Bibliography of Journal articles
What really happened? A validation study of rape survivors' help-seeking experiences with the legal and medical systems. (eng; includes abstract) By Campbell R, Violence And Victims [Violence Vict], 2005 Feb; Vol. 20 (1), pp. 55-68; PMID: 16047935 Find this journal title in a library
Much of what is known about rape survivors' experiences with the legal and medical systems has come from victims' accounts; rarely have researchers collected "the other side of the story" to find out what system personnel say did or did not happen in these interactions. In the current study, rape survivors who sought emergency medical care were interviewed before their hospital discharge about what services they received and how they were treated by social system personnel. Corresponding accounts were then collected from doctors, nurses, and police officers. There was significant interrater reliability between the survivors and legal and medical system personnel regarding what services were or were not provided ("service delivery") and if system personnel engaged in "secondary victimization" behaviors (i.e., statements/actions that could be distressing to victims). However, police officers and doctors significantly underestimated the impact they were having on survivors. Victims reported significantly more post-system-contact distress than service providers thought they were experiencing.
According to the belief in a just world (BJW) theory, the most threatening victim for the observers' BJW is the innocent victim whose suffering persists. Consequently the innocent victim whose suffering persists should be more secondarily victimized by high-BJW participants than by low-BJW participants. However, research has never systematically tested this basic prediction of the theory. In these two studies we tried to determine the impact of the observer's BJW, the victim's innocence, and the persistence of the victim's suffering on secondary victimization. In study 1, an interaction between BJW and victim's innocence was found on the attractiveness of the victim. In study 2, an interaction between BJW, victim's innocence, and persistence of suffering was found on the derogation of the victim. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
To a safer place? Victims of sexual abuse by females and their disclosures to professionals. (eng; includes abstract) By Denov MS, Child Abuse & Neglect [Child Abuse Negl], 2003 Jan; Vol. 27 (1), pp. 47-61; PMID: 12510030 Find this journal title in a library
OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of victims of female sex offenders with regard to disclosing sexual abuse to a professional, and importantly, the impact of professional responses on victims. METHOD: The data were derived from one-to-one semi-structured interviews with 14 (7 males, 7 females) victims of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators. Victims ranged in age from 23 to 59 years and were recruited through professional referrals or through poster advertisements in counseling services. Participants responded to questions on their family background, experience(s) of sexual abuse, experience(s) disclosing the sexual abuse to a professional, and the impact of professional responses. RESULTS: The majority of victims reported sexual abuse by their mothers. The average age of onset of the sexual abuse was age 5, lasting, on average, 6 years. Five participants reported experiencing severe, moderate and mild sexual abuse, four reported experiencing both severe and mild sexual abuse and five reported experiencing moderate and mild sexual abuse. The findings underscore the significance of professional intervention in relation to victim disclosures of sexual abuse by females. Professional responses to disclosures, whether positive or negative, appeared to have a crucial impact on the well-being of victims. Supportive professional responses including the acknowledgment and validation of victims' experiences of sexual abuse appeared to mitigate the negative effects of the abuse. In contrast, unsupportive responses where professionals minimized, or disbelieved victims' allegations of sexual abuse appeared to exacerbate the negative effects of the sexual abuse, ultimately inciting secondary victimization. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for the development and implementation of professional training initiatives to sensitize professionals to the issue of female sex offending and the intervention needs of victims. Failure to do so could have negative consequences for victims sexually abused by females. (Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.)
