Chapter One:

1. This paper has already benefited greatly from the comments of W.A.B. Douglas and Brereton Greenhous, the authors of perhaps the best single work on the Second World War as a national experience, Jeffrey Gunsberg of the Virginia Military Institute, Fred Hadsell of the George C. Marshall Research Foundation, and Helen Bevington of Duke University as well as from less formal comments by students and colleagues.

2. A Study of War, abridged by Louise Leonard Wright, Chicago, 1964, p. 344.

3. Burckhardt's Reflections on History translated with an introduction by J. Hastings Nicholas as Force and Freedom, Boston, 1964, pp. 101, 39-41.

4. Four Studies of War and Peace in This Century, Cambridge, 1961, p. 1.

5. Reconstruction in Philosophy, 1920, New York, 1950, p. 107.

6. Nicholas, Force and Freedom, p. 43. "Epic:... The characters and the action are of heroic proportions,... the narrative is a complex synthesis of experiences from a whole epoch...; the hero embodies national, cultural, or religious ideals." Calvin S. Brown, ed., The Reader's Companion to World Literature, New York, 1956, pp. 151-152.

7. "The Second Coming," 1921, St. 2, 1.

8. Oeuvres Militaires de Guibert, 5 vols., Paris, 1803, Vol. I, pp. 16, 9.

9. New York Times, Sept. 2, 1969, p. 58.

10. Past and Present, 1843, Book IV, Ch. 4. French Revolution, 1837, Pt. 1, Book VII, Ch. 4. Crane Brinton remarks that this last work was "a grand metaphysical drama, ... historically accurate in detail, ... (which) wholly neglects economic and social issues, ... and is largely responsible for the ... (Anglophone) view of the French Revolution as a ... cataclysmic social revolution quite unlike anything else in European history." And Carlyle's Frederick the Great (1858-65) was "almost silent on his civil achievements." Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, New York, 1930, Vol. III, pp. 229-230.

11. Principles of War, trans. Hilaire Belloc, London, 1921, pp. 41, 47.

12. Principles of Sociology, New York, 1897, Vol. II, Ch. XXIII.

13. Principles of War, p. 36.

14. Leon Bramson and George W. Goethals, eds., War: Studies from Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, New York, 1964, pp. 22-23, 30.

15. Machine Warfare, London, 1943, p. 35.

16. John Bates Clark, Introduction to Gaston Bodart, Losses of Life in Modern Wars, Oxford, 1916, pp. vii-viii.

17. Ibid., Appendix, pp. 2-3.

18. Ibid., pp. 4-5.

19. Ibid., pp. 5-6.

20. Dates are those of English translations. Quotations are from The Collected Poems of Wilfred Owen, ed. C. Day Lewis, Memoir by Edmund Blunden, New York, 1964.

21. A.J.P. Taylor, Beaverbrook, New York, 1972, p. 88. Beaverbrook needed little help from his "wordsmith" Rudyard Kipling, in the two volumes of Canada in Flanders (1915- 1917). Beaverbrook wrote them himself.

22. Canberra, 1936, p. vii.

23. Bean's unofficial summary volume, Anzac to Amiens was published in 1946. When his work was reprinted in 1962, Stallings, who had dedicated it to "The Camera Eye" complimented historians on their "candor" in revealing "more and more the ineptitude of the generals, the stupidities of the politicians." Introduction, unpaged. And if C. Day Lewis's matter-of-fact Aeneid can be unintentionally comic--"Three times he galloped, anti-clockwise, around his vigilant Enemy, shooting."--its style is often right for a war of so many hopes deferred or blasted. "Troy was beyond all hope of aid. I accepted defeat, picked up my father and made for the mountains." pp. 257, 59.

24. Collected Poems, 1941. Ed John Waller et al., London, 1966, p. 89.

25. Amiel, R.N. Currey remarks, "was not a professional poet." Poets of the 1939-1945 War, London, 1960, pp. 41-42.

26. Collected Poems, p. 38.

27. Armies and Societies in Europe, 1494-1789, trans. Abigail T. Siddall, Bloomington, 1979, p. 197. Charles de Gaulle's France and Her Army, trans. F.L. Dash, London, 1942, had stressed the steadily unifying forces of peacetime "universal suffrage, compulsory education, ... industrialization and city life, ... the press, ... political parties, trade unions, and sport" as equally important preconditions for 1914's "mass mobilization and ... the war of peoples." p. 90. Corvisier focuses on Western Europe, where conscription may be more easily seen as the critical factor in the militarization of society. In The Last Half- Century: Societal Changes and Politics' in America, Chicago, 1979, Morris Janowitz takes William James's view that some form of compulsory public service is essential to recreate a sense of social and civic unity in an increasingly segmented society and polity.

Chapter Two:

1. Sir Wilfrid Laurier to Philippe Roy, 15 June 1916, in C.P. Stacey, ed., The Arts of War and Peace (Historical Documents of Canada, V, Toronto, 1972), pp. 567-8.

2. Tables of Second World War in Ibid., p. 640, and C.P Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian Exernal Policies, I (Toronto, 1977), p. 235, for First world War.

3. Leopold Lamontagne, "Habits gris et chemise rouge", Canadian Historical Association Report, 1950; Victor Hoar with Mac Renolds, The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion: Canadian Participation in the Spanish Civil war (n.p., 1969), pp.X, 35.

4. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1946.

5. C.P. Stacey, The Canadian Army, 1939-1945: An Official Historical Summary (Ottawa, 1948), p. 309.

6. Canada and the Age of Conflict, 1, pp. 250-54.

7. Telegrams of 10 and 12 June 1945, Department of External Affairs files 7V(s)-8 (top secret docket) and 7-V(s).

8. Joe Garner, The Commonwealth Office, 1925-68 (London, 1978), pp. 274-5.

9. M.C. Urquhart and K.A.H. Buckley, Historical Statistics of Canada (Cambridge and Toronto, 1965), p. 471.

10. Ibid., p. 14.

11. Canada and the Age of Conflict, I, pp. 232-3.

12. Sir Charles Lucas, ed., The Empire at War (5 vols., London, 1921-26), II, p. 294.

13. Cabinet Conclusions, January 23, 1945.

14. Hon. Paul Martin in House of Commons, 2 April 1946. The Canadian Citizenship Act is 10 George VI Chap 16 1946.

Chapter Three:

1. Mackenzie King Diary, 1 May, 1947, Public Archives of Canada (PAC).

2. C.P. Stacey, Arms, Men and Governments (Ottawa, 1970), 6.

3. Memorandum by Sir Arthur Robinson, Ministry of Supply, 12 Oct. 1939, Public Record Office, AVIA 22/3155.

4. Grant Dexter, memorandum, 30 Nov. 1939, PAC, Dafoe Papers, vol. 11. "

5. Backstage at Ottawa," Maclean's Magazine, 1 Feb. 1940.

6. Henry Borden interview.

7. Financial Post, 6 July 1940, 27 July 1940.

8. Cited in Robert Bothwell and William Kilbourn, C.D. Howe: A Biography (Toronto, 1979), 133.

9. E. P. Taylor to Howe, 25 June, 1940, PAC, Howe Papers (HP), vol. 5, file S-5-7; J.P. Moffat to Secretary of State, 1 Aug. 1940, National Archives, State Dept. Papers, 842.20 Defense/153.

10. Taylor to Howe, 25 June, 1940, HP, vol. 5, file 5-5-7.

11. Norman Lambert Diary, 1 Nov. 1940 (Queen's University Archives); Walter Turnbull to Mackenzie King, 23 Oct. 1940, King Papers, J4, file 2607, C17044.

12. Austin Cross, "Here's Howe: Assembly Line in Pants", Western Business and Industry, Mar. 1945.

13. Moffat to Secretary of State, 26 Feb. 1941, State Dept. Papers, 842.002/107.

14. H.J. Symington to J.W. Dafoe, 19 Feb. 1941, J.W. Dafoe Papers, vol. 12.

15. Grant Dexter to Dafoe, 6 Feb. 1941, ibid.

16. Dexter to Dafoe, 4 Mar. 1941, ibid.

17. Cited in Ottawa Citizen, 12 Mar. 1946.

18. Graydon, memorandum, 18 May 1943, PAC, Gordon Graydon Papers, vol. 7, file D-310.

19. James Crone, "Canadian Reminiscences," /1944/, PRO, AVIA/22/3170/ERD/ 7525.

20. Financial Post, 14 Mar. 1942: "Canada-U.S. Should Take Lead in Weapons". The Post's comments closely followed a visit to Canada by General A.G.L. McNaughton, with whom this was a favourite theme.

21. Crone, "Canadian Reminiscences", p. 60.

22. See Bothwell and Kilbourn, Howe, 155.

23. Howe to R.A.C. Henry, 22 Nov. 1941, HP, vol. 170, file 90(2).

24. Crone, "Canadian Reminiscences," p. 62.

25 . Bothwell and Kilbourn, Howe, 176-8.

