of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" (MPR) series; daily diaries of divisions, branches, and sections of the Office; correspondence, reports, summaries, and other records of the Special Projects Branch, 1942-44; and a series of correspondence, memoranda, messages, and printed documents kept by the Director (Lt. Gen. LeRoy Lutes), who also served as Chief of Staff and Commanding General of ASF, 1945-47. Other records of particular divisions are separately noted below.

Copies of correspondence of the Operations office in 1942 are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under

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AG 029 SOS (Operations), Mar-Dec. 1942 (1 linear inch). A few papers on the India Committee, 1943-44, and the Ammunition Committee, 1944-46, are also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334.

Planning Division [393]

This Division, established in April 1943, was the ASF planning staff for supply, the hospitalization and evacuation of wounded troops, and demobilization. It also reviewed commitments of ASF troop units and supplies in the continental United States and overseas. The Division coordinated all pertinent ASF planning with the War Department General Staff and, when necessary, with the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Navy Department; reviewed papers relating to strategic logistics and logistical supply plans prepared by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff; and conducted a school to train officers for duty in ASF Headquarters and in the theaters of operations.

Antecedents of the Planning Division were the Planning Branch in the Operations Division, March-July 1942, and the Plans Division (especially the General Plans Branch and the Hospitalization and Evacuation Branch) under the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations, July 1942-April 1943. In August 1942 the Strategic Logistics Division had also been organized under the same staff supervision, and in April 1943 this Division and the Plans Division were merged to constitute the Planning Division described in this entry.

By September 1945 the Planning Division comprised four branches and the ASF Headquarters Staff School, which had been established about April 1944. The Strategic Logistics Branch and the Theater Branch were both organized into area sections, corresponding to the major theaters, and they constituted the major planning branches of the Division. The Seacoast Defense Projects Branch, which was added through a transfer from the ASF Requirements Division in July 1944, planned and supervised the allocation of harbor-defense and other equipment for use in coastal defense in the continental United States; the work of this Branch had earlier been done in the Coast Artillery Corps, 1940-42, and the Corps of Engineers, March 1942-April 1943. The Demobilization Branch was organized about August 1944 to handle planning matters previously handled by the Deputy Director for Demobilization.

Records.--The following general records of the Planning Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: An 11-volume "History of the Planning Division," and copies of documents (8 feet) used in its preparation, such as correspondence, orders, directives, memoranda, messages, and diaries, 1942-45; supply planning documents and copies of operational plans for all overseas theaters, together with related reports, charts, maps, and other material for conference discussions, 1943-45; correspondence and other papers on protective clothing, special clothing, and hospitalization and evacuation policies, 1941-44; reports on coal production, 1943-45; instructions for emergency operation of industrial facilities, 1943-45;

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movement orders and related papers, 1942-43; correspondence, orders, maps, and clippings relating to the planning and supervision of the Persian Gulf Command, 1942-43; and wartime records relating to-postwar planning.

The following records of the Division's branches or those of its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Correspondence and reports of the Strategic Logistics Branch, 1943-46 (7 feet); "project files" of the Theater Branch (62 feet) pertaining to overseas supply matters, containing copies of ASF reports and reports of overseas supply commands, such as status reports, progress reports, logistical reports, and "Field Monographs," 1941-45; records of the Hospitalization and Evacuation Branch, 1941-43; miscellaneous files of the Demobilization Branch, on troop redeployment and personnel requirements for the defeat of Japan and for the postwar Army, 1944-46; records of the Seacoast Defense Projects Branch, 1940-46; and records of ASF Headquarters Staff School, consisting of copies of instructional materials, reports of trips to depots of the Technical Services, and other records, 1944-45.

Mobilization Division [394]

This Division and its predecessors were responsible for planning and directing the organization and assignment of all troop units of the Army Service Forces and the review of tables of organization (T/O's), tables of organization and equipment (T/OE's), tables of basic allowances (T/BA's), and tables of equipment (T/E's) for these troops; the movements of troop units and supplies of the Army Service Forces in the United States and to overseas destinations; the construction, assignment, and disposition of post, camp, and station facilities, including housing, in the United States and, insofar as they were represented in the Army Supply Program, overseas; and the preparation of status reports giving current information concerning each ASF troop unit scheduled to be sent overseas.

The Mobilization Division had four branches: The Troop Units Branch supervised the activation, assignment, and deactivation of ASF troop units and prepared status and readiness reports on them. The Movements Branch supervised the shipment of troop units and supplies, formulated code markings on supplies, and was concerned with "Preparation for Overseas Movement" manuals and with "Standard Operating Procedure" manuals for overseas movements. Two other branches were added in 1944: The Command Installation Branch was concerned with military housing and other facilities, and the Organization and Allowance Branch reviewed and edited troop-unit tables such as T/OE's and T/BA's.

Records.--The following records are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files of the Mobilization Division, 1942-46 (23 feet); unpublished wartime histories and materials used in compiling them, 1942-- 46, including a general history of the Division, a 20-volume history of the Movements Branch, a history of the Organization and Allowance Branch, and one entitled "History of Ledo Road"; the "unit file" of the Troop Units Branch, containing data on the activation, assignment, and inactivation of ASF troop units, 1942-46 (12 feet), and "segregated" correspondence of

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the Branch, 1942-44 (12 feet); movement orders of the Movements Branch and related correspondence, messages, directives, reports, and return orders pertaining to the domestic and overseas movement of troop units and supplies 1942-46 (50 feet); diaries kept by the Movements Branch, 1942-47 (2 feet); and correspondence, studies, and other papers of the Organization and Allowance Branch on the preparation and revision of T/O's, T/OE's, T/BA's, and T/E's, and on the nomenclature of supplies and equipment, 1941-45 (58 feet). The Division's report, "Troop Basis for Supply," its monthly report, "Status of Troop Basis Units," Nov. 1944-June 1945 (issued jointly with the ASF Military Personnel Division), and a set of its monthly report, "Utilization of Command Facilities," June 1944-Jan. 1946, forming section 15 of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series, are also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Requirements and Stock Control Division [395]

This Division, 1944-45, and its predecessors, 1942-44, were responsible for planning and supervising the preparation of the periodic "Army Supply Program" (also known as the "Army Supply Control Program" after September 1944). Through this program, the War Department attempted to balance the needs for matériel and supplies against available production capacity and to provide for the maximum utilization of available matériel. The Division coordinated its activities with those of all other War Department agencies concerned, collected data concerning the general supply situation, approved policies on spare parts, consolidated and summarized data on Army Service Forces requirements, determined the priority of items (except Army Air Forces items) listed in the "Army Supply Program," and formulated policies and procedures governing the handling of surpluses and salvageable stocks. After early 1944 the Division was also concerned with formulating programs for the capture of enemy equipment and matériel. It was represented on several War Department committees, and it provided the chairman of the Property Classification Board, which was charged with standardizing and classifying common items of property, expendable and nonexpendable, used in the Army.

In September 1945 the Requirements and Stock Control Division consisted of the Plans and Analysis Branch; the Requirements Branch, with sections or subsections corresponding to the several Technical Services, the matériel production demands of which were formulated as requirements; and the Stock Control Branch.

Records.--The following records of the Division and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Daily journal, Mar. 1942-- Feb. 1943; correspondence on requirements for the construction of facilities and for the procurement of munitions and supplies, 1943-44 (3 feet); records pertaining to the development, maintenance, and supervision of all phases of the supply-control system, 1943-45 (14 feet), to matériel inventories, replacement factors, and consumption rates, 1944-47, and to policies for the disposal of surplus property, including drafts of pertinent Army Regulations and ASF Circulars, 1942-44 (2 feet); correspondence.

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equipment lists, reports, and weekly reviews of captured enemy matériel and equipment, 1944-46 (2 feet); copies of the Division's monthly "Utilization of Command Installations," Mar. 1944-July 1945; its monthly report, "Procurement Program: Air," May-Sept. 1945, and "Procurement Program: Ground," Jan. 1945-Jan. 1946 (forming sections 22-A and 22-B of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series); and the record set of the "Army Supply Program," together with background papers, 1942-44. Copies of the "Army Supply Program" are also in the central records of Headquarters Army Air Forces (in the "bulk" files, filed under 360.01, 400.314, and 400.345).

Office of the Director of Personnel [396]

The Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Personnel (ACSP), established in Headquarters Services of Supply in July 1942 and renamed the Office of the Director of Personnel in Headquarters Army Service Forces in May 1943, had staff responsibility for the formulation of policies and procedures relating to civilian and military personnel in the Army Service Forces, insofar as such matters pertained to personnel as individuals rather than as troop units. Military-personnel matters included procurement, original assignment, and eventual separation of the men and women who became members of or left the Army through the usual induction and separation channels, and it included also the welfare and morale of personnel while in the service; in these matters, the office was guided in general by policies of the Personnel Division, G-1, War Department General Staff. Civilian-employee matters included the procurement and utilization of War Department employees, the mobilization of industrial manpower, and relations with labor in war plants under Army contract; in these matters the Office was guided by the policies of the Director of Personnel and Training in the Office of the Secretary of War. In general, the Director of Personnel had training responsibilities only for civilian employees and industrial labor, and the Director of Military Training (see entry 404) handled the training of military personnel.

In addition to the seven major staff divisions and offices that are separately described below, the following divisions, which are described elsewhere, were assigned for a time to the Director of Personnel: Army Specialized Training Division, March-October 1943; the Executive for Reserve and ROTC Affairs, May-November 1943; and the Director of the Women's Army Corps, May 1943-March 1944. After the last-named office was transferred to the Personnel Division, G-1 (in March 1944), a separate Army Service Forces WAC office (also known as the office of WAC Staff Director) was established to advise the ASF Director of Personnel on such Women's Army Corps affairs as affected the Army Service Forces.

Other organizational units that operated within the Director's Office were the Services of Supply Selection Board, about July 1942; the Board for Determining the Suitability of Officers for Retention on Active Duty, about September 1944; the Adjusted Service Rating Committee, about December

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1944; and the Committee on Personnel Adjustment Control, 1945. The Director of Personnel directly supervised one major training center, known successively as the School for Special Service, March 1942-April 1944, the School for Special and Morale Services, April--September 1944, and the School for Personnel Services, September 1944-January 1946; it was located from March to November 1942 at Fort Meade, Md., and from December 1942 to January 1946 at Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.

Records.--The following records of the Office of the Director of Personnel are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: "Policy and precedent" files (24 feet) and other records, 1942-46 (46 feet), on such policy matters as civilian grievances, race relations, industrial labor disputes, morale publicity in industrial areas, and manpower utilization surveys; and a set of the directorate's monthly report, "Personnel," Sept. 1943-May 1946 (forming sec. 5 and 5--A of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series). A 1-volume unpublished history of the Office, 1942-45, is on file in the Army's Historical Division. A wartime "prisoner-of-war file," kept in the Director's Office (3 feet), was in May 1947 in the Military Personnel Management Group, Personnel and Administration Division. The official "201" files for individual civilian and military personnel no longer in service are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. The records of the School for Personnel Services are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. A 1-volume history of the School, 1942-45, containing narrative and supporting documents, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Military Personnel Division [397]

This Division, also known as MPD, was charged with formulating plans and policies relating to military personnel of the Army Service Forces and in certain respects to all military personnel of the Army. The following activities were within its jurisdiction: The preparation and review of legislation that affected Army Service Forces personnel (and Army personnel in general when so directed by the War Department); the explanation and defense of such legislation before congressional committees; the determination of military strength requirements of the Army Service Forces; the development of the personnel procurement program; the preparation of induction, processing, and classification systems for all men entering the Army; the development of the Army replacement system; the development of a "personnel return and redistribution system" and other programs for processing men returned from overseas; and the planning of general separation policies and procedures. In cooperation with the Adjutant General's Office and other interested Army agencies, the Division developed a "physical profile system" for the classification of men when inducted, and in other ways it studied and reported on methods for the better use of available manpower.

The Division exercised general policy direction over the following types of installations operated by the regional Service Commands in the continental United States: Personnel Centers; Armed Forces Induction Stations; Reception Centers; ASF Personnel Replacement Depots; War Department

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Personnel Centers; Personnel Processing Centers; Army Ground and Service Forces Redistribution Stations; Separation Centers; and (in 1942) Officer Candidate Schools. Most of the Division's work was limited to personnel of the Army Ground Forces and the Army Service Forces, since the Army Air Forces handled most of its military personnel problems separately.

The Military Personnel Division was established in March 1942 as a separate staff division in Headquarters Services of Supply to assume military-personnel functions previously performed by the Administrative Branch of the Office of the Under Secretary of War and the Personnel Division, G-1, War Department General Staff. The Division was supervised by the Assistant Chief of Staff for Personnel, July 1942-May 1943, and thereafter by his successor, the Director of Personnel.

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Central files, 1941-45 (600 feet); monthly reports, 1942-46; four historical studies on the procurement, distribution, and separation of military personnel, 1939-46; and a 1-volume "administrative log," or chronology, of officer-procurement activities in World War II. An "overseas replacement system file" of the Division was in May 1947 in the Manpower Control Group, Personnel and Administration Division, General Staff. The Division's activities are also documented in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 029 Military Personnel (SOS), Aug. 1942-Apr. 1943.

Industrial Personnel Division [398]

The Civilian Personnel Division, established in March 1942 in Headquarters Services of Supply and renamed the Industrial Personnel Division (IPD) in January 1943, had staff responsibility for civilian-personnel matters throughout the Army Service Forces and for industrial-labor matters affecting firms under contract to the Technical Services of the Army Service Forces. These two major responsibilities were handled in 1945 by two corresponding branches of the Division. Through its Civilian Personnel Branch, the Division was concerned with policies affecting recruitment, strength authorization, placement, training, wages and salaries, and improved utilization of civilian employees in ASF Headquarters, in the headquarters of the Technical Services, and in their field organizations. This Branch supervised the School for Civilian Personnel Officers at Fort Washington, Md., April 1944-August 1945; sponsored personnel administration conferences with representatives of the Service Commands; issued manuals, studies, and other training literature for use in civilian-personnel programs; and sponsored, within Headquarters, the ASF Committee on Awards. Through its Labor Branch, the Industrial Personnel Division was concerned with industrial labor problems of ASF contractors (and of some Army Air Forces contractors), such as labor supply, labor standards, labor disputes, and race relations; and with United States and foreign labor problems of the overseas theaters of operations.

In addition to these two major branches the Division had three special units: The Civilian Pre-Induction Training Branch, 1943-44; the Civilian

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Training Branch, 1944, for planning in-service training of civilian employees; and the Executive Evaluation Unit, about 1944, for supervising the procurement and evaluating the utilization of executives recruited for the Army Service Forces. The Division served as the War Department's liaison agency, on labor matters, with the War Manpower Commission, the Labor Department, and labor officials of the War Production Board, the Maritime Commission, and the Navy Department.

Records.--The following records of the Industrial Personnel Division and its predecessor are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: The Division's general files, 1942-46; a special series relating to labor standards, wage and salary, hours, and productivity of personnel at contractors' plants, 1942-45, consisting chiefly of correspondence with labor organizations and with industrial firms and associations; a "historical file" on the Division, containing records of personnel conferences, press releases, monthly progress reports, and copies of memoranda, organization charts, and other material, 1942--15; field survey reports, post-audit reports, and inspection reports on civilian personnel administration, 1942-46; copies of Orders and Special Orders of the Division, 1942-45; a series of newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, and pamphlets pertaining to labor relations among ASF industrial contractors, 1942-45; and records pertaining to Negro workers, 1942-46.

Also in the Departmental Records Branch are correspondence of the Labor Branch with field officers of the Division, minutes of Branch meetings, and "nonpolicy" informational files on industrial labor problems, 1941-45; records of the Labor Branch relating to proposed legislation for the wartime seizure of industrial plants, 1941-46, containing papers assembled by labor officials in the Office of the Under Secretary of War, 1941-42; records of the Civilian Personnel Branch relating to wage rates and job classifications, mostly in the field, 1942-46; records of the Civilian Training Branch, containing monthly reports on civilian training, 1942-43; and a set of "Pre-Induction Training Bulletins" (PIT series), 1942-44, prepared by the Civilian Pre-Induction Training Branch in collaboration with the Office of Education and widely distributed during the war. Civilian-personnel manuals originating in this Division (and issued in the "ASF Manuals" M-200 series), 1941-45, dealt with such subjects as placement, wage administration, employee training, supervisory training, and employee relations.

Officer Procurement Service [399]

This agency, established as a staff division of Headquarters Services of Supply in November 1942, represented a consolidation of functions previously handled by the Army Specialist Corps in the Office of the Secretary of War and the Officer Procurement Branch in the Adjutant General's Office. The Service was directed by the Secretary of War to unify and centralize the program for procuring officers with special skills needed by Army agencies. While the Service was not an appointing office (see Secretary of War's Personnel Board and the Adjutant General's Office), it

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coordinated requests for officers, handled necessary correspondence, examined the qualifications of potential officers, and assembled general information about officer needs and utilization in the Army. Subsequently the duties of the Service were expanded to include advisory duties with respect to reclassifying officers and selecting enlisted men and warrant officers to be commissioned in the Army of the United States; and its records were also used to find qualified personnel for the Army Nurse Corps and for specialized civilian positions. The Service did not, however, recruit for the Army Air Forces, nor select officers from the National Guard, reserve components, and the officer candidate schools, nor select dental, medical, and veterinary officers (see Surgeon General's Office).

The Officer Procurement Service was organized in 1942 into an elaborate headquarters structure. Its field organization included an Officer Procurement Branch in each Service Command in December 1942 and it later included about 37 Officer Procurement Districts. It operated through an extensive system of interviewing, investigating, and reporting on candidates. In June 1945 the Service was discontinued and its remaining responsibilities were transferred to the ASF Military Personnel Division.

Records.--General records of the headquarters of the Officer Procurement Service, 1942-45 (3 feet), an 11-volume scrapbook on a recruiting drive for Women's Army Corps technicians for the Medical Department, and a 5-volume unpublished history of "Officer Procurement During World War II," 1945, which contains narrative, supplements, and supporting documents, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Field records of the Service, in the custody of the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, include the records of the Officer Procurement Branches in the Service Commands headquarters and the records of some of the Officer Procurement Districts.

Special Services Division [400]

Athletics, entertainment, recreation, and similar services to pro- mote morale and troop welfare were made the responsibility of a separate staff organization in July 1940, although some of these services had previously been provided for by such agencies as the Army Central Tennis Committee, March 1926-March 1941. The morale-services staff agency during the war was known successively as the Morale Division, Adjutant General's Office, July 1940-March 1941; the Morale Branch, March 1941-January 1942, and the Special Services Branch, January-July 1942, both in the Office of the Chief of Staff, General Staff; the Special Service Division, in Headquarters Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces) July 1942-Nov. 1943; and the Special Services Division, Nov. 1943-45. Before October 1943 this succession of agencies also handled troop information and education matters, which were later taken over by the Information and Education Division; and for a time in 1940-41 it handled insignia and heraldry matters that became the responsibility of the Quartermaster Corps.

The Special Services Division and its predecessors, besides having staff responsibilities, served as procurement and distribution agencies for recreational and athletic supplies. They represented the Army in dealing with the

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Federal Security Agency (in planning recreational areas and similar facilities), the American National Red Cross, and the United Service Organizations (USO). For a time in 1942 and 1943 they supervised the School for Special Service (later called the School for Personnel Services, Lexington, Va.). Some of the troop-welfare programs were financed by funds appropriated by Congress, while others, such as the post-exchange service and the motion-picture service, were self-sustaining programs.

Athletics, dramatic and musical entertainment, recreational reading, arts and crafts, and recreational buildings were the concern of the Army Athletic and Recreational Service Branch of the Special Services Division. The Branch formulated plans and procedures for organizing recreational programs; developed standards for constructing and operating service clubs, guest houses, gymnasiums, and other facilities; and supervised the procurement of equipment and services for such work. It collaborated with Camp Shows, Inc. (subsidiary of the United Service Organizations); the Council on Books in Wartime; and the Joint Army and Navy Welfare and Recreation Committee. Each Army field command in the United States and overseas normally had a special-staff section concerned with "special services" directed at troop morale; and Special Service Companies served as overseas troop units for performing certain types of recreational functions.

The Division's two other branches were concerned with welfare services that were financed by nonappropriated funds. The Army Exchange Service Branch coordinated and supervised the system of post exchanges, or PX's, which provided general merchandising services to military personnel at posts and other Army installations. The Branch's work was carried on by various organizational units concerned with such PX matters as building and equipment layout, officers' uniforms, price agreements, purchasing, loans, insurance, and training of merchandising personnel. The other major self-sustaining branch was the Army Motion Picture Service Branch, which originated in 1934 as an entertainment service for military personnel. The Branch supervised the procurement and distribution of recreational films and motion-picture projection equipment and supplies, and the development of plans for post theater buildings. In 1943 and 1944 the Branch supervised the Army Exchange School located at Princeton University.

Records.--The following records of the Special Services Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files, 1941-44 (128 feet); radio scripts and other materials relating to entertainment programs, 1940-45 (16 feet); questionnaires received from entertainers and USO personnel serving at Army installations, 1942-46; reports on athletic and recreational activities aboard troop transports, 1945-46 (22 feet); the Division's monthly report "Special Services" (later "Morale Services"), Apr. 1943-June 1944 (forming sec. 10 of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series); its manuals on athletics, entertainment, and recreation (in the "ASF Manuals" series), Feb.--Apr. 1945; and other records, most of which relate to the Recreation Branch. The wartime records of the Exchange Service Branch and of the Motion Picture Service Branch are in the custody of their respective postwar successors in the Department of the Army. An unpublished 13-volume

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wartime history of the Division, containing narrative and many supporting documents originating in the Division, is on file in the Army's Historical Division. Wartime records of the School for Personnel Services are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Other records relating to the Special Services Division and its predecessors are among the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets (5 linear inches) filed under AG 029 Special Service Branch, Dec. 1941-Mar. 1943; AG 020 and AG 029 Army Exchange Service, 1942-45; AG 334 Advisory Committee on Army Exchanges, Mar. 1941-May 1942; and AG 334 Army Central Tennis Committee, 1926-41. The reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), contain two volumes (vols. 60 and 117) on special-service activities in the European Theater during the war.

Among the publications of the Division are the following series: Army Song Book (2 eds., 1941); monthly Army Hit Kit of Popular Songs; Soldier Shows: Blueprint Specials; Soldier Shows: Folios; and Hospital Entertainment Guides. The following documents of the predecessor Morale Branch are published in the Hearings (part 10) of the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program: A history of the Morale Branch, Nov. 1941; copies of its directives and plans, June-Oct. 1941; and prepared testimony on the post-exchange service, the motion-picture service, and the control of prostitution and vice, Dec. 1941.

See Special Services Branch, Scope and Purpose of the Special Services Branch (1942. 7 p.); and R. B. Murray, "Administration of U.S. Army Motion Picture Service," in Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Journal, 40: 52-63 (Jan. 1943).

Information and Education Division [401]

This Division, known also as the I&E Division, and its predecessors had staff responsibility for troop-information and orientation programs, for off-duty, nonmilitary troop-education programs, for the research program for analyzing the state of troop morale, and for related services. Before October 1943 troop-information and education matters had been handled by the Special Services Division and its predecessors, described immediately above. After that time such matters were handled successively by the Army Education and Information Division, under the Director of Military Training of ASF, October-November 1943; the Morale Services Division, under the Director of Personnel, November 1943-August 1944; and the Information and Education Division, August 1944-September 1945. The Division had branch offices in New York City and Los Angeles, and the latter had a suboffice at San Francisco. The Division had technical supervision over information and education training at the ASF School for Personnel Services at Lexington, Va., and (in 1945) over the Army Information and Education Staff School at Paris, France. Much of its work was decentralized to the major domestic and overseas command headquarters, to each of which an I&E staff section was usually attached.

Administrative and planning matters were handled for the Division by several branches. The Executive Branch provided some of the administrative

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services, including records management and historical services; the Analysis and Planning Branch analyzed current operating procedures and other matters; and the Fiscal Branch prepared budget estimates and justifications for the "Welfare of Enlisted Men" (WEM) funds, by which the Division's program was financed. The Operations and Training Branch supervised the training of I&E officers and the preparation of training aids, directed the Radio Program and Broadcasting School at Los Angeles, and handled the Division's interests in the School for Personnel Services. The Field Service Branch supervised the assignment of I&E officers and the distribution of I&E equipment and materials to the field. Other branches of the Division are separately discussed below.

In September 1945 the I&E Division was transferred from the Army Service Forces to the General Staff, where it was made a special-staff division.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors (1,000 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They include correspondence on entertainment and educational programs, 1940-46; reports on I&E activities at particular camps, posts, and stations, 1942-45; records relating to the preparation and production of I&E publications, such as drafts, background material, and art work (80 feet); and a set of the Division's monthly report, "Information and Education," July 1944-July 1945 (forming sec. 10 of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series). Some of the records of I&E's predecessors, 1941-43, are interfiled with the records of the Special Services Division (see entry 400).

The wartime publications of the Division and its predecessors include the following: The monthly Digest and successor Information and Education Digest, May 1941-Mar. 1946; the monthly Morale Items, May-Sept. 1941, and successor Notes on Morale Activities, Oct. 1941-Mar. 1942; the Education Manuals and successor GI Roundtable series; the weekly Orientation Fact Sheets and successor Army Talks; the Orientation Issues series; the weekly Newsmap (in a regular, an overseas, and an "industrial" edition); the Pocket Guides to Foreign Countries; the Pocket Guides to Foreign Cities; the monthly digest, What the Soldier Thinks, Jan. 1944-Sept. 1945; and the domestic edition of Yank, beginning in June 1942. The troop magazine Stars and Stripes, sponsored by the Division but published in the field in collaboration with particular domestic and overseas commands, was issued in more than 40 different editions (daily, weekly, or monthly) at as many localities. An almost complete set of these editions, on microfilm, is in the New York Public Library; they are listed and described in C. E. Dornbusch, "Stars and Stripes: Checklist of the Several Editions . . .," in New York Public Library, Bulletin, 52: 331-340 (July 1948). A checklist of Yank has also been printed in the same Bulletin, 54: 272-279 (June 1950).

There are records that relate to the I&E Division in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020 and AG 321 Information and Education Division, 1944-47. The records of the ASF School for Personnel Services, 1943-45 (in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO), contain some papers on I&E instructional programs.

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The reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), contain one volume (no. 79) on I&E activities in Europe during the war. Three unpublished historical monographs on the information, education, and research programs of the I&E Division in World War II are in the Army's Historical Division.

Army Information Branch [401a]

This Branch, known as the Information Branch in 1942, supervised the preparation and production of several Army publications that were disseminated to troops (see entry 401); published the weekly domestic edition of Yank beginning in June 1942; provided news and feature services to the overseas editions of Yank, such as the "Camp Newspaper Service Clip Sheet," the "Army Clip Sheet," the "Army Newspaper Editor's Manual," and the "GI Galley"; prepared and transmitted overseas daily radio news digests and maintained a daily "Air Mail Feature Service" to overseas newspapers and radio stations; and planned and reviewed the production of such motion pictures as the "Why We Fight" series, the "Army-Navy Screen Magazine" (biweekly), and the "GI Movie Weekly" (originally called the "GI Movies"). Under the Information Branch was the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS), ultimately located in Los Angeles, which provided radio broadcasts, beamed to overseas areas where troops were stationed, of "decommercialized" radio shows, news programs, and other productions originating in the United States.

Records.--Records of the Branch, relating to the foreign and domestic editions of Yank, 1942-46, including file copies, manuscripts and art work, photographs, correspondence, and fiscal records (306 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other records relating to publications issued by the Information and Education Division are described in entry 401. Records relating to the radio work of the Army Information Branch are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Armed Forces Radio Service.

Army Orientation Branch [401b]

The function of this Branch was to explain the origins and issues of the war to Army personnel. This program was begun in 1940 and was made an Army-wide program in 1942 under the Bureau of Public Relations; later, under the I&E Division, it was extended to include the preparation and distribution of reading and discussion materials such as the weekly Orientation Fact Sheets and the successor Army Talks (beginning in August 1944), the Education Manuals and successor GI Roundtable series (prepared in cooperation with the American Historical Association), and the Orientation Issues series.

Records.--Records of the Branch relating to the use of lecturers for troop-information, 1941-4.2, and copies of its publications are filed with other records of the I&E Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO (see entry 401).

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Army Education Branch [401c]

This Branch was one of the two branches of the I&E Division that handled nonmilitary educational programs for the troops. It planned and supervised the program of correspondence courses and extension courses offered by the Army Institute from March 1942, and by the successor United States Armed Forces Institute (USAFI) from February 1943. That Institute, which was located at Madison, Wis., and served both Army and Navy personnel, eventually had overseas branches in most theaters and a special branch in Geneva, Switzerland, that handled the educational needs of American prisoners of war in Europe.

Records.--No separately maintained records of this Branch have been identified. Records documenting its activities are among those described in entry 401.

Special Projects Branch [401d]

This Branch, which was also concerned with nonmilitary education, was established in 1944. It planned an educational program for military personnel during the period between the end of the war and the return of this personnel to civilian life. The program called for instruction at the secondary, vocational, and university levels, and in July and August 1945 Army University Centers were established at Florence, Italy, Shrivenham, England, and Biarritz, France, to conduct educational programs that extended into the postwar period.

Records.--No separately maintained records of this Branch have been identified. Records documenting its activities are among those described in entry 401. The records of the three Army University Centers in Europe are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

Research Branch [401e]

This Branch, which originated in 1941 on a small scale in the 401e Special Study Group in G-2, War Department General Staff, made studies and reports on the state of morale throughout the Army. It used various techniques, including the public opinion poll, to study soldier opinion on such matters as racial tensions, the quality of Army food, officer candidate schools, and awards and decorations, and its work was carried on both in Washington and in the field, including most of the theater headquarters. The Branch made special studies for the use of the Quartermaster Corps and the Women's Army Corps, and in 1943 it developed the Neuropsychiatric Screening Adjunct Test that was later given to inductees. The Branch conducted about 200 investigations and prepared some 400 reports; and beginning in the fall of 1943 it prepared for distribution to the troops the periodical What the Soldier Thinks.

Records.--Among the records of the I&E Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are troop-attitude questionnaires submitted by the Research Branch, 1941-45, containing separate forms for officers, enlisted men, and West Point cadets. Other records documenting the activities of the Branch are among those described in entry 401.

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Office of the Chief of Chaplains [402]

This Office was the headquarters of the Corps of Chaplains, which provided facilities for religious worship and for religious and moral guidance to all military personnel, including enemy prisoners of war, in the continental United States and overseas. The Office procured and allocated chaplains (except National Guard chaplains, who were chosen by the Guard units themselves) and provided for their training at the Chaplain School, attended to supply and equipment matters peculiar to the Corps, administered the chaplains' fund, and reviewed chaplain activities in the field. The Office did not exercise line authority over chaplains in the field but coordinated their activities through chaplain staff sections in the major field commands and guided them by means of training literature and inspections.

Personnel for the Corps of Chaplains was obtained from the Chaplains' Reserve and from volunteer clergymen. Quotas were assigned for Roman Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant chaplains and for chaplains of recognized Protestant denominations. In appointing chaplains, the Office of the Chief of Chaplains was guided by the advice and recommendations of three principal church bodies: The Military Ordinariate (Catholic); the Jewish Welfare Board; and the General Committee of Army and Navy Chaplains of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, which served as liaison for most of the Protestant denominations. In addition to serving as official spokesmen for their faiths and as advisers to the Chief of Chaplains, these groups sent representatives on world-wide inspection tours of Army installations and on occasion they were given access to reports of chaplain activities.

