Weed Suppressive Soils

If anyone out there is working on this area we would be very interested in 
hearing from you. This area overlaps with our research interests at IACR-Long 
Ashton and the whole idea of CRP in the USA sounds very like our set-aside 
system here in the UK. If anyone who receives this would be interested in some 
form of collaborative work in this subject area we would be pleased to discuss 
any ideas you may have.

Geoff Seavers/Nick Peters
IACR-Long Ashton Research Station
Department of Agricultural Sciences
University of Bristol
Long Ashton
BS18 9AF

Tel: +44 1275 392181
Fax: +44 1275 394007
Subject: more on hummingbird flowers
Date: 11 Mar 92 02:58:38 GMT

>>Just becaust a flower is red doesn't mean it has nectar.  My biggest
> I also poked all sorts of things into the flowers and disected lots of them
> and never was able to find anything in the way of nectar in them.  I think
> it is all a myth.

Plants have some neat little games they play with pollinators that are
after nectar.  Remember, nectar represents a lot of sugar that isn't
going to do the plant any good at all (except reproducing the next generation),
and it's hard work pushing all those little electrons up energy hills
with photons to make sugar.  So each molecule of sugar represents a
"cost" to the plant.

Plants "try" to maximize the number of pollinator visits they get for
the amount of sugar they put out.  Problems:  butterflies will respond
to much lower concentrations of sugar than bees will.  Bees respond
to much lower sugar concentrations than hummingbirds.  So being a
hummingbird flower is much more wasteful of sugar (which represents
energy that could be used for growth) than being a butterfly flower.

So: how do you minimize the cost of this sugar?  Bankers didn't
invent fraud, plants did.

Plan 1.  If your flower looks a lot like another flower that's blooming
at the same time, and has nectar, you may not need to make nectar.  The
pollinators may make some dumb mistakes, and you get your flowers
pollinated free.

Plan 2.  Pollinators will hang around an inflorescence (flower cluster)
as long as there's nectar every once in a while.  Maybe every 10th
flower.  So if you have 50 flowers in a cluster, maybe only 5 of them
are making nectar at any one time.  And the flowers making nectar
are switched around, so pollinators have to keep moving around looking
for the nectar.  After all, if one flower is a good meal, you might
as well go home instead of accidentally moving pollen around while
you're hunting for lunch...

If you want to find nectar, one of the best places to look is
at the base of the ovary.  Usually the nectary is a small ring
of white tissue.  Catch it at the right time, and it will be a
gooey ring of white tissue.

Re: Plantings to encourage wildlife (from Usenet, rec.gardens)
Subject: natives to attract wildlife
Date: 23 Apr 92 07:24:12 GMT

I just finished this late to hand out at Earth Day at the State Park
where I will be representing the California Native Plant Society and
selling Native plants.  Thought it might be of interest and also
would appreciate any comments.


Unless mentioned otherwise, the following lists are regarding the
value of the seed, fruit or berry of the plant mentioned


Acer macrophyllum BIG-LEAF MAPLE Goldfinches, Bees, Raccoons
Aesculus californica CALIFORNICA BUCKEYE Hummingbirds
Alnus rhoombifolia WHITE ALDER Warblers, Goldfinches, Pine Siskins
  Cedar Waxwings
Cornus nuttallii PACIFIC DOGWOOD Western Tanagers, Warblers, robins,
  Thrushes, Woodpeckers, Tree Swallows, many others
Cupressus Governiana GOWEN'S CYPRESS Thrushes, Mockingbirds, Pigeons
  Opossums, Coyotes
Juglans Hindsii BLACK WALNUT Jays, Pigeons, Squirrels
Lithocarpus densiflora TANBARK OAK Jays, Meadowlarks, Pheasants,
  Pigeons, Titmice, Thrashers, Quail, Woodpeckers, Rabbits, Raccoons
  Squirrels, Mice, Foxes
Pinus attenuata KNOBCONE PINE Chickadees, Doves, Finches, Jays,
  Sparrows, Rabbits, Squirrels
Platanus racemosa CALIFORNIA SYCAMORE Goldfinches, Cedar Waxwings,
  House, Purple finches, Pine Siskins, Red-Tailed Hawks, Woodpeckers
Populus fremontii FREMONT'S COTTONWOOD Foxes, Squirrels, Mice
Populus tremuloides QUAKING ASPEN Rabbits, Deer, Grouse, Opossum
Populus trichocarpa BLACK COTTONWOOD same, hairs on seeds used in
 nesting materials
Pseudotsuga menziesii DOUGLAS FIR Deer, Squirrels, Woodrats
Quercus OAKS All species of oaks valuable to: Mallard, Clapper rails
  Wooducks, Pheasants, Jays, Pigeons, Finches, Quail, Thrushes
  Chickadees, Towhees, Grosbeaks, Nuthatches, Raccoons, Foxes
  Also provide shelter, nesting sites and many insects for birds
Sequoia sempervirens COAST REDWOOD Jays, Pigeons, Wrens, Chickadees
Torreya californica CALIFORNIA NUTMEG Squirrels