26. Lambert Diary, 2 May 1941; Bothwell and Kilbourn, Howe, 161.

27. Cited in Bothwell and Kilbourn, Howe, 179.

28. Financial Post, 13 June, 1942: "The War and Business."

Chapter Four:

1. T.H. Pear English Social Differences (London, 1955), p 69. Pear quotes here from his own comments in 1942.

2. A.H. Halsey Change in British Society (London, 1978), p 152.

3. Kenneth O. Morgan Consensus and Disunity (London, 1979), p 375.

4. R.B. McCallum and Alison Readman The British General Election of 1945 (London, 1947), p 54.

5. Report of the 38th Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 29 May--2 June 1, 1939, p 243.

6. E.F.M. Durbin What Have We To Defend? (London, 1942), p 46-7.

Chapter Five:

1. J.W. Pickersgill and Donald Forster, The Mackenzie King Record: Volume II, 1944-1945 (Toronto, 1968), 378. King assumed that Hitler was dead.

2. Frank Scott, Canada Today (Toronto, 1938), 68, 151. Also, League for Social Reconstruction, Social Planning for Canada (Toronto, 1935), 3; and David Lewis and Frank Scott, Make This Your Canada (Toronto, 1943), 150-181; and Alexander Brady and Frank Scott, eds., Canada After the War (Toronto, 1944), esp. 60-87.

3. Walter Young, The Anatomy of a Party (Toronto, 1969); Gad Horowitz, Canadian Labour in Politics (Toronto, 1968); and Gerald Caplan, The Dilemma of Canadian Socialism (Toronto, 1973).

4. Jack Granatstein, Canada's War (Toronto, 1975), 413; and Donald Creighton, The Forked Road (Toronto, 1976), 104, 115. For an earlier analysis of the overwhelming impact of the planners, see F.E. Dessauer, "The Party System and the New Economic Policies," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, IX (May 1943), 139-49; and Maurice Lamontagne, "The Influence of the Politicians," Canadian Public Administration, II (Fall 1968), 263-71. For a balanced Marxist analysis of the 1945 "consensus", see Reg Whitaker, "Images of the State in Canada," in Leo Panitch, ed., The Canadian State (Toronto, 1977), 59. See also Whitaker, The Government Party (Toronto, 1977).

5. Robert Bothwell and William Kilbourn, C.D. Howe: A Biography (Toronto, 1979); Bothwell, "The Health of the People," in John English and J.O. Stubbs, eds., Mackenzie King: Widening the Debate (Toronto, 1978), 191-220; William Young, "Making the Truth Graphic: The Canadian Government's Home Front Information Structure and Programmes During World War II" (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1978). See also, W.A.B. Douglas and Brereton Greenhous, Out of the Shadows (Toronto, 1977), 253-9 for an interpretation which emphasizes political choice. An example of the international importance of "middle opinion" may be found in the description of the North Atlantic Relations Conference 1939. RG 19, V. 3593 (Public Archives)

6. Paul Addison, The Road to 1945 (London, 1975), 14, 21.

7. King Diary 19 September 1939.

8. A.F.W. Plumptre, Mobilizing Canada's Resources for War (Toronto, 1941), 11 and 13, and 17. Combined Production and Resources Board, "The Impact of the War on Civilian Consumption," Truman Papers OF 712, Truman Library.

9. J.M. Beck, Pendelum of Power (Toronto, 1968), 238-9; Granatstein, Canada's War, 92.

10. King Diary 16 January 1940. On unemployment question, see James Struthers, "No fault of their own: Unemployment and the Canadian Welfare State" (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Toronto, 1979), 586 ff.

11. See Alan Peacock and Jack Wiseman, The Growth of Public Expenditure in the United Kingdom (Princeton, 1961), 7-9. Also, Alex Skelton, "Dominion-Provincial Conference Aftermath," 11 January 1941, RG 19, E2C, V.108 (Public Archives).

12. K.W. Taylor, "Canadian Wartime Price Controls, 1941-6," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science (1946), 81-98. Cost of living index was 101.5--1939; 105.6--1940; 111.7--1941; 117.0--1942; 118.4--1943; 118.9--1944; 119.5--1945.

Source: Canada Year Book 1947-48 (Ottawa, 1948), 954. See also, Granatstein, Canada's War, ch. 5.

13. Undecideds (20 per cent) have been eliminated in calculating the 1942 results. Polls discussed here are found in Public Opinion Quarterly, 6 (1942), 159-61, and 308-10. The support for conscription varied between 52 per cent (February 25, 1942) and 64 per cent (March 14, 1942).

14. Ibid, 491. It is not clear whether the business and intellectual leaders are American or Canadian. One presumes from the report that it is both. In any case, calls for post-war plans were already coming from business and intellectual groups in Canada.

15. See V.O. Key, The Responsible Electorate (New York, 1964); and H. Daudt, The Floating Voter (Leiden, 1964).

16. King Diary 24 March 1941. King had been reading the Biblical passage: "I will write upon him the name of my God, which is new Jerusalem which cometh out of heaven from my God; and I will write upon him my new name."

17. Public Opinion Quarterly, 6 (1942), 657; Ibid., 7 (1943), 326-328.

18. Ibid, 8 (1944), 144.

19. Wartime Information Board Survey 21, 16 January 1943, WIB papers, v. 7. Also, William Young, "Making the Truth Graphic," 82 ff.

20. Ontario poll 5 June 1943:

  Liberal Pro-Cons. CCF
Federal 32 38 27
Provincial 32 37 28

Public Opinion Quarterly 7 (1943), 493.

21. Ibid, 747.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid., 748.

24. Ibid., 493.

25. Make This Your Canada, 189.

26. Janet Sidey, "Ontario and the 1945 General Election" (Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Waterloo, 1979). On the effect on the Liberals, see Parliamentary Assistants, "The Political Parties Today," King Papers J4,v.240. this points to much business "private enterprise propaganda" as "nearly naked Conservative propaganda," although it does speak of "more important work behind the scenes." See also, Whitaker, The Government Party, passim, for a sophisticated analysis of the complex relationship between business interests and the Liberal Party in wartime. On party fund-raising, see Bothwell and Kilbourn, C.D. Howe.

27. Public Opinion Quarterly, 8 (1944), 159, 290-1, 444-6, 601.

28. Ibid, 143, 445.

29. See A.T. Proctor to King, 20 June 1944, King Papers, J1, v. 369. Also, Senator John Stevenson to King, 14 July 1944, Ibid, v. 375. Stevenson wrote: "The reason (for the defeat) seems to be the many little restrictions that has had (sic) to be put on. A lot of people seem to think that many of them were unnecessary even with the war on and they were very unreasonable in their attitude towards the government.

30. A poll after the 1943 Ontario election asked all Canadians why the CCF did so well. 53 per cent gave what the CIPO called "negative answers." What this means is quite unclear. Public Opinion Quarterly, 7 (1943), 747.

31. Cook 7570; Smith (Liberal) 6455; Brill (P.C.) 4392. Source: Canadian Parliamentary Guide 1945, 534. The seat was traditionally Liberal.

32. Canadian Chamber of Commerce, Kitchener-Waterloo Survey (1944). On the industrial character of the area, see Terry Copp, ed., Industrial Unionism in Kitchener 1937-1947 (Elora, Ontario, 1976). For a Liberal's interpretation of Saskatchewan which emphasizes the farmer's bad lot, see R.J. Dechman to King, 23 June 1944, King Papers, J1, v. 358. The farm incomes in this survey are considerably above the national averages both before and after the depression.

33. The details of purchasing intentions are too detailed to repeat here, but may be found in the survey. On Keynes' vision, see John Deutsch, "Canadian Economic Policy 1945- 1965--A Summing Up," in Canadian Economic Policy Since the War (Canadian Trade Committee, 1966), 123; also S.F. Kaliski, "Introduction," Ibid, 14.

34. J.H. Perry, Taxes, Tariffs and Subsidies (Toronto, 1955), V.2, 385.

35. Survey, passim. The savings of Canadians generally rose rapidly during the war years, and they provided the foundation for post-war consumption expenditures. See Granatstein, Canada's War, 273n. C.D. Howe always shared this confidence in post-war growth. See Howe to King, 17 November 1943, King Papers, J I, v342.

36. Based on comparison of assessment rolls and election returns (Kitchener Public Library). I am indebted to Rosanne Polillo for some of this information.

37. Ely Chinoy Automobile Workers and the American Dream (Garden City, N.J., 1955), 124.

38. Theodore Zeldin, France 1848-1945: Politics and Anger (Oxford, 1979, paperback edition), IX.

Chapter Six:

1. H. Trevor Roper, ed., Hitler's War Directives, London 1964, pp. 60-62, 74-75.

2. Violence in pre-war Yugoslavia had not been confined to one nationality and the killings during the war were in some ways an extension of earlier history. The Croat leader Stjepan Radic had been murdered in 1927 by a Montenegrin (Serb). King Alexander (a Serb) was murdered in 1943 by a Macedonian hired by Croat extremists whose leader was Ante Pavelic. His appointment as Poglavnik, or leader in Croatia by the Germans, was a deliberate attempt to keep Yugoslav peoples disunited by encouraging violence.