The Office of the Chief of Chaplains, the origins of which go back to 1776, served in the first years of World War II as an independent bureau of the War Department. In March 1942 the Office was incorporated into the Services of Supply and was placed under the jurisdiction of the Chief of Administrative Services; and in May 1943 it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Director of Personnel, Army Service Forces, where it remained for the rest of the war. In 1945 the Office included the Technical Information Division for public relations work; the Planning and Training Division, which handled equipment needs, monitored the publication of Army editions of the Bible, supervised the Chaplain School, and prepared training aids and literature; and the Chaplain Board, at Fort Devens, Mass. The Chaplain School, activated at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind., in February 1942, was located later at Harvard University, August 1942-August 1944; at Fort Devens, Mass., August 1944-July 1945; and at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., July 1945 until after the end of the war.

Records.--The wartime central files of this Office, a scries of statistical reports from individual chaplains on baptisms, marriages, and burials, and personnel investigation files are parts of larger series extending from 1925 to 1945 (600 feet), in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other wartime records, in the custody of the Office of the Chief of Chaplains, include a card file on baptisms, marriages, and burial at which chaplains officiated; reports of staff meetings; a card file on decorations and awards to chaplains; and data being used in historical projects in the Chief ChapIain's

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Office, at Fort Meade, Md., and at the Chaplain School at Carlisle Barracks, Pa. A 1-volume unpublished wartime history entitled "The Corps of Chaplains," 1946, is on file in the Army's Historical Division. The records of the Chaplain School, 1941-45, with the exception of some of its records in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, are at the School, at Carlisle Barracks, Pa. Wartime records of the Chaplain Board are also in the Kansas City depository.

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain papers relating to the Chaplains Corps; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Chief of Chaplains, 1943-45, AG 029 Chaplains, 1940-43, and AG 321 Chaplains, 1943-46 (2 linear feet). The records of Chaplain Sections of domestic and overseas tactical commands are with the records of those commands, described elsewhere in this volume. A report on wartime Chaplain activities in the European Theater comprises volume 71 of the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater (USFET), about 1946.

Personal Affairs Division [403]

This Division (also known as PAD) was established in February 1944 to have staff responsibility for providing information, guidance, and counseling service on personal affairs to all military personnel and their dependents, except Army Air Forces personnel. This service dealt primarily with matters of pay, allowances, dependency benefits, veterans' benefits and rights, educational opportunities, and housing. Personal Affairs Sections and officers were assigned to the Service Commands in the field, to field commands of the Army Ground Forces and the Technical Services (especially at ports of embarkation and at hospitals), and to posts and other installations in the continental United States.

The Division compiled and disseminated pamphlets and other publicity material used in the field, prepared manuals and informational bulletins for use by Personal Affairs Sections and officers in the field, and in August 1944 started a training course for these officers at the School for Personnel Services. The Division maintained liaison with a number of other agencies concerned with personal-affairs work, such as the Personnel Division, G-1, the Office of Dependency Benefits, the Judge Advocate General's Office, the Adjutant General's Office, the Army Effects Bureau, the Army Emergency Relief, and non-Army agencies such as the Civil Service Commission, the Department of Labor, the War Manpower Commission, the Federal Security Agency, the Veterans' Administration, the American National Red Cross, and national and local bar associations. The Division was assisted by the Women's Volunteer Committee (WVC), an advisory group of women chosen from among the relatives of service personnel, and by local committees of the WVC throughout the country. In June 1946 the Division was transferred to the Personnel Bureau of the Adjutant General's Office.

Records.--In Oct. 1945 the records of the Division included a "policy and precedent file"; correspondence with the Service, Commands and other agencies on soldier-benefit programs; a "policy file" on the activities of the Office

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of Dependency Benefits; a series on the Division's publicity program, including correspondence, radio scripts, clippings, and printed material; consolidated reports on the Division's activities in the field; correspondence with and monthly reports from local committees of the Women's Volunteer Committee; and a 1-volume undated "Personal Affairs Manual." In June 1946 these records were ordered transferred to the AGO Personnel Bureau; 25 feet of them are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A 1-volume unpublished history of the Division, entitled "Historical Program," containing copies of the Division's directives and samples of publicity material, is in the Army's Historical Division; another copy is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Office of the Director of Military Training [404]

This Office, known also as ODMT, was established in May 1943 to supervise the military-training programs in the Army Service Forces. Earlier in the war this responsibility was handled by the Organization and Training Division, G-3, War Department General Staff, until March 1942, and by the Training Division, Headquarters Services of Supply, after that date. The Office and its predecessors formulated training policies and doctrines; reviewed Field Manuals, Training Manuals, Training Circulars, films, and other training aids; collaborated with the training agencies of the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Navy Department in planning special courses of mutual interest; supervised preinduction training of civilians; prescribed courses of study used in Reserve Officers' Training Corps classes; supervised the schools and training centers of the Army Service Forces; and allocated and reallocated training ammunition for the use of the Service Commands, defense commands, and other domestic Army agencies, except those of the Army Air Forces.

The training programs of the Army Service Forces were conducted through numerous schools, training centers, replacement training centers, and unit training centers, operated by the several Administrative Services and Technical Services and by civilian institutions under contract to the Army. Training in civilian institutions included programs of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps at colleges' and universities, the Army Specialized Training Program, and courses organized at high schools and factories for training potential inductees in useful Army specialties. The Director's Office was also responsible for the administration of the Command and General Staff School and the United States Military Academy, though these were under the policy supervision of the General Staff and the Secretary of War, respectively.

The work of the Office was carried on between May 1943 and August 1944 by two major divisions: The Military Training Division, for training at ASF installations; and the Army Specialized Training Division, for training at civilian institutions and at special Army schools. Beginning in August 1944 the work was handled by the three divisions described below. In June 1946, when ASF was discontinued, the functions of this training office were transferred

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to the Organization and Training Division, General Staff, and to the Administrative Services and Technical Services.

Records.--The following records of the Office of the Director of Military Training and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files, 1942-46 (200 feet), including some papers for 1941; records relating to Army training programs in universities, colleges, and high schools, June 1941--May 1943, and to military training within the Army Service Forces, 1942-43; records of the Army Specialized Training Division, Dec. 1942-Nov. 1943; and "historical" reports and related papers and correspondence on military training in the Service Commands and the Military District of Washington, July 1939-Dec. 1945 (4 feet). Printed or processed documents issued by the Director of Military Training include the "Army Specialized Training Bulletins," beginning July 1943, "Report on ASF [Supply] Installations in the North African Theater of Operations," Mar. 1944, and the monthly report "Military Training," Feb. 1943-July 1945 (sec. 9 of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series).

Training Requirements Division [405]

This Division was responsible for determining the training needs of the Army Service Forces; assigning student and instructor personnel; reviewing the requirements for installations and facilities used in training; issuing and reviewing training doctrines; estimating and allocating training funds for ASF (and also the "field exercises" funds in the defense commands); and preparing statistical reports, historical reports, and other analyses relating to the ASF training program.

Records.--No separately maintained records of this Division have been identified. Records relating to the Division's wartime activities are among the records of the Office of the Director of Military Training described in entry 404. Several unpublished historical monographs on ASF training are in the Army's Historical Division. Among the special training posters issued by ASF were the "Graphic Portfolios" and successor "Graphic Training Aids" series, comprising about 150 items, 1943-45.

Troop Training Division [406]

This Division was responsible for formulating policies, conducting inspections, and maintaining standards of individual training and troop-unit training at Army Service Forces training centers, reception centers, processing centers, and replacement centers; training at schools and training centers of the Women's Army Corps, which had been supervised by the Director of the Corps between November 1942 and October 1943; the training of troop units of the Organized Reserves, the State Guards, and the National Guard that were not in Federal service; individual training at convalescent centers, rehabilitation centers, and general hospitals; the Pre-Induction Training Program, conducted at civilian schools; and training of illiterates after induction. Before 1944 these activities had been handled by the Replacement Training Branch and the Unit Training Branch, established in 1942 in the Training Division of Headquarters Services of Supply;

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by the Civilian Pre-Induction Training Branch, ASF Industrial Personnel Division; and by the Special Training Section, Adjutant General's Office.

Records.--A "historical" file on the training of personnel of the Women's Army Corps and the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps 1942-45, assembled by the Special Training Branch, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other records of this Division, in its own custody in Sept. 1944, included research reports on teaching methods and tests for illiterates; recurring reports from the Technical Services on inspection of training; correspondence on the history and operation of the Special Training Branch; and publicity material relating to preinduction training.

School Division [407]

This Division absorbed the training responsibilities handled from 1942to 1944 by the Army Specialized Training Division and by the School Branch of the Military Training Division. The major programs carried on by these units were the Army Specialized Training Program, the courses at the officer candidate schools of the Administrative Services and the Technical Services, the instruction at the ASF School Center at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., the programs of the Command and General Staff School and the United States Military Academy, and, beginning in May 1945, certain special-area courses at civilian universities, such as the European Studies Course at Princeton and Columbia Universities, the Asiatic Studies Course at Yale University, and the Latin-American Studies Course at the University of Michigan.

The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP), inaugurated in March 1943 and at its peak late in 1943, was the most extensive of the school programs. It utilized the facilities of civilian colleges and universities to train noncombat specialists to meet the growing needs of the Army. The Program A\ras developed in collaboration with the Navy Department, the Office of Education, the American Council on Education, the War Manpower Commission, and representatives of colleges and universities. The selection of institutions was supervised by the Joint Army-Navy-War Manpower Committee for the Selection of Non-Federal Educational Institutions, 1942 43, and by the Joint Army-Navy Board for Training Unit Contracts, in 1943. The director of the Program was aided after January 1943 by the ASTP Advisory Committee, a group of civilian educators named by the American Council on Education and the United States Office of Education; and by the Academic Visitation Committee, about February 1944. Courses were given to enlisted men selected and screened by ASTP selection boards, by personnel-classification officers at reception centers, and by Specialized Training and Reassignment Units. In addition, there was a program for reserve personnel not yet in the Army, called the Army Specialized Training Reserve Program.

One of the subordinate units of the Army Specialized Training Division was the Facilities Branch, which was primarily responsible for handling contracts with civilian institutions. Each Service Command headquarters had

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an AST Division (or Branch), and at each civilian school under contract there was an AST Unit.

Records.--The following records of the School Division and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: "Academic progress" reports and "ASTP test results" reports, about 1942-45; inspection reports and other papers of the Operations Branch of the Army Specialized Training Division, 1942-44; circulars, directives, and memoranda on the organization and functions of the Facilities Branch of the Army Specialized Training Division, 1942-44; reports entitled "Comments and Criticisms of Achievement Tests," 1943-44; and some of the contract files relating to agreements with civilian colleges and factory schools. A 1-volume unpublished history on the Army Specialized Training Program is in the Army's Historical Division. A longer history, 1942-46, prepared by the School Division, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; it contains separate typewritten sections on the Military Training Division, the Army Specialized Training Division and the Army Specialized Training Program and related programs, the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and the United States Military Academy.

Other series of records kept by the Army Specialized Training Division in May 1944 were the "policy file" on the Area and Language Program, 1943; documents on testing and selection procedures used by Specialized Training and Reassignment Units, 1943; contract files of the Army Specialized Training Program containing copies of contracts with schools and related correspondence, 1942-44; reports prepared by the Operations Branch on the administration of the Program; and publicity files on the Program, containing press releases, press clippings, copies of speeches, and minutes of meetings, 1942-44. Records relating to the Program are also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO (see index sheets filed under AG 322 ASTU); and in the records of the nine Service Commands and the records of the Army Specialized Training Units, in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Office of the Director of Matériel [408]

The Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Matériel, established in July 1942 and renamed the Office of the Director of Matériel in May 1943, had staff responsibility within the Army Services Forces for matériel procurement and production activities. These activities included procurement procedures, contractual matters, the acquisition and disposition of industrial facilities for production, the scheduling and cutting back of production goals, the redistribution and salvage of surplus property (including real estate and manufacturing plants), research and development, standardization and specifications, the inspection of equipment produced, the production and allocation of materials for production in accordance with the Controlled Materials Plan, and the lend-lease and reciprocal-aid programs. These responsibilities had been handled by the Procurement Branch, Office of the Under Secretary of War, and the Supply Division, G-4, War Department General Staff, before March 1942; and by the Deputy Chief of Staff

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(DC/S) for Production and Distribution and the DC/S for Requirements and Resources, both in Headquarters Services of Supply, from March to July 1942.

The Director supervised several major staff divisions, which are separately described below. In addition, his Office included the Deputy Director for Procurement, July-December 1942; the Director of Production Scheduling, appointed in December 1942 and responsible for the preparation of the ASF Master Production Schedule; and the Director of Industrial Demobilization and the Matériel Demobilization Planning Group, 1944-45. It included also the Legal Branch, which until March 1942 had been in the Office of the Under Secretary of War and from July 1942 to November 1943 in the ASF Purchases Division. This Branch provided legal assistance on matters relating to procurement, reconversion, patents and patent royalties, and contracts and contractual law; and it represented the War Department on the British-American Joint Patent Interchange Committee, 1942-46, and on the Joint Army-Navy Committee on Contingent Fees.

The Director's Office and its constituent divisions were discontinued in June 1946, along with the rest of ASF Headquarters, and their functions were absorbed by the Service, Supply, and Procurement Division and the Research and Development Division, General Staff.

Records.--Records of the Office in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include portions of the general files, 1942-45 (10 feet); a special file of the Director of Matériel, 1942-45 (5 feet); a special file of correspondence, memoranda, directives, and reports relating to the Controlled Materials Plan, 1942-44 (32 feet); copies of reports to congressional committees on construction and supply contracts, 1942, and on cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts, 1940-43 (5 feet); correspondence, reports, and other papers of the Director of Industrial Demobilization and his predecessors, 1943-45 (8 feet); and correspondence and memoranda of the Legal Branch relating to the abandonment of certain railroad lines, 1942-43 (4 feet).

Other series of records kept in the Director's immediate office in July 1946 included correspondence concerning actions of the War Production Board's Requirements Committee that affected the Army Supply Program, from 1942; correspondence with the Combined Production and Resources Board, relating to the adjustment of matériel-production programs of the United Stales and the United Kingdom, from 1943; records relating to the Combined Haw Materials Board, concerning the development, expansion, and use of material resources of the United States and the United Kingdom, from 1943; and correspondence relating to nonmilitary commodity requirements of foreign countries, from 1940.

Research and Development Division [409]

This Division, known also as the R&D Division, was established in May 1944 and had the following responsibilities relating to all Army matériel (other than aircraft and matériel procured by the Army Air Forces): The collection and review of reports and other data on equipment performance and needs; the assignment of research projects to the various Technical Services

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and the compilation of reports on the status of research in progress; the review and approval of requests for the procurement of nonstandard items required for research purposes; the coordination and determination of specifications and standardization; and the supervision of exhibits and demonstrations of new military equipment for both Army officers in Washington and representatives from overseas theaters of operations. It prepared two monthly magazines on new equipment entitled "Development" (from June 1943) and "New Matériel" (after May 1944); and it supervised certain inspection and investigation missions sent overseas to the theaters of operations to report on the performance of Allied equipment. The Division's administrative activities included experimentation with punch cards, standardized report forms, and other methods for reporting on research projects.

The Research and Development Division absorbed functions previously handled by the Development Branch, which had served first (1939-March 1942) within the Supply Division, G-4, War Department General Staff, and later (March 1942-May 1944) in the ASF Requirements Division. In 1944 and 1945 the R&D Division was composed of five subordinate units. The Office of the War Department Liaison Officer for the National Defense Research Committee, which originated in the Ordnance Department in 1941 and was in G-4 in 1942, was the Army's central office for dealing with the National Defense Research Committee and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Three branches dealt with research and development problems of the Technical Services and provided representation of the Army Service Forces at the meetings of their technical committees: The Ordnance Planning Branch for problems of the Ordnance Department, the Signal Planning Branch for problems of the Signal Corps, and the General Planning Branch for problems of the Chemical Warfare Service, the Corps of Engineers, the Transportation Corps, and the Medical Department. The Special Projects Branch prepared the Division's two monthly magazines, supervised its overseas missions, and represented it on the Navy's Continuing Board for Development of Landing Vehicles Tracked.

Records.--Records of the Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include general correspondence files, 1944-46; copies of outgoing letters, 1942-46, arranged by names of Division officers involved; progress reports on research and development projects from the various Technical Services, Jan. 1943--Oct. 1945; and minutes of the Ordnance Technical Committee, the Chemical Warfare Technical Committee, the Signal Corps Technical Committee, and other committees concerned with Army research and development programs, 1939-45. Minutes of meetings of the National Defense Research Committee and its units; progress, status, and summary reports of the Committee; and records relating to the Committee's contracts financed by the War Department are among the records of the Liaison Office for the National Defense Research Committee, 1941-46 (70 feet), in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. In the same depository are records of the Special Projects Branch, including correspondence, reports, charts, orders, and directives, 1942-44; a partial set of the magazine, "Development"; and collected materials, 1932-46, used in preparing a history of the Division.

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The history itself (3 vols., typed, including supporting documents) is in the Army's Historical Division.

The Departmental Records Branch, AGO, has a set of Summary Technical Reports (about 150 vols.) pertaining to scientific research and development in World War II, which were compiled and edited by the Division of Government Aided Research, Columbia University, 1947-48; art work and related working materials, used in that compilation; and copies (on 486 rolls of microfilm) of project reports of divisions of the National Defense Research Committee and histories and other reports of the Office of Scientific Research and Development used in that compilation.

Purchases Division [410]

This Division, established in Headquarters Services of Supply in 1.942, was responsible for developing and supervising, both for the Army Service Forces and for the War Department generally, policies and procedures relating to contracts, advance payments and loans to contractors, insurance, and other financial and legal aspects of the War Department matériel, procurement program. Actual purchasing, however, was a function of the Technical Services. The Division represented the Under Secretary of War in dealing with the Army Air Forces in matters of purchasing policy and maintained liaison on purchasing policies for the War Department with the War Production Board, the Office of Price Administration, the Smaller War Plants Corporation, and other agencies. It prepared studies and issued manuals on pricing and contracts (in part jointly with the Navy Department), issued and distributed the "Army Purchase Information Bulletin," and sponsored discussion committees and conferences with Army contractors. The Division had no authority overseas, although it cleared, through the Bureau of Customs, matters relating to purchases made abroad. Four other functions were also assigned to the Division in 1942 and 1943: Legal aspects of contracts (see ASF Legal Branch, entry 408); renegotiation of contracts (see entry 413); contract termination (see entry 414); and lax amortization.

The Purchases Division absorbed contractual functions previously handled by the Supply Division, G-4, and by the Procurement Branch of the Office of the Under Secretary of War. In September 1945 the Division had three major branches. The Pricing Branch was concerned with pricing methods, company pricing, and pricing by the Office of Price Administration. The Purchase Progress Branch was concerned with "local purchases" (with respect to the competition for civilian-type items between the Army and the general public), the distribution of contracts to smaller war plants, and training contracts with civilian colleges and manufacturing firms under the Army Specialized Training Program. The Procurement Assignment Board, which had been established in May 1942 to assign procurement and distribution authority for any given matériel item to a given Technical Service and thus control purchases of items needed by more than one agency, was in effect a branch of the Purchases Division.

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Records.--The following records of the Purchases Division and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Central files of the Division, 1939-46 (450 feet); correspondence, reports, and copies of bids relating to "educational order" contracts with industry, 1942; copies of reports submitted to congressional committees on construction and supply contracts made by War Department agencies in 1942, and on cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts awarded by the War Department, 1940-Jan. 1943; records relating to the procurement of "Defense Aid" (lend-lease) items, 1941-42; background studies and reports on surveys of procurement procedures used as the basis for a "Report on Red Tape in the Services of Supply, December 1942"; records relating to training contracts with civilian educational institutions, 1943-46; and the Division's monthly report, "Contract Price Changes," Feb. 1944-June 1945 (see. 1-D of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series).

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain copies of some of the correspondence of the Division, especially on cases before the Procurement Assignment Board; see index sheets filed under AG 334 Procurement Assignment Board, Aug. 1942-Oct. 1946 (4 linear inches). A 1-volume unpublished wartime history of ASF "Purchasing Policies and Practices" is in the Army's Historical Division; and a file of correspondence, reports, charts, manuals, and other material, 1943-46, assembled for a history of the Purchases Division, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

In July 1944 other series of records kept by this Division included correspondence pertaining to procurement by the Army Air Forces, from 1941; records relating to the use and licensing of patents, from March 1943; correspondence relating to the Division's Purchase Policy Advisory Committee, from Feb. 1943; summary reports of price and cost analyses of renegotiated agreements and related papers from 1942; correspondence relating to OPA rationing policies and procedures as applied to the Army from 1942; records relating to the "Small War Plants Contract Report" from 1942; case files on "controversial" procurement cases; affecting small war plants from 1942; and quarterly activity reports of the branches of the Division from 1942.

See "History of the Purchases Division, Headquarters, Army Service Forces" (1946. 620 p., processed).

Production Division [411]

This Division, established in May 1943, and its predecessors in the Office of the Under Secretary of War and in Headquarters Services of Supply, 1939--43, supervised the Army's wartime programs for the quantity production of matériel other than aircraft and air matériel. These procurement activities included the formulation of quantity requirements that appeared in the "Army Supply Program" and in other documents (a function that was shared with other Army Service Forces and Army Air Forces offices); the expansion of war plants and other facilities for production; the allocation of critical machine tools and other production equipment to the Technical Services; the production and allocation of materials used in the manufacture of matériel and equipment; the procurement of labor and the handling of

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other labor problems (a function shared with the Industrial Personnel Division); production scheduling; the application of priority systems, including the Controlled Materials Plan and the plans scheduling critical common components of finished matériel; the review of specifications for and standardization of materials, components, and manufacturing processes; the review of "Modification Work Orders," issued in a separate series by each Technical Service, 1942-45; and the inspection of finished matériel. The Production Division represented ASF in dealing with operating units and committees of the War Production Board, especially the Production Executive Committee, the Facilities Clearance Board, the Facility Review Committee, and the industry divisions.

Between 1939 and March 1942 these matériel-production matters had been supervised by the Under Secretary of War, through the Procurement Branch and the Resources Branch. In March 1942 these branches were absorbed by Headquarters Services of Supply, and their functions were assigned to divisions that in December 1942 were merged into the Resources and Production Division. This became the Production Division in May 1943 and continued as such during the rest of the war. Some of its branches, which are discussed below, dealt with particular classes of equipment and materials while others dealt with problems that cut across commodity lines.

Records.--The major records of the Production Division are its central files, 1942-45 (400 feet), which contain material on most of the subjects with which it was concerned. These files, which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, contain correspondence with and records relating to many non-Army agencies with which ASF dealt on production matters: The War Production Board (file 334) and its Requirements Committee, 1943 and 1945 (files 334.8 and 334), its Production Executive Committee, 1944-45 (file 334), its Facilities Clearance Board, 1942-43 (files 334, 334.8, and 334/ 117.9), its Division Requirements Committees, 1943-44 (file 334), and its Production Readjustment Committee, 1945 (file 334); the Foreign Economic Administration, 1943-44 (file 040); the United States Rubber Company, 1943 (file 333.1); the Combined Raw Materials Board, 1944-45 (file 334); the Combined Production and Resources Board, 1942--45 (file 334); the Combined Conservation Committee, 1943-45 (file 334); the Combined Resources and Allocations Board, June-Aug. 1945 (file 334); and the Munitions Assignments Board, 1942 (file 334).

Other records of the Production Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include the following series: Documents, reports, bulletins, booklets, and other material relating to prewar and wartime procurement planning, including the Industrial Mobilization Plan (16 feet); correspondence, lectures, reports, and charts relating to matériel production objectives and activities, 1934-43, originating largely in the Office of the Under Secretary of War and the Assistant Secretary of War (126 feet); sets of the "Army Supply Program," 1942-46, including a set showing revisions made; records relating to the "Army Supply Program," 1944-46, including correspondence, memoranda, reviews, and comments by the Technical Services; studies on the use of plant and materials resources; minutes of meetings and correspondence

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relating to war-profits taxation and price control; the Division's studies on "Postwar Possibilities for Utilization of War Department-Owned Industrial Facilities" and related studies prepared by the Technical Services; papers relating to the Division's work with the Supply Subcommittee of the Combined Civil Affairs Committee, 1943-46; and the Division's monthly report, "Procurement . . . ," Feb. 1943-Aug. 1944 (sec. 1-A and 1-C of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series).

Other important series of records of the Division in 1944 included the Director's "historical reference file" on the Division, 1942-44, and minutes of meetings of the technical committees of the various Technical Services.

The Control Division's 1-volume history entitled "Organization for Production Control in World War II" (1946), which relates in part to the Production Division, and the Production Division's 1-volume history entitled "Production Problems of the Army Service Forces in the Mobilization of Industry for World War II" (1946) are in the Army's Historical Division. Selected research materials used in writing the latter study, 1939-45 (23 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Another historical study on the Production Division, entitled "Conservation Within the Army Service Forces During World War II," was issued by the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in March 1947.

Commodity Branches [411a]

Three branches of the Division were concerned with particular materials, components of finished matériel, and other products and commodities used in production. The Commodities Branch, the Products Branch, and the Metals and Minerals Branch had sections and subsections for most of the major commodity groups. Represented were cotton, wool, clothing, leather, rubber, forest products, chemicals, medicines, aluminum and magnesium, copper, iron and steel, miscellaneous minerals and metals, optical glass, construction and farm machinery, vehicles and engines, other transportation equipment, consumer durable goods, tools, general industrial equipment, radio and radar components, and packing and packaging materials. In general these units corresponded to the industry divisions of the War Production Board and their subordinate units. Each unit coordinated and determined Technical Service requirements for a given item or class of items; developed requisition, procurement, and substitution policies; presented and defended requests for materials before the War Production Board; allocated the materials required to meet production goals; developed economic-warfare and stockpile policies; and took measures to expedite production. For some of the commodity groups, there were committees and boards within the Army Service Forces to represent the views of Headquarters Army Service Forces, the Technical Services, and Army Air Forces Headquarters. One such board was the Army Packaging Board, established in February 1945.

Records.--A combined file of the Tools Section of the Products Branch and the Machine Tools Committee of the Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board, in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, contains copies of "pool"

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orders, reports, and correspondence between the War Department and manufacturers of machine tools, 1940-45 (128 feet). Also in the Departmental Records Branch are records of the Iron and Steel Section of the Metals and Minerals Branch, 1940-44, including reports, summary sheets, surveys, correspondence, and memoranda. Commodity files of many of the branches' sections and subsections, 1942-44, and a "historical data" file on metals, consisting of summaries of supplies and requirements, 1943-44, were in 1944 among the records of the Production Division.

Other Branches [411b]

The other branches of the Division were concerned with certain general production problems. The Facilities Branch was concerned with the acquisition, construction scheduling, and allocation and utilization of plants handling production for the Army, and with the amortization of such industrial facilities for tax purposes; these functions had been handled earlier by the Under Secretary of War (1939-42), the Fiscal Director (1942), and the ASF Purchases Division (August 1942-February 1944). The Production Urgency Branch assembled requirements and supervised the allocation of machine tools and other production equipment among the Technical Services and reviewed applications for special priority ratings from the viewpoint of their effect on the Army Supply Program. The Program and Liaison Branch, known as the Program Control Branch in 1944, was concerned with improving procedures for production scheduling and for forecasting and reporting on deliveries and with reviewing the Army's various production programs. The Requirements Branch computed requirements; kept "accounts" of all materials, components, and subassemblies of matériel allotted to the Army Service Forces; compiled and issued the "Official Materials Classification List" (the "Red Book" or "Red List"); supervised the operation of the War Production Board's Controlled Materials Plan throughout ASF; and studied the effects on the Army's matériel programs of demands for matériel in liberated areas. The Specifications and Inspection Branch supervised ASF interests in standardizing specifications for materials and components of matériel, in improving the Army's procedures for inspecting finished matériel, and in promoting conservation of critical items by substitution and other practices.

Records.--Records of the Facilities Branch, 1940-45 (85 feet), in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include correspondence on the procurement and production of Chemical Warfare Service matériel, records on the scheduling of common critical components, urgency lists for uncompleted procurement projects of the Technical Services, reports of Senate investigations of certain industrial facilities, and some records of the Tax Amortization Section, 1941-45. Among the records of the Production Division in 1944 were case files of the Facilities Branch on the industrial-facility expansion program, 1940-44; ledger accounts kept by the Requirements Branch, on the distribution of materials allotted to the Army Service Forces by the War Production Board, 1943-44; and copies of that Branch's "CMP

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[Controlled Materials Program] Semi-Monthly Program Report," 1943-44, and of its periodic "Army Material Requirements Report," 1942-44.

International Division [412]

This Division and its predecessors shared staff responsibility with a comparable unit in Headquarters Army Air Forces for the Army's interests in the lend-lease program of supplying anti-Axis governments with matériel and equipment and in the reciprocal-aid (or reverse lend-lease) program whereby foreign governments transferred, in exchange, certain materials, equipment, and services to the United States. This Division reviewed foreign requests and requirements for ASF-procured matériel, entered the data on such needs in the revisions of the "Army Supply Program" and in other planning documents, represented the viewpoints of the Army Service Forces on foreign aid before the proper subcommittees of the Munitions Assignments Board and the President's Soviet Protocol Committee, and reported on and kept the records of ASF-procured matériel transferred to such countries.

These lend-lease functions were handled from about March to October 1941 jointly by the Defense Aid Division of the Office of the Under Secretary of War and the Defense Aid Section of the Supply Division, G-4, War Department General Staff. In October 1941 the functions of these two units were merged under the Director of Defense Aid; in March 1942 his office was transferred to the new Headquarters Services of Supply and renamed the Defense Aid Division, and in April 1942 it was renamed the International Division.

As part of its activities, the Division provided the secretariat for the Munitions Assignments Committee (Ground), beginning early in 1942, and the International Supply Committee, about September 1942-June 1944. It coordinated foreign requests with the Technical Services, in each of which there was usually a lend-lease section. In 1941 and 1942, in collaboration with the General Staff, the Division sent missions to foreign governments to expedite the transfer to them of munitions and to train their personnel in the supply, maintenance, and use of equipment. Among these missions were the United States Military Mission to China, August 1941-March 1942, the United States Military North African Mission, September 1941-June 1942, and the United States Military Mission to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, November 1941--May 1942. Headquarters of these missions were at first in Washington and were considered a part of the Office of the Director of Defense Aid, but in 1942 they were transferred overseas and became parts of the appropriate theaters of operations.

In September 1945 the Division consisted of the Control and Statistical Branch, which did statistical reporting, fiscal accounting, and other report-writing and record-keeping work relating to the Army's lend-lease and reciprocal-aid programs; the Requirements and Assignments Branch, which supervised the Division's relations with the Munitions Assignments Board and coordinated data on foreign requirements with the Technical Services; the Liaison Branch, which handled relations with the appropriate Washington

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missions of the foreign countries concerned; and the Civilian Supply Branch, established in 1944, which was concerned with providing relief supplies and other materials and equipment for use by the civilian populations in liberated areas. The Director of the Division served as Chairman of the Ground-Equipment Subcommittee of the Joint Munitions Allocations Committee and of the Supply Subcommittee of the Combined Civil Affairs Committee; and the Division was represented on the Canadian Munitions Assignments Committee, 1943, and the Joint War Aid Committee, United States and Canada, August 1943-August 1945.