Secondary Victimization of Crime Victims by Criminal Proceedings. By: Orth, Uli. Social Justice Research, Dec2002, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p313-325, 13p, 3 charts; (AN 8931130) Find this journal title in a library
It is conceivable that criminal proceedings cause psychological harm to the crime victims involved, that is, cause secondary victimization. To investigate this hypothesis, negative and positive effects of criminal proceedings were investigated, as perceived by 137 victims of violent crimes who were involved in trials several years previously. Trial outcome and procedure variables were measured as potential causes of secondary victimization. Results show a high proportion of victims reporting overall negative effects. Powerful predictors were outcome satisfaction and procedural justice, but not subjective punishment severity, interactional justice, and psychological stress by criminal proceedings. The practical implications of the results pertain to whether victims should be advised to report the crime to the police or not, and to appropriate prevention and intervention measures of secondary victimization by criminal proceedings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Preventing the "Second Rape": Rape Survivors' Experiences With Community Service Providers. By: Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.; Ahrens, Courtney E.; Sefl, Tracy; Barnes, Holly E.. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Dec2001, Vol. 16 Issue 12, p1239, 21p; (AN 5712446) Find this journal title in a library
Although prevention efforts aimed at eliminating the occurrence of sexual assault are clearly needed, it is also important to consider how we can prevent further trauma among those already victimized. Prior research suggests that rape survivors may experience victim-blaming treatment from system personnel (termed secondary victimization or the second rape). This research examined how postassault contact with community systems exacerbated rape victims psychological and physical health distress. Findings revealed that the majority of rape survivors who reported their assault to the legal or medical system did not receive needed services. These difficulties with service delivery were associated with both perceived and objective measures of negative health outcomes. Contact with the mental health system, rape crisis centers, or religious communities was generally perceived by victims as beneficial. This study suggests that the trauma of rape extends far beyond the assault itself, as negative community responses can significantly elevate distress. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The Effects of Belief in a Just World and Victim's Innocence on Secondary Victimization, Judgements of Justice and Deservingness. By: Correia, Isabel; Vala, Jorge; Aguiar, Patrícia. Social Justice Research, Sep2001, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p327-342, 16p, 4 charts; (AN 9038890) Find this journal title in a library
Several studies have shown that victims judged to be innocent are more liked and helped by observers than victims judged to be noninnocent. Nevertheless, objectively innocent victims are very often secondarily victimized (blamed, devalued, avoided, or have their suffering minimized), and judged as deserving or as being in a just situation. An impressive amount of literature shows that high believers in a just world victimize the victims more than low believers, judge them as more deserving and think they are in a fairer situation. But the evaluation of the joint impact of the innocence of the victim and of the observers' BJW (belief in a just world) on the observers' reactions to the victim has been left undone. This study aims to throw some light on this subject. An experimental study was conducted using a 2 BJW (high; low) by 2 victim's innocence (innocent; noninnocent) between-subjects design. No interaction effects were found, but the forms of secondary victimization, as well as the judgements of justice and deservingness, were more positively correlated in the condition where the threat to BJW is higher. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This research examined how contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems affects rape survivors' psychological well-being. Although community services may be beneficial for some victims, there is increasing evidence that they can add trauma, rather than alleviate distress (termed secondary victimization). This study examined how secondary victimization affects rape survivors' posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Adaptive and snowball sampling were used to recruit a sample of 102 rape survivors. Victims of nonstranger rape who received minimal assistance from either the legal or medical system, and encountered victim-blaming behaviors from system personnel, had significantly elevated levels of PTS. This high-risk group of rape survivors had PTS levels significantly higher than all other victims in this study, including those who did not seek community assistance postrape. However, for these high-risk rape survivors, receiving sustained mental health services after these negative experiences was associated with a significant decrease in PTS.
Secondary victimization of rape victims: insights from mental health professionals who treat survivors of violence. (eng; includes abstract) By Campbell R, Violence And Victims [Violence Vict], 1999 Fall; Vol. 14 (3), pp. 261-75; PMID: 10606433 Find this journal title in a library
Rape victims may turn to the legal, medical, and mental health systems for assistance, but there is a growing body of literature indicating that many survivors are denied help by these agencies. What help victims do receive often leaves them feeling revictimized. These negative experiences have been termed "the second rape" or "secondary victimization." If indeed secondary victimization occurs, then these issues may be raised in rape survivors' mental health treatment. In the current study, probability sampling was used to survey a representative sample of licensed mental health professionals about the extent to which they believe rape victims are "re-raped" in their interactions with social system personnel. Most therapists believed that some community professionals engage in harmful behaviors that are detrimental to rape survivors' psychological well-being. Implications for future research on secondary victimization are discussed.