3. Tito stated that by spring 1944 (when recruitment to Partisan forces had already started as against previous voluntary enlistment), 30 percent of Partisans were Croats compared with 44 per cent Serbs.

4. Public Record Office, London (PRO) WO 202/163; FO 371/30292; V. Bakaric to this author July 19, 1979.

5. Bakaric, Ibid.

6. A full account of the Chetnik movement can be found in J. Tomasevich, War and Revolution: The Chetniks, Stanford University Press 1975. There is a large bibliography on the subject in many languages. Most items to 1975 will be found in the above book; Archival material on the Chetniks is found in British, German, Italian, United States and Yugoslav war archives. Important British documents on this subject will be found in PRO, FO 371/44276/R12712, FO 371/44269/R4937 and FO 371/44282/R21295.

7. Mihailovic gave a clear account of his fears for Serbia and his attitude to communism in his talk held at Divci, November 11, 1941 with representatives of the German Wehrmacht Command in Serbia. The Germans made a shorthand transcript of the talk. It can be found in J. Marjanovic, ed., Documents of Collaboration of D. Mihailovic's Chetniks with the Enemy Forces of Occupation (1941-1944), Belgrade nd., pp. 17-27. See also Ibid., for document of report of German General Bader on his negotiations with Chetnik officer Major Kangic, February 2, 1942. This is printed in K. Hnlicka Das Ende auf dem Balkan 1944-45, Gottingen 1970, pp. 187-193.

8. The text of Moljevic's memorandum can be found in the archives of the Vojno Istoriskog Institut, Belgrade (AVII) Cetnicki Fond 4/1/144.

9. PRO, FO 371/3022/59-124.

10. See The Cetniks: A Survey of Cetnik Activity in Yugoslavia April 11th, 1941--July 1944, Confidential Pamphlet published in Sept. 1944 by AFHQ, passim.

11. PRO, CAB/127/271, July 3, 1944. Ibid. No. 167, May 18, 1944.

12. PRO, FO 371/44281/95 et seq.

13. Ibid.

14. Tomasevich, op.cit., p. 402 and PRO, FO 371/44281/140 (R1 0232).

15. PRO, FO 371/30240/ (No. 960) 4735 pp. 5-13. By the agreement signed in 1954 Tito obtained a considerable proportion of his claims against Italy (though not the city of Trieste).

16. Kardelj to this author August 1965.

17. Yugoslav Communist Party Archives in Belgrade (Institut za Radnicki Pokret) CKKI 1941-43 gives copies of the telegrams exchanged between Tito and the Comintern. Although the Comintern was abolished May 23, 1943, Tito's correspondence with his contact Dimitrov continued to the end of the year. Thereafter, from early 1944, his contacts with the Soviet leaders went through their military mission at Tito's headquarters.

18. PRO, FO 371/30221/139-143, 174, 184 and passim.

19. PRO, FO 371/30221/4695 No. 162 November 19, 26, 27 and 28 1941.

20. Tito to this author October 8, 1968.

21. From September 1943 there were military missions headed by Brigadiers at both Tito's and Milailovic's headquarters. In December 1943 the British took the decision to withdraw support from Mihailovic (PRO, FO 371/44269/R4937) and this was carried out in 1944.

22. L. Gerskovic, ed., Dokumenti o Razvoju Narodne Vlasti, Belgrade 1948.

23. PRO, CAB 127/271/HNO 03480/F 16.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid. T.2399/4 December 19, 1944.

Chapter Seven:

1. Excerpt from a speech delivered over station CKAC on 30 September 1939, quoted in Ceux que nous devons écouter, ceux que nous devons croire, document 2, published by the Liberal Organization, n.p., n.d.

2. Toronto Daily Star, 2 March 1940.

3. Public Archives of Canada (PAC), Manion Papers, vol. 16, telegram from R.J. Manion to C. Gwyllym Dunn, 8 March 1940.

4. Canada, Débats de la Chambre des Communes, 1939 session, vol. 100 January 1939), p. 485.

5. Manion Papers, vol. 16, Frederic Dorion to R.J. Manion, 6 May 1940 (trans).

6. Ibid., R.J. Manion to Frederic Dorion, 11 May 1940 (trans.).

7. Ibid., R.J. Manion to Capt. S. Misener, 28 March 1940.

8. Le Soleil, 5 February 1942.

9. F.-A. Angers, "Pourquoi nous n'accepterons jamais la conscription pour service outremer", L'Action nationale, vol. 19, no 2 (February-March 1942), p. 90.

10. See Canada, Débats de la Chambre des Communes, 1928 session, vol. I, (6 March 1928), p. 1047.

11. Canada, Débats de la Chambre des Communes, 1942 session, vol. IV, (23 June 1942), p. 3673 (trans.).

12. La colonisation, notre salut! , Pastoral letter of the Episcopate of the Province of Quebec, 11 October 1946.

13. École sociale populaire, "Le travail féminin et la guerre", E.S.P., no 342 (July 1942), p. 2.

14. "Les femmes aux usines", Relations, no. 28 (April 1943), p. 86.

15. "Le travail féminin dans nos usines de guerre", Relations, no. 17 (May 1942), p. 129.

16. L'Action nationale, "Que sert à l'homme de gagner l'univers...", L'Action nationale, vol. 20, no. 1 (September 1942), p. 4.

17. F.-A. Angers, "Est-ce ainsi qu'on fait la guerre sainte?", L'Action nationale, vol. 20, no. 2 (October 1942), p. 86.

18. Ibid.

19. "Moralité de guerre", Relations, no. 22 (October 1942), p. 254.

20. F.-A. Angers, "Est-ce ainsi...", loc. cit., pp. 92-93.

21. Lettre pastorale collective et mandement de l'épiscopat canadien sur l'attitude des catholiques au Canada dans la présente guerre, Le Devoir, 9 July 1942.

22. Quoted in André Laurendeau, "Alerte aux Canadiens franais:", L'Action nationale, vol. 16, no.3 (November 1940), p. 196.

23. Ibid., p. 198.

24. F.-A. Angers, "A quelle sauce veut-on nous manger?", L'Action nationale, vol. 16, no. 4 (December 1940), p. 305.

25. J. Dandurand, "Le discours de Mussolini", L'Action catholique, 5 June 1930.

26. Louis-Philippe Roy, "Franco ou le Comite?", L'Action catholique, 27 July 1937.

27. Jules Dorion, "Autour de Hitler et de ce qui se passe sous nos yeux", L'Action catholique, 20 May 1933.

28. Eugène L'Heureux, "Le concordat entre le Saint-Siège et le Reich allemand", L'Action catholique, 8 August.

29. Eugène L'Heureux, "Les Juifs allemands: émigreront-ils au Canada?", L'Action catholique, 26 March 1936.

30. Jules Dorion, "Fascisme et communisme", L'Action catholique, 25 November 1937.

31. Directives données à notre journal "L'Action catholique", in Mandements des évques de Québec, vol. XV, p. 226 (30 May 1939).

32. Eugène L'Heureux, "Le chancre des démocraties", L'Action catholique, 22 March 1935.

33. Jules Dorion, "O liberté, comme on t'a jouée!", L'Action catholique, 11 December 1937.

34. L.-P. Roy, "Hitler a l'appétit féroce et la digestion rapide", L'Action catholique, 31 January 1939.

Chapter Eight:

1. NRK (Norwegian State Broadcasting) sound archives. Recorded speech.

2. The Times, 6 July 1935.

3. Cf. O. Riste, The Neutral Ally: Norway's Relations with Belligerent Powers in the First World War. (Oslo and London 1965).

4. NMFA (Norwegian Ministry for Foreign Affairs) Archives, file 1.5/19 and Lie Papers.

5. For a full treatment of Norway's wartime alliance and foreign policy see O. Riste, "London-regjoringa" Vols. I-II (Oslo 1973-1979.)

6. NMFA Archives, file 34.1/19, Doc. 978/40 C 3.

7. English version in L.W. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, 1939-1942 (Boston 1943) pp. 489-490.

8. The Times, 16 December 1940.

9. Public Record Office, London. FO 371/29421, N 214/87/30.

10. Ibid., N 1307/83/30.

11. The Times, 14 November 1941.

12. Excerpts from the lecture in PRO, FO 371/29422, N 6510/87/30.

13. For the Stalin-Eden conversations see PRO, Cab 66/20, WP(42)8, 5.1.1942.

14. PRO, FO 371/32832, N 518/463/30.

15. The military appreciations are in PRO, Cab 84/44, J.P.(42)354 and 3.P.(42)432 (0); and Cab 84/45, 3.P.(42)497.

16. Full text i.a. in FO (Archives of the Norwegian Defence High Command), file L-10-d. Quotations are taken from the official English version of the document.