Adenostoma fasciculatum CHAMISE Bees, Goldfinches, Grosbeaks,
  Raccoons, Deer, Woodrats, Mice
Amelancher pallida SERVICE BERRY Thrushes, other birds and mammals
Arctostaphylos MANZANITA Excellent for Quail, Doves, Mockingbirds
  Robins, Thrushes, Cedar Waxwings, Grosbeaks, Finches, Towhees,
  Sparrows, Raccons, Skunks, Squirrels, Coyotes, Deer, Hummingbirds
Atriplex lentiformis QUAIL BUSH Quail, Finches, Towhees, Sparrows,
  Rabbits.  Good shelter
Baccharis pilularis COYOTE BRUSH Deer, Butterflies
Berberis nevinii NEVIN'S BARBERRY Quail, Doves, Mockingbirds,
   Robins, Thrushes, Cedar Waswings, Grosbeaks, Finches, Towhees,
   Sparrows Thrashers.  Also good shelter
Calycanthus occidentalis SPICE BUSH Robins, Thrushes, Pheasants
Ceanothus WILD LILAC Quail, Hummingbirds, Bush-Tits, Mockingbirds,ds
  Thrashers, Thrushes, Warblers, Grosbeaks, Finches, Juncos,
  Rabbits, Squirrels, Bees, Butterflies, Hummingbirds
Clematis lasiantha and ligustifolia Hummingbirds
Cercis occidentalis REDBUD Goldfinches and Hummingbirds
Cornus stolonifera CREEK DOGWOOD Mockingbirds, Sparrows, Mourning
  Doves, Cedar Waxwings, Woodpeckers, Pigeons, Raccoons, Deer
Diplacus aurantiacus ORANGE MONKEYFLOWER Hummingbirds
Diplacus puniceus RED BUSH MONKEYFLOWER same
Diplacus longiflorus SOUTHERN MONKEYFLOWER same
Eriogonum fasciculatum CALIFORNIA BUCKWHEAT Oregon Juncos, Towhees,
  Squirrels, Bees, Butterflies
Galvezia speciosa ISLAND SNAPDRAGON Hummingbirds
Gaultheria shallon SALAL Thrashers, Chickadees, Thrushes, Finches
Heteromeles arbutifolia TOYON Cedar Waxwing, Towhees, Quail,
  Mourning Doves, Wrentits, Finches, Robins, Pigeons, Western
Lonicera hispidula CALIFORNIA HONEYSUCKLE Finches, Hermit Thrushes,
  Rabbits, Hummingbirds
Lonicera interrupta same
Lonicera involucrata TWINBERRY same
Lupinus albifrons SILVER LUPINE Quail, Squirrels
Mahonia aquifolium OREGON GRAPE Cedar Waxwings, Robins, Pheasants
  Mockingbirds, Finches, Deer.  Good shelter
Myrica californica CALIFORNIA WAX MYRTLE Cedar Waxwings, Chickadees,
  Towhees, Orioles, Wrentits, Warblers
Osmoronia cerasiformis OSO BERRY Mockingbirds, Pigeons
Prunus ilicifolia HOLLYLEAF CHERRY birds, small mammals and deer
Quercus durata LEATHER OAK same
Rhamnus californica CALIFORNICA COFFEEBERRY Pigeons, Jays, Robins,
  Mockingbirds, Thrashers, Cedar Waxwings, Purple Finches
Rhamnus crocea REDBERRY same
Rhamnus ilicifolia HOLLYLEAF REDBERRY same, plus Quail
Rhus integrifolia LEMONADE BERRY Quail, Flickers, Finches, Pheasants
  Juncos, Jays, Mockingbirds, Robins, Thrushes, Finches, Grosbeaks
  Catbirds, Chickadees, Towhees
Rhus ovata SUGARBUSH same
Ribes aureum GOLDEN CURRANT Many birds eat berries, hummingbirds
Ribes californicum CALIFORNICA CURRANT same
Ribes malvaceum CHAPPARAL CURRANT hummingbirds
Ribes menziesii Quail, Thrashers, Robins, Thrushes, Finches, Towhees
Ribes sanguineum RED FLOWERED CURRENT Hummingbirds
Rosa californica CALIFORNICA ROSE Pine Siskins. Goldfinches, Quail,
  Thrushes, Pheasants, Raccoons, good nesting sites
Rubus vitifolius WESTERN BLACKBERRY good for fruit and cover
Salix WILLOW Warblers, Thrushes, Fox sparrows, Finches
Salvia clevelandii CLEVELANDS SAGE Hummingbirds, Sparrows
Salvia leucophylla PURPLE SAGE same
Salvia mellifera BLACK SAGE same, also bees and finches
Salvia sonomensis CREEPING SAGE same
Sambucus glauca CALIFORNICA ELDERBERRY Pigeons, Wren-Tits, Mock-
  ingibrds, Finches, Towhees, Robins, Deer
Symphoricarpos albus  SNOWBERRY Hummingibrds, Mockingbirds, Towhees
  Finches, Grosbeaks, Cedar Waxwings, Deer.  Good cover
Trichostemma lanatum WOOLY BLUE CURLS Hummingbirds
Vaccinum ovatum HUCKLEBERRY Pigeons, Mourning Doves, Foxes, Raccoons
  Opossum, Rabbits, Deer
Vitus californica CALIFORNICA WILD GRAPE all birds


