Training urban/rural farmers in organic, biointensive raised-bed 
gardening, market gardening, mini-farming, mini-ranching worldwide
Teaching: Lubbock, TX, USA - Garden & Art Center, Homeschoolers
Association + Villa Alta Gracia, Republica Dominicana
Cuahutemoc, Chih., Mexico + Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa
Languages: English, Spanish
Box 1901, Lubbock, TX 79408-1901  Tel/Fax 806-744-8517
Email: ken.hargesheimer@windmill.com  or  n110436@aol.com

Gardening, market gardening, mini-farming, mini-ranching

There is unlimited opportunity in urban agriculture. People can have a
comfortable income, a high quality
lifestyle, provide a great service to their community and is a great way to
raise kids. A woman took a one week
course, went to Alaska, prepared the land and sold $20,000 worth of
vegetables [then had a six months vacation
time].  Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire, is an example of urban agriculture.  Every
vacant piece of land is planted.  Even
the land between the street and the property line is growing corn and/or
yams.  Vacant lots and land are
everywhere in this country.  Many factories, plants, churches, schools,
colleges, city and county goverments
have unused  land.  Use it for food production, recycle waste, green areas
and beautification of the city.  Use
organic, biointensive raised beds.  Yields are 2-5 times the national
average.  Organic food sales have increased
app. 25% per year for several years and is expected to continue for the next
five years..  Begin very small and
simple and expand as necessary.

Urban Agriculture: The Untapped Potential. Urban Ag has the potential to
provide many benefits to cities - in
nutritional improvement, hunger reduction, income generation, enterprise
development and environmental
enhancement.  The poor and unemployed can grow their own food. Farming
converts degraded and unkempt
vacant lots into healthy, green areas.  Waste [grass, leaves, trees, sawdust,
manure, food waste] can be
composted and used on the farms.  City governments must recognize the
potential of urban agriculture and
accord it the status given to other industries and economic activities in the

Crime prevention:  A Philadelphia police officer noted crime decreased from
40 to 4 incidents per month after
she started a gardening project.  On Dearborn Street in SF, CA, the crime
rate dropped 28% after one year of

Youth:  Young people are being deprived of a wonderful career opportunity
because they are not being informed
concerning UA.  Jobs are few and low paying but no one is informing them
about free enterprise and micro-
entrepreneurship where there are much greater possibilities for better income
and quality of life.

Youth At Risk: The solution to youth problems is W O R K.  They acquire
self-esteem, stay busy, feel useful,
learn self-discipline and earn money.  Gardening has been found by San
Antonio, TX to be the most effective
solution to the youth gang problem.  It is much more effective than sports.
 Records show that after students are
involved in gardening that their school attendance, morale and grades
improve.  Gang activity decreases sharply
in neighborhoods where the youth are engaged in gardening.  Mini-ranching
will be even more effective with
some youth and it can be done in the city.  

Youth Reformatory and Prison:   An increase in self-esteem and responsibility
is evident among youth already
in the Criminal Justice system and drug rehab programs when they garden.
 Gardening within prisons has a
proven tract record.  Upon leaving prison, they have any immediate way to
earn a living with only a little assi-