17. See C.J. Hambro, Taler i krig (Oslo, 1945), esp. p. 97.

18. PRO, PREM 3/59; FO 371/32832, N 5716/463/30.

19. PRO, PREM 4/100/7, pp. 308-9.

20. "Norsk Tidend" 19.1.1944 (Text of Lie's speech); "The Observer" 2.1.1944.

21. NMFA Archives, file 34.4/99, P. Hartmann minute 12.4.1943.

22. On these matters see also N.M. Udgaard, Great Power Politics and Norwegian Foreign Policy (Oslo 1973), Chapters 4-7.

23. Radio speech by A. Ording, Trygve Lie's chief political adviser, on the BBC Norwegian Service 16 March 1943, printed in ording, 100 kronikker (Oslo 1946), p. 208.

Chapter Nine:

1. A Committee on Defence Co-ordination had been charged by Cabinet to write a general War Book from which Ministers would then develop their own departmental directives. Nothing had followed in External Affairs and the experience of Sir Joseph Pope in writing one for the First World War had long since been forgotten.

2. On September 10, 1938 King had asked Skelton in a "very private" note for a statement in the event of war being declared.

3 J.W. Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, Vol. 1: 1939-1944 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1960), p. 6.

4. The term "Super-isolationist" was used by Colonel H.D.G. Crerar in describing Christie in 1936 as quoted in C.P. Stacey, Arms, Men and Governments: The War Policies of Canada, 1939-1945, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970), p. 71. Christie by his own account was such a strong isolationist that he expected to be turfed out of External Affairs when war came. Instead he was sent to Washington with the task of weaning the Americans away from their isolationism. Little wonder that Pearson on reading of the appointment wrote in his diary "strange business". Public Archives of Canada (PAC), L.B. Pearson Diary, September 13, 1939.

5. PAC, Mackenzie King Diary, May 24, 1940.

6. PAC, Treasury Board Records, Vol. 555, file 2-7. N. Robertson to T.B., December 9, 1942 and December 13, 1942. "Canada and the War: An Outline of the Organization of the War Administration", Ottawa, King's Printer, 1940 outlines the structure involved.

7. Department of External Affairs (DEA) file 1086-40, H. Wrong memorandum for Robertson, July 9, 1942.

8. PAC, DEA-Personnel Records, Vol. 678, file 134. W. Ronson to the UnderSecretary, June 1, 1943. Relief from this burdensome procedure for obtaining War Duty Supplements was finally granted on April 21, 1945.

9. PAC, Under Secretary's Papers, Vol. 788. "Extension of Canadian External Affairs Service" attached to Skelton memo to Beaudry, September 28, 1937 and PAC, Wrong Papers, Vol. 3, file 17. Skelton to Wrong, March 2, 1939. Within the Department invidious comparisons were often made with other foreign services of the 5 to 40 ration representing countries with similar trade and population figure.

10. PAC, King Papers, J 4 Series, Vol. 250, C167630. N. Robertson memorandum for the Prime Minister, December 12, 1944. Evidence of this balance being upheld is found in Robertson to King August 6, 1943 and June 23, 1944, Vol. 242, December 10, 1943 and Vol. 268, October 7, 1944.

11. Interview with M. Cadieux, June 27, 1979 and Paul Tremblay, October 25, 1979.

12. PAC, DEA-Personnel Records, Vol. 791. Skelton memorandum on "Staff Enlistment", August 14, 1940. See also King Papers, J 4 Series, Vol. 250. N. Robertson to V. Massey, January 4, 1943.

13. King Papers, J 4 Series, Vol. 250 C167650. N. Robertson to A. MacNamara, February 2, 1945.

14. PAC, DEA-Personnel Records, VOL 677, file 111. N. Robertson memorandum for the Prime Minister April 26, 1943 and J. Read memorandum on "Wartime Assistants Grade IV", May 6, 1943.

15. University of Toronto Archives, George Brown Papers, Box 23, file 7 G Brown to C.P. Stacey, February 3, 1944.

16. External Affairs had since the war appointed four officers to perform limited consular functions in Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Greenland and St. Pierre.

17. DEA, 2446-A-40. "Considerations Relating to the Proposed Amalgamation of the External Affairs Service and the Commercial Intelligence Service and the Incorporation therein of a Canadian Consular Service" by H. Keenleyside, October 9, 1942.

18. PAC, Trade and Commerce Records, ol. 1035. "Submission Concerning the Trade Commissioner Service by Trade Commissioners and Assistants Resident in Ottawa 1942- 43". p. 38.

19. Canada, House of Commons Debates, July 12, 1943, pp. 4772-74.

20. DEA, 2446-A-40. "Minutes of a Meeting of the Interdepartmental Committee to Study Relations between External Affairs and the Commercial Intelligence Service", November 11, 1943.

21. King Papers, J 4 Series, Vol. 250, C167500. King's memorandum for Mr. Robertson, February 19, 1944.

22. While enlistment certainly contributed to the turnover of support staff, the loss of 34 Canada-based and 5 London employees was not series. PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 846, file W-9 (161).

23. PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 791. A. Hall memorandum for the Acting Under-Secretary, March 14, 1941.

24. L.B. Pearson, Mike, Vol. 1, p. 188.

25. DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 679, file 136-1. These excerpts are from a letter to Major General Leston that was drafted for Robertson's signature but never sent. It appears that Robertson relayed the message to him orally.

26. PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 788 "Scheme of Organization for The Department of External Affairs", February 1941 by H.L. Keenleyside.

27. King Diary, February 1, 1940.

28. Mrs. C.H.A. Armstrong Papers (private collection), H. Wrong to Marga, February 2, 1941. All of the other possible candidates had succeeded at one time of late to get on the wrong side of King or were otherwise not available.

29. In formulating my assessment of Norman Robertson I am very much indebted to Prof. Jack Granatstein who kindly allowed me to see his draft chapters for his forthcoming biography of Robertson.

30. DEA, 1086-40. H. Keenleyside to O. Skelton September 5, 1940 and "Department of External Affairs, General Division, Assignment of Duties" September 25, 1940.

31. Pearson Diary, March 29, 1941.

32. DEA, 1086-40. "Scheme of Organization for The Department of External Affairs" by H.L. Keenelyside, March 1941.

33. PAC, Pearson Papers, N I, Vol. 1. L. Pearson to V. Massey, May 27, 1941.

34. Treasury Board Records, Vol. 555. See file 2-7 on authorities and DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 846, file T-6 (149) on telephones.

35. PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 799. L. Pearson memorandum for the Under-Secretary, October 6, 1941.

36. DEA, 1086-40. E. Reid to N. Robertson, June 7, 1941.

37. Pearson Papers N, Vol. 7, file "DEA Organization 1929-42". "Memorandum for the Under Secretary". (1941).

38. PAC, DEA--Personnel Records, Vol. 678, file 136, N. Robertson memorandum for the Prime Minister, February 23, 1943.

39. DEA, 1086-40. "Memorandum to the Civil Service Commission" by its Investigator, E.P. Laberge, September 20, 1941.

40. Pearson Papers, N, Vol. 2, file DEA organization 1929-42. L. Pearson memo to N. Robertson, September 22, 1941 and J. Read "Note for the Personnel Board", November 27, 1941. For insight into the problems encountered in getting the Act accepted see Vol. 1, L. Pearson to V. Massey, January 9, 1942.

41. Ibid., Vol. 1, L. Pearson to V. Massey, May 27, 1941. Pearson's initial observations were confirmed later in L. Pearson to V. Massey, November 4, 1941.

42. Ibid., L. Pearson to V. Massey, January 9, 1942.

43. DEA, 1086-40, H. Wrong Memorandum for N. Robertson, July 9, 1942. PAC, DEA--Personnel Records, Vol. 686, file 158-B. H. Wrong memorandum for Under-Secretary, December 8, 1944.

44. Interview with A. Menzies, August 3, 1979.

45. Pearson Diary, January 9-13, 1943. Pearson was in Ottawa discussing with Robertson among other things, ways of getting rid of Agnes McCloskey.

46. Ibid., April 9, 1943.

47. W. Clark, Deputy Minister of Finance; Louis Rasminsky, Alternate Chairman of the Foreign Exchange Control Board; Graham Towers, Governor of the Bank of Canada; W.A. Macintosh, Special Assistant to the Deputy Minister of Finance; R.B. Bryce, Department of Finance; Donald Gordon, Chairman of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board.

48. DEA, 6000-A-40. N. Robertson memo for Prime Minister, April 26, 1943. It was Robertson who on February 13, 1943 was sent to sell King on the ideas contained in telegrams to London drafted by Towers, Clark and Mackintosh. King Diary, February 13, 1943.

49. DEA, 1086-40. H. Wrong to N. Robertson, October 16, 1941 and N. Robertson memo for the Prime Minister, October 25, 1941. On November 1, 1941 Wrong warned Robertson that on matters of export control and blacklisting: "Unless we develop an adequate staff in Ottawa to handle these matters, I think that they may be compelled in Washington to pass over our position and interests because we have not proper machinery for co-operation". PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 788, file 408. H. Wrong to N. Robertson, November 1, 1941.

50. PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 788, file 408, T. Stone memorandum for the Under-Secretary, April 22, 1942.

51. DEA, 1086-40. H. Angus memorandum for S. Macdonald, March 2, 1943.

52. PAC, DEA--Administrative Records, Vol. 799. "Memorandum for the Under Secretary of State and for the Personnel Board: Mr. John Deutsch", April 20, 1942.

53. Interview with R.B. Bryce, August 17, 1979.

54. Interview with Jack Hickerson, September 27, 1979.

54. Interview with Jack Hickerson, September 27, 1979.

55. DEA - Administrative Records, Vol. 716, file 6. "Memorandum for the Prime Minister--Notes on Man Power Policy", by N. Robertson, December 4, 1941.

56. King Papers, J. 4 Series, Vol. 252, C167753-54. N. Robertson memo for the Prime Minister, June 13, 1946.

57. Ibid., Vol. 358, C247551-63. "Memorandum for Mr. Robertson: Quebec and the Conscription Issue, by Mr. Cadieux and P. Tredmblay, May 6, 1942.

58. DEA, 54-B. "Quebec and the Present War: A Study of Public Opinion" by M. Cadieux, P. Tremblay and S. Rae, July 1942.

59. For this story see D. Munton and D. Page, "Planning in the East Block: the Post-Hostilities Problems Committees in Canada 1943-5", International Journal XXXII (Autumn 1977) pp. 687-726.

60. The first edition of the Department's War Book as compiled by George Gazebrook was ready on December 10, 1948.

61. DEA, 19-AK-4-40. A. Rive to L. Pearson, November 25, 1946.

62. Ibid., L. Pearson to A. Rive, January 15, 1947.

Chapter Ten:

1. This paper is in large measure an outgrowth of the author's research and writing on American leadership in World War Two incorporated in Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941-1942, with Edwin M. Snell (Washington, DC, 1953), and Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943-1944 (Washington, DC, 1959), volumes in the official US Army in World War II series, and in various essays and articles published in other official and unofficial accounts reflected in the notes below.

2. Chester Wilmot, The Stuggle for Europe, (New York, 1952), especially pp. 11, 12, 109, 128, 338, 448. For a review and analysis of Wilmot's thesis see Maurice Matloff, "Wilmot Revisited: Myth and Reality in Anglo-American Strategy for the Second Front," an essay published by the Eisenhower Foundation in D-Day: The Normandy Invasion in Retrospect (Lawrence, 1971).

3. For a fuller discussion of American pre-World War II strategic planning and relations between the President and his military advisers between World Wars One and Two, see Mark S. Watson, Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations, (Washington, DC, 1950), especially Chapters I-V, X, in the official US Army in World War II series; Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941-1942, chapters I-III; Maurice Matloff, "The American Approach to War, 1919-1945," in Michael Howard (ed.), Theory and Practice of War (London, 1965); Maurice Matloff, "Prewar Military Plans and Preparations, 1939-41," United States Naval Institute Proceedings, LXXIX (July, 1953); and Louis Morton, "Interservice Co-operation and Politico-Military Collaboration," in Harry L. Coles (ed.), Total War and Cold War, (Columbus, 1962).

4. See, for example, FDR's expression of personal triumph in early March 1943 to General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff, when the invasion of North Africa proved successful. Cited in Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1943-1944, p. 68.

5. The reorganization of the joint planning system is discussed in Ray S. Cline, Washington Command Post: The Operations Division (Washington, DC, 1951), pp. 234-268, in the official US Army in World War Two series.

6. Quoted in Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943-1944, p. 110.

7. Cline, 22. op. cit., pp. 312-332.

8. Quoted in Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943-1944, p. 523.

9. This theme is developed in Maurice Matloff, "Mr. Roosevelt's Three Wars: FDR as War Leader," Harmon Memorial Lecture in Military History, No. 6, United States Air Force Academy, (Colorado, 1964). This lecture was in part drawn from the same author's essay, "Franklin Delano Roosevelt as War Leader," published in Harry L. Coles (ed.), Total War and Cold War (Columbus, 1962).

10. The decision to limit the US Army to 90 divisions in World War Two is treated in an essay by Maurice Matloff, "The 90-Division Gamble," in Kent R. Greenfield, (ed.), Command Decisions (Washington, 1961).

11. Samuel I. Roseman (ed.), The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1944-45 volume, (New York, 1950), p. 524.

12. Various aspects of American wartime policies and relations with the Soviet Union are treated in a number of published American official and unofficial accounts, including the memoirs and biographies of political and military leaders. Particularly useful are the firsthand observations recorded in John R. Deane, The Strange Alliance (New York, 1947), and the contemporary sources incorporated in two official documentaries, The Entry of the Soviet Union into the War against Japan: Military Plans 1941-1945 (Department of Defense Press Release, September 1955), and Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta (Washington, DC, 1955). For summary analyses of American politico-military relations with the Soviet Union in the war against Japan and Germany respectively, see Ernest R. May, "The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Far Eastern War, 1941-1945," Pacific Historical Review, XXIV (May, 1955); and Maurice Matloff, "The Soviet Union and the War in the West," United States Naval Institute Proceedings, LXXXII (March, 1956).

Chapter Eleven:

1. John Wheeler-Bennett, John Anderson, Viscount Waverley (London, 1962), 297.

2. M.L. Oliphant to E.O. Lawrence, May 16, 1945, National Archives, Washington, Record Group 227, Bush-Conant File, folder 2 (this file is hereafter cited simply as Bush-Conant Papers, followed by current folder designation).

3. Report by the M.A.U.D. Committee on the Use of Uranium for a Bomb, Part 1, section 1, which is conveniently reproduced as Appendix 2 to Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 1939-1945 (London, 1964), 394-436.

4. Maud report, Appendix VII, Ibid.

5. Quoted in James B. Conant, unpublished manuscript, "A History of the Development of an Atomic Bomb," in Bush-Conant Papers, 4 (p. 24), hereafter cited as Conant "History."

6. Stimson Diary, October 29, 1942, Yale University Library, Manuscript Division, (hereafter simply cited as Stimson Diary).

7. Conant, "History," p. 1.

8. George Lawrence, "Canada's Participation in Atomic Energy Development," in Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 3, 11 (November, 1947), 325-328.

9. Chalmers Jack Mackenzie, Diary, June 9, 1942 (Hereafter cited as Mackenzie Diary). Dean Mackenzie kindly made available his copy of the diary but responsibility for all inferences drawn from it rest solely with the author. Abbreviated extracts of the diary concerning atomic research may also be found in the Public Archives of Canada, Record Group 77.

10. Mackenzie Diary, June 15, 1942.

11. Ibid., June 19, 1942.

12. Col. K.D. Nichols to Gen. L.R. Groves, August 11, 1943, "Progress Report on Eldorado Mining and Refining Stock Boom," in National Archives, Washington, Record Group 77, Manhattan Engineer District Files, 410.2, Uranium, Box 68. (Record Group 77, Manhattan Engineer District Files are hereafter cited simply as Manhattan Engineer District Files).

13. C.J. Mackenzie to C.D. Howe, April 10, 1944, "Memorandum, Status of Radiological Project," in Public Archives of Canada, MG 27111, B20, Vol. 14, C.D. Howe Papers, (hereafter cited simply as C.D. Howe Papers followed by volume number).

14. C.D. Howe to A.D.P. Heeney, April 10, 1944, C.D. Howe Papers, Vol. 14.

15. Cabinet War Committee Minutes, April 12, 1944. (Copy furnished by Historical Division, External Affairs, Government of Canada.)

16. Quoted in J.B. Brebner, The North Atlantic Triangle (Toronto, 1966) 315.

17. Cabinet War Committee Minutes.

18. William Lyon Mackenzie King, Diary, August 8, 1943 in Public Archives of Canada. MG26J

19. C.P. Stacey, Arms, Men and Governments: The War Policies of Canada 1939-1945 (Ottawa, 1970), 518.

20. Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 164.

21. Wilfred Eggleston, Canada's Nuclear Story (Toronto, 1965), 79.

22. Stacey, op. cit., 518-519 questions whether the remark was made but see C.J. Mackenzie Diary, June 30, 1943, also Gowing, op. cit., 185.

23. Eggleston, op. cit., 80.

24. James Eayrs, In Defence of Canada: Peacemaking and Deterrence (Toronto, 1972), 264.

25. Gowing, op. cit., 185; Stacey, op. cit., 521.

26. Capt C.K. Leith to V. Bush, April 22, 1942, Atomic Energy Commission, (U.S.A.) Historical Document no. 140, Copy supplied by Department of Energy, Washington. (Hereafter such documents are cited simply as A.E.C. no. etc. When it is known that copy exists in the Bush-Conant files, such indication follows).

27. Col. J.R. Ruhoff to Gen. L.R. Groves, December 27, 1943, "Position of Belgian Congo in Uranium Production," in Manhattan Engineer District Files, 410.2, Uranium, Box 68.