Records.--The following records of this Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: The "country files," 1941-46 (430 feet), including correspondence, directives, reports of the Division and of other ASF agencies, lend-lease reports from the theaters of operations, and reports of foreign governments, all relating to the lend-lease, reciprocal-aid, and civilian-supply programs; the Division's sets of minutes of the Munitions Assignments Committee (Ground), the London Section of the Munitions Assignments Board, the Joint War Aid Committee, United States and Canada, and other related committees; and a set of the Division's several monthly reports, including "International Aid," May 1943-Sept. 1945, "Procurement Plans: International Aid," Dec. 1944, Mar. 1945, "Civilian Supply," July 1945-Feb. 1946, and "Procurement Plans: Civilian Supply," Mar. 1945 (forming four sections of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series). Vouchers and other financial documents relating to the lend-lease program are in the Army Finance Center, St. Louis.

In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the records of the Civilian Supply Branch, including correspondence and requisitions, arranged by country, and papers relating to the Combined Civil Affairs Committee; and the records of the Reciprocal Aid Section, including correspondence and historical reports, 1942--46. Three historical monographs prepared by the International Division on lend-lease, reciprocal aid, and civilian supply are in the Army's Historical Division; materials (7 feet) used in preparing these studies are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Other papers relating to the Army's lend-lease activities are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed by subject, and index sheets filed under AG 020.4 Defense Aid Division, Apr. 1941-Apr. 1942, AG 020 International Division, May 1943-Dec. 1944, AG 334 International Supply Committee, Sept. 1942-June 1944, and AG 334 President's Soviet Protocol Committee, Nov. 1942-Mar. 1944 (4 linear inches). A statistical and narrative summary entitled "International Aid Statistics, World War II . . ." (61 p.) was issued by the International Branch in 1946.

Renegotiation Division [413]

This Division, established in August 1943, took over the War Department's responsibilities under the Sixth Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act of 1942 (56 Stat. 245), as amended by the Revenue Act of 1943 (58 Stat. 85), for renegotiating war contracts that had been let without competitive bidding if questions or allegations of excessive profits

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or inadequate performance by the contractor were raised. The Division formulated War Department policies and procedures for renegotiation, subject to over-all policies fixed by the Joint Price Adjustment Board and the War Contracts Price Adjustment Board (both outside the War Department); assigned cases for renegotiation to particular Technical Services or to the Army Air Forces and assisted them in the selection and training of personnel for the work; reviewed renegotiation settlements and agreements concluded by these agencies; conducted renegotiations in certain "impasse" cases; and in other ways supervised this entire responsibility for all Army contracts (both Army Service Forces and Army Air Forces), subject to final review for the War Department by the Under Secretary of War.

In September 1945 the major component units of the Renegotiation Division included the following. The Assignments and Statistics Branch assembled preliminary data on renegotiable contracts and assigned the cases to the proper Army procurement agency for action or referred the case to a non-Army agency. The Field Operations Branch assisted the Technical Services and inspected and reviewed their renegotiation practices and progress. The War Department Price Adjustment Board (PAB), which was established in April 1942 and consisted of the main Board in Washington and district or regional Boards, supervised renegotiation proceedings and reviewed the resulting settlements and agreements. The Renegotiation Branch, which functioned through staff panels, performed actual renegotiations of "impasse" cases, appeal cases from lower Price Adjustment Boards, and special cases assigned to it by the main Board. The Settlements Branch reviewed proposed agreements for legal and financial soundness.

Records.--The following records of the Renegotiation Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records relating to completed renegotiations, containing contracts, settlement papers, and supporting papers, fiscal years 1942-4.5 (300 feet); renegotiated engineer construction contracts, fiscal years 1942-45 (9 feet); and transcripts of income-tax returns of contractors subject to renegotiation proceedings, 1942-44 (96 feet).

Other series of records of the Division in July 1944 included several series of central files, minutes of meetings of the Price Adjustment Board and the Joint Price Adjustment Board, and a "technical information file" of press clippings, copies of addresses and other public statements, and similar material on contract renegotiation. The wartime case files of the War Department Price Adjustment Board are in the custody of that Board's successor, the Army Price Adjustment Board. The Renegotiation Division issued several manuals, including "Pricing in War Contracts" (sec. M 601 of the "ASF Manuals" series).

Other papers relating to Army contract renegotiation are among the records of price-adjustment or renegotiation sections of the Technical Services and the Army Air Forces; in the records of the ASF Production Division (see minutes and other papers on the War Department Price Adjustment Board, 1942-43, in file 334); and in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO (see index sheets filed under AG 334 Price Adjustment Board, 1943-45). Some documents on renegotiation have been published in the

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Hearings of the Senate Appropriations Committee, June 1943; and the House Naval Affairs Committee's Report entitled Investigation of the Progress of the War Effort . . . Renegotiation of War Contracts (78th Cong., 1st sess., H. Rept. 733).

Readjustment Division [414]

This Division was established in November 1943 to supervise, in the Army Service Forces and its constituent Technical Services, (1) the termination of war contracts for matériel production, real estate and construction, training, and other services and (2) the disposal of surplus property, including Army-owned industrial plants, machine tools, materials, and equipment. Before November 1943 contract terminations had been supervised by the Contract Termination Branch of the ASF Purchases Division (June-Nov. 1943).

The Division's work of supervising contract termination was carried out in September 1945 by six branches, which handled such matters as pre-termination planning, field surveys, interim financing, and joint settlements, The Division collaborated with the Navy and with other procurement agencies. It was represented on the Joint Contract Termination Board. It also provided the chairman for one of the Board's subcommittees (that on Organization, Procedures, and Appeals), and it participated in the work of the Board's successor, the Office of Contract Settlement, in drafting standard contract-settlement proposal forms, the "Joint Termination Regulation . . . [and] Accounting Manual," and the revisions and supplements to these procedural guides, November 1944-September 1945. The Readjustment Division, in connection with the contract-termination program, assisted the Army Industrial College in training officer personnel, coordinated and reviewed the work of the Technical Services, established Termination Coordination Committees (TCC's) in metropolitan areas in the United States to confer with contractors, and sponsored other conferences with contractors and trade associations to promote and expedite the program.

In September 1945 the Division's surplus-property functions were carried out by the Policy Branch, the Domestic and the Overseas Property Disposal Branches, and the War Department Readjustment Board. This work involved collaboration with such agencies as the Surplus War Property Administration, the Surplus Property Board and its committees, the Surplus Property Administration, the Navy Department's Industrial Readjustment Branch, and the Joint Industrial Equipment Redistribution Board, which represented the Army, the Navy, and the Defense Plant Corporation and was concerned with the disposal of machine tools and other production equipment.

Records.--The central files of this Division, 1943-46 (226 feet), and several series of reports, many of them printed or processed, relating to contract termination and property disposal, 1942-46 (64 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Among the Division's own reports

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are the monthly "Contract Terminations," Apr. 1944-Feb. 1946, "Property Disposition," June 1944-Jan. 1946, and "Property Disposition Overseas," June 1945-Jan. 1946. In the Army's Historical Division is a 2-volume historical narrative and documentary compilation on contract termination and property disposal, prepared by the ASF Control Division in 1946, and a 2-volume study of property disposal, 1944-47, by the Readjustment Division's successor, the Service, Supply, and Procurement Division, General Staff.

Office of the Director of Supply [415]

This Office, established in October 1943, had staff supervision over the storage and distribution, maintenance and repair, and reclamation and salvage of equipment and supplies throughout the Army Service Forces. Earlier in the war these functions had been performed in the Office of the Under Secretary of War and in the Supply Division, G-4, War Department General Staff, 1939-March 1942; in the Procurement and Distribution Division and the Resources Division in Headquarters Services of Supply, March-July 1942; by the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations in the Services of Supply, July 1942-April 1943; and by the Director of Operations in the Army Service Forces, April-October 1943. The Director of Supply supervised three major divisions (separately described below), which had been transferred to him from the jurisdiction of the Director of Operations, and the Control Branch. Special committees reporting to him included the ASF Staff Committee to Review Overseas Supply Policies, about December 1944.

Records.--The records of the immediate office of the Director of Supply, which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, consist of miscellaneous correspondence and reports, 1942-46 (9 feet); and a set of the monthly reports (forming sections of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series) entitled "Equipment Supply and Demand," Oct.-Nov. 1943, "Storage and Issue," Dec. 1943-May 1944, "Ammunition Supply," Dec. 1943-Aug. 1945, "Levels of Supply Overseas," Nov. 1943-July 1945, "Equipment Forecast," Dec. 1943-June 1944, and "Depot Supply Operations," Feb. 1945-Apr. 1946. Other series of records, scheduled in Aug. 1944 for transfer to the AGO, included the Director's "policy file" of directives, copies of outgoing communications, and other papers on the administration of the Office, from 1942; and the Control Branch's file of daily diaries of the staff divisions of the Office, from 1943.

Manuals on supply procedures that were reviewed by this Office and issued in the "ASF Manuals" series include manuals on such topics as depot organization, depot storage, depot space reporting, depot supply, depot inventorying, processing of overseas and domestic requisitions, stock accounting, stock control, and vendors' shipping documents. The Army's extensive series of "Supply Bulletins," 1944-45, issued throughout the Army with the approval of the Director of Supply, includes separate subseries for each of the Technical

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Services and one subseries entitled "Supply Procedures," containing depot-operations manuals and instructions on disposition of particular classes of items.

Storage Division [416]

Staff supervision, within the Army Service Forces, over such matters as estimating storage-space requirements, allocating storage space, codifying procedures for packing and marking equipment for storage and shipment, and allocating materials-handling equipment was vested successively in the General Depots Division, which inherited from the Quartermaster Corps both the staff supervision and the command administration of the Army's General Depots, March-July 1942; the Plans Division, July 1942-April 1943; and the Storage Division, from April 1943. The depots and the warehouses in the field included General Depots, ASF Depots, depots administered by the various Technical Services, Adjutant General Depots, warehousing at camps, posts, and stations, warehousing sections at the ports of embarkation, holding and reconsignment points established to relieve congestion at the ports, and commercial warehousing facilities. These depots also occasionally stored equipment for the Army Air Forces, the Navy Department, the Procurement Division of the Treasury Department, and the Office of Defense Transportation.

In September 1945 the Storage Division in Washington was organized in four major branches that assembled data and prepared reports on Army Service Forces and Army-wide storage policies and reviewed directives and manuals on the subject; assigned storage space to the Technical Services, planned the distribution of materials-handling equipment, and reported on the status of the storage situation; formulated materials-handling and packaging policies and procedures and conducted field inspections; and formulated policies and procedures relating to the storing and managing of surplus and industrial property that become available for disposition as contracts were terminated.

Records.--Records of the Storage Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include daily diaries, 1942-46 (with gaps); records relating to the construction of depots, allocation of storage space, and disposal of property, 1942-46; reports of field representatives and "unsatisfactory shipment reports" from the Technical Service depots and from ports of embarkation in the United States, 1942-45; studies of materials-handling equipment in the continental United States and overseas, 1942-45; the Division's monthly report, "Storage Operations," May 1943-Jan. 1946 (sec. 2-H of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series); and a copy of the Division's 2-volume historical monograph, "Storage Operations, December 1941--December 1945," together with material assembled for its preparation.

Other series of records in the Division in Aug. 1944 included general correspondence, from 1943; instructions on storage operations issued by the Division, from 1942; a series on warehousing operations and related inspection reports of field representatives of the Warehousing Branch, from 1942; and photographs showing storage operations, from 1941.

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Distribution Division [417]

This Division and its predecessors, 1942-46, supervised the issue, distribution, and redistribution of ASF-procured equipment and supplies in the continental United States and overseas as required by logistical plans and directives of the Army Service Forces, the Munitions Assignments Committee (Ground), and other higher authorities. In connection with this major responsibility, the Division supervised the preparation of supply-status reports; monitored emergency shipments; directed salvage and reclamation activities and the Army Conservation Program, which was designed to encourage the maximum utilization and conservation of property; and supervised the issue of ASF-procured equipment to the Army Air Forces, the Navy Department, and lend-lease recipients.

Before the establishment of the Distribution Division in May 1944 these functions were vested successively in the Distribution Branch of the Procurement and Distribution Division, Services of Supply, March-July 1942; the Distribution Division, under the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations of the Services of Supply, July 1942-April 1943; and the Stock Control Division, under the ASF Director of Operations, April-October 1943, and the Director of Supply, October 1943-May 1944.

Records.--The records of the Distribution Division and its predecessors in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include the following: Central files, 1942-46 (225 feet); daily diaries, 1943-45 (2 feet); records of supply and shipping conferences, 1944-46; monthly progress reports on supply operations at depots and ports of embarkation, 1942-46; inspection reports on depots, 1944-46; monthly reports on critical items in the Theaters of Operations, the Base Commands, and the Service Commands, 1943-45; records relating to the redeployment of matériel from Europe to the Pacific, 1943-46; publicity material relating to the Army Conservation Program, 1942-45, including posters and pamphlets; and materials assembled for the preparation of the Division's historical monographs entitled "Period II Planning," "Red List," "Preshipment," and "Redeployment of Supplies." The monographs themselves are in the Army's Historical Division.

Other series of records in the Division in Aug. 1944 included a "policy file" on the organization and administration of the Division, from 1942; reports received from the field, from 1942; and correspondence and reports relating to the supplying of each of the theaters of operations, from 1942.

Maintenance Division [418]

This Division and its predecessors, 1942-46, had staff responsi- bility for the maintenance, repair, and reclamation of ASF-procured matériel. The Division prepared and issued maintenance standards and manuals on the maintenance of equipment, studied the problem of reclaiming and repairing equipment for reshipment from inactive to active theaters of operations; planned the standardization of tool kits and repair parts; and collaborated with the Office of the Director of Military Training and with the Industrial Personnel Division in devising training programs for both military

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and civilian mechanics. Before the establishment of the Maintenance Division in April 1943 these activities were handled successively by the Distribution Branch, Procurement and Distribution Division, March--July 1942; and the Distribution Division, July 1942-April 1943.

Records.--The central files of the Division, 1943-46 (88 feet), in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, contain correspondence, directives, reports, and summaries of papers sent to other staff divisions for action. The Division's monthly report, "Maintenance," Jan. 1944--May 1946 (sec. 13 of the ASF "Monthly Progress Report" series) is also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. An unpublished 1-volume history of the Division, 1943-45, entitled "Maintenance Problems" is in the Army's Historical Division; and another study, prepared by the Army Industrial College and entitled "Maintenance Operations" (RP-28), is on file in the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

Other series of records in the Division in Aug. 1944 included "daily activity reports" for branches of the Division and the "daily diary" of the Division, from 1943; and posters, instructional charts, and other publicity and training material relating to "preventive maintenance," from 1943.

Service Commands [419]

During the earlier part of World War II the Army's major regional commands in the continental United States (or the "Zone of the Interior") were the nine Corps Areas. Two additional regional commands were established in 1942, the Military District of Washington (for the District of Columbia and vicinity) and the Northwest Service Command (for the Pacific Northwest and western Canada). The Corps Area headquarters were responsible to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army until March 1942, when the Services of Supply (later the Army Service Forces) took them over as its major field establishment. The Corps Areas were redesignated in July 1942 as Service Commands. Within Army Service Forces Headquarters, the Service Commands were the staff responsibility, successively, of the Control Division, July-October 1942; the Chief of Administrative Services, October 1942-May 1943; and the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands, May 1943-46.

In the first months of the defense period, September 1939-October 1940, the Corps Areas performed both tactical command functions and a wide variety of nontactical and administrative functions. Their tactical jurisdiction extended to all the major ground troop units and defense forces in the continental United States, including the four field Armies, the many Infantry Divisions, and the several Harbor Defenses on the east and west coasts. In October 1940 these functions were transferred to the recently organized General Headquarters, United States Army (see entry 352).

Aside from these tactical-training and defense functions, the Corps Areas and the successor Service Commands performed during the entire war period a wide variety of services, usually called "housekeeping" or "nontechnical" services, that facilitated the work of the Army Ground Forces, the Army Air

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Forces, and the Technical Services. Such services, which were performed both by Service Command headquarters and by a variety of Service Command field agencies, related mostly to military personnel, their care and welfare and their pretactical training, to National Guard and Reserve training, to domestic security and intelligence, and to the distribution and the maintenance of Army matériel. Included in these services were the programs of induction and separation centers, replacement centers, schools, and unit training centers; the related functions of storage and supply of matériel, equipment, and supplies, especially for use in training; the housing and hospitalization of troops; activities of the Army Exchange Service (or PX services) and Special Services or morale-related activities in the United States; the installation and maintenance of fixed telephone, telegraph, and radio systems, except airways systems of the Army Air Forces; and a variety of security measures (identification systems, loyalty investigations, and other protection devices) at Army installations and at industrial plants handling Army contracts.

Records.--See the separate entries below.

Headquarters Service Commands [420]

The headquarters of each of the nine Corps Areas and the successor Service Commands, designated separately in a numerical series as First, Second, and so on, had jurisdiction over the appropriate Army field units in a given geographical region. These headquarters were located as follows: First, at Boston; Second, at Governors Island, New York City; Third, at Baltimore; Fourth, at Atlanta; Fifth, at Fort Hayes, Columbus, Ohio; Sixth, at Chicago; Seventh, at Omaha; Eighth, first at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, and later at Dallas; and Ninth, first at the Presidio, San Francisco, and later at Fort Douglas, Utah. Although the boundaries of the regions served by each command remained essentially unchanged throughout the war, there were a few exceptions. The Third Service Command included Washington, D. C, and vicinity until August 1942, when the separate Military District of Washington was established; the Ninth Service Command included the Alaska area until September 1942, when the Northwest Service Command and the Alaskan Department were established; and the Sixth Service Command included certain Army projects in central Canada until the United States Army Forces in Central Canada was organized.

Each Corps Area headquarters, headed by the Corps Area Commander and his Chief of Staff, was normally organized, 1939-42, to include a General Staff, corresponding closely to the pattern of the War Department General Staff, with G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 divisions, and a Special Staff. The Special Staff was composed of sections or divisions corresponding to the Technical Services (such as Ordnance) and Administrative Services (such as Judge Advocate); other sections for National Guard affairs, Reserve affairs (or "Civilian Components Affairs"), and Office of Civilian Defense liaison activities; and still other sections for liquidating the Army's interests in the Work Projects Administration, the National Youth Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps.

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After July 1942, the internal organization of each Service Command headquarters began to change to make it analogous not to the General Staff but to its new parent agency in Washington--Headquarters Army Service Forces. The Corps Area Commander was renamed the Commanding General, and his immediate office included the Chief of Staff, the Inspector General's Office, the Public Relations Office, the Control Division (with management, statistical, progress reporting, and historical functions), and the Air Liaison Office.

Reporting to the Commanding General were the "staff divisions," renamed "directorates" late in 1943. Under the Director of Personnel were divisions or other units for military personnel, civilian personnel, special services (morale services), personal-affairs services, troop information and nonmilitary education, chaplain affairs, and Women's Army Corps affairs. Under the Director of Military Training were staff units for the Army Specialized Training Program and the training centers of the Army Service Forces. Under the Director of Supply were divisions for stock control, storage, maintenance, salvage, and reclamation. Although there was also a division for purchases, the major procurement activities were handled by the Technical Services. There were several divisions concerned with intelligence, "internal security" (plant protection and other aspects of security intelligence), and provost-marshal affairs, with a series of Internal Security District offices in the field. Finally, there were offices corresponding to the Administrative Services (Fiscal, Adjutant, Judge Advocate) and to the Technical Services (Quartermaster, Ordnance, Engineer, Chemical Warfare, Signal, Medical, and Transportation). These offices were not primarily concerned with the major experimental and production programs of their parent Technical Services; instead, they were responsible for the supply of equipment and services used by the Service Commands in their training and administrative work for the Army, and for advising headquarters on special problems represented by their parent Technical Services.

Records.--The wartime records of the Corps Area and Service Command headquarters have for the most part been transferred to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Usually, for a given headquarters, there are central files kept by the Adjutant General's division, as well as separately maintained records of individual directorates, divisions', branches, and offices. For example, the records of the Ninth Service Command headquarters include, in addition to the central files, series that were originally kept by 29 different staff units. For each headquarters there usually are series of General Orders, Special Orders, Memoranda, Staff Memos, Training Memos, and other directives and informational documents issued by that headquarters.

Copies of "Monthly Progress Reports," statistical and narrative in, form, by the Service Commands, and correspondence relating to them, are in the records of Headquarters Army Service Forces. A few wartime records of the Fourth, Sixth, and Seventh Corps Area Headquarters for 1939 are in the National Archives, where they form parts of series antedating the war.

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Field Agencies of the Service Commands [421]

The field agencies in the United States that reported, directly or indirectly, to the Service Command headquarters were located at posts, camps, and stations that were known after about July 1942 as Class I Installations. They were thus distinguished from Class II, III, and IV Installations, where the Army Ground Forces, the Army Air Forces, and the Technical and Administrative Services, respectively, had their own field agencies. Some of the Service Command agencies, notably the Service Command regional districts, had general service functions that were decentralized on a geographical basis, while other field agencies performed particular specialized functions. Thus, for plant-protection, loyalty-investigation, and related intelligence work there were several Internal Security Districts. For the procurement and initial processing of enlisted men, whether they joined the Army through the Selective Service System or by voluntary enlistment, there were regional Recruiting Districts, local United States Army Recruiting Stations, Selective Service System Detachments, Armed Forces Induction Stations (for the induction of both Army and Navy enlisted men), WAC Recruiting Districts, Reception Centers, War Department Personnel Centers, and 2 ASF Personnel Replacement Depots. Other military-personnel agencies were the Army Ground and Service Forces Redistribution Stations, Recreational Areas, and Separation Centers.

Certain types of basic training were conducted at some of the personnel agencies; basic and other types of nontactical training were also conducted at the ASF Training Centers and ASF Replacement Training Centers. Other training units under Service Command jurisdiction included numerous Reserve Officers' Training Corps Units, at more than 200 colleges and high schools; numerous Service Command Units at colleges and industrial plants where the Army Specialized Training Program and other noncombat technical training programs were conducted under contract; several War Department Civilian Protection Schools for civilian-defense training, which were discontinued before the end of the war; and the Physical Reconditioning Instruction School at Fort Lewis, Wash.

Agencies for handling military prisoners were the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., and branch barracks at other points in the United States, 1940-45; 5 Rehabilitation Centers for screening men who could be "salvaged" for further military duty, December 1942-45; and the East Coast and the West Coast Processing Centers (at Camp Edwards, Mass., and Camp McQuaide, Calif., respectively), where "ship jumpers" and other absentees and deserters were held. In each Service Command there usually were local Joint Army-Navy Disciplinary Control Boards, concerned primarily with problems of venereal disease control.

Field agencies for supply, maintenance, and reclamation activities included 15 ASF Depots, which were known as General Depots and were responsible directly to the War Department in Washington before 1943; and several Service Command Repair Shops, Motor Repair Shops, and Tire Collection Centers. Other types of field units in the Service Commands were General Hospitals and General Dispensaries, Service Command Medical

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Laboratories, National Cemeteries, and United States Army Finance Offices (except the one in Washington, D.C., which was under the Office of the Fiscal Director).

Records.--The wartime records of these field agencies are, for the most part, in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Wartime historical reports, insofar as they were prepared by these agencies, are filed with their records; copies of some are among the records of Headquarters Army Service Forces and copies of a very few are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO. In a few cases, records have been retained in the field. Thus, at the Memphis General Depot are records relating to wartime organizational planning, procedural standardization, and progress analysis at that Depot that are being used in the preparation of its history. Also in the Kansas City Records Center are wartime records of the Class I Installations (posts, camps, and stations) at which Service Command field agencies were located.

Military District of Washington [422]

The Military District of Washington (MDW), established in May 1942 as a subordinate unit of the Third Service Command, was directed in August 1942 to assume the functions of a Service Command for the area of Washington, D.C., and vicinity. The military-personnel activities, internal-security work, and other nontactical functions of MDW were comparable to those of the nine Service Commands; its headquarters was similarly organized, for the most part; and its field units in Washington, Virginia, and Maryland included typical Service Command field agencies. At the same time MDW had special features. Although it was generally responsible to Headquarters Army Services Forces, it reported to Eastern Defense Command headquarters on matters relating to the defense of the capital, and to the Deputy Chief of Staff, in the War Department General Staff, on matters relating to its administrative services for War Department headquarters agencies in Washington.

The staff of the Military District of Washington included a Deputy Chief of Staff (Navy) and other Navy representatives in its G-2 and G-3 Divisions, primarily to advise on plans for joint tactical operations in the Washington area involving the Potomac River Naval Command. The G-3 Division, in addition to its normal functions, had responsibility for liaison with the Office of Civilian Defense on operational matters involving the Washington area, for supervising funeral arrangements at the Arlington National Cemetery, and for planning celebrations in the capital for homecoming heroes. Among the special agencies in the area were the MDW Antiaircraft Artillery Command, until June 1944; the Mobile Force for patrolling and guarding the areas where Federal buildings were located and for handling certain types of military exhibits in Washington, such as the "Back the Attack" show; the War Department New Receiving Station at La Plata, Md., used by the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service in intercepting radio broadcasts from foreign sources; and the Historical Properties Section (under the Army Headquarters Commandant, MDW), which collected combat paintings and

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other war-related items of a historical or museum nature. After the war, MDW was continued as a major regional command of the Army.

Records.--The wartime central files of the Military District and separately maintained records of various MDW offices are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Weekly summaries of activities of MDW, 1942-45, were reproduced in the minutes of the General Council (see entry 167). A 1-volume typewritten history of the District is on file in the Army's Historical Division. The wartime records of the District's field agencies and of posts, camps, and stations in the Washington area are, for the most part, in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, except that the records of the Antiaircraft Artillery Command, MDW, 1942-44, are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. A history of this Command, June 1943-July 1944, is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Northwest Service Command [423]

The Northwest Service Command (NWSC) was established in September 1942 to coordinate and direct the construction, maintenance, and supply activities required by United States Army Forces in western Canada, mainly in the Provinces of British Columbia and Alberta and the Territory of Yukon and the District of Mackenzie, and at the base installations in Skagway and Fairbanks, Alaska. The Command built, maintained, and administered highways, railways, inland waterways, airfields, and pipe lines in the area. Among its principal projects were the construction of the Alaska or Alcan Highway and the Canol Project and the operation of the White Pass and Yukon Railway. The Command collaborated with the Office of the Chief of Engineers, the Army's Alaskan Defense Command, and national and provincial agencies of the Dominion of Canada (the Command headquarters had a Canadian Liaison Branch).

Headquarters of the Northwest Service Command, located in 1944 at Edmonton, Alberta, was organized along the lines of a typical Service Command (see entry 420), except that it included the office of the Division Engineer of the Northwest Engineer Division (of the Corps of Engineers). In June 1945 the Command was discontinued and its functions were transferred to the Northwest District, Sixth Service Command, and to the Great Lakes Division of the Corps of Engineers.

Records.--The following Northwest Service Command records are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis: Central files, 1942-45; Special Orders; radio and teletype messages; transcripts of telephone conversations, 1943-46; the commanding officer's "file book" on conversations with Canadian officials about the Alaska Highway and other subjects; copies of minutes and journals of discussions and decisions of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, United States and Canada, 1944-45; "policy books" on the Alcan and Canol projects; "Digest of Information of Alaska," containing mounted photographs and maps; a file on "Japanese balloon incidents"; a copy of "Alaska Highway, Completion Report," April 1945; unpublished histories of units of the Northwest District; and Legal Branch records on

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"Arrangements . . . [with] Canada," 1942-44. Other records are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Many documents relating to the construction of the Alaska Highway are reproduced in a Report of the House Committee on Roads (79th Cong., 2d sess., H. Rept. 1705).

Records of the headquarters of the Alaska Highway at Dawson Creek, B. C., 1943-44, including central files, administrative orders, and "Monthly Progress Reports"; and records of the Skagway Port of Debarkation, the Spare Parts Depot at Edmonton, and the Engineer District offices at Edmonton, Fairbanks, Whitehorse, Prince Rupert, and Skagway are in the records center at St. Louis.

TECHNICAL SERVICES [424]

The seven Technical Services, known also (especially in the early part of the war) as the Supply Services or the Procurement Services, were the major operating commands for the procurement of the Army's matériel, supplies, and related services, other than air matériel handled by the Air Technical Service Command. Their procurement function included matters related to research and development, quantity production, production resources, contracts and purchases, storage and issue, packing and transportation, maintenance and repair, and reclamation, salvage, and disposal. Each category or class of matériel, equipment, and supplies procured for the Army was assigned (for purposes of specifications, requirements, funds, purchases, inspection, storage, and issue) to a given Technical Service (or to the Army Air Forces, for aircraft and air matériel), in accordance with decisions made by the Procurement Assignment Board, May 1943-September 1946. (For a guide to major assignments, see alphabetical recapitulation of commodities entitled "Assignments of Responsibility for Procurement, Storage, and Issue," forming Appendix I, June 1, 1946, and Supplement, September 19, 1946, to Procurement Regulation No. 6.)

The Technical Services also trained the service troop units wearing the insignia of their services and supplied such troops to the Service Commands, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Air Forces. Before March 1942 the Technical Services were responsible to the Chief of Staff and to the Under Secretary of War; later in the war, to the Commanding General of the Army Service Forces. Each of the seven Technical Services, including its headquarters and field organizations, is separately described below.

Records.--Each of the Technical Services maintained its own records and these are described below.

QUARTERMASTER CORPS [425]

The Quartermaster Corps (QM or QMC), in World War II as before the war, was the Army's major procurement and distribution agency for noncombat equipment, supplies, and services. Specifically, the wartime functions of the Corps were to supply the Army with equipment and supplies common to the various combat arms and services (clothing and footgear, food and food-handling equipment, fuels and lubricants, and

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general supplies); to purchase, store, and distribute such supply items in such quantities and at such times and places as were required; to provide Quartermaster supply items as required for the Navy, for lend-lease military recipients, and for civilian populations in liberated territory; to insure the proper training of Quartermaster troops and troop units and the proper operation of field installations providing Quartermaster services; to maintain all Quartermaster-procured equipment and insure an adequate supply of spare parts for its repair; to develop new and better equipment and supplies to meet changing standards and needs; to develop standards for the selection, preparation, and service of food; to procure, train, and maintain horses, mules, and dogs for war service; and to provide proper burial and other memorial services for deceased members of the Army.

In addition to these major functions, the Quartermaster Corps was responsible for real-estate and building-construction activities in the Army, 1939-December 1941; for water and rail transportation, including the procurement of vessels, the training of marine and port troops, and the movement of men and matériel, 1939-42; and for the procurement of noncombat motor vehicles, 1939-42.

Records.--The wartime records of the headquarters and field organizations of the Quartermaster Corps are separately described below.
[See also the
Quartermaster Corps volumes in the [U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

Office of the Quartermaster General [426]

During the war this Office, known also as OQMG, supervised all the above-named functions of the Quartermaster Corps in the continental United States. The Quartermaster General's command responsibilities extended beyond the divisions of the Office, which are discussed below, to include all Quartermaster Depots, Quartermaster Schools, and other special Quartermaster activities and installations in the continental United States (see entries 441-445) except Quartermaster troop units that were destined for overseas duty and were controlled by the appropriate air, ground, or service commands. The Quartermaster General had no command responsibilities over troop units and staff agencies stationed overseas, but through the divisions of his Office he exercised functions of technical supervision and inspection that influenced Quartermaster activities overseas.