Youth Training: Boy Scout Explorer Posts can be organized in urban
agriculture.  From their surveys in the
schools they already know the youth who are interested in agriculture.  Post
can be organized in schools,
churches, boys and girls clubs and neighborhoods. Contact the local BS
     UA should be taught in every high school in the country.  It should be
under Applied Academics or the Magnet
Program and not a part of vocational agriculture/FFA untill it returns to its
original purpose: training food and fiber
producers at the high school level.
     An Urban Agriculture Corps should be organized nationwide for youth 14
to 21 years of age whether in school
or not.  Training in UA would be provided and then they are assisted in
securing their own mini-farms.  Corps
could be organized in churches, schools, neighborhoods, boys and girls clubs,
1.  Gardening:  Every family should produce as much of their own food as
possible or buy from the local organic
growers.  Not only does it same money but it eliminates the health risk from
the hundreds of chemicals that are
sprayed on fruits and vegetables by commercial and agribusiness corporation
farmers.  This is especially
important for children.  Imported foods have been sprayed with chemicals that
are prohibited in this country.  The
taste of organically grown food is much better and the nutritional value is
much higher.  
2.  Marketing:  Local market surveys would determine what crops have a market
before production is begun or
begin on a very small scale to test market..
Market options:  roadside/curbside stand, farmers market, door-to-door,
wholesale to health food stores, 
   restaurants, and grocers, employees of factories, offices, schools and
colleges, mail order, weavers, arts and 
   crafts people, cooperatives, community supported ag.
Local Currency:  It is legal to print and issue local currency.  It is being
used very successfully.
3.  Market gardener:  Production of vegetables for market.
     Herbs [culinary]
4.  Mini-farmer:  Volume production for markets in addition to the above:
     Vegetables [exotics]: Chinese, tomatillos, amaranth, Quinoa.
     Orchards: nuts, fruit, oil.
     Fibers: naturally colored cotton, flax, industrial hemp, ramie.
     Grains: wheat, oats, rice, wild rice, barley, corn, milo, amaranth,
buckwheat, millet, rye, triticale, kafir,
           Spelt, Wild Triga [perennial], Kamut, Quinoa, Teff.
     Ornamentals: outdoor and potted plants.
     Forestry: christmas trees, lumber, seedlings, bonsai, fodder.
     Specialties: Indian corn, gourds, dyes, soaps, tea, mushrooms, bamboo,
sorghum [syrup].
     Oils: canola, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed, safflower, peanut, castor
     Flowers: cut [fresh], dried, edibles, fragrances.
     Herbs: culinary, medicinals, fragrances.
     Industrial: Guayule [natural rubber], Jocoba [lubricant], Broomcorn
[brooms], Guar [gum] Candelilla [wax].
5.  Mini-rancher:  Can be done in the city.  Production of animals and animal
products for market.  Animals are
in moveable pens over raised-beds of forages. They are moved each day.  Or
use cut and carry. 
     Meat: goats, sheep, chickens, ducks, geese, rabbits, pigs, ostrich,
rheas, emus, guinea fowl, turkey, cattle, 
        muscovies, deer, water buffalo.
     Dairy: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffalo.
     Fibers: angora rabbits, angora goats, sheep, alpaca, vicuna, llamas.
     Eggs: hens, ducks, geese, quail, 
     Wild game: Pheasants, ducks, geese, deer, quail, .
     Exotics: peacocks, swans, show rabbits, show poultry, pet birds,
hamsters, guinea pigs.
     Specialties: bees, chinchillas, mink, fox. 
     Miniatures: cattle, horses, goats, swine
     Aquaculture: fish, shrimp, crayfish.
6.  Winter gardening/mini-farming:  Cold frames, greenhouses over beds, crop
covers, winter crops.
7.  Winter mini-ranching: Forage crops, hay, silage, winter grazing, animal
8.  Products:  Eggs, milk, meat, vegetables, fruits, herbs, honey, grains,
fibers, nuts, oils, pets, straw, plants,
flowers, animals