Aquilegia formosa WESTERN COLUMBINE Hummingbirds, seeds eaten
  by small birds
Aquilegia exima same
Cynoglossum grande WESTERN HOUNDS TOUNGE Hummingbirds
Delphinium cardinale SCARLET LARKSPUR Hummingbirds, Finches
Delphinium nudicale same
Eriogonum species BUCKWHEATS Butterflies, bees
Fragaria californica BEACH STRAWBERRY berries good food source
Heuchera maxima ISLAND ALUM ROOT Hummingbirds
Heuchera macrantha ALUM ROOT same
Iris species seeds eaten by birds
Keckiella corymbosa BUSH PENSTEMON Hummingbirds
Keckiella cordifolia HEARTLEAF PENSTEMON same
Keckiella ternatus SAME
Mimulus cardinalis SCARLET MONKEYFLOWER Hummingbirds
Monardella macrantha MOUNTAIN PENNYROYAL Hummingbirds
Monardella villosa COYOTE MINT Hummingbirds
Penstemon centranthifolious, P. labrosus, P. newberryi, P. barbatus,
  P. clevelandii  Hummingbirds
P. heterophyllus, P. spectablis, P. speciosus, etc. Penstemon seed
  eaten by small birds
Satureja mimuloides Hummingbirds
Wyethia helenoides GRAY MULE EARS seed good for birds and mammals
Zauschineria californica CALIFORNICA FUCHSIA Hummingbirds

Re: Books on plantings for wildlife (from Usenet, rec.gardens)

Dear folks:  Try your local conservation commission/department of natural
resources/horticulture departments at local universities.  Many states
have similar lists.

I've got the Minnesota Non-Game Wildlife Program's _Landscaping for
Wildlife_ sitting in my lap at the moment.  145 pages of great information
on both the plants and the animals, all for the piddling sum of $9.

The National Wildlife Federation also offers a "Gardening for Wildlife" kit
that I haven't seen.  Has booklets, landscape plans, bird feeder designs,
seeds for butterfly and hummingbird attractant plants, and some other
goodies.  (1412 16th St NW, Washington DC 20036).