There were two major divisions that functioned within the Quartermaster General's Office only during the early war years. The Construction Division was in charge of the acquisition and disposal of real estate and the construction and maintenance of buildings and grounds at Army posts, camps, and stations until December 1941, when these responsibilities were transferred to the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Until it became a part of the Transportation Corps in 1942, the Transportation Division handled the Army's interests in water and rail transportation, including the procurement of cargo and troop-transport vessels, port equipment, railroad locomotives, rolling stock, and related equipment; the organization and training of service troops in these transportation services; and traffic operations. A third division, the Motor Transport Division, had procurement, distribution, and training functions

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in the field of noncombat motor vehicles (and responsibility for motor repair shops, some of which were acquired from the Civilian Conservation Corps in April 1942) until the summer of 1942, when the Ordnance Department was given these responsibilities. This Division had charge of the Army's motor transport operation, however, throughout the war.

Records.--Most of the wartime records created in the several divisions and other organizational units of the Office of the Quartermaster General were filed in seven major series, some covering a longer period than the war years, that were centrally maintained for the Office as a whole. Two of these, the War Aid Series and the Memorial Series, were in 1949 in the custody of the Office's Mail and Records Branch. The former, 1940-47 (290 feet), consists of correspondence and other papers documenting the lend-lease and reciprocal-aid activities of the Office of the Quartermaster General. The latter series, 1939-45 (8,100 feet), which was known at one time as the Cemeterial Series, consists of papers providing information about funerals, burials, and headstones for deceased members of the Army and for members of the Navy that were buried overseas by the Quartermaster Corps.

The other five major series are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The Contract Series (2,200 feet) consists chiefly of copies of contracts and supporting papers for equipment, supplies, and services, fiscal years 1935-43, and contracts for salvage services, fiscal years 1941-43. (Many of the papers in this series are probably duplicated in the Army's centralized contract records in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.) The Commercial Series, 1935-47 (2,000 feet), contains papers pertaining to and filed by name of individual firms (both contractors and others), private institutions except educational, and private persons who were not members of the Army. The Geographic Series, 1935-49 (8,000 feet), contains papers pertaining to and filed by name of each of the States, individual Army posts, camps, and stations in the continental United States, and Quartermaster and other Army depots. The Miscellaneous Series, 1935-49 (2,400 feet), contains papers concerning relations of the Office with specific Corps Areas and Service Commands, nonmilitary Federal agencies, and civilian schools and colleges. The Boats and Vessels Subseries, which extends only to 1942, pertains to the operation of water transport by the Office before April 1942, when responsibility for water transport and all "active" case folders in this subseries were transferred to the newly created Office of the Chief of Transportation. The Subject Series, 1935-49 (1,200 feet) contains correspondence, studies and reports, and other records relating to policy and administrative matters and to general subjects not covered by the more specific materials constituting the other series named above. Other records in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are tracings and blueprints of portable camp buildings of the Civilian Conservation Corps (10 feet); and miscellaneous personnel files for individual officers, enlisted men, and civilian employees of the Office of the Quartermaster General, 1938-49 (1,000 feet). The main body of files for the wartime personnel of the Office of the Quartermaster General is in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

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Separately described, in subsequent entries below, are records of the several divisions of the Office that were separately maintained in those divisions, except for records of 3 divisions that were discontinued when their functions were transferred to other Technical Services. The records of the Transportation Division, 1939-42, were in general merged with records of the successor Office of the Chief of Transportation (see entry 671). Most of the records of the Motor Transport Division were likewise taken over by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449), except for that Division's "reading files" (chronologically arranged) on the procurement and maintenance of noncombat vehicles, 1941-42 (9 feet), which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Many of the Construction Division's records are interfiled with records of successor units in the Office of the Chief of Engineers. The following records of the Construction Division were, however, kept separate after their transfer and are in the Mail and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers: Correspondence with and about Quartermaster Construction Zone offices in the field, 1941; "Construction Division Circulars," 1941; and material on construction costs used by Slaughter, Saville, and Blackburn, Inc., in 1941, in analyzing lump-sum and fixed-fee Quartermaster construction projects then under way.

Series of printed documents that originated in the Office of the Quartermaster General include "QMC Circular Letters," 1939-45; "Circulars," 1939-42; "Contract Bulletins," Jan. 1939-Jan. 1944; "QM Supplement to [Army] Procurement Regulations," Jan. 1943, and its successor "Instruction Sheets," Feb. 1943-Mar. 1945; and "Inspection Guides" and "Inspectors' Guides," in various editions and for various commodities. The activities of the Office are documented also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 022 Quartermaster Corps, Jan. 1940-Dec. 1943, AG 321 Quartermaster Corps, Dec. 1940-Dec. 1945, and AG 020 Quartermaster Corps, 1941-45 (23 linear feet).

Commanding General's Office [427]

The two wartime Quartermaster Generals were Henry Gibbins, February 1935-March 1940, and Edmund B. Gregory, April 1940-March 1946. In the latter part of the war the Quartermaster General's immediate staff included two deputies, one for administration and management, and one for supply planning and operations. The Technical Information Branch (for public relations) and the Intelligence Branch (for analyzing enemy and other foreign intelligence as it affected the Quartermaster Corps) were attached to the office of the deputy for administration and management, where over-all policy on such matters was developed and prescribed.

Records.--The wartime records of the Intelligence Branch, including reports, surveys, studies, and other intelligence data, arranged geographically, pertaining to economic conditions in foreign countries and areas, chiefly with respect to sanitary and labor conditions and to agriculture, railroads, communications, and manufacturing industries, 1942-45 (55 feet), and a subject file of correspondence and other papers, were in Aug. 1947 in the custody of

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the successor Intelligence Section of the Military Planning Division, Office of the Quartermaster General.

General Administrative Services Division [428]

This Division provided office services for the Office of the Quartermaster General such as the collection and distribution of mail, the maintenance of central files, and the storage and issue of publications and office supplies. It edited Quartermaster publications and Quartermaster sections of War Department and Army Service Forces publications; compiled, through its Historical Section, historical studies pertaining to the operations and activities of the Quartermaster Corps in World War II; and maintained a reference library for the Office of the Quartermaster General, which issued the "Quartermaster Library Record," Sept. 1941-Aug. 1945, as a part of its bibliographical service. The Division served as the clearinghouse for all Quartermaster instructions and informational materials and performed general housekeeping functions for the Corps.

Records.--Most of the wartime activities of this Division are extensively documented in the central records of the Office, described in entry 426. Two sections maintained separate records, the Historical Section and the Library Section.

Some of the separately maintained records of the Historical Section are in its custody and some are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. They consist of (1) manuscript drafts and printed copies of the Section's monographs and other studies, dealing with procurement planning, research and development, food products, women's clothing, packaging and packing (of food, for example), production control, labor problems, depot operations, small business, laundries, military training, demobilization planning, and other Quartermaster subjects; (2) research materials for these studies, including bibliographies, notes, newspaper clippings and press releases, and photostat copies of documents; (3) copies of historical studies prepared by depots and other Quartermaster organizations, including training centers at Camp Lee (Va.) and Fort Warren (Wyo.), Field Headquarters of the Quartermaster Market Center System (Chicago), and depots at Atlanta, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Mira Loma (Calif.), Oakland (Calif.), Ogden, Richmond, San Antonio, Jeffersonville (Ind.), Jersey City, Kansas City (Mo.), and Seattle; (4) research materials related to these field studies, originally accumulated by the depot historians and usually containing transcripts of interviews, bibliographies, scrapbooks, photographs, printed documents, and notes; and (5) administrative files pertaining to the historical program of the Quartermaster Corps, including correspondence, instructions to field historians, and progress reports. Copies of the printed studies are in the Army's Historical Division and in the National Archives Library.

The administrative records of the Library Section are in the custody of the Library of the Quartermaster School at Camp Lee, Va., which inherited portions of the library of the Office of the Quartermaster General after the war.

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Other parts of the library proper were transferred at that time to the War Department Library and to the Library of the Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot.

See Vernon G. Setser, "The Historical Project of the Quartermaster Corps," in Quartermaster Review, 22: 52, 103 (Sept.-Oct. 1942); A. M. Thornton, "An Experiment in Writing Administrative History," in Military Affairs, 7: 151-157 (Fall 1943), which describes the work of the Historical Section; and Samuel B. Marley, "The Quartermaster Corps Historical Studies," in Military Affairs, 10: 44-50 (Fall 1946).

Organization Planning and Control Division [429]

This Division was responsible for appraising the validity, adequacy, and consistency of Quartermaster policies, organization, and procedure, and for recommending changes and improvements; analyzing the efficiency of field operations and the progress made in bringing about recommended improvements; and developing and coordinating demobilization plans. The Division prepared reports for the Quartermaster General on the status, progress, and efficiency of all Quartermaster supply operations and activities; provided a management consulting service for the Office of the Quartermaster General and for the field installations; conducted investigations of Quartermaster field activities; developed research projects relating to the performance of Quartermaster functions; supervised the operation of demobilization plans; collected and interpreted statistical data for the Quartermaster General and the several divisions; and coordinated information regarding congressional inquiries and prepared replies to them.

Records.--No separately maintained records of this Division have been scheduled for continued preservation. The central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, described in entry 426, contain documents relating to the Division's activities. Among the materials prepared and issued by the Division were the "Organization Manual" governing the Office of the Quartermaster General (various editions, chiefly in 1943 and 1944); the "Statistical Handbook of the Quartermaster Corps," 1943, and the "Statistical Yearbook," 1945, both prepared by the Statistics Branch of the Division; and the "Quartermaster Control Officers' Handbook," 1943.

Fiscal Division [430]

This Division was responsible for obtaining, supervising, and distributing the funds of the Quartermaster Corps. It maintained all fiscal records; translated War Department policies into Quartermaster fiscal and property-accounting policies and procedures; compiled estimates for Quartermaster appropriations; prepared and assembled budget justifications for use by higher authorities; prepared and issued instructions on fiscal procedure and property accounting; supervised all accounting operations and audited the fiscal records of field installations; maintained liaison with the Office of the Fiscal Director, Army Service Forces, and the fiscal divisions of other War Department agencies; processed reimbursement transactions;

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and was responsible for contract renegotiation and royalty adjustments involving equipment and supplies procured by the Quartermaster Corps.

Records.--The central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, especially the Subject Series described in entry 426, contain many records relating to this Division. The following series of wartime records of the Division were scheduled in Aug. 1944 for continued preservation: Budget estimates and supporting papers, from 1942; "history" data on War Department appropriation bills, from 1931; files of "advices" of allotments, suballotments, and apportionments of funds, from 1943; journal vouchers and ledgers, from 1943; schedules of disbursements and collections, from 1942; reports of field agencies on the status of Quartermaster Corps funds, from 1942; and a series on contract renegotiation agreements, from 1943.

Military Planning Division [431]

This Division was responsible for developing and improving all items of equipment and supplies procured by the Quartermaster Corps; appraising industrial production capacities for such items; implementing the War Production Board's Controlled Materials Plan; promoting conservation activities at all echelons; furnishing plans for the organization, composition, and equipment of Quartermaster troop units; forecasting Quartermaster matériel and personnel requirements; and continuously analyzing these requirements in the light of changing conditions. In connection with these responsibilities, the Division prepared tables of organization and other tables governing the manning and equipping of Quartermaster troop units; supervised the furnishing of equipment and supplies to overseas combat forces; computed requirements and analyzed and prepared changes relative to allowances, maintenance, and distribution; prepared equipment charts and tables and combination requisition-and-equipment charts; initiated action to insure continued practical development of equipment; reviewed and approved all specifications for Quartermaster matériel and materials; studied problems of production and materials; translated the Army Supply Program into terms of required raw materials; prepared the "Master Production Schedules," and reviewed the activities of the other of the divisions of the Office of the Quartermaster General that converted the "Master Production Schedules" into procurement activity.

The Division consisted of the Requirements, Research and Development, Operations, and Machine Tabulating Branches. In 1942 its organization included also the Quartermaster Corps Technical Committee, which reviewed the research and development program of the Corps; and the Quartermaster Advisory Board, which was composed of scientific and industrial advisers outside the Army.

Records.--The Division's central files through 1941 (dating back to 1919) are in the National Archives. Records of the Requirements Branch in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include a series of computations, tabulations, and related papers used in the preparation of statements of requirements for Quartermaster equipment and supplies, 1942-45; and production

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schedules for Quartermaster commodities and "supply and demand studies," 1943-45. Records of the Requirements Branch that in 1947 were in the Division's custody include the following: A series on subsistence requirements of the Army and one on the subsistence requirements of the Navy; "supply and demand studies" on perishable subsistence commodities, on nonperishable subsistence commodities, and on post-exchange commodities, 1945 and later; copies of weekly information bulletins of overseas military government authorities, 1945 and later; and copies of monthly project reports of such authorities, dealing with industry, manpower, labor unions, working conditions, public health, food, agriculture, and commerce in occupied areas, 1945 and later.

Research and Development Branch [431a]

This Branch supervised various laboratories that were developing and testing Quartermaster clothing, footgear, equipment, and general supplies. For example, at the Pacific Mills in Lawrence, Mass., the Climatic Research Laboratory conducted research and development and testing of clothing and other Quartermaster equipment for combat use under special conditions involving jungle growth, insects, rain, and extremely cold and hot weather; in its work this laboratory maintained close liaison with the Jungle Warfare Weapons Committee. Package and packaging research and development, in the interest of durability, safety, and sanitation, were conducted at the Quartermaster Depot at Cameron, Va. Textile research was done at the Philadelphia and the Jeffersonville, Ind., Quartermaster Depots.

Records.--The records of this Branch in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include administrative records of two special Quartermaster units that conducted wet-cold tests of clothing and equipment at Fort Preble, Maine, and tropical tests at Indian Bay, Fla., 1944-45. Among the records of the Research and Development Branch that in 1947 were in its own custody were a card file (historical record) of Quartermaster specifications (the case files on each specification being in the Subject Series in the central files of the Office of the Quartermaster General); correspondence pertaining to the work of the Quartermaster Advisory Board; drawings of Quartermaster items procured by the Quartermaster Depot at Jeffersonville, Ind.; records of the Textiles Section on production facilities of cotton, rayon, and woolen mills (WPB form 658); test reports, correspondence, and other papers relating to the work of the Quartermaster Climatic Research Laboratory reports made by a Quartermaster textile team in Europe in 1945 on German clothing, with copies of German publications and other papers; seized German records relating to clothing; and the records of the Heraldic Section, consisting of an unpublished "history" (about 850 bound vols.) of United States Army uniforms, insignia, flags, medals, and other heraldic items, for all wars, including World War II, and other series on United States and foreign military heraldry, including drawings, specifications, descriptions, and correspondence.

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See L.O. Grice, "The Standardization Branch," in Quartermaster Review, 21: 23, 103-106 (Mar.-Apr. 1942), which describes the organization and work of a predecessor of the Specifications Section, Research and Development Branch.

Personnel Division [432]

The Personnel Division, established in July 1942, and its predecessors, 1939-42, were responsible for providing adequate personnel, military and civilian, for the Office of the Quartermaster General and the Quartermaster field installations. The Division developed civilian personnel policies, directed the training programs for civilian employees, and controlled civilian personnel allotments to Quartermaster installations; and recruited, appointed, assigned, trained, promoted, transferred, and separated from service civilian personnel, in accordance with Civil Service Commission regulations and War Department directives. The Division also obtained allotments and made suballotments of officers, Women's Auxiliary Corps personnel, warrant officers, and enlisted men; requisitioned, assigned, promoted, and transferred military personnel; selected military personnel for special training at service schools and at civilian educational institutions; and organized Quartermaster troop units and provided cadres for Quartermaster field installations. The Division also developed plans and programs for work-load studies and assisted Quartermaster installations in the use of work-load techniques. These personnel functions were handled between 1939 and 1945 by the following successive staff units: The Personnel Office, 1939-41; the Civilian Personnel Affairs Division and the personnel units of the Military Personnel and Training Division, 1941-July 1942; and the Personnel Division, July 1942-45.

Records.--Three series of the separately maintained wartime records of this Division were in Aug. 1944 scheduled for continued preservation. They consisted of card records of allotments of enlisted personnel to Quartermaster installations and organizations in the field, from 1941; similar card records for commissioned officers and warrant officers, from 1943; and card records of meritorious awards to military and civilian personnel of the Quartermaster Corps. Other papers relating to the work of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General described in entry 426. Printed documents of the Division that were disseminated within the Quartermaster Corps include "Personnel Bulletins," Jan.-Aug. 1941; and the "Handbook . . . of the Civilian Training Section," Aug. 1943.

Military Training Division [433]

The Military Personnel Branch, 1939-41, the Military Personnel and Training Division, 1941-July 1942, and the Military Training Division, established in July 1942, successively had staff responsibility for Quartermaster officer training schools and for troop-unit training schools and training centers. The Division computed training requirements and prepared schedules of courses; recommended selections and assignments of personnel at Quartermaster schools and training centers; determined availability of supplies and equipment for training purposes; developed Quartermaster military-training

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programs, training aids and materials, and courses of study; recommended the selection, assignment, promotion, and relief of military personnel assigned to factory schools, colleges, and universities under Quartermaster contract; arranged for the selection, instruction, and operational procedures of inspectors of training (officers and enlisted men) for duty with the Inspector General's Office; reviewed assignments to avoid duplication of functions and insure adherence to basic Quartermaster policy; promulgated training doctrine, such as the "Quartermaster Instructors Guide: Methods of Teaching" (Aug. 1942); and coordinated the research and development programs for training aids and materials.

Records.--Only one wartime series of the separately maintained records of this Division was scheduled in Aug. 1944 for continued preservation, a file of progress reports on the training of Quartermaster enlisted and officer personnel, on capacities of schools and training centers, and on types of training, from 1940. Other papers relating to the work of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, described in entry 426.

See O. E. Ragonnet, "The Training Division of the Quartermaster Corps," in Quartermaster Review, 22: 20-22, 132 (Sept.-Oct. 1942); and other articles in the same issue.

Procurement Division [434]

This Division, established in July 1942, inherited the procurement functions of the several commodity branches of the former Supply Division of the Office of the Quartermaster General. The Procurement Division and its predecessors were responsible for the quantity procurement of all clothing, equipage, and general supplies, and of certain special equipment, including many common items of supply for the Army, the Navy Department, other war agencies, and the recipients of lend lease. It formulated and reviewed delivery schedules, reviewed prices for purchases made, and initiated steps to recapture excessive profits realized under Quartermaster contracts. Within the limits prescribed by the Procurement Regulations of the Under Secretary of War and by other directives of higher authorities, the Division developed purchasing policies for the above types of items; directed the purchase of finished items and component parts; and inspected items upon delivery. The Division did not procure subsistence (handled by the Subsistence Division), headstones and markers (handled by the Memorial Division), and fuels, lubricants, and certain special equipment used for handling petroleum products (handled by the Fuels and Lubricants Division).

Other responsibilities and functions of the Procurement Division included expediting contracts; supervising matters related to priorities throughout the Quartermaster Corps; maintaining liaison with the Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board, the War Production Board, Headquarters Army Service Forces, and other higher authorities on matters pertaining to priorities; aiding contractors in getting critical materials; gathering financial information about contractors; conducting contract renegotiations; supervising Quartermaster pricing policy as applied in the Quartermaster procuring depots; establishing

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procedure for contract termination, within the framework of policies prescribed by higher authorities; and preparing necessary legal documents, including mandatory orders, used in the requisition of supplies by the Quartermaster Corps.

The Division, headed by the Director of Procurement, in 1945 included 4 Deputy Directors, one each for Purchase, Legal Affairs, Inspection, and Contract Adjustment; the Price Administrator, who analyzed cost and price data to insure that the lowest practicable prices were being paid for Quartermaster items at Quartermaster Depots and Quartermaster sections of other Army procurement depots; and 12 major branches: Management Control; Service (for production awards to contractors); Cost and Price Analysis; Legal; Patent Law; Production Service (for production scheduling, priorities, and expediting); Renegotiation; Contract Termination; Clothing; Textiles; Paper, Lumber, and Office Supplies; and Equipment and General Supplies.

Records.--The following separately maintained wartime records of the Division were scheduled in Aug. 1944 for continued preservation: Correspondence pertaining to investigation of Quartermaster procurement activities by congressional committees, from 1941; daily register of contract-renegotiation settlements, from 1943; and card records showing the history of renegotiation cases, from 1943. Other records of this Division's activities are among the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, described in entry 426.

See William R. Buckley, "Procurement," Quartermaster Review, 21: 25, 73 (Mar.-Apr. 1942).

Fuels and Lubricants Division [435]

Responsibilities for petroleum and solid fuels were handled successively, between 1939 and 1945, by the Fuels and Construction Materials Branch (of the Construction Division), the Fuels and Lubricants Division (of the Storage and Distribution Service), the Fuels and Heavy Equipment Branch (of the Storage and Distribution Division), and the Fuels and Lubricants Divisions, from May 1943. This staff had responsibility for supplying the Army with all petroleum products (except aviation gasoline and petroleum products, which were the responsibility of Headquarters Army Air Forces); other fuels and lubricants; and containers and equipment for handling such products. Under this responsibility the Division and its predecessors established general policy; supervised the purchase, inspection, storage, issue, and distribution of all fuels and lubricants for the Army Ground Forces, the Army Air Forces (for fuel used in motor vehicles and other ground equipment), and the Army Service Forces. It coordinated its work with that of the other Technical Services, the Army Air Forces, the Navy, the other Government agencies concerned (notably the Petroleum Administration for War), and the petroleum industry. The Division prescribed methods and procedures for the computation of requirements for fuels, lubricants, and related equipment; formulated programs for the procurement, conservation, and utilization of such items; initiated

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plans for the technical development of petroleum and coal resources and facilities in liberated territory overseas; prepared specifications for equipment used in handling petroleum products; and, with the concurrence of the Director of Plans and Operations, Headquarters Army Service Forces, developed plans for the employment and operation by the Army of overseas plants for making cans and drums.

Records.--Although none of the wartime records kept separately by this Division or by its branches and sections are scheduled for permanent retention, its activities are extensively documented in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, described in entry 426. The central records do not, however, contain many individual documents pertaining to the development and procurement of fuels, lubricants, and related equipment, since most of these were withdrawn from those files in 1946 and were transferred to the Joint Army-Navy Petroleum Purchase Agency, the successor to certain of the Office's responsibilities for fuel after the war. Studies by the Solid Fuels Branch on the coal-mining industry in Italy, Sardinia, France, Belgium, Germany, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, Aug. 1943-Jan. 1945, and studies by the Division (in collaboration with the Enemy Oil Committees) on the petroleum facilities of about 20 European and Asiatic countries, May 1944-Sept. 1945, are in the reference collection of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Subsistence Division [436]

Food and food-service matters were the staff responsibility, within the Office of the Quartermaster General, of three successive units between 1939 and 1945, the Subsistence Branch of the Supply Division, the Subsistence Branch of the Storage and Distribution Division, and the Subsistence Division, established on May 17, 1944. The objective of this staff activity was to supply subsistence to the Army in the quantities required and at the proper times and places; to purchase subsistence items in accordance with established standards; to maintain adequate stocks of subsistence; to provide nutritionally balanced and well-prepared meals through the operation of an effective food-service program; and to procure food-handling equipment. This Division and its predecessors directed the purchase of subsistence items, including items for resale by post exchanges, under the general supervision of the Director of Procurement, Office of the Quartermaster General; supervised the storage, distribution, and issue of subsistence items; performed staff functions in connection with the food-service program, including the preparation of master menus and special menus; formulated policies for mess supervision and management; prepared training manuals and data for courses in baking, cooking, and mess management; collaborated with the Military Planning Division of the Office of the Quartermaster General in determining requirements of subsistence and of resale items for overseas exchanges and in scheduling production to meet such requirements; formulated policies for and directed the operations of the Quartermaster Market Center System; and represented the War Department on the War Meat Board.

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Records.--The following separately maintained series of records of the Division were scheduled in Aug. 1944 for continued preservation. Work sheets and other papers for the computation of subsistence requirements for the Army Supply Program, from 1942; master menu work sheets, from 1941; minutes of meetings of the War Meat Board and related correspondence, from 1943; and reports of the Joint Dehydration Committee and other material on dehydrated foods, from 1941. Other records relating to the Subsistence Division's wartime activities are in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, described in entry 426.

International Division [437]

This Division, established in 1941 as the Defense Aid Division, was the lend-lease staff unit for the Office of the Quartermaster General, responsible for procuring and shipping to Allied and other friendly forces those lend-lease supplies and items of equipment that were procured by the Quartermaster Corps. The Division consolidated and coordinated the supply requirements (by types, quantities, and time schedules) of the foreign governments concerned; reconciled supplies and equipment requested for lend lease with standard Quartermaster items available; prepared directives governing the procurement, assignment, and transfer of supplies and equipment to lend-lease recipients; represented the Quartermaster Corps in dealing with the Foreign Economic Administration, the Munitions Assignments Board, and other agencies concerned with the lend-lease program; prepared and assembled reports on Quartermaster-procured supplies transferred to and from other governments; and supplied data to the International Division, Headquarters Army Service Forces.

Records.--Of the wartime records kept separately by this Division or by its branches, only one series was in Aug. 1947 scheduled for continued preservation, a reading file of outgoing correspondence of the Division, 1940-45, chronologically arranged, in the custody of the Historical Section of the Office of the Quartermaster General. The lend-lease and reciprocal-aid activities of the Division are, however, extensively documented in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, described in entry 426, especially in the War Aid Series, and in the records of the International Division, Headquarters Army Service Forces.

Storage and Distribution Division [438]

This Division, established in July 1942, inherited the functions of the Clothing and Equipage and the General Supply Branches of the Supply Division, Office of the Quartermaster General. It was responsible for providing items of clothing and equipage to Army troops, general supplies for resale through the post exchanges of the Army Exchange Service, common-supply items to the Navy, Marine Corps, and other services, and certain Quartermaster items for distribution to civilians in liberated areas overseas. The Division established stock levels of supplies to meet the Army's needs; reviewed policies, regulations, and performance as to storage.

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distribution, and issue of these supplies; supervised the supply activities of Quartermaster Depots and Quartermaster Sections at Army Service Forces Depots; prescribed methods of storage, space conservation, materials handling, and labor utilization in the field; planned allocations of storage space, including space in commercial warehouses, used by Quartermaster field units; supervised the maintenance of stocks at each echelon of command; and supervised the redistribution and disposal of excess Quartermaster supplies and equipment, except subsistence items and petroleum products.

In connection with these tasks, the Division participated in the determination of over-all supply needs; initiated procurement requests for items not on the "Master Production Schedules"; directed the distribution of new stocks and the redistribution of stocks between depots and stations; determined quantities of supplies to be included in the "War Reserve"; developed formulas for computing stock levels at depots and stations; appraised the performance of stock-control activities in all depots; reviewed and prepared comments on "Supply and Demand Studies" and "Master Production Schedules" to insure that planned production was balanced with supply needs and stock levels; circularized other agencies with regard to excess Quartermaster property, processed surplus declarations, and directed depots to report surplus property (except subsistence and petroleum products) to disposal agencies; and coordinated proposed policies and procedures relative to items to be resold by post exchanges and represented the Office of the Quartermaster General in dealing with Headquarters Army Service Forces and with the Army Exchange Service on questions involving the resale of items issued by the Quartermaster Corps.

Records.--Monthly machine-records tabulations entitled "Stock Analysis Reports" of depot operations, pertaining to stockage, issue, and transportation of Quartermaster procured items, 1941-48, arranged by commodity (270 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A "policies" file on clothing and equipage requisitioning, from 1941, was in the Storage and Distribution Division in Aug. 1944, scheduled for continued preservation. A monthly report on "Supply Control . . ." and a quarterly report on "Supply Control Planning," probably prepared in this Division, form parts of section 20 of the "Monthly Progress Reports" of Headquarters Army Service Forces.

Service Installations Division [439]

This Division, established in March 1942, and its predecessor units in the Supply Division comprised the staff agency of the Quartermaster General's Office for planning and supervising the work of the many Quartermaster Depots and other installations in the continental United States, especially those concerned with the supply and maintenance of equipment procured by the Quartermaster Corps. The Division controlled policies for spare parts, including spare-parts lists; supervised the procurement of spare parts not on "Master Production Schedules"; supervised the operation of repair shops; procured materials-handling equipment, Quartermaster special-purpose vehicles, graphic-arts equipment, and laundry and dry-cleaning

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equipment; provided for maintenance inspection procedures; supervised the procurement and training of horses, mules, and war dogs for the armed forces; and directed the disposition of scrap accumulated at Quartermaster manufacturing plants and at Government-owned industrial plants under contract to the Quartermaster Corps. The Division also supervised the distribution and issue of printing supplies and equipment, and the materials, supplies, and parts used in the repair of clothing, equipage, metal and wood items, and office machines; enforced policies formulated by the Joint Committee on Printing with respect to the operations of authorized War Department field printing plants; supervised the Army horse-breeding program, the work of the Remount Depots, and the activities of the War Dog Reception and Training Centers; and (about 1941-43) handled the Army's interests in the Civilian Conservation Corps.

Records.--The major records of this Division's activities are in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General described in entry 426. Two of the series of records kept separately by this Division, however, were in Aug. 1944 scheduled for continued preservation: Records of the purchase and distribution of laundry and dry-cleaning machinery and equipment, including drawings and specifications, from 1941; and "Monthly General Information Letters" from Remount Depots, from 1941.

Memorial Division [440]

This Division, which supervised the Army's activities pertaining to the disposition of its dead, was established late in 1941 and inherited the work of the Memorial Branch of the Administrative Division, Office of the Quartermaster General. Memorial activities included the disposition of the remains of deceased members of the Army; the purchase and supply of grave sites, headstones, and markers; the establishment and operation of national cemeteries, prisoner-of-war cemeteries, post cemeteries, soldier plots, monuments, and certain parks under the jurisdiction of the War Department; and the work of the Graves Registration Service overseas and in the continental United States, including the handling of registration and interment records. In some cases graves registration for deceased members of the Navy and merchant seamen was also included in this Army activity.

Records.--Of the wartime records kept separately by this Division and its branches and sections, only a few series were scheduled for continued preservation in Aug. 1947, all of them in the custody of the Memorial Division: "Historical data" (in bound volumes) on national cemeteries and on overseas United States cemeteries for World Wars I and II, containing basic data on real property, layout, buildings, utilities, and equipment; statistical records for such cemeteries, for all wars including World War II; maps of overseas cemeteries and charts of grave plots, from 1942; a card file on locations of graves of deceased members of the Army, Navy, and Coast Guard, as well as graves of civilian employees killed on duty; a similar card file on unidentified bodies; a similar card file on deceased merchant seamen buried by the Army, from 1939; reservation lists and replacement lists for headstones, for all wars including World War II; and a card file of

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applications for headstones and markers for deceased members of the services buried in private cemeteries in the continental United States, for all wars including World War II. Certain seized enemy records are in the custody of the Memorial Division, including three sets of German reports on United States dead ("Amerikaner Vorgang"), two of which are microfilm copies of translations; and German records relating to the effects of such deceased persons.

The activities of the Memorial Division are extensively documented in the previously described central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General (see entry 426), especially in the Memorial Series and the Subject Series. The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain related papers; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Graves Registration Service, 1942-46 (2 linear inches). Certain records of cemeterial activities in the field, including burial registers (as required by law), reports and summaries of interment and comparable documents, and statistical reports to State or local vital statistics officials, are regarded by the Army as permanent records; see "Technical Manual" 12-259, July 1945.