9.  Value-added:   Using one's own labor to process farm/ranch
produce/products to increase market value.
People are looking for farm/ranch food that are grown without chemicals and
processed without additives.  Below
are only a few suggestions.
   Mini-farming: Flower petals in pictures, weavings, dried [solar] fruits
and vegetables, flower, bouquets [fresh,
dried], cold-pressed oils, stone-ground flours, herb vinegars and oils,
soaps,  sprouts, brooms.
   Mini-ranching: cheese, yogurt, jerky, milk soap, weavings, pickled eggs,
packaged meat, hides, fur.
10.  Techniques:
Fertilizers:			Irrigation:		Pesticides			Mulches
   Seaweed			   DIY drip		   Garlic, oil			   compost
   Bone meal			   soaker hose		   Peppers, Molasses		   bark
   Blood meal			   pitcher		   Peppermint			   hulls
   Cottonseed meal		Crop rotation		   Soap, Citronella		   Sawdust
   Soybean meal		Transplants		   Baking soda			   Hay
   Fish meal/emulsion		Shade cloth		   Vinegar, Tobacco		Herbicides
   Rock powder			Trellis			   Diatomaceous earth		   Corn gluten meal
   Lime				Row covers		Beneficial insects
   Compost			Cages			Compost:
   Worm castings		Intercropping		   Sawdust, grass, leaves,
   Bat guano			Companion planting	   tree trimmings, gin trash,
   Manure			Foliar feeding		   cotton burrs, manure, hulls.
11.  Income:  The following would generate additional income.  Select
according to personal preference, land 
available, market, etc.
     Tours: Show the garden, mini-farm and mini-ranch.
     Exhibits: Show animals from the mini-ranch at schools, malls, birthdays,
     Farm zoo: All animals including game animals.
     Petting zoo: Farm animals for the children to pet.
     Pony rides: Rent ponies for children's rides.
     Horseback riding:  Mini-ranches near riding areas.
     Sleigh rides:  For areas with sufficient snowfall.
     Hay rides: Wagon pulled by horses.
     Dude mini-ranch: Day/overnight guests help with ranch work.
     Mini-farm holiday: Day/overnight guests help with gardening and farm
     Camps: Teach children in day, evening and overnight [tents] camps.
     Workshops: Teach adults in day and evening classes.
     Seminars: One day teaching sessions on various subjects.
     Composting: Recycleable waste [sawdust, food, trees, leaves, grass,
manure] is delivered [city, 
         tree trimmers, stores] for composting and sale it to the public or
use on the farm.
     Mini-ranch chuckwagon: Serve breakfast/lunch/dinner, using farm/ranch
produce, around a 
        campfire. Entertainment provided by aspiring musicians [unpaid].
     Retail store: Sells all produce/products.
     Restaurant: Serves food made from the farm/ranch produce.
12. Advertising/promotion: Use to promote the marketing of crops and
     Parades: Ride in parades on bicycles, pedal-powered vehicles and
trailers carrying farm animals.
     Street fairs: Booths sell products/produce and/or hand out brochures.
     County fairs: Booths for selling and promotions.
     Trade shows: Same as above.
       Radio talk shows.
     TV interviews.
     Speakers bureau: schools, civic clubs, youth groups, neighborhood
associations, etc.
     Newspaper, magazine articles.
13. Investment cost:  Starting small and simple requires very little funds:
free or rented land, water source,
seeds, digging fork and old pallets for compost bins.  Use salvaged lumber
for sides of raised beds and salvaged
wire for cages.
14. Transportation:   Can use pedal-powered vehicles: bicycles, tricycles, 4
wheelers [1-4 passengers]. Low
cost and low operational costs.  Write for information.  Youth and those on a
low budget will find this works.
     Bicycles: Personal transportation from home to farm, etc.
     4 wheeled vehicles: 2 or more people from home to farm, pickup, tour
     Trailers: Carry produce to market and recycleable waste to farm. display
15. Equipment: Use hand tools: garden fork, hoes, shovels, etc.
 Pedal-powered: dumptrike, lawnmower,
sicklebar mower, bulldozer, tractor, forklift, front-end loader, grain
reaper, rider for weeding/harvesting, grain
grinder.  Little power equipment is necessary.  With more acreage, a spader