TOPIC: Psychotherapy with abused women. PURPOSE: To contrast the usefulness of several models of psychotherapy with abused women. SOURCE: Review of the literature and clinical experience of the authors. CONCLUSIONS: Because marital counseling often focuses on the violence as a product of the couple system rather than oppression of the woman, the authors recommend individual counseling to address developmentally determined feelings of helplessness. The goal of this psychotherapy is empowerment.
Examined the effects of postassault contact with community systems on rape victims' psychological and physical health distress. 102 adult rape survivors (average age 34.29 yrs) completed interviews concerning: (1) type of rape; (2) injuries, weapon used, and alcohol use by the victim; (3) postassault community help seeking, postassault contact with legal, medical, mental-health, rape crisis centers, or religious communities; (4) perceived secondary victimization; and (5) health outcomes. Results show that the majority of Ss who reported their assault to the legal or medical system did not receive needed services. These difficulties with service delivery were associated with both perceived and objective measures of negative health outcomes. Contact with the mental health system, rape crisis centers, or religious communities were generally perceived by victims as beneficial. Ethnic minority Ss and victims of non-stranger rape experienced difficulties when trying to obtain needed services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)
Secondary victimization among female veterans who have experienced sexual assault. Raja, Sheela; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 61(7-B), Feb 2001. pp. 3857. Find this journal title in a library
This study examined the secondary victimization of female veterans who have experienced sexual assault. Secondary victimization refers to the negative experiences that survivors may encounter when they seek help after rape. Secondary victimization can take place when community systems (e.g., the medical, mental health, legal, and religious systems) so not provide victims with the services they need, when victims are treated insensitively by providers, and when organizational practices do not prioritize the needs of victims. Two hundred and ninety-eight women completed a self-report survey while waiting for a scheduled appointment in an outpatient VA women's health clinic. Thirty-seven percent reported a history of sexual assault. Sixty-four percent of the participants with an assault history reported seeking help from at least one system (medical, mental health, legal/military, religious). Overall, there was evidence that secondary victimization was associated with poorer mental and physical health after a history of other trauma (e.g., sexual harassment, domestic violence, childhood sexual abuse) and rape-related factors (e.g., number of times assaulted) were statistically controlled. Secondary victimization did not moderate the relationship between system contact and depression, PTSD, or health. Secondary victimization did moderate the relationship between system contact and self-blame. Regression analyses provided weak support for system contact as a mediator between type of rape experienced (i.e., "classic" versus "non-classic" rapes) and victim outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)
Researchers have made considerable progress in documenting the factors contributing to the psychological reactions of sexual assault survivors. Most studies have assessed women after they have sought services. Yet most women do not report their assault or seek services to assist in dealing with the trauma. Undergraduate women were surveyed to assess those who have not reported their rape or sought services. Subjects completed a demographics and assault characteristics questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire (Sarason, Sarason, Shearin, & Pierce, 1987), Coping Strategies Inventory (Tobin, Holroyd, & Reynolds, 1984), and the Derogatis Symptom Checklist-Revised (Derogatis, 1983). This study explored the relationship between assault characteristics, coping responses, social support and psychological adjustment of women who have experienced sexual assault or attempted sexual assault. Although various psychological consequences have been investigated, their specific relations with social support types needed further exploration. Survivors reporting higher levels of psychological symptoms had fewer individuals to turn to for support and perceived those individuals as less supportive overall. They also utilized problem-focused disengagement coping strategies and did not believe they were victimized by the assault. Those having difficulty recovering also experienced physical violence during the assault and sought medical services after the assault. These results find a supportive social network an important factor in the psychological adjustment of survivors of sexual assault. Other important factors in recovery included acknowledging the effects of the assault and taking actions to solve the problems that arise. This study also indicates the need for continued education with medical personnel to decrease secondary victimization for those rape survivors that do seek services. These findings should provide mental health professionals an important focus for intervention with sexual assault survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)
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