Quartermaster Field Agencies in the Continental United States [441]

The major Quartermaster Corps field agencies in the continental United States during the war were the Quartermaster Board, Quartermaster Depots, Quartermaster Sections of Army Service Forces Depots, Quartermaster Procurement Districts, Quartermaster Inspection Zones, Quartermaster Market Centers, Quartermaster Remount Depots and Remount Areas, Quartermaster War Dog Reception and Training Centers, Quartermaster Dog Trainer Schools, the Quartermaster Subsistence Laboratory, Quartermaster Schools for Cooks and Bakers, Quartermaster Price Adjustment District Offices, Quartermaster Petroleum Field Offices, Quartermaster Schools, Quartermaster Fifth Echelon Repair Shops, Quartermaster Printing Plants, and (late in the war) the Army Effects Bureau at Kansas City, where unclaimed personal effects of military personnel, especially casualties, were kept. All these agencies were located at "Class IV" installations and were supervised directly by the Office of the Quartermaster General.

Other Quartermaster operating units in the field were parts of larger organizations, located at Class "I," "II," and "III" installations, under the supervision of other commands. At any such installation, the following types of Quartermaster services were normally available: Food service, including mess management and menu planning; subsistence supply; supply of clothing, equipage, and general supplies; supply of fuels and lubricants; bakeries, laundries, and dry-cleaning plants; station and regional repair shops; national cemeteries; Quartermaster troop unit training; and Quartermaster personnel assignment. Most of these activities were supervised, in each of the nine Service Commands, by the Service Command Quartermaster and his subordinate branches, which by 1945 consisted of the Supply, Procurement,

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Contract, Cemeterial, Laundry Maintenance and Reclamation, Food and Rationing, and Administrative Branches.

Records.--Wartime records of virtually all the above Quartermaster field agencies and records of Quartermaster staff sections of other Army field agencies are at the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Historical studies on many of these field agencies are among the records of the Historical Section, Office of the Quartermaster General.

Quartermaster Board [442]

The Quartermaster Board, which originated in June 1934, was located at the Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot until October 1941, when it was transferred to Camp Lee, Va. The Board's wartime activities consisted essentially of making tests of clothing, equipage, and subsistence under simulated field conditions, as distinguished from laboratory testing, and constituted an important aspect of the Quartermaster research and development program. The Board directed exhaustive tests to determine the field endurance, utility, and general adequacy of footgear, clothing, subsistence, mechanical equipment, and miscellaneous items such as plastics, tableware, kitchenware, and cooking utensils. Its testing operations were conducted not only at Camp Lee and nearby but also in areas more suitable for special tests, such as subtropical areas in Florida, where jungle items were tested. The Board, which was attached to the Quartermaster School for administrative purposes, reported directly to the Quartermaster General.

Records.--Some wartime general files and other records of the Board are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO; other wartime records presumably are in the Board's custody. Two general reports of the Board, for Feb. 1942-June 1944 and July 1944-June 1945, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Subsistence Laboratory [443]

This Laboratory, located in Chicago, conducted food research during World War II under the technical supervision of the Subsistence Division, Office of the Quartermaster General, and later the Research and Development Branch, Military Planning Division. The Laboratory's research and development activities included work on dehydrated food; several packaged field rations (types C., D, and K, the last two in cans); and special rations, such as the mountain ration, the five-in-one ration (an assembly of packaged foods), the ten-in-one ration (for use in field kitchens and mobile units), the jungle ration, the combat ration, and rations for use by air personnel, notably the bail-out ration and the life-raft ration.

Records.--See entry 441.

Quartermaster Depots [444]

Quartermaster Depots represented a wide variety of commodities and operations. By August 1945 there were 15 main Depots, the more important of which were at Philadelphia (for clothing and related

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items), Boston (for footgear), Chicago (for subsistence and food-handling equipment), and Jeffersonville, Ind. (for a variety of equipment items); and several Quartermaster Subdepots and Quartermaster Repair Depots. These depots were classified variously as distribution, filler, key, reserve, assembly, and lend-lease depots. In addition there were 3 Remount Depots, which handled the purchase, training, and distribution of mules, horses, and dogs for war-related activities; and the Port Animal Depot at Puente, Calif.

Records.--Wartime records of most, if not all, the main depots and related agencies are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The records of the Boston Quartermaster Depot include general files and other series. Reports by and about these depots, correspondence with and about them, and other related records are in the central records of the Office of the Quartermaster General. The central records of the War Department contain separate "project" files or subseries for each Quartermaster Depot.

See Schuyler D. Hoslett, "Some Problems of Army Depot Administration," in Public Administration Review, 5: 233-239 (Summer 1945).

Quartermaster Schools [445]

By the end of November 1944 there were 54 Quartermaster Schools for training specialists in Quartermaster services and operations. The main agency was the Quartermaster School at Camp Lee, Va., which antedated the war; the rest were specialized schools for cooks, bakers, and other types of technicians. These schools were under the technical supervision of the School Section of the Field Operations Branch, Military Training Division, Office of the Quartermaster General, in respect to training doctrine and training schedules; the selection, assignment, promotion, and relief of training-staff and faculty personnel; the allotment of quotas for courses; and the preparation of training aids and materials.

Records.--Wartime central files and other records of the Quartermaster School, Camp Lee, Va., are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Also in that depository are records of the Quartermaster Subsistence School, Chicago, and of many of the other schools and training centers.

Quartermaster Field Agencies Overseas [446]

Many types of overseas Quartermaster organizations functioned during the war to supply and serve the combat forces. It was their function to requisition, receive, store, and issue all Quartermaster-procured supplies and equipment; to provide truck transportation; to evacuate and salvage matériel, including captured matériel and surplus supplies and equipment; to care for the dead; to furnish labor forces; to provide for petroleum storage, testing, and supply; to provide animals and remount facilities; and to provide mobile laundries, bakeries, bathing facilities, and refrigeration (except for some refrigeration activities that were performed by the Corps of Engineers). Overseas Quartermaster activities also included the establishment and operation of sales stores; the negotiation of local contracts for Quartermaster services; the operation of gardens and farms, baggage warehouses,

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and personal effects depots; the maintenance and repair of Quartermaster equipment items; the operation of overseas Quartermaster training installations and centers, such as food service schools; and the graves registration service. To meet these varied responsibilities, Quartermaster services were provided at every echelon of command. Thus, in the European Theater of Operations over-all Quartermaster plans were formulated at Theater headquarters, which included a Chief Quartermaster, and responsibilities for operations were decentralized to Air Forces, Armies, Task Forces, and Communications Zones.

The Chief Quartermaster in a theater of operations usually served both as a member of the special staff of the theater commander and as the chief of Quartermaster Service for the theater. He provided information and technical advice to the theater commander and his staff; translated decisions of the commander into plans for operations; formulated and recommended general plans for Quartermaster activities in the theater; supervised administrative and technical operations; estimated requirements in terms of supplies, equipment, personnel, units, and installations; directed distribution; requested sufficient units for the entire theater and allotted them in proportion to the needs of the Communications Zones, Task Forces, Armies, and Army Groups; developed special equipment and supplies to meet the peculiar requirements of the theater; established policies pertaining to Quartermaster salvage and to captured matériel within the theater; and directed the evacuation of surplus supplies and the redeployment of Quartermaster troop units to the Zone of the Interior or to other theaters when the theater became inactive. The Office of the Chief Quartermaster usually consisted of the following divisions: Administrative, Personnel, Procurement, Plans and Training, Subsistence, Supply, Fuels and Lubricants, Storage and Distribution, Graves Registration, and Field Service. In essence, it was a miniature version of the Office of the Quartermaster General, operating in a single large geographical area.

Below theater headquarters, performing similar services for their respective commands, were Quartermasters stationed in the various Base Sections (or equivalent agencies under the Services of Supply, or Communications Zones), the Army Groups, the numbered Armies, the corps, and the combat divisions. Each such Quartermaster served as a member of the special staff of the commanding officer of that command. Likewise each overseas Air Force and Air Service Command had its Quartermaster attached to headquarters. This officer and his staff exercised staff control over all supplies and services of Quartermaster origin.

Quartermaster supply and service activities in each theater were carried on by an elaborate network of depots and troop units. The responsibility for the continuous flow of supplies began at the first available port or beachhead for landing troops. As such facilities became available, one or more ports of debarkation were set up under the authority of the theater commander, and under the direction of a local port commander. From the ports the supplies flowed to various types of depots, such as Communications Zone

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Depots, for storage, distribution, and movement forward to Army supply points; Branch Depots, for supplies stored by a single service; General Depots, for supplies stored by two or more services; other depots handling only one class of supplies; and Army Depots, where supplies were received from the Communications Zone or from local sources. Other overseas depots were classified by location and by mission (such as issue, filler, base, or key depots).

Records.--Records of Quartermaster staff units that were attached to overseas Army commands during the war are, in general, in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis, if they were kept separately from the command's central records; and in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, if the units were parts of combined headquarters. Exceptions to this rule are collections of records of the Chief Quartermaster (Gen. Robert McG. Littlejohn) of the European Theater of Operations and of the Chief Quartermaster of the Fifth Army (Gen. Joseph P. Sullivan), which are in the custody of the Quartermaster Technical Training Service, Camp Lee, Va. Historical reports for staff units of ground commands are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and of air commands, in the Air Historical Group. Reports on Quartermaster supply operations, service operations, and graves registration in the European Theater of Operations are among the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater, on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A series of volumes entitled Quartermaster Supply in the ETO in World War II (1948-. 10 vols.) is being published by the Quartermaster School at Camp Lee; this series is based on the Littlejohn collection, mentioned above.

Quartermaster Troop Units [447]

The Quartermaster troop units that functioned overseas during World War II consisted of Quartermaster Battalions, various types of Quartermaster Companies, and other troop units, each usually designated by a prefixed numerical designation. The Quartermaster Companies included such types as the Quartermaster Company, the Quartermaster Depot Company, the Quartermaster Supply Company, the Quartermaster Depot Supply Company, the Quartermaster Service Company, the Quartermaster Base Depot Company, the Quartermaster Bakery Company, the Quartermaster Refrigeration Company, the Quartermaster Laundry Company, the Quartermaster Fumigation and Bath Company, the Quartermaster Truck Company, the Quartermaster Gasoline Supply Company, the Quartermaster Railhead Company, the Quartermaster Salvage Repair Company, and the Quartermaster Graves Registration Company. Other numbered -units were the Quartermaster Group, several types of Quartermaster Platoons (corresponding in type to some of the Quartermaster Companies), Quartermaster Base Depots, Quartermaster Composite Teams (Repair), and Quartermaster Petroleum Laboratories (Base and Mobile). A few of the battalion and company types were modified, in their functions and personnel, to serve with Air Forces combat units.

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Each of these 2,500-odd troop units normally underwent a training, organization, and staging phase within the continental United States; an operational phase outside the United States; and when a unit was being redeployed from the European or the Mediterranean Theater to the China-Burma-India or the Pacific Theaters, a redeployment phase in the continental United States.

Each of these units operated under varying degrees of control by the Office of the Quartermaster General and the other headquarters in Washington, according to the phase through which it was passing. Planning the composition, functions, equipment, and allowances for a new type of unit was controlled by one or more divisions of the War Department General Staff, by the headquarters of the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, or the Army Service Forces, and by the Office of the Quartermaster General. The activation and assignment of a unit to a training center for organization and training were similarly controlled by the same headquarters in Washington. Its training and organization at a field installation in the continental United States were supervised by one of the Quartermaster Centers or Depots or the Training Centers of Army Service Forces, although training doctrine and inspection of training were usually controlled by the Office of the Quartermaster General. Once the unit went overseas, its supply and service activities and operations were supervised by air, ground, or service commands in the particular theater of operations. The unit's redeployment phase in the continental United States, if any, was supervised by the same training center that had conducted its original training or by similar centers.

Records.--The noncurrent records of the overseas Quartermaster troop units mentioned above are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Lists of them, called Processing Work Sheets, have been prepared in that depository; one set is on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The records of a troop unit normally consist of general files; sets of General Orders and other administrative documents issued by the unit; and copies of its morning reports and other recurring reports. In addition to these records are copies of the unpublished history of the unit, consisting normally of several chronological installments with appendixes of supporting documents. Most of these histories are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, although copies of histories are also among the records of many units at St. Louis.

Many papers relating to particular Quartermaster troop units are among the records of the higher headquarters in Washington that have been mentioned above. They include various types of orders, such as activation orders and movement orders, and related correspondence; various types of tables and related background correspondence governing the composition and equipment of those units; statistical reports and operational summaries in which the activities of units are outlined; papers relating to citations and decorations awarded or considered for a given troop unit; and "Handbooks" on the procedures of some of the companies noted above, 1943.

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ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT [448]

The Ordnance Department, which dates from 1812, was responsible during World War II for the development, quantity procurement, distribution, and maintenance of tanks and other self-propelled weapons, combat vehicles, transport vehicles (after August 1942), artillery, artillery ammunition, machine guns, small arms, small-arms ammunition, bombs, grenades, pyrotechnics, mine equipment, rockets and rocket launchers, and guided missiles. In addition, the Ordnance Department was responsible for training and furnishing specialized Ordnance troops and troop units for use by the ground and air forces of the Army. The Department collectively comprised the following groups of organizational units, separately described below: The Office of the Chief of Ordnance, part of which was located in Washington and parts in Detroit and elsewhere; the Ordnance field agencies in the continental United States; the Ordnance sections (described elsewhere in this volume) that were attached as special-staff sections to the tactical commands of the ground and air forces; and the many Ordnance troop units.

Records.--The wartime records of the Ordnance Department are discussed in the separate entries below.

See Lt. Gen. Levin H. Campbell, Jr., The Industry-Ordnance Team (New York, 1946. 461 p.), and G. M. Barnes, Weapons of World War II (1947. 317 p.). Many articles on wartime activities of the Department appeared during the war in the bimonthly Army Ordnance, published by the Army Ordnance Association.
[See also the Ordnance Department volumes in the [U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

Office of the Chief of Ordnance [449]

Supervising the Ordnance Department was the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (OCO), one of the major Technical Services of the War Department. Under the Chief of Staff and the Assistant (later Under) Secretary of War, 1939-March 1942, and thereafter under Headquarters Army Service Forces, the Office was responsible for procuring Ordnance matériel and for a variety of related activities. Qualitative improvement of weapons involved research and development programs, the formulation of specifications, the correction of malfunction of equipment, and the analysis of captured enemy matériel. Quantity production of weapons included the computation of production requirements and schedules, the procurement and allocation of materials and components of finished matériel, the expansion of manufacturing facilities, and the handling of labor problems affecting Ordnance production. Distribution, maintenance, and salvage of Ordnance-produced matériel involved still another category of problems. Related to all these major tasks were problems of civilian and military personnel in the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, in Ordnance field agencies, and in the Ordnance sections of the tactical commands; safety, security, and industrial hygiene at Ordnance installations and at plants under Ordnance contract; inspection of Ordnance operations in the field; the organization and training of Ordnance troop units to service Ordnance matériel and

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assist combat troops in its use; and fiscal, legal, and other management services auxiliary to Ordnance operations.

These varied functions and activities were organized, within the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, in several successive patterns between 1939 and 1945. In September 1945 the Office consisted of 32 staff divisions, some of them grouped in the General Office (also known as Staff Divisions) and the rest grouped under three services--the Research and Development, the Industrial, and the Field Services. These divisions, most of which kept separate records, are separately described below.

Records.--The wartime central records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance consist of the central files, comprising records originating in all units of the Office, and a few other series that, in subject matter, are common to the entire Office and cannot be attributed to any one of its divisions. The central files, July 1940-July 1945 (2,200 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The comparable records for the preceding months of the defense period (Sept. 1939-June 1940) are part of a longer file, 1932-40 (450 feet), in the National Archives, while those for the period after July 1945 are in the custody of the Office.

Other series of records pertaining to the entire Office include the following, which are also in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Reports of various meetings and conferences in which Ordnance representatives participated, together with related correspondence, 1942-43; chronological files of incoming and outgoing teletype messages, 1943-47 (on 1,000 rolls of microfilm); wartime organization charts of Ordnance field agencies; drawings of Ordnance-procured matériel, 1927-42 (on 18,800 rolls of microfilm); security-investigation reports on Ordnance civilian personnel and on employees at plants under Army contract, 1940-46; agreements with contractors as to security regulations at plants, 1940-46; "briefs" on proposed sites for Ordnance plants, 1938-42 (48 feet); and correspondence with firms seeking war contracts, 1941-42 (8 feet). In the Historical Section of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance there are a series of statistical reports entitled "Progress of Ordnance Program" 1942-45, a set of monthly "Consolidated Reports" on the Ordnance research and development program, copies of Ordnance Technical Committee minutes, and a set of Army Service Forces "Monthly Progress Reports" with sections on Ordnance activities.

Printed or processed documents issued by OCO during the war include the following: "Ordnance Department Bulletins," "Ordnance Department Circulars," "Ordnance Department Orders," the "Ordnance Catalog" and the "Standard Nomenclature Lists," the "Ordnance Provision [Supply and Distribution] System Regulations," and the "Schedules of Stores Reports." These last four series are indexed in the "Ordnance Publications for Supply Index" (OPSI), in about 10 editions, Jan. 1939-Sept. 1943, and the "Index to Ordnance Publications," in 3 editions, Sept. 1943-Jan. 1944. Wartime periodicals, issued within the Army, were "Ordnance Digest" and "Firepower." Documents relating to the Office of the Chief of Ordnance are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets

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filed under Ordnance-related subjects and under AG 023 Ordnance, Jan. 1940-May 1943, AG 020 Chief of Ordnance, June 1941-Sept. 1945, and AG 321 Ordnance Department, Sept. 1941-Sept. 1945 (14 linear feet).

Chief's Office [450]

The position of Chief of Ordnance was occupied by Maj. Gen. Charles M. Wesson, June 1938-May 1942, and Maj. Gen. Levin H. Campbell, Jr., June 1942-February 1946. Reporting directly to the Chief was the Executive Division, which supervised the Staff Divisions, described below, and supervised the issuance of directives to Ordnance field agencies. The Division's Technical Information Branch, known previously as the Public Relations Branch and the Press and Radio Section, handled Ordnance publicity matters in collaboration with the War Department's Bureau of Public Relations. The Historical Branch, organized in July 1942, prepared semiannual progress reports on the Ordnance Department's activities, supervised the preparation of historical reports in the field, and beginning late in 1944 prepared and supervised the preparation of monographs and studies of the Ordnance effort in World War II. The Special Planning Branch, established in December 1943, was concerned first with manpower requirements and in 1945 with demobilization planning for the Ordnance Department.

The Chief's Office also included special committees from time to time. One of them was a volunteer committee of industrial leaders, called the Special Advisory Staff, established in June 1942. Another was the Central Project Integrating Committee (after November 1943), composed of heads of most of the divisions and services of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, which met regularly during the war. Another was the Committee on the Postwar Organization of the Ordnance Department, which was known also as the Harris Board. This Committee, with Maj. Gen. Charles T. Harris, Jr., as chairman, served from January to May 1944, when it submitted recommendations on reorganization and a "retention list" of production and storage facilities for postwar use.

Records.--Minutes of monthly conferences conducted by General Wesson, 1938-42, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Transcripts of telephone conversations of officers in the Executive Division, May 1940-May 1945, and of General Campbell, Dec. 1942-Jan. 1946, are in the Executive Office of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance.

The Historical Branch's records, which are in the custody of its successor, the Historical Section, include a "basic" wartime historical report (through Dec. 1942) for each Ordnance field agency and for a few offices (especially the Research and Development Service and the Field Service) and quarterly supplements to those reports and monthly reports of other Ordnance divisions, through June 1946. Each of these reports contains sections on such topics as organization and administration, industrial engineering, construction of facilities, production, costs, stock control, handling of materials, and salvage and redistribution. Also in the Historical Section are its unpublished monographs on such subjects as the organization of the

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Ordnance Department and the Ordnance lend-lease program and eighty-odd "project supporting papers," consisting of special historical studies, with supporting documents, prepared by various Ordnance offices and dealing with such topics as military training, manpower, Ordnance committees, packaging, ammunition, artillery, antiaircraft guns, and combat vehicles. In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are copies of the above "basic" and periodic historical reports, 1942-45; historical reports of selected Ordnance troop units, 1913-46; microfilm copies of selected documents on the history of the Ordnance Department, 1919-46; and a file of technical reports of the Ordnance jet-propulsion laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, 1943-46. A few of the Historical Branch's monographs and the "project supporting papers" are on file in the Army's Historical Division.

No information on the separately maintained wartime records of the other two branches of the Executive Division is available.

Staff Divisions [451]

The divisions that are described below, together with their predecessors, were known collectively as the General Office, 1931-42, as Staff Branches, March 1942-July 1944, and as Staff Divisions, from July 1944 until after the war.

Records.--The records of the Staff Divisions are discussed below, under the individual division entries.

Control Division [452]

This Division was established in June 1942. Its Statistics and Progress Branch consolidated production progress reports from Ordnance field agencies and from Ordnance contractors. Its Administrative Management Branch conducted management surveys of Ordnance agencies in order to promote efficiency in inventorying, freight handling, and other functions. Another unit, the Reports and Forms Control Branch, was added in July 1944.

Records.--The Division's working papers on work-simplification projects, conducted as part of the Work Simplification Program, 1942-45 (8 feet), and a series on Ordnance depot operations, including statistical reports, correspondence, and directives, 1945 (6 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other wartime records in the Division's custody in 1944 included a set of recurring reports prepared by the Division; management studies on various "service" offices in the Office of the Chief of Ordnance; reports on inspection trips to Ordnance Depots; and studies and survey reports prepared by the Statistics and Progress Branch.

Office Service Division [453]

This Division, known before July 1944 as the Administration Branch, provided such administrative services for the Office of the Chief of Ordnance as communications services, the procurement of office

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supplies, the reproduction of organizational charts and statistical data, library services (until about January 1944), and records-administration services. The Library prepared lists of Ordnance-related books and pamphlets, 1939-42, articles in periodicals, 1940-43, and "confidential material," 1941-44.

Records.--The Records Administration Staff's lists and indexes of Ordnance field records, 1945-48, and its correspondence on the storage of such records at the Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot, 1944-45; and the Division's file of Ordnance forms, 1919-44, and its records of requisitions to the Government Printing Office for printing and other work, 1909-44, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Fiscal Division [454]

This Division was responsible for assembling Ordnance budget estimates for the War Department's Budget Division, allocating appropriated funds within the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, supervising accounting and auditing (in conformity with policies of the Fiscal Director of the Army Service Forces), and handling civilian pay-roll matters within the Ordnance Department.

Records.--The following wartime records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: The Division's "Manual of Instruction for the Administration of Contracts," Sept. 1941; directives, circulars, and bulletins relating to fiscal matters, 1942; status-of-funds reports, 1944-46; vouchers and related papers on the transfer of funds between the Ordnance Department and other agencies, 1944; and correspondence with Ordnance field agencies on the status of allotments, audits, and the financial aspects of contract terminations, 1944-46.

Legal Division [455]

This Division, established in June 1942, served as the general counsel for the Office of the Chief of Ordnance and for Ordnance field agencies on various legal matters, including contract writing, price analysis, purchase policies, taxes on contractors, contract termination, claims, and patents affecting Ordnance-procured matériel and equipment. The Division in September 1945 consisted of eight branches, including the Pricing Pol icy Branch (chiefly for liaison with the Office of Price Administration).

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Copies of Ordnance contracts and related papers, 1941-44, arranged by Ordnance Districts and Arsenals; "Purchase Action Reports," 1943-46 (171 feet); records relating to wartime patents and royalties for inventions and improvements of Ordnance-procured matériel and equipment (part of a longer series, 1920-46, 80 feet); name files on patentees, 1940-47 (30 feet); records pertaining to war-fraud cases and claims under Ordnance contracts, 1942-46; memoranda commenting on reports by the Inspector General's Office on Ordnance agencies and Ordnance contractors, 1942-46; records relating to nominations of Ordnance contractors for Army-Navy "E" awards for production achievement, 1943-45; and a 26-volume history of the Division.

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Requirements Division [456]

The War Plans Division, 1931-June 1942, the War Plans and Requirements Branch, June 1942-July 1944, and the Requirements Division, July 1944-August 1945, successively served as the planning unit of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance to compute quantity requirements for Ordnance matériel, to be used as the basis for the Ordnance procurement programs. The Division calculated requirements data from the "troop basis" documents of the General Staff, the tables of equipment for troop units, the "day of supply" documents, and other records showing the current and future needs of the tactical arms for matériel; prepared and revised equipment charts, showing matériel allowances for each type of troop unit; and prepared data for inclusion in the Army Supply Program.

Records.--The following records of the Division were in its custody in August 1944: Studies, directives, and other papers on Ordnance matériel requirements, 1938-44; correspondence and computations relating to Ordnance items used in air operations, 1938-44; and "battle experience data" on use of ammunition and other expendable Ordnance items.

Safety and Security Division [457]

This Division, known as the Plant Security Division, May 1941-June 1942, had staff responsibility for the internal security of Ordnance installations and of plants under Ordnance contract, particularly in relation to fire protection, explosives safety, and industrial safety and hygiene. It supervised explosives safety training programs (in collaboration with the training agencies of the Counterintelligence Corps), reviewed building designs and lay-out plans from the standpoint of security and safety, conducted security and safety inspections of facilities, and disseminated statistics on industrial accidents. The Division included the Safety Advisory Board, of which the Chief of the Division was chairman. After about June 1942, the Division was located chiefly in Chicago, with a liaison unit and the Intelligence Branch in Washington. The Division was represented on the Joint Army-Navy Board on Port Facilities for Handling and Loading Ammunition and Explosives, 1944-45. It issued an "Ordnance Safety Manual" in 1941, and the following series of periodicals: "Safety Bulletins," 1939-45; "Safety Digest: Production with Safety," July-Oct. 1941, Feb. 1943-Feb. 1944 (9 issues); and "Review: Statistical Review of Ordnance Accident Experience," which partially replaced the "Safety Digest," Apr.-Dec. 1943.

Records.--Records of the Division and its predecessors in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include the following series (285 feet): General files, 1941-42; several other series, 1942--45; blueprints of plans of Ordnance and Ordnance-contractor buildings, used in safety and security work, and related correspondence, 1939-45; "survey reports" and related correspondence, 1941-42 (26 feet); records relating to the inspection, "audit," and improvement of safety and security measures at Ordnance installations, 1942-46; inspection reports and related correspondence on Ordnance

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installations and on facilities used by Ordnance contractors, 1942-45; and correspondence on accidents, 1940-49. Other records of the Division are at the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

International Division [458]

Beginning about April 1941 the Office of the Chief of Ordnance had a staff unit to handle the Ordnance Department's interests in the lend4ease program. This unit was the Defense Aid Section of the Field Service, 1941-42, the War Aid Branch, 1942-44, and the International Division, after August 1944. It collaborated with the Requirements Division of the Office in preparing quantity-production estimates, including budget estimates, of Ordnance matériel for allocation to Allied governments; collaborated with the Production Service Division of the Office in procuring machine tools for lend-lease allocation (in May 1944 this function was transferred to the Treasury Department); and collaborated with the International Division of Army Service Forces in supervising the transfer to Allied governments of Ordnance-procured matériel, machine tools, and materials.

Records.--Wartime records of the Division in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO (1,140 feet), include "Sequence Records" (directives authorizing lend-lease transfers), "Detailed Audit Sheets," and correspondence, 1941-45, pertaining to the transfer of machine tools, artillery, small arms, small-arms and artillery ammunition, motor vehicles, and other matériel, equipment, and materials to foreign governments, mainly to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, under the lend-lease program.

Military Personnel Division [459]

This Division, established in June 1942, and the personnel unit of the predecessor Military Personnel and Training Division advised the Office of the Chief of Ordnance on the procurement and assignment of officers and enlisted men for duty in the Ordnance Department in Washington and the field and handled personnel-administration matters affecting military personnel assigned to the Office. The Ordnance recruiting program in 1942 was conducted in collaboration with the National Automobile Dealers Association, the American Roadbuilders Association, and other trade associations in specialized fields related to Ordnance activities.

Records.--Records relating to movement orders for Ordnance officers and enlisted men, 1942-46 (8 feet), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Civilian Personnel Division [460]

This Division had staff responsibility for the thousands of civilians employed in Ordnance field agencies in the continental United States and dealt with problems of recruiting, training, classification, wages and salaries, and employee welfare. It assisted Ordnance contractors with such labor problems as housing, transportation, labor supply (including the importation of labor from Jamaica and Mexico), and race relations. It supervised personnel-administration work within the Office of the Chief of Ordnance

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and handled cases that were reviewed by the Ordnance Board on Civilian Awards, established in November 1943.

Records.--The following wartime records of this Division (100 feet) are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Job descriptions, wage and salary schedules, and related reports used in job-evaluation and wage-stabilization programs at Ordnance installations and at plants under Ordnance contract, 1942-46; records relating to individual civilian workers trained at the Rock Island Arsenal, 1942-46; records on the employee-suggestion program of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, 1943-46; reports and correspondence on strikes and other labor problems at plants working on Ordnance contracts, 1941-45; and records relating to the reemployment of civilians with veteran's status, 1944-45. Three other series of the Division, all relating to training courses given in the Ordnance Department, as well as the Director of Personnel's charts and correspondence on manpower utilization in the field, were in the Division's custody in Sept. 1944. Two unpublished historical studies, on engineering and executive civil-service employees in the Ordnance Department and on manpower utilization in Ordnance installations and plants under Ordnance contract, are on file in the Army's Historical Division. Among the documents issued to field agencies by the Civilian Personnel Division during the war were "Civilian Personnel Regulations," "Procedure Manuals," "Circulars," and "Pamphlets."

Military Plans and Training Service [461]

The Military Plans and Training Service, known also as MP&TS, was established in July 1944 to supervise the various divisions of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance and the schools and training centers in the field that were concerned with the organization, training, and equipping of Ordnance troops and with the overseas assignment and movement of Ordnance troop units. This work had been handled by the Military Personnel and Training Division, 1939-July 1942, and the Military Training Division, July 1942-July 1944. The subordinate units of the Service are described below.

Records.--In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, are the Service's reference file of Military Intelligence Division "Surveys," 1941-44, and Office of Naval Intelligence "Strategic Studies," 1944, all pertaining to particular countries and areas; and a series of minutes and reports of a committee of the British Ministry of Supply dealing with "RDX" explosives, Nov. 1944. Two studies entitled "History of Ordnance Military Training" (one, a 9-volume preliminary compilation, 1945; the other, a 1-volume but more complete study, 1946) are on file in the Army's Historical Division. A history of the Military Plans and Training Service is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Executive Division [462]

This Division made studies of personnel needs (for instructors and other types of personnel) at Ordnance training centers, allocated funds to those centers, and arranged for providing them with training aids

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and other training equipment; handled fiscal and supply matters affecting civilian schools operating under Ordnance training contracts; and conducted various administrative services within the Service.

Records.--No separately maintained wartime records of the Division are known to be in existence. Related records are among the central records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449).

Military Training Division [463]

This Division supervised the training of Ordnance military personnel and troop units. It compiled requirements for trained officers, enlisted specialists, and replacements; supervised the activation and deactivation of Ordnance training centers and schools; reviewed Ordnance courses, curricula, and training doctrine; and supervised the preparation of Ordnance field manuals, training films, charts, and other instructional material.