will dig the raised beds pulled
behind a 14 hp or larger tractor.  Alter axles to run the wheels in the
permanent tracks between the beds. 
Farmers are using beds up to 8' wide.
16. Research/Education: The following are the best available.  +Primary ones.
Production - crops
   +How To Grow More Vegetables Than You	          +Lazy Bed Gardening. J
Jeavons [beginners]
     Ever Thought Possible On Less Land Than 		Cold Weather Gardening. F Ours
     You Can Imagine.  J Jeavons.			Dirt Doctor's Guide To OG. H Garrett
        [Spanish, French, German, Russian, Hindi]		Farmer's Earthworm
     From The Good Earth, M Ableman			Four Seasons Harvest. E Coleman
     New Organic Grower. E Coleman			Solar Gardening. L Poisson
     Backyard Market Gardening, A Lee			One Straw Revolution. M Fukuoka
     Garden-Ville Method, M Beck			Organic Manual. H Garrett
     Natural Pest Control. A Lopez 			
Production - Livestock
     Chicken Tractor.  A Lee				Raising Your Own Livestock. C Weisburd
     Raising Small Livestock. J Belanger			Salad Bar Beef. J Salitin
     Pastured Poultry Profits. J Salitin
Marketing - 
     Sell What You Sow, E Gibson			Small Commercial Garden, D Haakenson
     Metrofarm, M Olson
Periodicals - 
     Organic Gardening			National Gardening			Farmer To Farmer
     Small Farm Today			Ecology and Farming			Small Farm News
     Alternative Agriculture		   [English, German]			New Farmer & Grower
     Ecology Action			Cultivar					Organic Exchange
     Organic Farmer			ME Organic Farmers			KCSA Newsletter
     Organic Grower			Organic Growing			BioOptions [alternatives]
     NOFA Notes				Countryside & Small Stock J.		Back Home
     Practical Farmer			Quarterly Voice				Working Land
     ECHO Development Notes 		Cover Crop News			Growing For Market
        [English, Spanish]			Gardeners In Community		Natural Farmer
     Ecology Action			NOFA Natural Farmer			Mokin Productions 
Computer BBS
     HOME BBS - 317-539-6579 [Sysop 317-539-6935]          AOL - Organic
17. Articles: The following are the best information to be found on these
subjects. Copying is $0.10 per page.
     Biointensive Mini-farming: A sustainable farming system.  2 pp.
     Urban Agriculture: A neglected resource for food, jobs and sustainable
cities.  [English, Spanish, French] 2 pp
     Working With Worms.  Avant Gardener. [English, French] 1 p.
     Living the Good Life: Urban mini-farming/ranching.  E Bauer 3 pp.
     Homestead in the City. M Winstein 3 pp.
     City Farm: Gross $240,000 from two city lots. G DeVault 4 pp.
     Growing Food in the City.  C Bylinowski 3 pp.
     Prairie Crossing Farm. V Ranney 3 pp.
     Tales of an Urban Farmer.  M Ableman 3 pp.
     Surprising Yields of Urban Ag. K Helmore & A Ratta. 5 pp.
     Urban Agriculture Worldwide.  Urban Ag Network. 2 pp.
     Gardens/Mini-Farms News 1. Crops. 8 pp.
     Gardens/Mini-Farms News 2. Livestock. 8 pp.
     Grassroots Development (Sustainable Ag), Vol 19/no. 1/1995. [English,
Spanish, Portuguese] free
     Local Currency.  1 p. [Used for marketing, promotion and financing the
farm operation]
     Nature Farming.  2 pp.
     Iowa Farmer Rediscovers Nature's Way [organic farming]. 5 pp.
     Integral Urban House [self-sufficiency in food, energy, waste
reclycling].  5 pp.
     Moveable animal pens.  5 pp.
     One Straw Revolution [excerpt].  6 pp.
     Raising Rabbits in herds. 1 p.
     Give garden soil what it hungers for: organic matter. 1 p.
     Solution to youth problems. 2 pp.

For information or submit questions, send a SASE enclosing noted amounts for
photocopying (@ $0.10 per page)
in money or stamps.  If money/stamps totals 70 to $l.40 cents, put $0.52 on
     I am available to teach the above in this country or in any country in
the world at any time.  The course is
hands-on with most time in the garden, on the mini-farm or mini-ranch.
 Please copy these pages and distribute
them to encourage mini-farming but copy them without any changes.  Respect
others work.  Ken Hargesheimer.
Flowers, vegetables, fruits, nuts, trees, grains, forages, herbs, animals