28. United Kingdom Survey, Sources and Supplies of Uranium, December 17, 1943, copy of which may conveniently be found in Public Archives of Canada, National Research Council Files, R.G. 77, Volume 284. (Hereafter cited as National Research Council files followed by volume number).

29. Col. R.R. Ruhoff to Gen. K.D. Nichols, January 5, 1944, "Comparison between Estimated Ore Deliveries and Forecast Material Requirements," Manhattan Engineer District Files.

30. C.J. Mackenzie to Hume Wrong, October 29, 1945, External Affairs, 201-A, top secret.

31. V. Bush to President F.D. Roosevelt, December 16, 1942 and Report to the President, same date, Manhattan Engineer District Files, Series 1, part 1, TS folder 25a, Robert Bothwell and William Kilbourn, C.D. Howe, A Biography (Toronto, 1979), 169.

32. See for example, Stacey, op. cit., 521.

33. See for example, H.C. Urey to J. Conant, March 30, 1942, Bush-Conant Papers, 86.

34. Memorandum, "Projects Being Handled by the Planning Board" May 22, 1942, AEC no. 106, Bush-Conant Papers.

35. See C.P. Stacey, op. cit., 521.

36. Ibid., 520, Gowing, op. ccit., 184.

37. Eggleston, op. cit., Stacey, op. cit., 521; John W. Holmes, The Shaping of Peace: Canada and the Search for World Order, 1943-1947, vol. 1 (Toronto, 1979), 201.

38. C.P. Stacey, op. cit., 525, fn.; Eggleston, op. cit., 66, 97.

39. Jack Granatstein and Robert Cuff, "The Hyde Park Declaration,1941: Origins and Significance," in Canadian Historical Review, 55, 1 (March 1974),59-80, reprinted in Idem. Ties That Bind, (Toronto, 1977), 69-92.

40. See the author's, "The Atomic Bomb and the Normandy Invasion," in Perspectives in American History, 11 (1978-1979), 461-502.

41. See Mackenzie Diary, April 12, 1943.

42. G. LaBine to C.D. Howe, May 28, 1943, C.D. Howe Papers, Vol. 8.

43. Ibid.; U.S. Government Tabulation of Contracts, copy in Public Archives of Canada, Department of Munitions and Supplies Files, Record Group 28A, (Hereafter cited simply as Munitions and Supplies Files), Vol. 176. See also Glasco report, C.D. Howe Papers, Vol. 6, Appendix B., Table "History of 700 ton order."

44. C.J. Mackenzie to V. Bush, July 22, 1942, Bush-Conant Papers, 1.

45. Holmes, op. cit., 201; Minutes, Meeting at Lord President's Office, October 12, 1942, copy of which may be found in the C.D. Howe Papers, Vol., 14.

46. V. Bush to Sir John Anderson, September 1, 1942, AEC no. 50, Bush-Conant, 1.

47. Memorandum, Cpt. Lavender to V. Bush, September 5, 1942, Bush-Conant, 15.

48. C.J. Mackenzie to V. Bush, September 13, 1942, Bush-Conant, 1.

49. L. Thomson to E. Stavert, November 3, 1942, Munitions and Supplies Files, Vol. 173.

50. J. Conant to C.J. Mackenzie, January 2, 1943, AEC no. 151, Bush-Conant Papers.

51. V. Bush to C.J. MacKenzie, March 13, 1943, Bush-Conant Papers, 42.

52. The letter as sent, with handwritten alterations by Franklin D. Roosevelt, may be found in Public Records Office, London (Kew), Prime Minister's Files, Premier 3/139/8A. (Hereafter cited simply by Premier 3 prefix followed by file designation).

53. Margaret Gowing, "Britain, America and the Bomb," in the University of Leeds Review, Vol. 21 (1978), 50-65, particularly, 54.

54. A reply drafted for Churchill dated December 1942 has been found in Premier 3/139/8A but unlike cables or letters actually sent has no specific date. There is no record of it in Roosevelt's papers at Hyde Park that I could find, nor does it appear in the inventory of atomic papers which have been found there. Lord Cherwell who surveyed the files for Churchill noted in 1945 that there was some doubt in his mind that it had ever been sent. Professor Gowing in Britain and Atomic Energy, 123 does not give her reasons for coming to a different conclusion. Cf. Lord Cherwell to Prime Minister, July 26, 1945, Premier 3/139/9.

55. Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 95-97.

56. Conant, "History", 16.

57. The key letter by which Bush registered the British refusal and in which he adopted his own "stand-of fish" attitude was V. Bush to Sir John Anderson, April 20, 1943, Bush-Conant Papers, 1.

58. Sir John Anderson to Prime Minister, July 30, 1942 in Premier 3/139/8A, also reprinted as appendix 3 to Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 437438, Cf. Anderson to V. Bush, August 5, 1942, Bush-Conant Papers, 1.

59. J.Conant to V. Bush, March 25, 1943, "Some Thoughts Concerning the Correspondence between the President and the Prime Minister on S-1, AEC no. 347, Bush-Conant Papers.

60. John Morton Blum ed., The Price of Vision: The Diary of Henry A. Wallace (Boston, 1973), 152.

61. See first document cited in note 58.

62. See the author's "The Atomic Bomb and the Normandy Invasion," cited in note 40.

63. Gowing, "Britain, America and the Bomb", 56.

64. Wilfred Eggleston, National Research in Canada: The NRC 1916-1966 (Toronto, 1978), 228.

65. Eayrs, op. cit., 238.

66. V. Bush to J. Conant, October 9, 1941, AEC no. 17.

67. Ibid.

68. V. Bush to J. Conant, December 10, 1941, AEC no. 25, Bush-Conant Papers.

69. Mackenzie Diary, June 19, 1942.

70. V. Bush to F.D. Roosevelt, June 19, 1942, President's Secretary Safe File, Bush Folder, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York.

71. F.D. Roosevelt to V. Bush, July 11, 1942, Ibid.; V. Bush to C.J. Mackenzie, AEC no. 145, Bush-Conant Papers, 1.

72. V. Bush to Sir John Anderson, September 1, 1942 (2nd letter), Bush-Conant Papers, 1.

73. V. Bush to C.J. Mackenzie, October 1, 1942, National Research Council Files, Vol. 284.

74. Stimson Diary, October 29, 1942.

75. V. Bush to C.J. Mackenzie, November 17, 1942, National Research Council Files, Vol. 284.

76. Mackenzie Diary, January 2, 1943.

77. V. Bush to C.J. Mackenzie, January 27, 1943, Bush-Conant Papers, 42.

78. J. Conant to Gen. L.R. Groves, May 11, 1943, Ibid,

79. V. Bush to H. Hopkins, April 27, 1943, Ibid.

80. Memorandum by Gen. L.R. Groves of Meeting at the White House, December 30, 1944, Manhattan Engineer District Files, Series 1, Part 1, folder 24.

81. The report is conveniently reprinted in Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 105.

82. Mackenzie Diary, June 15, 1942.

83. Document cited in note 42 above.

84. Mackenzie Diary, January 7, 1943.

85. See note 22 above.

86. Mackenzie Diary, January 7, 15, 1943.

87. H. Halban to C.J. Mackenzie, April 22, 1943 and C.J. Mackenzie to H. Halban, National Research Council Files, Vol. 284; Mackenzie Diary, January 18, 1943.

88. Mackenzie Diary, January 20, 1943.

89. C.J. Mackenzie to J. Conant, March 30, 1943, National Research Council Files, Vol. 284.

90. L. Thompson to C.J. Mackenzie, Munitions and Supplies Files, Vol. 173.

91. Stacey, op. cit., 324.

92. Mackenzie Diary, July 6, 1943.

93. C.D. Howe to G. LaBine, July 28, 1943, C.D. Howe Papers, Vol. 8.

94. C.D. Howe to Minister of Mines and Resources, July 28, 1943, Ibid.

95. Mackenzie Diary April 24, 1943.

96. Document cited above note 79.

97. Mackenzie Diary, May 1, 1943.

98. Ibid., May 11, 1943, cf. first document cited in note 58 above.

99. Mackenzie Diary, May 1, 1943.

100. Sir John Anderson to Prime Minister, April 11, 1943, Premier 3/139/8A.

101. Sir John Anderson to Prime Minister, May 15, 1943, Ibid.

102. W.S. Churchill to F.D. Roosevelt, August 15, 1943, Ibid.; Anderson to Prime Minister, August 13, 1943, Ibid,

103. J. Conant to V. Bush, March 25, 1943, AEC no. 347.

Chapter Twelve:

1. Joseph Schull, The Far Distant Ships, (Ottawa, 1952).

2. John Slessor, The Central Blue, (London, 1956), 497; Donald Maclntyre, U-Boat Killer, (London, 1956), 81-84; Public Record Office (henceforth PRO), AIR 15, 217; Directorate of History, Department of National Defence, Ottawa (henceforth D Hist), 79/466, U-Boat Headquarters War Diaries.