Records.--The Division's correspondence relating to its organization and personnel, the fiscal and contractual aspects of the Ordnance training programs in the field, the establishment of student quotas at schools, the training of Ordnance troop units, and the preparation of training doctrine, training literature, and training aids is interfiled with other records in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449). The following separately maintained series were in the Division's custody in March 1945: The Division's "programs of instruction," 1942--45; maps, construction plans, and requirements charts relating to Unit Training Centers, 1943-45; and inspection reports by officers of the Division, 1942-45. Two studies on the "History of Ordnance Military Training" are on file in the Army's Historical Division.

Inspection Division [464]

This Division conducted inspections of Ordnance schools and training centers, Ordnance training programs at civilian institutions, and the training of Ordnance troop units by the Service Commands and the Army Ground Forces.

Records.--No separately maintained wartime records of the Division are known to be in existence. Related records are among the central records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449).

Military Plans Division [465]

From July 1944 to about December 1945 this Division had the function of planning the organization, manning, and training of Ordnance troop units, monitoring their activation and movement, and reviewing their effectiveness in overseas service. This work had been handled earlier by two staff units of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance: (1) The Plans and Training Branch of the Military Training Division, July 1942-December 1943, in collaboration with the War Plans and Training Division of the Field Service of the Office; and (2) the Military Plans and Organizations Branch of the Field Service, December 1943-July 1944.

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Records.--The Division's case files on the malfunctioning of Ordnance matériel, proposed improvements suggested by overseas commands, and other subjects, 1942-46 (14 feet), and various series of weekly reports and letters, technical bulletins and memoranda, administrative instructions, and standard operating procedures from Ordnance staff sections of overseas commands, 1944-46, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The following series were in the Division's custody in 1945: Case histories of selected Ordnance troop units, 1941; and card histories on all Ordnance troop units and on the types of equipment issued to them, 1941-45.

Ordnance Department Board [466]

This Board, organized in July 1942, had broad authority to study and submit recommendations on the improvement of the organization and training of Ordnance troop units. It also considered other policy and training-doctrine matters referred to it by the Chief of Ordnance and occasionally conducted field tests of matériel and troop units. After November 1944 the Board was headed by the Chief of the Military Plans and Training Service, and its staff was located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.

Records.--The wartime records of the Board, 1942-45, are in the Board's custody. Related records are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449), and in the central records of the War Department with the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 Ordnance Department Board, Sept. 1941-Jan. 1945.

Research and Development Service [467]

Supervision over the matériel research and development programs of the Ordnance Department was vested, during the war period, in the following staff units of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance: The Technical Staff, from 1939 to July 1941; the Assistant Chief for Research and Engineering, in the Industrial Service, June 1940-June 1942; and the Technical Division, June 1942-July 1944, renamed the Research and Development Service (R&DS) in July 1944. Personnel of this staff organization represented the Ordnance Department on various interagency committees, such as the National Defense Research Committee; the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (especially the subcommittee on jet and turbine power plants), about 1944; and the Joint Army-Navy-Bureau of Mines Smokeless Powder Board, from about April 1944. Within the Service and its predecessors certain ad hoc units also functioned from time to time, among them about 25 Ordnance Engineering and Research Advisory Committees (discussion panels for use by Ordnance contractors), about 1940-41; the United States Tank Committee, which served briefly (about March 1942) to consult with the Joint British Tank Mission to the United States; and the Artillery Tropical Testing Mission, sent to the Panama Canal Zone about December 1944. The major divisions that comprised the Service are separately described below.

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Records.--The following wartime records of the Service and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files, 1940-45 (346 feet); correspondence and other records of the Assistant Chief for Research and Engineering, 1940-42; laboratory reports and test reports on ammunition and equipment from Ordnance arsenals, 1936-44; monthly and (after Jan. 1944) semiannual progress reports entitled "Research and Development Projects," issued by the Service and its predecessors, 1942-45; several of its general reports on the development and performance of Ordnance matériel, 1943-45; its "Catalogue of Enemy Ordnance Matériel," undated (about 1944); and reports to the Chief of the Service by the Mine Exploder Mission to the European Theater of Operations, Apr.-Oct. 1944. A reference set of technical reports on United States and foreign wartime ordnance is in the Technical Reports Section, Research and Development Division, Office of the Chief of Ordnance.

Executive Division [468]

This Division controlled the release of technical information about Ordnance matériel to Allied and other friendly governments; prepared reports on foreign ordnance developments; served as liaison in Washington for the Ordnance Department's proving grounds; handled budget and fiscal matters relating to the Ordnance research and development programs; and provided certain administrative services for the Research and Development Service.

Records.--Records relating to the exchange of technical data with foreign governments, 1937-46 (24 feet), including correspondence about the visits of foreign nationals and selected reports received from the United Kingdom and other governments, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The following series were in the custody of this Section in 1945: The Division's sets of minutes of the Ordnance Technical Committee, 1919-45; and record books, index cards, and other records relating to the Ordnance lend-lease program, 1942-45. Unpublished wartime studies of enemy and Allied ordnance are on file at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.

Research and Materials Division [469]

This Division was the Ordnance Department's liaison office for dealing with the National Defense Research Committee and the National Inventors Council. The Division also supervised the preparation of firing tables, bombing tables, and other ballistic data (through a Ballistics Section); supervised the review and issuance of specifications for Ordnance materials and matériel; and evaluated and distributed intelligence reports on foreign ordnance.

Records.--Records of the Division in the custody of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, include a 3-volume compilation entitled "Terminal Ballistic Data," Aug. 1944-Sept. 1945; firing records, technical reports, and related correspondence on ballistics acceptance tests, 1941-43 (386 feet); and survey reports of the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee and other documents on German fuel and lubricants industries, 1940-44.

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The following series were in the Division's custody in 1945: Armor-plate firing records from the various proving grounds, 1938-45; monthly progress reports of the Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1938-45; various reports by the Materials Section of the Division, including the "Quarterly Review of Materials," and "Availability of Materials," 1941-45; British ordnance specifications, 1933-45; and overseas observers reports on enemy matériel, 1942-45.

Ordnance Technical Committee [470]

This Committee, also known as the Ordnance Committee, had served since 1919 as the Ordnance Department's staff agency for reviewing proposed research and development projects, appraising matériel items under development, and approving experimental items for standardization and quantity production. During the war the Committee's work was normally handled by subcommittees set up for each major type of matériel or equipment, and the committees included, besides Ordnance representatives, representatives from the Army Air and Ground Forces, the Navy, the Marine Corps, and collaborating Technical Services such as the Corps of Engineers. Each subcommittee was assigned administratively to one of the appropriate Development Divisions (see entry 471), which prepared a preliminary "Ordnance Committee Minute" setting forth the detailed characteristics and desired performance of a weapon that had been proposed by the Ordnance Department, by one of the tactical arms, by an overseas command, or by the National Defense Research Committee. This document was reviewed by the Ordnance Technical Committee; forwarded to higher authority within the Office of the Chief of Ordnance and the Army Service Forces; and became the basis for an experimental contract awarded by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance and the appropriate Ordnance Arsenal or (after July 1940) Ordnance District. After an experimental item was fabricated, it was tested first at the Aberdeen Proving Ground and later by the appropriate service board or proving command of the Army Ground Forces or Army Air Forces; and a final "Ordnance Committee Minute" was prepared, in considerable detail, to be used as the production standard for that item. Such standard specifications became part of the "Ordnance Book of Standards," issued in several editions during the war. During the war the Committee considered about 12,000 projects. Most of them were specific matériel items under consideration; others were nomenclature problems; and others were comprehensive reviews of the entire Ordnance research and development program.

Records.--Sets of minutes of the Committee, 1939-45, with related reports and correspondence, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other wartime records are in the custody of the Committee. Copies of correspondence relating to the Committee's work are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 334 Ordnance Technical Committee, 1941-45 (6 linear inches). An unpublished 1-volume history entitled "Ordnance Technical Committee, Functions and Procedures, 1919-45" is on file in the Army's Historical Division.

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Development Divisions [471]

By September 1945 there were six divisions in the Research and Development Service that were concerned with major categories of Ordnance-procured matériel and equipment, and each of these divisions (known as branches of the Technical Division before July 1944) had responsibility for supervising a part of the Ordnance research and development program. The Artillery Development Division had charge of cannon larger than caliber .60, carriages, mounts, recoil mechanisms, fire-control and optical instruments, and related equipment and accessories, except items used in aircraft, which were handled by the Aircraft Artillery Development Division. The Small Arms Development Division handled machine guns, mounts (except those in tanks and other combat vehicles), rifles and other shoulder or side arms, body armor, pyrotechnic projectors, rocket projectors, shoulder-type rocket launchers, and ammunition of caliber .60 or smaller. The Ammunition Development Division handled larger caliber ammunition, bombs, grenades, pyrotechnics, land mines, and fuses; and the Rocket Development Division handled rockets and rocket launchers that were larger than the shoulder-type launchers. The Tank and Motor Transport Division was in charge of the experimental program for combat and noncombat vehicles and for special equipment such as gun mounts in such vehicles and served as the liaison agency, on experimental matters, for dealing with the Office of the Chief of Ordnance-Detroit.

Records.--Case files and other wartime records of the Ammunition Development Division, 1943-45, test reports, correspondence, and other records of the Rocket Development Division relating to the "T" and "M" series of rocket launchers, 1942-46, and a summary report on "Rocket Development," Oct. 1943, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Other wartime records of these and the other development divisions are in the custody of those divisions, now branches of the Ordnance Research and Development Division. For example, the following series were scheduled in 1945 for continued preservation: Several series on artillery development, 1940-45; several series of correspondence, development reports, and other papers on aircraft armor plate and aircraft cannon, 1939-45; project files on small-arms development, 1920-45, and related series; and drawings, handbooks, lest reports, and photographs of combat and noncombat vehicles, and related correspondence, 1922-45.

Industrial Service [472]

This organization, known as the Industrial Division, June 1942-1944, supervised the quantity procurement of matériel and equipment from the Ordnance Department's own Arsenals and from commercial firms under contract with the Department. Through its divisions in Washington (described in the following entries) and the Ordnance Districts and Arsenals in the field (described in entries 487 and 488), the Industrial Service estimated and scheduled production; assisted contractors to solve problems of plant expansions, machine-tool shortages, materials allocations, transportation

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priorities, and fuel and power supply; inspected finished matériel; and reviewed costs and prices for matériel. From June 1940 to June 1942 the Service also supervised the Ordnance research and development program, through the Assistant Chief for Research and Engineering. The jurisdiction of the Service originally extended to all types of Ordnance matériel. Later in the war the procurement of tanks and other vehicles was largely the responsibility of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance-Detroit (see entry 485).

Records.--The following records of the Service are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records kept by the Chief of the Service, 1941-42 (1 foot); office diaries of the Assistant Chief, 1940-42; printed and processed reports relating to Ordnance production matters, 1941-45; "Purchase Action Reports" on tanks, 1941-45; a record set of "Engineering Change Orders" on Ordnance-procured items, 1906-44 (186 feet); drawings of and specifications for foreign ordnance, 1939-41; the Industrial Service's "Consolidated Report on Research and Development Projects" (Feb. 1941, Feb. 1942 eds.; for later eds. see Research and Development Service records); and contracts with industrial firms for postwar production-mobilization studies, 1944-45, together with some of the studies, mainly on small-arms production. Completed contracts for Ordnance-procured matériel, together with related papers, are among the Army's consolidated contract files in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

Executive Division [473]

The Executive Division, in addition to its administrative functions within the Industrial Service (for personnel, records, and budgets), handled budgetary, personnel, and organizational problems affecting Ordnance District Offices and Ordnance Arsenals; reviewed plant-expansion projects financed by the Defense Plant Corporation and tax-amortization phases of Ordnance contracts; maintained, through its Automotive Industrial Liaison Section, contacts with the Tank Automotive Center; and supervised the establishment of Industry Integration Committees.

Records.--Recordings of telephone conversations of the Chief of the Automotive Industrial Liaison Section, 1942-44, relating to Ordnance production matters, and that Section's correspondence and reports on tank-swimming devices for amphibious tanks, 1943-45, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The following series were in the Division's custody in 1945: Fiscal records pertaining to the programs of the Industrial Service and its predecessors, 1938-45; Defense Plant Corporation lease agreements and amendments, and related correspondence and card files, 1940-45; policy papers relating to civilian-personnel matters in the Ordnance Districts; and minutes of meetings with District chiefs and other papers used in preparing a history of the administration of the Districts.

Industry Integration Committees [474]

Beginning in July 1942, the Industrial Service established, for each major category of Ordnance matériel under production, a committee representing the Ordnance Department and the various contractors

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producing that category of matériel. These committees, which eventually numbered about 200, arranged for cooperation among otherwise competing firms in the pooling and common use of facilities, specialized personnel, and patents. The committee staffs were usually stationed at the Ordnance districts, although they were responsible directly to the Industrial Service.

Records.--Two hundred feet of records of these committees are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, including, for example, the records of the Small Arms Industry Integration Committee, the T-4 Frangible Bullet Industry Integration Committee, and the Heavy Mobile Carriage Industry Integration Committee. Among these records are minutes and summaries of committee meetings, correspondence with firms and with the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, progress reports, and historical studies.

Production Service Division [475]

This Division had staff responsibility for certain matériel production matters that were common to the matériel divisions of the Industrial Service, which are discussed below. Among these responsibilities were the allocation of certain materials (under the Controlled Materials Plan) and machine tools; supervision over material-conservation programs; arranging for priorities for fuel, power, and transportation; the preparation of inspection standards; the design and procurement of inspection gages; and technical direction over packaging and packaging materials used for shipping Ordnance matériel. The Division was responsible for the review of production-award cases to be referred to the Army-Navy Board for Production Awards and for supervision over redistribution and salvage, through the Ordnance Disposal and Salvage Board. It issued the bulletin "Firepower" as production publicity to Ordnance plants, May 1942-September 1943. Its organization included the Engineering Administrative Suboffice, Detroit; the Gauge Suboffices, Detroit and Philadelphia; the Chicago Brass Office; and local boards of the Ordnance Disposal and Salvage Board, stationed at the Ordnance district offices.

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Semimonthly, monthly, and quarterly reports relating to the operation of the Controlled Materials Plan in the Ordnance Department, 1942-44, prepared by the Central Planning Branch of the Division; records of the Chief of the Central Planning Branch, 1942-44; tax-amortization applications from Ordnance contractors, with related correspondence, 1940-44; supporting papers for requisitions for Ordnance matériel from the British Purchasing Commission, 1941-42; copies of War Production Board reports on machine tools, 1942-43; correspondence and reports relating to the use of natural and synthetic rubber by Army agencies and Army contractors, 1943-45; reports (Form 00-435) on the utilization of Ordnance storage space, with related correspondence, 1944-46; papers relating to property inventories resulting from contract terminations and to the disposal of surplus machine tools and other production equipment, 1945-46; and records of the Ordnance Disposal and Salvage Board, 1942-45. The following

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series were kept in the Division's custody in April 1945: Records relating to the, "educational orders" program, 1939; several series relating to the procurement of gages under the lend-lease program, 1941-45; and records relating to "E" awards and other production-achievement awards to Ordnance contractors, 1942-45.

Artillery Division [476]

The quantity production of cannon and guns larger than caliber .60, gun carriages, recoil mechanisms, and other gun components, fire-control and optical instruments, submarine mines, and related equipment and accessories was supervised by this Division, 1942-45. Its predecessors were the Artillery, Aircraft, and Automotive Division, July 1939-July 1941, and the Artillery and Aircraft Armament Division, July 1941-June 1942. The Division prepared estimates of funds needed, including funds for lend-lease procurement; collaborated with the Research and Development Service in moving items from the developmental to the production stage; monitored plant-expansion projects; furnished production-engineering services; and supervised the execution of contracts and the inspection of finished matériel. The Division had suboffices at Watertown, Mass., and Rock Island, Ill., the Cannon Suboffice at Watervliet, N.Y., and the Fire Control Suboffice at the Frankford Arsenal, and it supervised the Erie Proving Ground at LaCarne, Ohio.

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Files on the artillery research and development, production, testing, and distribution programs, 1940-48; files of the Division Chief, 1940-45; historical reports and progress reports on artillery development and production, 1940-45; and records of the Division's Coast Artillery Section relating to equipment for harbor-defense projects, 1937-42. The following series were in the Division's custody in 1945: Records of telephone conversations, 1942-45; papers relating to revisions of the Army Supply Program, 1942-45; and photographs, engineering reports, and other papers on artillery carriages, 1940-45.

Ammunition Division [477]

The quantity production of ammunition larger than caliber .60 and of bombs, grenades, pyrotechnics, toluene, and their respective components and related products was supervised by this Division. Its responsibilities were comparable in scope and type to those of the Artillery Division, described above. By late 1942 these responsibilities extended to about 70 major factories, about half of which were explosives-manufacturing "works" and the rest ammunition-loading "plants." Beginning in August 1942, much of the Division's work was decentralized to the Field Director of Ammunition Plants (FDAP) at St. Louis, Mo., and Joliet, III. Other field agencies of this Division included suboffices at Wilmington, Del., Harvey, III., and Texarkana, Tex.; the Jefferson Proving Ground at Madison, Ind.; and the Southwestern Proving Ground at Hope, Ark.

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Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records of various branches of the Division relating generally to the development, production, and testing of matériel, 1940-48; blueprints of designs for ammunition plants and specifications for production machinery, 1910-41; estimates, statements of requirements, production schedules, and reports on ammunition production, 1939-42; schedules for ammunition production under the lend-lease program, 1941-42; reports of the Toluene Technical Committee, and copies of contracts for toluene production, 1941-43; monthly reports of facilities producing acids, rifle powder, and trinitrotoluene, 1941-44; records relating to the expansion of facilities for steel production, 1942-45; and records of the Chief of the Loading and Assembly Section of the Division.

Eleven unpublished volumes of historical studies of this Division are in the Army's Historical Division; subjects include the ammunition program in general, "RDX" explosives, smokeless powder, cotton linters and wood pulp in smokeless powder, solventless rocket powder, alcohol, and aviation gasoline components. Records of the Field Director of Ammunition Plants are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. An 8-volume unpublished history of his office is in the Departmental Record Branch, AGO.

Small Arms Division [478]

This Division supervised the quantity production of ammunition of caliber .60 and under, hand arms such as rifles and carbines, machine guns and mounts (except those used in combat vehicles), and other small arms such as pistols and revolvers, pyrotechnic projectors, shoulder-type rocket projectors, and accessories. Its responsibilities were comparable in scope and type to those of the Artillery Division, described above. There were 13 small-arms plants under contract to the Ordnance Department throughout the war, which the Division dealt with through its Small Arms and Ammunition Suboffice at Philadelphia.

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: General files of correspondence and reports, 1942-45 (10 feet); drafts of specifications for machine guns, ammunition, steel, and other items, 1941-45; correspondence and reports relating to machine tools for small-arms production, 1925-46; and minutes of Manufacturing Aids Committees, established, one in each Ordnance district, to facilitate small-arms production, 1943-46. A 1-volume unpublished historical monograph, "Small Arms and Small Arms Ammunition," is on file in the Army's Historical Division.

The following wartime series were in the Division's custody in 1945: Appropriation control ledger; "order books" and machine-records tabulations on orders placed by the Division; and reports, for all types of ammunition, on production, costs, plant capacity, and other aspects of procurement, 1942-45.

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Field Service [479]

The Field Service (FS) of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, located in Washington and not in the field, had staff responsibility for the storage, stock control, distribution, and maintenance of Ordnance-procured matériel and supplies throughout the continental United States. Among the functions of the Service were the computation of quantity requirements, in collaboration with other units of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance; the formulation of inventory procedures; the management of storage depots; and the formulation of statements of maintenance-and-repair practices. Beginning in December 1943, the Field Service worked with the Ordnance sections of the various overseas Theater headquarters to help resolve supply and maintenance problems, to receive ideas for improved engineering design based on field experience, and to disseminate information on modifications of Ordnance equipment. In connection with this work the Field Service occasionally sent teams of specialists to overseas installations to inspect and make recommendations concerning depots, base shops, and maintenance practices.

The Field Service was known as the Field Service Division in 1943 and 1944. By September 1945 the Service consisted of the five divisions that are separately described below. In earlier years the following divisions were part of the Service from time to time: The Transportation Division, December 1941-July 1942; the Bomb Disposal Division, May-June 1942; the Equipment Division, March 1941-March 1942; the Control Division, March-July 1944; and the Military Plans and Organization Division, May 1943-August 1944.

Records.--The following wartime records of the Field Service are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Requisitions, with related papers, for Ordnance items from Army and Navy agencies, 1942-44 (8 feet); photographs used as illustrations in Ordnance historical reports, 1942-45 (8 feet); sets of technical manuals and Field Service documents disseminated among Army and other users of Ordnance equipment, 1941-45 (23 feet), and records relating to the preparation and printing of these and other documents, 1940-47 (8 feet); and Navy requisitions for Ordnance matériel, 1939-43 (20 feet). Other records are in the custody of the successor Field Service Division, Office of the Chief of Ordnance.

Field Service instructional material and directives issued to field installations include the following series: "Ordnance Field Service Bulletins," 1939-43; "Ordnance Field Service Circulars," 1939-43; "Field Service Modification Work Orders," 1939-43; "Ordnance Field Service Technical Bulletins," 1942-43; "Ordnance Equipment Charts" and "Ordnance Storage and Shipment Charts," 1941-43; and the "Joe Dope" and other poster series used in maintenance training, 1942-45. Some of these series are indexed; and there is a "General Index of Technical and Administrative Publications for the Ordnanceman" (Apr. and July 1943 eds.). A monthly statistical report, "Supply Control" (section 20-ord of the Army Service Forces "Monthly Progress Reports" series), May 1944-May 1946, and a quarterly report

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"Supply Control Planning," Oct. 1944-Mar. 1945 (also in that series), was prepared apparently by the Field Service. Records of the 6th Ordnance Zone, at Denver, are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Executive Division [480]

This Division of the Field Service provided personnel manage- ment, budget and fiscal, and records administration services and prepared statistical studies; conducted planning studies; and reviewed problems of functional jurisdiction in which the Field Service was involved with other units of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance.

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Copies of Inspector General reports relating to Ordnance matters, 1942-45; Automotive Disability Reports, 1942-45; records of the Field Service representative on the Ordnance Committee on Coordination and Reconciliation of Procedure for Industrial Division and Field Service Division, 1942-45; and records relating to postwar planning, 1945-46. Weekly and daily activity reports of Field Service divisions and of its agencies in the field, were transferred after the war to the Historical Section of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. Certain other series were in the Division's custody in Mar. 1945.

Stock Control Division [481]

This Division, known as the General Supply Division before July 1943, had staff responsibility for all Ordnance distribution matters except those involving ammunition and tanks. Originally the Division was organized according to types of matériel; later it was reorganized along functional lines, with emphasis on inventory procedures, supply-control procedures, and issue and distribution procedures. Its work involved distribution to Army and Navy users and to foreign lend-lease recipients. A sub-office was located at Rock Island, Ill.

Records.--The following records of this Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: "Major Item Status Reports" and other reports, studies, and correspondence on the stock status of Ordnance items in the United States and overseas, 1942-45; lend-lease files on Ordnance equipment transferred to foreign governments, 1939-45 (1,128 feet); and papers relating to special distribution projects, 1942-45. Some other series were in the custody of the Division in Mar. 1945.

Ammunition Supply Division [482]

This Division had both stock-control and storage functions with respect to the wide variety of ammunition procured by the Ordnance Department for Army, Navy, and lend-lease users. The Division developed and prescribed procedures for the surveillance and renovation of ammunition in Ordnance Depots and for packaging, crating, and marking ammunition. The Division's activities were partially decentralized at the Philadelphia Ammunition Supply Suboffice; the Ordnance Submarine Mine

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Depot, Fort Monroe, Va.; and the Ordnance Aerial Torpedo Suboffice, Eglin Field, Fla.

Records.--The following records of this Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Shipping orders and related papers for ammunition transferred to Navy agencies and to foreign governments, 1939-45; records of the Philadelphia Ammunition Supply Suboffice, including general files, 1942-45, incoming and outgoing teletype messages, 1944-45, statistical reports, and inspection and investigation reports on accidents and the malfunction of Ordnance ammunition; and General Orders and Special Orders of the Submarine Mine Depot, Fort Monroe, Va., 1943-45. Some papers relating to this Depot are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see especially the separate "project" file entitled "Fort Monroe Submarine Mine Depot."

Storage Division [483]

Staff responsibility for the acquisition and construction of warehousing and other depot storage facilities for Ordnance matériel was vested successively, within the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, in the Utilities Division, July 1941-March 1942; the Facilities Division, March-July 1942; the Plans and Operations Division, July 1942-April 1943; the Executive Division, April-July 1943; and the Storage Division, after July 1943. The Storage Division and its predecessors reviewed requirements for depots, coordinated and adjusted work-load assignments between depots, initiated storage training programs, and arranged for the procurement and allocation of equipment to handle materials at Ordnance Depots. By 1945 the Storage Division had technical supervision over 48 Ordnance Depots and Ordnance Sections at 6 Army Service Forces Depots.

Records.--Records of the Division, consisting of tracings and blueprints of building plans for warehouses at Ordnance Depots, 1942-45, and correspondence relating to operational equipment, 1941-44, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. The following series were in the Division's custody in 1945: Contracts, reports, and correspondence relating to Government-owned, contractor-operated depot facilities; "Ammunition Space Reports," 1940-45; "Depot Management Reports," 1943-45; and motion pictures of storage facilities, 1942.

Maintenance Division [484]

This Division had staff jurisdiction over all maintenance activities affecting Ordnance matériel and equipment. It prepared and issued maintenance manuals and maintenance training literature; reviewed repair, overhaul, modification, and maintenance-inspection policies at Ordnance Depots, Base Shops, and Arsenals; and handled staff matters relating to the development and use of tools and other equipment, fuels, lubricants, cleaning compounds, and preserving compounds for maintenance purposes. In 1942 the Division's organization included the Automotive Spare Parts Board, on which the Army Ground and Air Forces were represented, established to

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study and improve the supply and requirements systems for spare parts for vehicles.

Records.--The following records of the Division are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records of the Executive Section, including correspondence, memoranda, and reports, arranged by Ordnance field agencies, 1942-46; quarterly historical reports of Ordnance Arsenals and Depots, containing activity reports on maintenance and other operations, 1943-45; other reports on maintenance operations at Ordnance Depots, 1943-45; reports on experimental projects for the improvement of motor-vehicle parts and accessories, and related photographs, drawings, and correspondence, 1942; and reports on the "Walden auxiliary oiling system," 1942. Among the documents issued by the Division were the periodical, "The Ordnance Sergeant," and the Ordnance parts list entitled "Standard Nomenclature List," renamed the "Ordnance Supply Catalog" in January 1946. Other series of records were in the Division's custody in 1945.

Office of the Chief of Ordnance--Detroit [485]

The Tank Automotive Center (TAC), established in Detroit in September 1942 and renamed the Office of the Chief of Ordnance-Detroit (OCO-Detroit) in July 1944, was regarded as one of the several major "services" of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, although it was located outside of Washington. The organization had general jurisdiction, within the Ordnance Department, over the development, production, and distribution of tanks, other self-propelled vehicles, and noncombat vehicles and automotive equipment. Before September 1942 these functions had been divided among the Tank Division of the Industrial Service, the Research and Development Service, the Field Service of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, the Detroit Ordnance District, and the Office of the Quartermaster General. Exercising its centralized functions relating to tanks and vehicles, OCO-Detroit supervised experimental development projects, promoted conservation and simplification in both production and maintenance, supervised packaging-development projects, determined nomenclature of components and parts, assembled quantity requirements, supervised the expansion and curtailment of storage facilities, controlled stock levels and distribution, and disseminated directives and instructional material (such as "Lubrication Orders," "Technical Manuals," "Technical Bulletins," and the periodical "Army Motors") for Army, Navy, and lend-lease users of matériel and equipment.

The Office and its predecessor, headed by the Deputy Chief of Ordnance, had several branches or divisions for each of the major functions of development, manufacture, supply, and maintenance, and for personnel, legal, accounting, and publication services. Liaison sections and branches for matters concerning tanks and automotive equipment were located in Washington, in the Research and Development Service, in the Industrial Service, and in the Field Service.

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Records.--The following wartime records of OCO-Detroit and its predecessors are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Central files, 1940-45; subject files, 1942-45; incoming and outgoing teletype messages; invitations for bids, awards, and other contract papers; a record set of Production Orders, 1940-46; production-inspection reports; "history data" on heavy tanks (the M-6 series); "history" folders on the development, production, and distribution of Ordnance combat and noncombat vehicles, 1943-45; reports of meetings with steel-foundry subcontractors, 1942-43; records relating to the production of tires and tubes and their allocation to OCO-Detroit, 1944; a 2-volume photographic compilation entitled "Mechanical Devices for Anti-Tank Minefield Clearance," Sept. 1943; pamphlets relating to an inventory of industrial facilities under Ordnance contract, 1944; correspondence with British authorities regarding defects in automotive equipment transferred to them under the lend-lease program, 1942--45; and records of some of the divisions of OCO-Detroit. Two 1-volume unpublished histories that relate to OCO-Detroit have been prepared by the Historical Section of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, one dealing with motor-transport vehicles and the other with combat vehicles; copies are on file in the Army's Historical Division, and related papers are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Ordnance Field Agencies in the Continental United States

Ordnance Research and Development Center [486]

This Center was located at the Aberdeen (Md.) Proving Ground and was known in the early part of the war simply as the Aberdeen Proving Ground. It operated under the staff supervision of the Research and Development Service of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, serving as the major Ordnance agency for the proof-testing and operational testing of matériel and equipment in its developmental, modification, and other preproduction stages. The Center had four Proving Grounds in the field, a Suboffice at Dover, Del. (in 1944 and 1945), representatives stationed at the Desert Training Center, Camp Seely, Calif., at the White Sands Proving Center, Las Cruces, N. Mex., and at the Ordnance Proving Center, Manitoba, Canada.

Records.--Some wartime general files and other records of the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Most of its wartime records and those of the Ordnance Research and Development Center are at Aberdeen, Md., however. The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain a "project" subseries on the Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ordnance Districts [487]

Until June 1940 the thirteen Ordnance Districts served, as they had 487 since 1922, as a skeletal field force to survey industrial plants and evaluate them as potential Ordnance plants for emergency use. In June

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1940 the Districts were given responsibility for the procurement of ammunition and later were given responsibility for other portions of the Ordnance production program except for tanks and automotive equipment, for which the Office of the Chief of Ordnance-Detroit had responsibility. Most of the staff divisions of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance were represented in each Ordnance District office. The thirteen District offices were located at Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Springfield (Mass.), New York City, Cincinnati, Rochester (N.Y.), St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Boston, San Francisco, and Birmingham. Beginning in June 1942, Ordnance District sub-offices (also known as regional offices) were established, and by 1945 they numbered 76. The supervisory activities of the Ordnance Districts extended to Ordnance Works (31 by 1945) and Ordnance Plants (37 by 1945), and to many plants operated by Ordnance contractors.

Records.--Wartime records of some of the Ordnance District offices have been transferred to the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Some records of the Los Angeles Regional Office are also in Kansas City. Copies of historical reports and other reports of the District offices, as well as correspondence and other records bearing on their wartime activities, are among the central records of the Office of the Chief of Staff (see entry 449). The central records of the War Department contain separate "project" files for each Ordnance District.