Re: Wildlife plantings (from Usenet, rec.gardens)
Subject: Guide to Wildlife Food Habits

If you're looking for a cheap sourcebook on who eats what, I recommend
"American Wildlife & Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits"  by
Alexander C. Martin, Herbert S. Zim and Arnold L. Nelson.  Originally
published by McGraw-Hill in 1951, my copy is the 1961 Dover republication.

Although the focus is on game animals and cute&fuzzies, there is a small
section on fish, reptiles and amphibians.

The major portion of the book is organized by group of animals (for instance,
in the "Songbird section", under Cedar Waxwing, there is a rough US
distribution map, a short discussion of the biology of the species, and a
list of the "best" food plants in four regions of the country (in the
NE, the winners are redcedar, wild cherry, and flowering dogwood, followed by
blackberry, hackberry, chokecherry, mulberry, serviceberry, blackhaw,
pokeweed, grape, and some minor species.

Another section of the book is arranged by species of plants, or groups of
similar species.  For instance, witch hazel seeds are listed as being heavily
used by ruffed grouse, and less heavily by wild turkey...

Subject: More "Landscaping for Wildlife"
Date: 6 May 92 02:41:53 GMT

More information shamelessly stolen from the excellent book, "Landscaping for
Wildlife", from the Minnesota Dept of Natural Resources' Nongame Wildlife
Program.  $8.95 from DNR Giftshop, 500 Lafayette Rd, St Paul, MN  55101

Trees, shrubs and vines rated "Excellent" for butterflies, moths and bees:
Acer negundo   box elder
Aristolochia durior   dutchman's pipe
Betula spp.   birches
Ceanothus americanus  NJ tea
Cephalanthus occidentalis  buttonball bush
Cercis canadensis    redbud
Clethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush
Eleagnus commutata  silverberry
Ledum groenlandicum   labrador tea
Lindera benzoin   spicebush
Philadephicus coronarius   sweet mockorange
Populus spp.  aspens
Prunus spp.  cherries and plums
Quercus spp.  oaks
Rubus spp.  blackberries & raspberries
Salix discolor  pussywillow
Salix humilis  prairie willow
Salix nigra   black willow
Salix pentandra  laurel willow
Spiraea alba  narrowleaf meadowsweet
Spiraea latifolia  broadleaf meadowsweet
Spirea tomentosa  hard hack
Symphoricarpos occidentalis  wolfberry, coralberry
Viburnum lantana  wayfaring bush
Wiegelia florida  wiegelia

heath aster
canterbury bells
Dianthus barbatus (sweet william)
sweet pea
four o'clock
sweet marjoram
flowering tobacco
blackeyed susan, gloriosa daisy
scarlet sage
winter savory
garden verbena

Subject: "Landscaping for Wildlife"
Date: 6 May 92 02:27:53 GMT

Some information shamelessly stolen from the excellent book, "Landscaping for
Wildlife", from the Minnesota Dept of Natural Resources' Nongame Wildlife
Program.  $8.95 from DNR Giftshop, 500 Lafayette Rd, St Paul, MN  55101
(no, no connection except one of my students will begin working with another
division of the DNR next week...)

Plants rated "Excellent" for landscaping for wildlife:
  (*=native to MN)
*Abies balsamea
Abies concolor
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Juniperus chinensis
Juniperus communis
*Juniperus virginiana
Larix decidua
*Larix laricina
Picea abies
*Picea glauca
Picea glauca densata
*Picea mariana
Picea rubens
*Pinus banksiana
Pinus ponderosa var scopulorum
*Pinus resinosa
*Pinus strobus
Pinus nigra
Pseudotsuga menziesii
*Tsuga canadensis

*Andropogon gerardii
*Andropogon scoparius
*Bouteloua curtipendula
*Panicum virgatum
*Sorghastrum nutans

*Amorpha canescens
*Amorpha nana
*Astragalus adsurgens
*Astragalus agrestis
*Astragalus canadensis
*Astragalus crassicarpus
*Lotus purshianus
*Oxytropis lambertii
*Petalostemon candidum (=Dalea candida)
*Petalostemon purpureum (=Dalea purpurea)
*Psoralea argophylla
*Psoralea esculenta
*Vicia americana
(red clover, white clover, alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil rate only "fair")