3. C.P. Stacey, Arms, Men and Governments: The War Policies of Canada, 1939-1945 (Ottawa, 1970), 132; James Eayrs, In Defence of Canada, (Toronto, 1965 II), Appeasement and Rearmament, Vol 213-22.

4. D Hist, 193.009, passim.

5. F.H. Hinsley, British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations, Vol I, (London, 1979), 334; Paul Bridle (ed), Documents on Relations between Canada and Newfoundland, Vol I, 1935-1949, (Ottawa, 1974), Doc 98, p. 104; D Hist, 193.009 (D2).

6. Ibid.

7. PRO, CAB 122/1582 f 299; US Naval Historical Division, Strategic Plans Division XIII, Box 187, "Newfoundland"; CCS to War Cabinet 4 Mar 41, D Hist 193.009(D2); Military Attache Washington to Chief of General Staff, Ottawa, 9 Apr 41, D Hist 314.009(D116); Stacey, 349-53.

8. W.G. Lund, "Command Relationships in the North West Atlantic 1939-1945. The Royal Canadian Navy's Perspective", unpublished M.A. thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, 1972, 15, 26-7; Rear Adm. Charles Little to Dudley Pound, 1 Oct 41, PRO Adm 205/9; Adm 205/10, passim.

9. Rear Admiral R.L. Ghormley USN to Chiefs of Staff Committee, London, 4 Jul 41, Adm 205/9.

10. US Nav Hist Div, Strategic Plans Div., VII, Box 147G; Public Archives of Canada (PAC), RG 2, 7c Vol I, Reel 4654, Cabinet War meeting of 11 June 41; Air Vice-Marshal N.R. Anderson to Air Marshal L.S. Breadner, 9 Jul 41, D Hist 181.002 (d 121).

11. US Naval Attache for Air, intelligence report, 17 Jun 41, US Nav Hist Div, Strategic Plans Div., XIII, Box 189; Lund, "Command Relationships 21.

12. Air Officer Commanding, Eastern Air Command (OAC, EAC) to Air Force Headquarters (AFHQ) 21 Sep 41, RG 24/5177/15-1-350(1).

13. Heakes to AFHQ, 23 Sep 41; ibid; Stark to Breadner, 2 Oct 41, ibid.

14. Anderson to Breadner, 11 Oct 41; Cuffe to Breadner, 13 Oct 41; Breadner to Power, 27 Oct 41, ibid.

15. Murray to Reid, 15 Oct 41, RG 24/11979.

16. See for example W.A.B. Douglas, "Conflict and Innovation in the Royal Canadian Navy, 1939-45" in G. Jordan (ed), Naval Warfare in the Twentieth Century (London, 1977); Stacey, 315-19; J.M. Milner, "Canadian Escorts and the Mid-Atlantic, 1942-1943", unpublished M.A. thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1979, Appendices X and XIII; PAC, MG 27, III B II, Ralston Papers, Vol. 54; Naval Board Minutes, 75th meeting, 30 Nov 42, D Hist.

17. D Hist 181.009 (D121) and (D6374); D Hist 79/184; RG 24/2410/17-1-26; RG 24/5177/15-1-350; PRO, Air 15/217.

18. Air 2/5260; Breadner to RCAF HQ Overseas, 21 May 41, RG 24/5177/15-1350(1); US/British Chiefs of Staff Meeting at Argentia, 11 Aug 41, Prem 3/485/5; RAF delegation in Washington (RAFDEL) to Air Ministry, 1 Oct 41, Air 8/461; Stacey, 171; Air 8/673.

19. Meeting of 1-3 Nov 42 at NSHQ, Air 15/217; Memo of 26 Nov 42, RG 24/5274/528-9-3; Meeting of 20 Nov 1942 RG 24/11968/NMS 222-1; Murray to Nelles 30 Nov 42, D Hist 193.009 (D14); Reports on defence of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, D Hist 193.009 (D19); Conference held at Argentia, 26-28 Feb 43, D Hist 181.002(D96).

20. Milner, "Canadian Escorts and the Mid-Atlantic...."; Pound to Churchill, 8 Dec 42, Adm 205/14; "Memorandum on Measures Necessary to Improve: (1) The Oil Situation in the U.K.; (2) Training of Canadian Manned Escort Groups", ibid.; Nelles to First Sea Lord, 7 Jan 43, D Hist NHS 8440-60; Jurgen Rohwer, The Critical Convoy Battles of March, 1943, (Annapolis, 1977), 39.

21. Conference, Mr. C.G. Power and Canadian delegation at Coastal Command 9 Jul 41, RG 24/5218/5-19-6-10; Anderson to Breadner, 9 Jul 41, D Hist, 181.001(D121); Report of 1 Mar 43 by Bulloch and Layton, RG 24/5177/1-15350(3); Correspondence on Liberators for the RCAF, 18 Dec-25 Mar 43, ibid.; see also D Hist 76/259; Wing Commander C.L. Annis, "Submarine Warfare, World War II", 29 Jan 43, D Hist 181.003(D309); Interview, Air Marshal C.L. Annis.

22. Patrick Beesley, Very Special Intelligence (London, 1977), 150; D Hist, "Notes on the history and activities of the Operational Intelligence Centre 1939-1945."

23. US Nav Hist Div OP-20-G, "Allied Communication Intelligence and the Battle of the Atlantic"; Correspondence on intelligence promulgation, 3 Jun 41--12 Dec 42, RG 24/11976/NMS 282-1; Papers on the Atlantic Convoy Conference, RG 24/8073/1270-120(1); Gilbert Tucker, The Naval Service of Canada Vol 11, (Ottawa, 1952), 402-17.

24. Stephen W. Roskill, War at Sea II, 358; Vice-Adm. B.B. Schofield, letter to the author March, 1979.

Chapter Fourteen:

1. University of Toronto Archives, J.D. Ketchum Papers, letter: E. Dope (pseud. for J.D. Ketchum) to E.J. Ketchum, 21 October 1942.

2. Public Archives of Canada (PAC), Brooke Claxton Papers, Vol. 44, W.L.M. King file, letter: Claxton to King 29 October 1941.

3. William R. Young, "Making the Truth Graphic: The Canadian Government's Home Front Information Structure and Programmes During World War II," University of British Columbia: unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1978, chapter VIII; William R. Young, "Working for Unity: The Problems of Public Information in Quebec during the Second War," Unpublished Paper delivered to the Canadian Historical Association, 1979.

4. W.L.M. King "Canada at Britain's Side," in W.L.M. King, Canada at Britain's Side, (CBS) Toronto: Macmillans 1941, p. 1 (text of a radio broadcast, I September 1939); ibid., "Italy Enters the War," CBS, pp. 123-124 (broadcast, 10 June 1940); National Film Board of Canada (NFB, The Mask of Nippon, The World in Action, produced by John Grierson, October 1942; W.L.M. King, "The Issue," CBS, pp. 37-39 (radio CBS, p. 9 (speech made in the House of Commons, 8 September 1939).

5. Robert Sherwood, "Address," in Department of National War Services, Director of Public Information, Let's Face the Facts, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1940, p. 19.

6. NFB, Geopolitik: Hitler's Plan for Empire. The World in Action, produced by John Grierson, May 1942.

7. Department of National War Services, Bureau of Public Information, Canada's Contribution to the Fight for Freedom: Speech by the Rt. Hon. W.L.M. King, Prime Minister of Canada at a Dinner in his Honour by the Associated Canadian Organizations of New York City, 17 June 1941, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1941; Wartime Information Board (WIB) Records, Vol. 1, file 1-2-17, memo: M.K. Burge, Dana Doten, Davidson Dunton, n.d. (September 1943).

8. Ibid., Vol. 19, file 10-2, memo: A.D. Dunton, n.d.; ibid., memo: G.P. Glazerbrook, to A.D. Dunton, 14 August 1944; ibid., file 8-26-1, memo, J.W.G. Clark to Dunton, 13 July 1943; Privy Council Office (PCO) Records, minutes: War Committee of the Cabinet, Meeting 299, 31 May 1944.

9. [Missing from original.]

10. NFB, The Fight for Liberty: The Second Year of the War, directed by James Beveridge, 1941; W.L.M. King, "Till the Hour of Victory, CBS, p. 277 (broadcast, 1 June 1941).

11. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Victory Loan Hour, 7 October 1942.

12. WIB Records, Vol. 19, file 10-A-12, press release 22 June 1943; Wartime Information Board, Labour Facts, I: 10 (15 November 1944).

13. W.L.M. King, "Canada-United States Joint Defence: The Ogdensburg Agreement," CBS, p. 171 (House of Commons' speech, 12 November 1940): WIB, "Canada and Lend Lease," Reference Papers 8 (12 June 1943).

14. Watson Kirkconnell, Canadians All: A Primer of National Unity, issued by the Director of Public Information, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1941, p. 13; WIB Records, Vol. 19, file 10-A-47, script: "Canadians All," 23 April 1941.