Ordnance Arsenals [488]

Before July 1940 the six Government-owned and -operated Ordnance Arsenals constituted the major field establishments for managing the Ordnance production programs. Later this function was shifted to the Ordnance Districts. Meanwhile, the Arsenals conducted certain manufacturing, shell-loading, and testing operations and trained factory inspection personnel, and these functions were continued and expanded throughout the war. The wartime Arsenals numbered 17 by 1945 and included the following, all of which were established before the war and continued in the postwar period: Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia; Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, N.J.; Rock Island (Ill.) Arsenal; Springfield (Mass.) Arsenal; Watertown (Mass.) Arsenal; and Watervliet (N.Y.) Arsenal.

Records.--The wartime records of some of the Ordnance Arsenals are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Copies of their histories and reports and other records bearing on their activities in World War II are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449). The central records of the War Department contain separate "project" files on each Arsenal.

Ordnance Depots [489]

In 1939 there were 19 Ordnance Depots in the field, supervised by the Field Service of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. By 1945 there were 48 Ordnance Depots, and there were Ordnance Sections at 6 general Army Service Forces Depots. In May 1944 Ordnance Depots were divided

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into ammunition and automotive depots, with the latter also handling artillery and small arms. Jurisdiction over the Depots was divided between the Storage Division of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance and OCO-Detroit.

Records.--Wartime records of the Fort Crook, Nebr., Savannah, Ga., Los Angeles, and other Ordnance Depots are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. The central records of the War Department contain separate "project" files for each Ordnance Depot.

Ordnance Schools and Training Centers [490]

The Ordnance Department's training establishment in the field consisted of schools for the individual training of officers and enlisted men in various specialties and a number of centers where various types of Ordnance troop units were trained. The officer-training schools included the Ordnance School at Aberdeen, Md., the subsidiary Ordnance School at Arcadia, Calif., January 1943-May 1944, and the Ordnance Officer Candidate School at Aberdeen, Md., July 1941--December 1945. The schools for the individual training of enlisted men were the Ordnance Training Center at Atlanta; 4 major Ordnance Automotive Schools; 16 other Automotive Schools (acquired from the Quartermaster Corps and operated from August 1942 to December 1943); the Ordnance Bomb Disposal Center at Aberdeen, Md.; and the Ordnance Parts Clerical School at Toledo. Unit training was conducted at 2 Ordnance Unit Training Centers which were located in 1945 at Texarkana, Tex., and Atlanta, Ga. These centers trained Ordnance troop units both for duty in the continental United States and for overseas duty with the air and ground combat commands.

The Ordnance training establishment in the field was supervised during the war by the following successive staff divisions in the Office of the Chief of Ordnance: Military Personnel and Training Division, to July 1942; Military Training Division, July 1942-July 1944; and divisions of the Military Plans and Training Service, after July 1944. After September 1945 most of the schools were discontinued.

Records.--Wartime records of most of the Ordnance School and training centers are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Ordnance Staff Sections in Tactical and Service Commands [491]

The headquarters of each major field command in the United States and overseas included, among its special-staff sections, a section that was concerned with Ordnance matters. Thus, the training commands and centers of the Army Air and Ground Forces included Ordnance representatives for supply, training, and other technical functions. The nine Service Commands each had a Service Command Ordnance Officer, with Armament, Vehicle (or Motor) Supply, Automotive (or Motor) Maintenance, and Advisory Branches under him. Overseas there was an Ordnance Section at each Theater, Army, Corps, and Air Force headquarters and frequently at other echelons as well. Although these ordnance staff sections were responsible to the commanding general of the headquarters, they had

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close relations with the Office of the Chief of Ordnance insofar as technical matters were concerned and collectively they formed part of the Army's Ordnance Department in the field.

Records.--The records of these sections are among those of the air, ground, or service command headquarters to which they were attached. Reports prepared by the sections and correspondence relating to them are among the records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance (see entry 449). For example, weekly reports and letters, technical bulletins and memoranda, and other documents (all in serial sets) of the Ordnance sections of the headquarters of the following organizations are among the records of the Military Plans Division of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance: Communications Zone, European Theater of Operations; Third and Fifth Armies; Western Pacific Base Command; South Pacific Base Command; and Services of Supply, China-Burma-India.

Historical reports of Ordnance sections in ground commands are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and of sections in air commands are in the Air Historical Group. A 1-volume "History of the Ordnance Service in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations," 1942-45, and a similar volume on the European Theater of Operations are in the Historical Section of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. A 1-volume report on Ordnance organizations in the European Theater of Operations constitutes volume 104 of the reports of the General Board, United States Forces in the European Theater, about 1946.

Ordnance Troop Units [492]

The Ordnance troop units that functioned overseas and elsewhere in the field in World War II consisted of the following selected types, within each of which a given unit was usually identified by a numerical designation: Ordnance Base Regiments and Ordnance Motor Base Shop Regiments; Ordnance Battalions, and specialized battalions such as Armored Maintenance Battalions, Ordnance Ammunition Battalions, Ordnance Base Ammunition Battalions, and Ordnance Maintenance Battalions; Ordnance Base Groups; and a variety of Ordnance Companies, such as Ordnance Ammunition Companies, Ordnance Depot Companies, Ordnance Maintenance Companies (usually organized as "Light Maintenance" or LM, "Medium Maintenance" or MM, and "Heavy Maintenance" or HM Companies), Ordnance Automotive Maintenance Companies (Medium and Heavy), Ordnance Evacuation Companies, Ordnance Motor Vehicle Assembly Companies, and five special types of Ordnance Companies for use with Air Forces combat units; Ordnance Depots; and Ordnance Bomb Disposal Squads.

Each of these hundreds of troop units normally underwent a training, organization, and staging phase within the continental United States; an operational phase outside the United States; and when a unit was being redeployed from the European or Mediterranean Theater to the China-Burma-India or Pacific Theaters, a redeployment phase in the continental United States.

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Each Ordnance troop unit operated under varying degrees of control by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance and other headquarters in Washington, depending in part on the phase through which the unit was passing. Planning the composition, functions, and equipment for a new type of unit was controlled by one or more divisions of the War Department General Staff, by the headquarters of the Army Air Forces, Army Ground Forces, or Army Service Forces, and by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. Activation and assignment to a training center for organization and training were similarly controlled by those same headquarters in Washington. The training and organization of a given unit at a field installation in the continental United States were supervised by one of the Ordnance Training Centers, although training doctrine and inspection of training were usually controlled by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. Once the unit went overseas, its activities, whether they were combat operations or service and supply operations, were supervised by air, ground, or service commands in the particular theater of operations. The unit's redeployment phase in the continental United States, if any, was supervised by the same training center that had conducted its original training or by similar centers.

Records.--The wartime records of most Ordnance troop units are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Normally the organization records of a unit consist of its general files, sets of its General Orders and other administrative documents, and copies of its morning reports and other recurring reports.

There are unpublished histories of units that consist normally of several chronological installments and appendixes of supporting documents. Histories of ground-related units are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and those of air-related units are in the Air Historical Group. Histories of both types of units are among the records of the units at St. Louis and among the records of the Historical Section of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. A few Ordnance units have published histories of their wartime activities and experiences.

Many papers relating to particular Ordnance troop units are among the records of the higher headquarters in Washington that have been mentioned above. They include various types of orders, such as activation orders and movement orders, and related correspondence; various types of tables and related background correspondence governing the composition and equipment of those units; statistical reports and operational summaries in which the activities of units are outlined; and papers relating to citations and decorations awarded or considered for given units.

CORPS OF ENGINEERS [493]

The Corps of Engineers, also known as CE, was one of the major Technical Services in World War II. It was responsible for developing and supplying certain types of equipment for the Army Ground Forces, the Army Air Forces, the Navy (to a limited extent), and the Allied forces (under the lend-lease program); it supervised the acquisition of real estate

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and the construction and maintenance of buildings and other facilities for the Army (after December 1941); and it trained and furnished specialized Engineer personnel and troop units for handling Engineer equipment and Engineer services in the field. The major types of equipment procured by the Engineers and serviced by Engineer troops included bridges (floating and fixed), heavy construction equipment, general construction tools, surveying and map-reproduction equipment, camouflage materials, antiaircraft searchlights, barrage balloons (before 1942 handled by the Air Corps), airplane landing mats, demolition equipment, water-purification and distributing equipment, fire-fighting equipment, mobile shops, field-fortification supplies, and gasoline and fuel-dispensing equipment.

The Army's real-estate and construction functions were handled in 1939 as in prewar years, by the Quartermaster Corps. In November 1940, however, the work of building airfields and other Air Corps installations was transferred to the Corps of Engineers, and in December 1941 the construction and repair of all Army installations, utilities work, and the acquisition and disposal of real estate were likewise transferred. The major types of structures were "command" facilities used in military operations, such as airfields, training areas, hospitals, storage depots, and port facilities, together with related access roads, bridges, and utilities; "industrial" facilities, especially munitions plants and other factories under contract with the Technical Services; the structures built for the atomic-energy project of the Manhattan District; and the many civil-works projects for which the Engineers had long been responsible, such as river and harbor improvements and flood-control facilities in the United States. Outside the continental United States, the Corps of Engineers had responsibilities for Army airfield construction; the construction of air and naval bases in British possessions between Newfoundland and Trinidad; the Canol Project for building oil refineries and pipe lines in Northwest Canada; the Alaska Highway through Northwest Canada; the Pan-American Highway in Central America; the construction and rehabilitation of such military routes as the Ledo Road in Burma; and the Trans-Iranian Railroad.

The Corps of Engineers consisted of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, a series of field agencies in the United States for construction, procurement, and training, certain Engineer staff sections attached to the major tactical commands overseas, and the many Engineer troop units in the field. These organizations, together with their records, are separately described below.

Records.--See entries below.
[See also the
Corps of Engineers volumes in the U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

Office of the Chief of Engineers [494]

This Office, also known as OCE, was the headquarters of the Corps of Engineers and was located in Washington. During the war it grew administratively from about 13 major units (known as sections in 1939) to 32 units (known as headquarters divisions, and not to be confused with Engineer Divisions in the field). Presiding over this organization was the Chief of Engineers, who was assisted in 1939 and 1940 by two Assistant Chiefs of Engineers, one for the civil-works sections and one for the military sections;

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from 1941 to early 1943, by four Assistant Chiefs of Engineers, one each for Administration, Construction, Supply, and Troops; from early 1943 to April 1945, by the Deputy Chief of Engineers, various special assistants, and two Assistant Chiefs of Engineers, one for Military Supply and one for War Planning; and, from April 1945, by the six Directors separately discussed below.

During the war the Office of the Chief of Engineers was represented on a number of committees outside the Corps of Engineers, including the Highway Traffic Advisory Committee, 1941, and the successor Joint Action Highway Board, 1942, which was headed by the Public Roads Commissioner and advised on the routing of Army troop movements and military supply traffic over the public roads; the Committee on National Civil Technological Protection (an advisory committee also known as the Technical Board, in the Office of Civilian Defense), 1941-44; and the War Production Board's Facilities and Construction Committee, 1942.

Records.--Most of the wartime records created in the organizational units of the Office of the Chief of Engineers were filed in 15 major series that were centrally maintained for the Office as a whole. These records amount to 9,200 feet, and many of the series cover years either earlier or later than 1939-45. They are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, where they were originally filed. They consist of the following:

Service Commands Series, 1920-46, containing correspondence with and about Service Commands, 1942-46, and their predecessor Corps Areas, pertaining mostly to construction and supply, but also to fiscal, personnel, mapping, and other matters; organized by command.

District Series, 1942-45, containing correspondence with and about Engineer Districts, on subjects similar to those in the Service Commands Series, and on both military and civil construction; organized by District.

Division Series, 1942-45, containing correspondence with and about Engineer Divisions in the field, on subjects similar to those in the District Series; organized by Division.

Post, Camp, and Station Series, Dec. 1941-49, organized alphabetically by name or location of Engineer or other Army installation, except Army Air Forces installations.

Commercial Series, 1941-49, organized by name of construction contractor, equipment-production contractor, other firm, or individual (such as a Congressman); in effect an index to other series.

Airfield Series, Nov. 1940-Dec. 1945, organized by name of airfield, air base, modification center, training center, or other Army Air Forces installation; relating mostly to Engineer construction but excluding contracts.

Contract Series, Dec. 1941-Dec. 1945, organized by contract number, containing not only contracts, other agreements, and related correspondence (file 161), but also material on "exceptions" (file 132) and claims papers (file 167). These contracts relate mostly to construction, but also to the

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production of Engineer equipment and supplies. (File 161 is in process of being transferred to the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis, as payments on given contracts are completed.)

Real Estate Series, Dec. 1941-49, relating to real property for Army (including Army Air Forces) installations, but excluding that used in civil-works projects; organized for the most part by area or location, then by vendor.

Rivers and Harbors and Flood Control Series, Nov. 1942-49, relating to civil-works projects. Similar files, Mar. 1923-Oct. 1942, are in the National Archives.

Bridges Series, Nov. 1942-49, also relating to civil-works projects, and dealing with both bridge projects and bridge permits.

Civil Real Estate Series, Nov. 1942-49, relating to real-estate transactions involved in civil-works projects.

Permits Series, Nov. 1942-49, relating to permits to private parties to build structures over navigable waters, including permits to electric-power utilities issued in collaboration with the Federal Power Commission.

Military Series, 1918-45, containing correspondence and other papers organized (a) by names of the other Technical Services, the Military District of Washington, boards and committees (both within and outside of the Corps of Engineers), schools of the Engineer Corps and of other services, and other Federal agencies, or (b) by miscellaneous topics such as boats, access roads, and the aircraft-warning service.

Subject Series, 1942-45, also a miscellaneous series, containing copies of printed reports, mostly on research and development and on the testing of Engineer equipment and materials.

The following records that in subject matter are general to the Corps of Engineers are also in the Communications and Records Branch: The Atlantic Island Base Files (or "Destroyer Deal" project correspondence), 1940-42 (24 feet); the Map File or Specification File, dating back to 1890 and containing plans for buildings, roads, and drainage projects and construction specifications prepared by Engineer districts in accordance with a given "construction directive" (22,000 feet); records relating to Work Projects Administration construction projects at Army posts, camps, and stations in the United Stales and in the Hawaiian Department, 1939-41; and a series entitled "historical records of buildings and structures," comprising bound volumes of descriptions, photographs, statistical summaries, cost tabula-lions, and other data relating toconstruction projects undertaken by the Quartermaster Corps and later by the Corps of Engineers.

Among the series of printed or processed documents issued by the Office of the Chief of Engineers during the war are General Orders, Special Orders, Circular Letters, and Memoranda, 1939-45; the "Orders and Regulations Manual," divided into 10 major "chapters" (various eds., 1938-40, and supplementary "Changes," 1939-41); semiannual "Station List and Statement Showing Rank, Duties, and Addresses of Officers," 1939-41; the weekly (later biweekly and monthly) statistical report, "Construction, . . .

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Real Estate, Repairs, and Utilities," Jan. 1941-Apr. 1946; the "Annual Report of the Military Activities of the Chief of Engineers," 1944-45; the Military Reservationshandbook, arranged by State (various eds., 1939-41); and the Engineer Field Manual: Reference Data,1941 ed. The Office of the Chief of Engineers issued Bridge Regulations and Navigation Regulations pertaining to navigable waters, 1939-45; Fishing Regulations and Fishing and Hunting Regulations, pertaining to coastal waters, 1939, 1941; Anchorage Regulations, 1940; and Danger Zone Regulations, pertaining to coastal waters, 1940-45.

The central records of the War Department, in the AGO, contain copies of some correspondence of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, as well as memoranda of the General Staff and the Secretary of War pertaining to Engineer affairs; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Chief of Engineers, 1941-45, AG 025 Engineers, 1940-43, and AG 321 Engineers, 1942-45 (13 linear feet).

See the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, fiscal years 1939-45. Each report contains, as part 2, the annual compilation entitled "Commercial Statistics, Water-Borne Commerce of the United States." Articles on Engineer wartime activities are in the bimonthly periodical Military Engineer for the war years and later.

Chiefs Office [495]

The wartime Chiefs of Engineers were Maj. Gen. Julian L. Schley, October 1937-September 1941; and Maj. Gen. Eugene Reybold, October 1941-October 1945. The Chief's immediate office included, in September 1945, the Deputy Chief of Engineers and the Executive Officer. Directly responsible to the Chief were six directors whose offices are described later, and eight "administrative staff" divisions, described immediately below.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the immediate office of the Chief are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). A series consisting of War Department plans, of the Army Service Forces, directives and reports on Army participation in the seizure of coal mines in liberated areas, 1941-44, is in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers.

Control Division [496]

This Division examined the organization and administrative procedures of the Office of the Chief of Engineers and of Engineer field agencies in order to promote greater efficiency, prevent duplication of functions, curtail overstaffing, and avoid nonessential activities. It advised on the design and standardization of Engineer forms; and it prepared progress reports and statistical summaries on Engineer wartime activities.

Records.--The Division's correspondence pertaining to the preparation and elimination of forms for recurring reports, with a sample of each form

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(3 feet), is in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Other records of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Technical Information Division [497]

This Division, established as the Technical Information Branch in June 1943 and renamed a division early in 1945, was in charge of the public-relations program and the historical program of the Corps of Engineers. It served as liaison between the Corps and the War Department's Bureau of Public Relations; surveyed public opinion on the activities and problems of the Corps; prepared an annual report of the military activities of the Corps; and issued the "Construction Bulletin" and the "Contract Awards Bulletin." The historical program was supervised by the Historical Branch, which (now known as the Engineer Historical Division) is preparing for publication a history of the Corps of Engineers in World War II.

Records.--The wartime records in this Division included in 1947 the records of the Technical Information Branch, largely public-relations correspondence and copies of OCE public statements (7 feet); and the records of the Historical Branch, containing organization charts, administrative manuals, photographs, research materials and studies of Engineer activities in World War II, and other historical data (30 feet). A small series of press clippings, press releases, and similar material on wartime Engineer activities is in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers.

Fiscal Division [498]

This Division, known as the Finance and Accounting Section, 1939-41, and the Fiscal Branch, 1942-April 1945, assembled and prepared Engineer budget estimates and justifications; developed, standardized, and supervised fiscal, accounting, and auditing procedures and practices, including cost-accounting standards, in the Corps of Engineers; supervised such matters as insurance coverage of Engineer contractors and the settlement of fiscal claims; and reviewed disbursements of the civil-works appropriations.

Records.--The wartime records in the Division include contract records; project cost summaries on river and harbor projects, flood-control projects, Civil Aeronautics Administration airfield projects, and military-construction projects; general ledger sheets for real-estate and construction funds allocated to the Quartermaster Corps and the Corps of Engineers; ledgers covering civil-works funds; machine-records tabulations on appropriations and allotments to the Corps of Engineers; correspondence relating to contract settlements; "reports of status of accounts" received from Engineer field districts and divisions, from 1942; 1945 and 1946 budget estimates and related correspondence for 1945 and 1946; justifications of estimates, from 1941; registers of deposits, allotment registers, and register warrant books; and a policy and precedent file. "Procurement Authorities," 1940-45, are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

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Legal Division [499]

This Division was known as the Legal Branch, 1942-43, and the Contracts and Claims Branch, 1944-April 1945. It had staff responsibility, within the Office of the Chief of Engineers, for legal and contractual policies affecting contracts, contract terminations and renegotiations, contractual and tort claims, and patent and royalty rights, except for policies affecting real estate, which were established by the Director of Real Estate.

Records.--In 1947 the Division's general files (5 feet) were in its custody. Its contracts for Civil Aeronautics Administration-sponsored airfield-construction projects, 1941-42, are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers; the related correspondence is in the central records of the Office. The Division's extensive contract files, for completed contracts, are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

Legislative and Liaison Division [500]

This Division, established in April 1945, reviewed pending legislation affecting the Corps of Engineers and assembled material for presentation before congressional committees. This work was usually done in cooperation with personnel in Headquarters Army Service Forces and in the Legislative and Liaison Division of the War Department Special Staff.

Records.--The wartime records of this Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Personnel Division [501]

This Division, known as the Personnel Section, 1939-41, was later divided into the Civilian Personnel Branch and the Military Personnel Branch, and was reconstituted as the single Personnel Division in April 1945. Civilian personnel matters for the Corps of Engineers that were handled by this Division included manpower requirements, allotments, recruitment, placement, inspection, and statistics. For a time the Division shared with the Labor Division staff responsibility for labor relations, labor standards, wage rates, and other matters, especially at industrial plants under Engineer contract. Military personnel matters included procurement and assignment of officers and enlisted men.

Records.--The Personnel Division's wartime "policy and precedent files" (6 feet) and its monthly strength reports on military and civilian personnel are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Individual "201" files for military personnel in the Corps of Engineers are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, and similar files for civilian personnel are in the Civilian Personnel Branch of the Office. Other wartime records in the Division in 1947 included correspondence relating to the assignment of military personnel to the Manhattan District; a Kardex "history" of Regular Army

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Engineer officers; and reports on the training of civilian personnel at Engineer field agencies. Other records relating to the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Labor Division [502]

This Division had staff responsibility (shared for a time with the Personnel Division) for labor supply, labor relations, labor standards, wage rates, and other personnel problems affecting labor, particularly labor at construction projects under Engineer contract. In 1942 this work had been handled by the Labor Relations Branch of the Construction Division.

Records.--The Division's wartime correspondence was in 1947 in the successor Industrial Personnel Branch. Other papers relating to the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Office Services Division [503]

This Division supplied mail and message services within the Office of the Chief of Engineers; supervised the records administration program in the Corps of Engineers; maintained the central records of the Office as well as files of technical engineering data and publications; and provided other administrative services, such as reproduction and printing of Engineer documents.

Records.--Wartime records of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Office of the Director of Military Supply [504]

Between 1939 and 1945 the procurement and distribution of Engineer equipment, supplies, and spare parts were the staff responsibility, within the Office of the Chief of Engineers, of the organizational unit known successively as the Supply Section, 1939-41, the Supply Division, 1942-45, and the Office of the Director of Military Supply, from April 1945. This organization computed and consolidated quantity requirements, developed a system of stock control, scheduled and monitored production, supervised the storage and issue of equipment, and performed related tasks.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Office are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). A set of the monthly report, "Supply Control," May 1944-May 1946 (forming sec. "20-Eng" of the Army Services Forces "Monthly Progress Report" series), is in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

International Division [505]

This Division, established early in 1942 as the International Aid Branch and renamed the International Division in December 1943, had staff responsibility for the procurement of Engineer lend-lease matériel and equipment for the Allied forces. Under authorizations from the International Division of Headquarters Army Service Forces and higher authorities,

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the International Division of the Office of the Chief of Engineers reviewed foreign requests and prepared requisitions, sought preference and priorities ratings, reviewed delivery schedules, and issued shipping instructions to Engineer depots. It also prepared and maintained control records, statistical reports, and fiscal data on lend-lease transactions (including transactions under the Soviet protocol program and, later in the war, the civilian supply program) and on reciprocal-aid transactions. Among the major types of Engineer equipment transferred to the Allies were bridge components, such as trestles and pontoons; equipment used in bridge construction, such as boats, derricks, and erecting tools; and road building and construction equipment.

Records.--The wartime records of the Division (275 feet) are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. They include general files relating to the lend-lease program in the Corps of Engineers, from 1941; requisition files; ledgers, journals, and other records of allocations and shipments under the Soviet protocol program, 1941-45; and records relating to the civilian supply program in occupied and liberated areas.

Requirements and Stock Control Division [506]

This Division, known for a while as the Requirements Branch of the Supply Division, formulated quantity requirements and maintained stock controls; prepared the Engineer sections of the "Army Supply Program" and tables of equipment and of basic allowances for Engineer troop units; controlled nomenclature and stock numbering of Engineer equipment (through its Catalog Branch); and recommended disposal of types of equipment that were obsolete or in excess of needs.

Records.--Records in the Division in 1945 included general files, from 1943; records relating to the Engineer sections of the "Army Supply Program"; records relating to the Controlled Materials Plan, including correspondence with and about the Defense Plant Corporation relating to "controlled" construction materials and records relating to the distribution of "controlled" materials to Engineer prime contractors; a record set of tables of basic allowances and tables of equipment governing the distribution of Engineer equipment to troop units, with related papers, from 1943; records of the Catalog Branch, including nomenclature and stock-number cards for all items of Engineer-procured equipment, from 1944; photographs of Engineer equipment; correspondence of the General Items Branch with Engineer field agencies about excess property, from 1944; and a "history" file of this Branch relating to standardization, specifications, and quantity production of explosives, from 1942. In 1946 the functions and records of the Division were transferred to the Engineer Supply Control Office, Granite City, Ill.

Procurement Division [507]

This Division was known as a part of the Supply Section, 1939-41, and as the Procurement Services of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, 1942-43. It interpreted procurement policies to Engineer districts

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in the field, where most of the procurement operations were performed; scheduled and expedited production; administered the Controlled Materials Plan and other material priority and allocation systems in the Engineer Corps; supervised inspection of items being procured; made price analyses of certain major purchases; and processed recommendations for production awards to Engineer contractors. In connection with some of these tasks the Division dealt with Headquarters Army Service Forces, the War Production Board, and the War Manpower Commission. The Division's Lumber Branch, which operated through six regional Central Procuring Agencies, procured lumber not only for the Engineers but also for the other Technical Services, the Army Air Forces, the Navy, the Maritime Commission, and other Federal agencies.

Records.--Records of the Division and its predecessors relating to tractor, crane, and shovel requirements and allocations, 1942-45 (6 feet), are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers; and records relating to the Controlled Materials Plan, 1943, are divided between the Departmental Records Branch, AGO (which has the security-classified records), and the Procurement Division of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (which has the unclassified records). The basic papers relating to completed wartime contracts, including the Central Procuring Agencies' lumber contracts, are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Noncontractual records of these Agencies are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Storage and Issue Division [508]

The distribution of Engineer equipment was the staff responsibility of the Supply Section, 1939-41, several branches of the Supply Division, 1942-April 1945, and the Storage and Issue Division, from April 1945. This organization supervised the Engineer Depots, the Engineer sections of Army Service Forces Depots, the warehouses under the control of the Division Engineers, and the Engineer Central Stock Control Agency at St. Louis. It reviewed requirements for the construction of Engineer storage facilities; allocated used cranes within the Army; and prepared procedures to expedite and account for the issue and shipment of Engineer equipment to Army troop units and agencies in the United States and overseas and to agencies outside the Army.

Records.--Records that were separately maintained in the Division in 1945 included general correspondence of the Storage Branch, 1944-45 (20 feet), "International Aid Tonnage Reports," relating to lend lease, "Operating Expense Summaries," "Depot Supply Operations Reports," "Availability of Storage Space Reports," and "Reports of Civilian Supplies Shipped to Liberated or Occupied Areas," 1944-45. The following records are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO: Records relating to the domestic and overseas distribution of Engineer-procured equipment and supplies, 1938-45 (1,900 feet); and a "Report of Depot Operations . . . Washington Level," Jan. 1943. Records in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers are the monthly matériel status reports from

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overseas commands, 1941-45; "Depot Work Measurement Reports" from Engineer Depots and Engineer sections of Army Service Forces Depots, and related correspondence, 1944-45; monthly "Depot Space and Operating Reports" from warehouses under the Division Engineers, 1944; records of expenditures at Engineer Depots, 1943; and Engineer Redistribution Center reports. Engineer Depot layout maps are in the consolidated map files in the Communications and Records Branch.

Maintenance Division [509]

This Division and its predecessors had staff functions relating to the repair and servicing of Engineer-procured equipment in the field. Its Parts Supply Branch controlled requirements data, stock levels, allowances, and issue of spares and spare parts; and its Maintenance Services Branch developed maintenance standards, prepared bulletins governing the modification and packaging of equipment, and issued the periodical "Maintenance Engineer." The Division had an office at Columbus, Ohio, and 13 Engineer Regional Maintenance Offices.

Records.--The records of the Washington office of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). The records of the Columbus office, 1942-44, are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Wartime records of some of the Engineer Regional Maintenance Offices are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Office of the Director of Military Operations [510]

The Director of Military Operations, appointed in April 1945, and his predecessor, the Assistant Chief of Engineers for War Planning, December 1943-April 1945, had staff responsibility for the research and development program of the Corps of Engineers, the organization and training of Engineer troops and troop units, the technical Engineer intelligence program, and the Engineer mapping and map-service programs. Earlier in the war these functions had been handled by the Troops Division, November 1941-November 1943. The Director supervised three major divisions, separately described below.

Records.--The Director's records were filed with the records of the three operating divisions described below; related records are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Plans and Training Division [511]

This Division was the Operations and Training Section, 1939-April 1943; the Operations and Training Branch of the Troops Division, May-November 1943; and the War Plans Division, November 1943-April 1945. It prepared activation schedules, station assignments, and movement orders for Engineer troop units, in collaboration with Army Ground Forces and Army Air Forces agencies; prepared logistical plans and studies affecting the supplying and movement of overseas Engineer

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units; had technical supervision over the training of Engineer troops at the Engineer School, civilian schools under Engineer contract, Engineer sections of Army Service Forces training centers, and Engineer Replacement Training Centers; supervised the preparation of training literature and other aids used in Engineer training; and reviewed overseas construction projects. The Division's Petroleum Branch planned the construction of petroleum pipe lines and distribution terminals and developed designs and specifications for oil-well drilling and oil-refinery equipment to be used in liberated areas.

Records.--Completion reports and progress reports on overseas construction, 1943-45 (6 feet), are in the Foreign Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Records pertaining to Engineer supply and construction problems in the theaters of operations, 1943-45 (12 feet); and correspondence of the Training Branch relating to training at schools under contract, and Planning Branch records relating to oil-refinery projects in the Middle East and in Canada (the Canol Project) and to oil-refining equipment for use in liberated areas, 1943-45, are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. A set of tables of organization and tables of equipment for Engineer troop units, papers pertaining to the mobilization training program for Engineer troop units, 1940, and a set of training films, film strips, and graphic portfolios used in training, 1941-45, are in the Engineer School, Ft. Belvoir, Va. Records of the Operations and Training Branch relating to mobilization, 1924-42 (38 feet), and a report of the Petroleum Branch entitled "Logistical Plans for . . . Oil Fields in . . . New Guinea," May 1944, are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Military Intelligence Division [512]

This Division (not to be confused with the division by the same name in the War Department General Staff, with which it had close relations) was known as the Intelligence Branch of the Troops Division, 1942-43. Its Strategic Intelligence Branch compiled the "Strategic Engineering Studies" on foreign areas, in collaboration with the Section of Military Geology of the Geological Survey and with Engineer agencies such as the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, the Beach Erosion Board, and the research office of the North Atlantic Division, and it prepared other intelligence reports. The Technical Intelligence Branch analyzed information on foreign developments in the field of Engineer equipment and practices and issued the "Engineer Intelligence Bulletin." The Geodetic Branch compiled and issued domestic and foreign geodetic information. The Map Production Branch had staff responsibility for the map services of the Corps of Engineers in the field and had a measure of technical supervision over the Army Map Service. The Topographic Branch participated in pertinent Engineer Board tests and other projects end planned the organization, training, and equipping of Topographic Battalions and other mapping, map-collecting, and map-producing troop units. The Division's Security Section handled domestic security problems in the Office of the Chief of Engineers and its field agencies and at plants under Engineer contract.

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Records.--Records relating to the work of this Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). Many overseas intelligence reports on Engineer matters are filed in the Engineer School, Ft. Belvoir, Va. The "Strategic Engineering Studies," some of which are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, usually contain, for a given country or region, separate volumes or parts on terrain, geology, beaches, port and terminal facilities, roads, airfields, railroads, and electric power and fuel resources.

Research and Development Division [513]

Staff responsibility for the research and development programs and projects involving Engineer-procured equipment and supplies was vested in the Supply Section, 1939-41, the Development Branch of the Supply Division, 1942-October 1943, the Engineering and Development Division, November 1943-April 1945, and the Research and Development Division, from April 1945. In 1945 the Minefield and Fortifications Branch was responsible for such items as camouflage materials, explosives, demolitions, mines, and booby traps; the Bridge Branch, for fixed and floating bridges, rafts, ferries, and reconnaissance boats; and the Mechanical and Electrical Branch, for construction equipment, electrical equipment, shop equipment, pipe lines, petroleum storage and dispensing systems, airfield landing mats, and fire-fighting equipment. Each of these branches was responsible for formulating programs and supervising and reviewing experimental and testing projects carried on by the Engineer Board, by industrial firms under contract, and by the National Defense Research Committee. The Technical Branch of the Division coordinated matters common to all types of equipment, such as controls over the standardization of specifications, modification of standard items, packaging problems, equipment nomenclature, and arrangements for meetings of the Engineer Corps Technical Committee. The Division was represented, from time to time, on committees of the other Technical Services and on interservice committees such as the Joint Battery Advisory Committee.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of this Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). The Division's set of reports of the National Research Council and the National Defense Research Committee, 1941-45, and the Shaped Charges Committee, 1944-45, is in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Some other wartime records of the Division remain in its custody.

Office of the Director of Military Construction [514]

From 1939 to December 1941, while the major responsibility for Army construction was in the Quartermaster Corps' Construction Division, the limited construction responsibilities of the Office of the Chief of Engineers were handled by its Construction Section. After the Quartermaster agency was transferred to the Office of the Chief of Engineers in

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December 1941, the two construction offices were merged and expanded into the Construction Division of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, renamed the Military Construction Division in 1944 and the Office of the Director of Military Construction in April 1945.

This organization had the major responsibility, within the War Department and the Army, for construction work at all Army posts, camps, and stations, which were called "command" installations; at all "industrial" installations, such as munitions plants operating under contract to the Technical Services and the Army Air Forces; at War Department-approved municipal and private airfields, the construction of which was financed by the Civil Aeronautics Administration; and in communities where wartime housing for civilians employed at Army installations was a problem. Construction functions included the preparation of designs and specifications for structures, the preparation of budget estimates and justifications, and (at all War Department-controlled installations except "industrial" installations) supervision over maintenance and repair and over the installation and maintenance of utilities. These operations were largely carried on by the Engineer Districts and Divisions, but staff responsibilities were handled by the divisions under the Director of Military Construction, described below.

Records.--Records of the Director's immediate office and of the predecessor office of the Chief of the Military Construction Division are in the Communications and Records Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. They include a survey, "Construction at Air Corps Stations by the Corps of Engineers . . ." (1941. 2 vols.); correspondence and reports relating to access roads and strategic roads, 1941-45; correspondence and reports relating to war housing projects, 1941-45; and progress reports on construction projects in the United States and overseas (85 feet). Records relating to congressional investigations of Quartermaster and Engineer construction programs, 1941-45, were in the Director's office in 1945. Three unpublished wartime histories, which are on file in the Army's Historical Division, deal with military construction under the Quartermaster General and the Chief of Engineers (3 vols.), the construction of United States Army air bases in Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador, Greenland, and Bermuda (9 vols.), and repairs and utilities work of military construction units (3 vols.).

Engineering Division [515]

This Division, which originated as a branch of the Quartermaster Corps' Construction Division, 1939-41, had charge of research and development, design, and specification work for structures and construction materials. From the spring of 1944 to April 1945 this work was shared with the Engineering and Development Division. The Engineering Division supervised the selection and planning of sites and the preparation of layouts of grounds and buildings, master plans for the development of permanent post, camp, and station facilities, and design criteria for water-supply systems, plumbing systems, sewage treatment and disposal systems, heating and

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power plants, refrigeration systems, and fire-protection facilities. It was also concerned with design criteria and specifications for airfield pavement, railroad structures, storage facilities, and access roads.

Records.--Most of the Division's wartime records are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). Records kept separately in the Division include maps of permanent Army posts and design computations for permanent and temporary buildings.

Command Construction Division [516]

This Division, known before April 1945 as the Troop Facilities Branch, had staff responsibility for military construction projects and the construction of aircraft-production plants but not other industrial plants in the continental United States and overseas. The main policy activities were centered in the Requirements and Policy Branch, but similar duties for particular geographic areas were performed by the Eastern, Central, and Western Sector Operations Branches (for all construction, except sea-coast fortifications, in the continental United States); the Seacoast Fortifications Operations Branch; and the Foreign Section Operations Branch. The Division's work included planning, reviewing, and inspection activities.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). Records kept separately in the Division include copies of General Staff, State Department, and Engineer correspondence, minutes of meetings, and reports on the Canol Project and the Alaska Highway, 1942-45 (5 feet); records relating to access roads, including "program request" material, project statements, maps, and correspondence, 1940-45 (5 feet); technical reports relating to Army Air Forces night lighting systems (2 feet); and reports on completed projects for fortification structures (part of a longer file dating from 1900).

Industrial Construction Division [517]

This Division, known before April 1945 as the Munitions Plants Branch, had staff responsibility for Engineer construction projects at industrial plants to be used for the production of matériel and supplies, especially Ordnance Department and Chemical Warfare Service plants, depots, and experimental installations. The Division's work, which included technical supervision over the industrial construction work done by the Engineer Districts in the field, was performed by several branches according to type of plant (explosives, ammonia and methanol, shells and small arms ammunition, and shell and bag loading). The Facilities Utilization Branch was concerned with the reassignment and disposal of Engineer-constructed plants and (in collaboration with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation) with reviewing the utilization of industrial properties controlled by the Defense Plant Corporation.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Industrial Construction Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). In the Division are a set of drawings of

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typical plants and a file of "Industrial Facilities Inventory" reports containing histories of projects undertaken by the Engineer Districts (60 feet).

Repairs and Utilities Division [518]

This Division, known earlier in the war as a branch of the Construction Division, had staff responsibility for the maintenance and repair of Army buildings, roads, railroad facilities, other structures and grounds, and such utilities as systems for heating, electricity, sewage, fire-prevention, refrigeration, air conditioning, cooling, and storage of petroleum products. It participated in the renegotiation (or price adjustment) of utilities contracts.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were a policy file on repairs and utilities, 1942-45, and papers relating to fire prevention, including material prepared by the Office of Civilian Defense. Training films relating to fire prevention are in the custody of Headquarters United States Air Force. The Division prepared and issued two manuals for use in the field--the "Repair and Utilities Manual" and the "Maintenance Manual."

Office of the Director of Real Estate [519]

The Real Estate Branch of the Construction Division, 1939-44 (in the Quartermaster Corps until December 15, 1941), was renamed the Real Estate Division early in 1944 and became the Office of the Director of Real Estate in April 1945. It had staff responsibility for all the War Department's real-estate transactions, including those for "command" facilities (posts, camps, and stations), for industrial plants built by the Corps of Engineers, and for civil-works projects such as flood-control projects. By 1945 the work of the Office was performed by the Administrative Branch, chiefly for real-estate budget and accounting, the Appraisal Branch, and three major divisions, which are separately described below.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of this Office and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the Real Estate Series (see entry 494). A record set of historical maps of Army real-estate transactions, 1937-45, is in its custody. A set of the monthly tabulation, "Owned, Sponsored, and Leased Facilities," covering both command and industrial facilities in the United States, Nov. 1943--Dec. 1945 (with gaps), and a set of the quarterly report, "Army Installations Outside Continental United States," Mar. 1944-Dec. 1946 (with gaps), are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO; more nearly complete sets are in the Office of the Assistant Chief of Engineers for Real Estate.

Acquisition Division [520]

This Division, known before April 1945 as the Acquisition Branch of the Real Estate Division, was responsible, in connection with the Army's land-acquisition programs, for land purchases, lease-condemnation proceedings, and claims cases involving the Army's real-estate holdings.

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Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the Real Estate Series (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were originals of leases, 1900-1945 (400 feet); records relating to the review of leases, 1942 (2 feet); and a precedent file of selected case files on real-estate claims, 1922-45 (8 feet).

Management and Disposal Division [521]

This Division, known before April 1945 as the Disposal Branch of the Real Estate Division, promoted the more effective utilization of Army real estate, by means of an inspection program and other methods; directed its disposal (by sale, transfer, or other means); supervised the termination of leases and related proceedings; and supervised the management of surplus property that was under Engineer control.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the Real Estate Series (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were copies of legal instruments (leases, licenses, permits, and easements) covering civil-works lands and "military" lands, 1918-45 (90 feet); a precedent file of copies of opinions of the Judge Advocate General, the Attorney General, and the General Accounting Office, 1918-45 (12 feet); and a precedent file of copies of selected deeds, 1939-45 (2 feet). A small series of correspondence and agreements on the disposal, by sale or otherwise, of certain Army real-estate holdings, 1939-44, is in the National Archives.

Realty Requirements Division [522]

This Division, known before April 1945 as the Real Property Requirements Branch of the Real Estate Division, prepared statistical and other reports on the Engineer programs for acquisition, disposal, and utilization of real estate, both in the United States and overseas, and conducted surveys and inspections of real-estate activities of Engineer field agencies.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the Real Estate Series (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were "Docket record cards" and other card records on land owned, leased, and disposed of by the Army.

Office of the Director of Readjustment [523]

The Readjustment Division, renamed the Office of the Director of Readjustment in April 1945, had staff responsibility for problems related to the demobilization of the Engineer equipment-procurement program

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and construction program. Its work was performed in 1945 by four divisions, separately described below.

Records.--This Office kept no wartime records separate from the records of the subordinate divisions and from the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Price Adjustment Division [524]

Staff responsibility for the renegotiation of Engineer construction and equipment contracts, for the purpose of eliminating excess profits, was at first vested in the Price Adjustment Section of the Construction Division, 1942-43, and was limited to construction contracts. That Section was merged into the new Price Adjustment Branch of the Readjustment Division in 1944, which was renamed the Price Adjustment Division in April 1945. Renegotiation projects were assigned to this Division by the War Department Price Adjustment Board. Proceedings were conducted under the renegotiation act of April 28, 1942, and its amendments.

Records.--Some of the Division's separately maintained records are in the Contract Records Branch, Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Other records relating to its activities are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Contract Termination Division [525]

This Division, established in 1944 as the Contract Termination Branch, supervised the termination of Engineer construction and equipment contracts by Engineer field agencies, in accordance with general policies formulated in Headquarters Army Service Forces and by higher authorities.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). Files pertaining to completed negotiations are in the consolidated Army contract files in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis.

Redistribution and Salvage Division [526]

This Division, established in 1944 as the Redistribution and Salvage Branch, had staff responsibility for the handling of excess property (other than real property) in the custody of Engineer field agencies, including materials and production equipment acquired from contract terminations, property left at discontinued Engineer installations, and property returned from overseas. Operations that were supervised by the Division at Engineer field agencies included the declaration of surplus property, the reconditioning of equipment (especially construction equipment) for re-use, and salvage and related storage and maintenance work.

Records.--This Division's wartime records are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

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Demobilization Planning Division [527]

This Division, which was established as a branch in January 1944, supervised the preparation of plans for the demobilization of the Engineer equipment-procurement program and of Engineer troops at the end of the war. Other divisions of the Office of the Chief of Engineers participated in this work, partly through their representation on the Office's Demobilization Planning Committee, of which the Chief of the Division was Chairman.

Records.--The wartime records of this Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). An unpublished historical study, "Corps of Engineers Demobilization: Plans and Actions" (2 vols.), prepared by the Historical Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, is on file in the Army's Historical Division.

Office of the Director of Civil Works [528]

Staff responsibility for so-called "civil works" construction projects, as distinguished from military-installation construction and munitions-plant construction, was vested in the following offices of the Office of the Chief of Engineers: The River and Harbor and Flood Control Section (later Branch), 1939-44; the Civil Works Division, 1944-April 1945; and the Office of the Director of Civil Works, from April 1945. Civil-works projects included projects to improve navigation in rivers and harbors; flood-control projects; and multiple-purpose projects for flood control, hydroelectric-power development, and related purposes. Related activities included the issuance of permits to local authorities to construct bridges over navigable waters, the removal of wrecks from rivers and harbors, the establishment of harbor lines and anchorage grounds, pollution abatement, and the publication of statistics on water-borne commerce in the United States. The civil-works office also handled construction work at the bases leased by the United States in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the West Indies and, from November 1940 to December 1941, the airfield-construction program in the continental United States.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Office and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the several civil-works series (see entry 494), or among the records of the divisions described below. In the Records and Communications Branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, there is a series of Island Base Files, 1940-Nov. 1942 (20 feet). Similar correspondence after Nov. 1942 is in the Post, Camp, and Station Series of the central records.

Administrative Division [529]

This Division, which functioned under various names during the war, was a control office for reviewing pending civil-works legislation, preparing annual reports on the civil-works program, conducting cartographic work related to the projects, and performing certain administrative services.

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Records.--The wartime records of the Division are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

Engineering Division [530]

This Division, known until April 1945 as the Engineering Branch, reviewed plans, specifications, engineering reports, and estimates relating to civil-works projects; conducted studies on reservoir operations, hydraulics, hydrology, and soil mechanics; and undertook geological and seismic surveys related to such projects.

Records.--Most of the wartime correspondence, research data, and other records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the several civil-works series (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were reservoir operations reports, from 1942; storm study data used in dam-construction projects, from 1939; hydrometeorological reports and other reports of the Weather Bureau, from 1935; and correspondence, reports on soil mechanics, and geological and seismic survey data relating to river-and-harbor and flood-control work, from 1939.

Flood Control Division [531]

Until 1944 the flood-control projects of the Corps of Engineers were supervised by the River and Harbor and Flood Control Section. In 1944 a separate Flood Control Branch was established and in April 1945 it was given the status of a Division. Its supervisory work included investigations, legislative planning, authorizations, inspections, priorities control, fiscal review, and general review of the flood-control program in the Engineer Districts and Divisions. It dealt with both flood-control projects and multiple-purpose projects that included flood control.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the several civil-works series (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were correspondence and other papers on the planning, construction, operation, and maintenance of individual flood-control and multiple-purpose projects, from 1936; card records of flood-control and other civil-works projects; budget working papers for flood-control projects, from 1938; and correspondence relating to the National Resources Planning Board and copies of minutes of meetings of the Board, 1941. Copies of "OCE Civil Works Circular Letters," 1936-41, are in the Communications and Records branch of the Office of the Chief of Engineers.

River and Harbor Division [532]

Until 1944 river and harbor projects of the Corps of Engineers were supervised by the River and Harbor and Flood Control Section. In 1944 a separate River and Harbor Branch was established and in April 1945 it was renamed a Division. Its supervisory work included investigations (in collaboration with the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors).

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legislative planning, authorizations, inspections, priorities control, fiscal review, and general review of the river-and-harbor improvement program in the Engineer Districts and Divisions.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially in the several civil-works series (see entry 494). Among the records kept separately in the Division in 1945 were the following series, all dating from before the war: Card records showing action on applications for bridges and permits for structures in and over navigable waterways; monthly and annual Engineer District reports on the operations of dredges; and a record set of speeches and other public statements on the civil-works program by the Secretary of War, the Chief of Engineers, and others.

Safety and Accident Prevention Division [533]

Between 1939 and 1943 the promotion of industrial safety measures at Engineer installations and in construction projects was the staff responsibility of the Construction Section; in 1944 and part of 1945, it was the responsibility of the Division of Civil Works; and in 1945 the work was carried on in the Safety and Accident Prevention Division of the Office of the Director of Civil Works. The safety program included research and statistical studies of accidents; the review of designs of buildings and equipment from the point of view of safety; and the development of a training program to reduce accidents.

Records.--Most of the wartime records of the Division and its predecessors are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494). Among the records in the Division in 1945 were general files on safety and accident prevention, from 1941, including reports prepared by Division personnel on deficiencies of equipment and supplies used in civil-works and other projects, from the point of view of safety, and "Consolidated Safety Reports," from 1941.

Engineer Boards and Committees

Engineer Board [534]

This Board, located at Fort Belvoir, Va. (except for its Test Section, which was located at Fort Storey, Va.), was the main Engineer Board for testing, reviewing, and appraising Engineer-procured equipment and Engineer techniques under simulated field conditions. It also considered other subjects that were submitted to it by the Chief of Engineers, and it was authorized to submit to him any recommendations that it considered to be for "the improvement of the service."

Records.--Some of the Board's wartime records are in its custody at Fort Belvoir, Va. Others are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO. Copies of the Board's wartime reports are in the library of the Research and

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Development Division of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, and in other collections in Washington. Among the documents issued by the Board was an "Index of Specifications" for mobile-type construction in theaters of operations (various eds., 1943-45).

Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors [535]

This Board, which dated from 1920, continued during the war its function of compiling statistics on the water-borne commerce of the United States for publication in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers. It prepared war-related reports that appeared in its "Port Series," and it collaborated with the Military Intelligence Division of the Office of the Chief of Engineers in preparing studies on foreign ports for inclusion in that Division's wartime "Strategic Engineering Studies."

Records.--The wartime records of the Board were in its custody in 1946 and formed part of a larger body of records amounting to almost 2,000 feet. The "Port Series" for the years 1941-45 covers about 30 port and harbor areas in the continental United States and its possessions. Copies of these and other reports and compilations of the Board, with related correspondence, are filed with the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers.

Beach Erosion Board [536]

This Board, which dated from 1930, collaborated with the Military Intelligence Division of the Office of the Chief of Engineers in preparing studies on foreign beach and port areas for inclusion in that Division's "Strategic Intelligence Studies."

Records.--The wartime records of the Board, which with its earlier and later records amount to 500 feet, are in its custody. Among the documents issued by the Board were its "Manual of Procedure in Beach Erosion Studies," 1939, and its "Technical Reports," 1941-42. Copies of the Board's studies, with related correspondence, are among the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers and also in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO.

Art Advisory Committee [537]

This Committee was established in February 1943 to advise the Chief of Engineers on measures to promote the painting, as part of the historical record of the war, of battle scenes and other war subjects in overseas areas. It considered measures such as the use of local talent in a given command, the recruitment of civilian artists and artists in uniform, and the organization of War Art Units to be sent overseas. Its program was discontinued before the end of 1943.

Records.--No separately maintained records of this Committee are known to be in existence. Papers relating to its activities are in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see entry 494).

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Engineer Field Agencies in the United States Engineer Divisions and Districts [538]

The construction work of the Corps of Engineers was decentralized regionally throughout the United States to 11 major field offices, called Engineer Divisions, each headed by a Division Engineer, and under them to about 50 Engineer Districts, each headed by a District Engineer. In 1939 as in preceding peacetime years these field agencies were concerned primarily with conducting civil-works projects, such as flood-control work and river-and-harbor navigation improvements. Beginning in December 1940, however, and especially after December 15, 1941, when the Corps of Engineers took over military construction projects from the Quartermaster Corps, the Engineer Divisions absorbed the functions of the nine Zone Constructing Quartermaster organizations and redirected their efforts primarily toward the construction of buildings at posts and camps, the construction of airfields at Army Air Forces installations, and the many related activities pertaining to real estate, utilities, and access roads. The Engineer Divisions and Districts were administratively under the Office of the Chief of Engineers, except that on repairs and utilities matters they were responsible to the Corps Areas and after July 1942 to the Service Commands. Real-estate matters were handled by Division Real Estate Offices, numbering 10 in 1945, which were organized separately from the Engineer Divisions but were responsible to the Division Engineers.

The major wartime Division Engineer offices were as follows, with the corresponding Service Command shown in parentheses: New England Division (First); North Atlantic Division (Second); Middle Atlantic Division (Third); South Atlantic Division (Fourth); Ohio River Division (Fifth); Great Lakes Division (Sixth); Missouri River Division (Seventh); Southwestern Division (Eighth); and Pacific Division (Ninth). The Lower Mississippi Valley and the Upper Mississippi Valley Divisions handled only civil-works projects; military construction in their areas was carried on by the South Atlantic, Southwestern, Missouri River, and Great Lakes Divisions.

Records.--Records of some of the Districts, 1939-45, are in the National Archives. Other wartime District records are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, or in the custody of the Districts themselves. Some records of the Engineer Divisions and of the Division Real Estate Offices are at Kansas City, and some are in the custody of the Divisions. Copies of reports by the Division and District offices, with extensive files of correspondence, contract material, and other records bearing closely on their activities, are among the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, especially the "Divisions" Series and "Districts" Series (see entry 494), and in the separately maintained records of divisions of the Office that had technical supervision over construction, real estate, maintenance, and disposal activities in the field.

Related correspondence is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see especially separate "project" files or subseries for each

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Engineer Division and District. For the most part, the Divisions and Districts did not prepare historical reports under the Army's historical program. The Los Angeles District's unpublished history entitled "Design and Construction of the Pan-American Highway" (9 vols.), which is on file in the Army's Historical Division, is an exception.

Manhattan District [539]

The Manhattan District was established in August 1942, and its work was labeled "DSM" (Development of Substitute Materials) for security reasons. It took over the supervision of the many research and development and testing projects, the several plant-construction and equipping projects, and the production programs that led to the production and testing of the first atomic bomb in the spring of 1945. At first the Manhattan District was controlled jointly by the War Department and the Office of Scientific Research and Development; after September 1942 by the Military Policy Committee, which consisted of representatives of those agencies and the Navy Department; and after April 1943 by the War Department alone.

The origins of the Government's atomic-energy program antedated the Manhattan District, however, by 3 years. In October 1939 the President appointed the Advisory Committee on Uranium; early in 1940 the War and Navy Departments allotted funds to this Committee for preliminary research; and in June 1940 the Committee and the whole project were transferred to the jurisdiction of newly organized National Defense Research Committee. This agency established its S-1 Section (or Uranium Section), which in 1941 absorbed the Uranium Committee. Meanwhile in May 1941 a review committee of the National Academy of Sciences had been appointed to evaluate the military importance of uranium, and by November 1941 it submitted three reports, one of which discussed the practicability of producing atomic bombs. Later in November 1941 the S-1 Section was transferred from the National Defense Research Committee to the Office of Scientific Research and Development and was enlarged to undertake the programs of procuring materials, constructing pilot plants, and expanding research and testing programs. In June 1942, in accordance with plans made in December 1941, these programs were transferred to the War Department and, in turn, to the Corps of Engineers.

Three main field installations were developed by the Manhattan District. The Clinton Engineer Works at Oak Ridge, Tenn., ultimately consisted of an electromagnetic plant, a gaseous diffusion plant, and a thermal diffusion plant. The Hanford Engineer Works at Richland, Wash., consisted of facilities for plutonium production. The third installation was the atomic bomb laboratory and proving ground at Los Alamos, N. Mex. Several scientific groups worked under contract, notably at the University of California, the University of Chicago, and Columbia University. Other projects were located at other important laboratories, both in universities and at industrial plants. Under the Atomic Energy Act of August 1, 1946 (60 Stat. 765), the Manhattan

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District, together with its facilities, personnel, and records, was transferred to the Atomic Energy Commission.
[See also
Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb, a volume in the U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series.]

Records.--The District's records totaled about 12,300 feet in June 1946. The technical records were subsequently transferred to the Atomic Energy Commission and included, in the language of the Atomic Energy Act, '"all . . . technical information of any kind, and the source thereof (including data, drawings, specifications, patents, patent applications, and other sources) relating to the processing, production, or utilization of fissionable material or atomic energy; and all contracts, agreements, leases, patents, applications for patents, inventions and discoveries (whether patented or unpatented), and other rights of any kind concerning any such items." Some of the administrative records were transferred to the Commission. Others are in the Army's custody, in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO.

Only one document was published during the war by the Manhattan District, A General Account of the Development of Methods of Using Atomic Energy for Military Purposes Under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945, by H. D. Smyth, (Aug. 1945. 94 p.; republished later by the Princeton University Press). After the war the District prepared a report entitled "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki" (42 p., plus maps and illustrations), a copy of which is on file in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. A security-classified "Manhattan District History" in several volumes is on file in the Atomic Energy Commission. Most of the publishable scientific results of research carried out by the Manhattan Project will be included in the National Nuclear Energy Series, the declassified portion of which will amount to about 60 volumes of 500 or more pages each. The first of these volumes was published in December 1948.

Army Map Service [540]

Established in 1942 and also known as AMS, this was the Army's major agency for the collection, compilation, reproduction, and distribution of maps. It absorbed the Engineer Reproduction Plant of the Corps of Engineers and the War Department Map Collection of the Army War College, and it recruited and trained such specialists as cartographers, geologists, geographers, linguists, mathematicians, photogrammetrists, draftsmen, lithographers, and photographers. In general the Service was concerned with topographic maps of all areas of the world where United States ground forces might be expected to operate. Nautical and aeronautical charts, while not entirely excluded from its purview, were primarily the responsibility of the Navy's Hydrographic Office, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Army Air Forces' Aeronautical Chart Service.

Although the Army Map Service was a field agency of the Corps of Engineers, it was located in Washington. Its headquarters included major sections for library work, planning, design, research, compilation, drafting, photography, and press work. Some of these activities were carried on in offices that, by 1945, were located in about 20 cities in the United States. There was an extensive network of Engineer mapping and related units overseas, attached usually to Army and Corps commands. These units.

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which were organized and trained according to directives and doctrines prepared, at least in part, by the Service, included the following types: Topographic Battalions, serving particular Armies and concerned with surveying, compilation, revision, photomapping, reproduction, and distribution; Topographic Companies, comparable to battalions but serving particular Corps rather than Armies; Engineer Survey Liaison Detachments and Survey Liaison Teams (type I), usually attached to Armies; Engineer Map Depot Detachments and Map Depot Teams; and Photomapping Platoons (type I).

Records.--The record set, or "back issue file," of the 70,000-odd maps, atlases, gazetteers, glossaries, and other cartographic items that were compiled and reproduced by the Army Map Service during the war is being organized and cataloged by the Service. Some of the maps were widely distributed throughout the armed forces during the war; others, such as maps prepared for inclusion in training literature or in special reports of the Military Intelligence Division, G-2, of the War Department General Staff, had more limited circulation. Selective sets of about 25,000 printed map sheets are being distributed to about 100 libraries throughout the United States for use as reference collections. The Service inherited the War Department Map Collection and subsequently accumulated additional extensive holdings of reference maps, atlases, and other cartographic materials, from sources in the United States and abroad. Of these reference materials, about 5,000 items (mostly parts of the original War Department Map Collection) have been transferred to the National Archives. The main body of about 750,000 reference maps and atlases is in the possession of the Service.

In the wartime custody of the Army Map Service were extensive holdings of foreign cartographic materials seized from the enemy during and after the war, in large part by the Engineer detachments and teams mentioned earlier. These materials, which include maps, atlases, and publications on the mapping practices of most of the foreign countries of the world, are being divided among the Army Map Service, the State Department, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Division of Maps of the Library of Congress. A few captured maps that were formerly in the custody of the Service are in the National Archives, and some are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.

Some of the wartime administrative records of the Army Map Service are in its custody, some are in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, and some are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. At St. Louis, for example, are contract records (contracts, purchase orders, invoices and related correspondence) that relate to the procurement of photomosaics, charts, and map film for the Service. Administrative correspondence relating to the Service is in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 020 Army Map Service, 1944-45, and AG 322 Army Map Service, 1942-45.

Records of Engineer battalions, companies, detachments, and teams that were concerned with mapping, map compilation, and map reproduction in foreign areas during the war are in the Records Administration Center, AGO, St. Louis. Operations reports, historical reports, and final reports of such

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units are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Copies of maps produced or collected by them are among the map collections of the Service, described above.

See John H. Donoghue, "Maps Must be Made by the Millions," in Military Engineer, 34: 427-430 (Sept. 1942); "Arms and the Map: Military Mapping by the Army Map Service," in Print (Spring 1946); and Geological Survey, Map Information Office, Federal Surveys and Maps--Accomplishments during 1946, 4-5 (24 p.). The cataloging of maps in the Army Map Service is described in Special Libraries, 36: 157-159 (May/June 1945) and 38: 205 (Sept. 1947); and in Association of American Geographers, Annals, March 1948.

Other Engineer Field Agencies [541]

The equipment procurement and supply programs and the training programs of the Corps of Engineers were conducted in the field by a number of agencies that operated separately from the Engineer Divisions and Districts. The testing of new or modified Engineer equipment was conducted by the Engineer Board and by the Engineer School, both at Fort Belvoir, Va. Special equipment problems were handled at the War Department Searchlight Mirror Plant No. 1, Mariemount, Ohio; and hydraulic equipment was tested at the United States Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. The quantity production of equipment was monitored by 12 Engineer Procurement Offices located at or near major industrial centers where Engineer contractors had their plants. Storage, distribution, and maintenance activities were handled by the Engineer Central Stock Control Agency at St. Louis; 9 Engineer Depots, some of them with subdepots and branch depots; Engineer sections at most of the general Army Service Forces Depots; 2 Engineer Redistribution Centers, at Salina, Kans., and Timonium, Md.; and 13 Engineer Regional Maintenance Offices. Military training of Engineer officers and enlisted men was conducted at the Engineer School, at various Army Service Forces Training Centers, and at several Engineer Replacement Training Centers. The training of Engineer troop units was also undertaken at some of these centers, as well as at the Engineer Amphibian Command (Camp Edwards, Mass.) and at unit training centers of the Army Ground Forces and the Army Air Forces. Special Engineer schools included the Granite City (Ill.) Engineer Depot Supply School and the Granite City Engineer Maintenance School.

Records.--The wartime records of these matériel and training organizations are for the most part in the Kansas City (Mo.) Records Center, AGO, although agencies that continued into the postwar period have retained some of their records. Reports of the field agencies and their correspondence with higher headquarters are usually among the records of such headquarters, especially in the central records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Some related papers are in the central records of the War Department, in the AGO; see index sheets filed under AG 322 Engineer Amphibian Command, 1942-43 (4 linear inches), and project files entitled "Engineer Procurement Districts," "Engineer Depots," "Engineer Works," and "Searchlight Mirror Plant."

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Engineer Staff Sections of Tactical and Service Commands [542]

The headquarters of each major field command in the United States and overseas included, among its special-staff sections, one concerned with Engineer matters affecting that command. Thus, the training commands and centers of the Army Air Forces and the Army Ground Forces included Engineer representatives for supply, training, and other technical functions. Each of the nine Corps Areas normally had its Corps Area Engineer, and when the Corps Areas were redesignated Service Commands in 1942 the Service Command Engineer served as the Division Engineer for a region. Overseas there was an Engineer Section in each Theater, Services of Supply, Army, Corps, and Air Force headquarters and frequently at other echelons as well. For example, there was an office of the Chief Engineer in General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area, with an Engineer staff organized into an Administrative Section, an Intelligence Section (for Army, Army-Navy, and interallied mapping programs and for intelligence analysis and reporting), a Supply Section (for construction equipment and materials), and an Operations Section (for the overseas training and employment of Engineer troop units and for construction on behalf of the Army and Navy base commands in the area).

Closely related to the Engineer staff sections and frequently responsible to them were the various construction commands and other special Engineer service commands in a given overseas area. For example, in the Pacific were the 1st Construction Service, on Saipan Island; the Boat Building Command, on New Guinea; the Engineer Construction Command, at Manila (March-October 1945); the Construction Corps