15. Ibid., Vol. 12, file 8-2-2, minutes: committee on morale, 8 May 1942.

16. Ibid., Vol. 15, file 8-26-1, letter: Irene King to Ministry of War Information, n.d. (July 1943); ibid., R-Z file, letter: Frances Turner to A.D. Dunton, 3 July 1943; ibid., F-J file, letter: Allan Huband, to J.D. Ketchum, 13 May 1944.

17. Ibid., Vol. 15, file 8-25-1, letter: Irene King to Ministry of War Information; ibid., Vol. 11, file 7-1-9 Censorship Report, 32, 947 (UK), intercepted letter, 26 March 1942.

18. Ibid., Vol. 25, dead file, report by Dorothy Dumbrille, 15 March 1943; ibid., F-J file, letter: Allan Huband to J.D. Ketchum, 14 April 1943.

19. Wartime Information Board, Reports Branch, "News Penetration," Information Briefs, 4 (20 March 1943), p. 2.

20. WIB Records, Vol. 18, file 10-A-5, script: Talk no. 2, "Working for Victory," 13 May 1941.

21. McGill University Archives, F.C. James Papers, box 2, Rumour Clinic file, letter: T.E. Ryder to James, 5 October 1942; ibid., Circular letter: Saul Hayes to J.M. Schmander, 20 September 1943.

22. WIB Records, Vol. 13, file 8-9-1, letter: R.B. Bryce to Clare Myer, 27 October 1942; ibid., letter: D.B. Mansur to Dunton, 23 December 1942; ibid., Vol. 1, file 1-2-19 minutes: Wartime Information Board, 2 November 1943.

23. Ibid., Vol. 4, "WIB Survey", no. 66, June 1945. This survey was completed in April 1945.

24. University of British Columbia Library, Special Collections Division, Alan Plaunt Papers, box 9, file 1, "A Programme of Immediate Canadian Action," 17-18 July 1940.

25. University of Saskatchewan Archives, Extension Department Files, box 117, "Five Minute Newscast," National Farm Radio Forum, 9 November 1942; The Canadian Chamber of Commerce, A Programme for Reconstruction: and Reestablishment of the House of Commons of Canada, n.p. 1943, p. 13.

26. Archives of Ontario, Canadian Association for Adult Education Papers, B1 series, box 3 "Report of the Proceedings of a Special Programme Committee of the CAAE," December 1942-January 1943, pp. 1ff.

27. WIB Records, vol. 11, file 8-2-B, "Films and the ILO," speech delivered before the ILO convention, Philadelphia, 26 April 1944.

28. Claxton Papers, VOL 178, speeches, miscellaneous, 1940-1946, "Effects of the War on the Canadian Economy and People," n.d.; ibid., Vol. 194, "Canada and the Post-War World," delivered at the 14th annual fellowship meeting, Temple Emmanuel, 18 February 1942.

29. Ibid., vol. 67, Tarr file, letter: E.J. Tarr to Claxton, 29 April 1942; Canadian Institute of International Affairs, E.J. Tarr Papers, Bank of Canada miscellaneous file, letter: Tarr to Graham Towers, 16 March 1942.

30. Claxton Papers, Vol. 2, Canadian Youth Commission file, memo: Claxton to R.E.G. Davis, 28 February 1944.

31. WIB Records, Vol. 5, file 2-1-1, report: J.D. Ketchum, 1 February 1944; for similar reasoning see: ibid., Vol. 1, file 1-2-19, proposal for an exhibit "The World We Want," n.d.; WIB Reports Branch, "Social Roots of Morale," Information Briefs, 5 (5 April 1943); WIB Records, Vol. 2, Monthly Reports file, J.D. Ketchum, "Reports Branch," November 1943.

32. WIB, Reports Branch, "Information Wanted," Information Briefs, 8 (17 May 1943); ibid., "Information Wanted II, in ibid., 11 (2 December 1943); ibid., "Frankness," in ibid. (March 1943); ibid., "Acceptance of Sacrifice," in ibid. (March 1943).

33. WIB Records, Vol. 13, file 8-14B, MSS: "Who's Our Boss: An Outline of Who Our Country Runs and Who Runs It," n.d. (1944); ibid., Vol. 8, file 8-5-E, pamphlet outline, "Up From the Ranks: The Story of our Country," n.d. (1945); NFB, This is Our Canada, Canada Carries On, produced by Stanley Jackson, 1945.

34. WIB Records, Vol. 10, file 6-2-22, minutes: economic stabilization information committee, 14 February 1944; ibid., Vol. 7, file 2-4-6, minutes: publicity coordinating committee, 4 March 1944; ibid., Vol. 10, file 6-2-22, minutes: economic stabilization information committee, 25 April 1944; ibid., Vol. 7, file 2-4-6, "Revised Draft Proposal for a Public Information Campaign on the Economic Stabilization Theme," 24 August 1943.

35. Wartime Information Board, Economic Stabilization Information Committee, Canada's Wartime Measures for Economic Stability to Keep Down the Cost of Living, Ottawa: King's Printer, June 1944, p. 6.

36. Ibid., pp. 1-4, 8, 18.

37. Ibid., file 6-7-10, MSS: "Shoes, Ships, Ceiling Wax and Economic Stabilization," speech delivered by Lorne T. Morgan, 28 July 1944.

38. Canada's Wartime Measures . . . . p. 23; WIB Records, Vol. 10, file 6-2-7, Economic Stabilization Film Project, Ragan Cartoon, n.d.; ibid., film on timber, n.d., (1944).

39. Ibid., Vol 10, file 6-2-10, MSS: "Ships " speech delivered by L.T. Morgan, 28 July 1944; ibid., file 6-2-7, memo: re: economic stabilization film programme, n.d. (1944

40. Ibid., Vol. 12, file 8-2-1, memo: Coordinator of Production, May 1943; PAC, Department of Munitions and Supply Records, Vol. 141, file 3-1-11, memo: G.K. Sheils to Berry, 10 March 1944; WIB Records, Vol. 12, file 8-2-1, letter: Shells to Grierson, 12 April 1943; ibid., memo: D.W. Petegorsky to John Grierson, 20 September 1943.

41. Wartime Information Board, Labour Facts, I: 11 (5 December 1944); Industrial Production Cooperation Board and Wartime Information Board, Victory in the Making, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1944, pp. 3, 7, 30; WIB Records, Vol. 12, file 8-2-1, memo: D.W. Petegorsky, 11 March 1943; WIB Labour Facts, II: 1 (15 January 1945).

42. Ibid., 1:8 (15 September 1944); WIB, Radio Service, 12 February 1945.

43. WIB Records, Vol. 4, file 1-6-1 memo: editor to editorial board 22 June 1943; ibid., Vol. 8, file 3-5-1, report by F/L G. Vlastos n.d. (August 1944).

44. Ibid., Vol. 3, Monthly Reports, Capt F.W. Park, "Information to the Armed Forces," November 1945; "Meet Canadian Affairs," Canadian Affairs (Canadian edition), 1:1 (15 January 1944), pp. 4-5; see also: "Fighters Think Ahead," Canadian Affairs (Canadian edition), 1:2 (1 February 1944), pp. 5-6.

45. Ibid.

46. WIB, "Reconstruction Planning," Post-War Planning Information, 4 (30 May 1944).

47. bid., "Supplement to Reconstruction Planning," in ibid., 4B (30 April 1945); see also Department of Reconstruction, Employment and Income with Special Reference to the Initial Period of Reconstruction, Presented to Parliament by the Minister of Reconstruction, Ottawa: King's Printer, April 1945.

48. WIB, "Social Security", Post-War Planning Information, 3 (16 May 1944).

49. Department of National Health and Welfare, Family Allowances: A Children's Charter, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1945; WIB, Radio Service, 12 March 1945, p. 9.

50. G. Hambleton, "Home-Front News," Canadian Affairs (Canadian edition), 1:5 (15 March 1944), pp. 15-16; Department of Pensions and National Health, Back to Civil Life, Ottawa: King's Printer, n.d. (1944); WIB Records, Vol. 10, file 63-8, memo: "The Johnny Home Show," n.d. (1945).

51. Ibid., Vol. 8, file 3-5E, MSS: "You Can't Turn the Clock Back by just Changing your Suit. . .", n.d. (1945); ibid., file 8-14A, MSS: "What's Been Going on at Home," n.d. (1945).

52. WIB Records, Vol. 4, "WIB Survey," 60 (April 1945); WIB Records, Vol. 12, file 8-2-1, "Report of a Survey of the Canadian Labour Press," 15 July 1943; D. Petegorsky, "Industrial Information," April-July 1945.

53. For a full description of the election campaign see J.L. Granatstein, Canada's War: The Politics of the Mackenzie King Government, 1939-1945, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975, pp. 396ff.

54. PAC, W.L.M. King Papers, 31 series, Vol. 381, p. 341213, memo: A.D. Dunton to members of the Cabinet, 18 June 1945.

Table of Contents

Transcribed and formatted by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation