Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan

or the Central and Western Rajput States of India

by Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod

Late political agent to the Western Rajput States

First published 1826, this edition 1920

Edited with an introduction and notes by William Crooke, C.I.E.

Table of Contents

Editor’s Preface

Editor’s Introduction


Author’s Introduction

Book I – Geography of Rajasthan or Rajputana

Geography of Rajasthan or Rajputana

Book II – History of the Rajput tribes

Chapter 1

Genealogies of the Rajput princes – The Puranas – Connexion of the Rajputs with the Scythic tribes

Chapter 2

Genealogies continued – Fictions in the Puranas – Union of the regal and the priestly characters – Legends of the Puranas confirmed by the Greek historians

Chapter 3

Genealogies continued – Comparisons between the lists of Sir W. Jones, Mr. Bentley, Captain Wilford, and the Author – Synchronisms

Chapter 4

Foundations of States and Cities by the different tribes

Chapter 5

The dynasties which succeeded Rama and Krishna – The Pandava family – Periods of the different dynasties

Chapter 6

Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya – Foreign races which entered India – Analogies between the Scythians, the Rajputs, and the tribes of Scandinavia

Chapter 7

Catalogue of the Thirty-six Royal Races

Chapter 8

Reflections on the present political state of the Rajput tribes . 145

Book III – Sketch of a Feudal System in Rajasthan

Chapter 1

Introduction – Existing condition of Rajasthan – General resemblance between the ancient systems of Asia and Europe – Noble origin of the Rajput race – Rathors of Marwar – Kachhwahas of Amber – Sesodias of Mewar – Gradation of ranks – Revenues and rights of the Crown – Barar – Khar Lakar

Chapter 2

Legislative authority – Rozina – Military service – Inefficiency of this form of government

Chapter 3

Feudal incidents – Duration of grants

Chapter 4

Rakhwali – Servitude – Basai – Gola and Das – Private feuds and composition – Rajput Pardhans or Premiers

Chapter 5

Adoption – Reflections upon the subjects treated


Book IV – Annals of Mewar

Chapter 1

Origin of the Guhilot princes of Mewar – Authorities – Kanaksen the founder of the present dynasty – His descent from Rama – He emigrates to Saurashtra – Valabhipura – Its sack and destruction by the Huns or Parthians

Chapter 2

Birth of Goha – He acquires Idar – Derivation of the term “Guhilot” – Birth of Bappa – Early religion of the Guhilots – Bappa’s history – Oghana Panarwa – Bappa’s initiation into the worship of Siva – He gains possession of Chitor – Remarkable end of Bappa – Four epochs established, from the second to the eleventh century

Chapter 3

Alleged Persian extraction of the lianas of Mewar – Authorities for it – Implied descent of the Ranas from a Christian princess of Byzantium – The Author’s reflections upon these points

Chapter 4

Intervening sovereigns between Bappa and Samarsi – Bappa’s descendants – Irruptions of the Arabians into India – Catalogue of Hindu princes who defended Chitor

Chapter 5

Historical facts furnished by the bard Chand – Anangpal – Prithiraj – Sainarsi – Overthrow of the Chauhan monarch by the Tatars – Posterity of Samarsi – Rahap – Changes in the title and the tribe of its prince – Successors of Rahap

Chapter 6

Rana Lakhamsi – Attack on Chitor by Alau-d-din – Treachery of Ala – Ruse of the Chitor chiefs to recover Bhimsi – Devotion of the Rana and his sons – Sack of Chitor by the Tatars – Its destruction – Rana Ajaisi – Hamir – He gains possession of Chitor – Renown and prosperity of Mewar – Khetsi – Lakha

Chapter 7

Delicacy of the Rajputs – The occasion of changing the rule of primogeniture in Mewar – Succession of the infant Mokalji, to the prejudice of Chonda, the rightful heir – Disorders in Mewar through the usurpations of the Rathors – Chonda expels them from Chitor and takes Mandor – Transactions between Mewar and Marwar – Reign of Mokalji – His assassination

Chapter 8

Succession of Kumbha – He defeats and takes prisoner Mahmud of Malwa – Splendour of Kumbha’s reign – Assassinated by his son – The murderer dethroned by Raemall – Mewar invaded by the imperial forces – Raemall’s successes – Feuds of the family – Death of Raemall

Chapter 9

Accession of Rana Sanga – State of the Muhammadan power – Grandeur of Mewar – Sanga’s victories – Invasions of India – Babur’s invasion – Defeats and kills the King of Delhi – Opposed by Sanga – Battle of Khanua – Defeat of Sanga – His death and character – Accession of Rana Ratna – His death – Rana Bikramajit – His character – Disgusts his nobles – Chitor invested by the King of Malwa – Storm of Chitor – Sakha or immolation of the females – Fall and plunder of Chitor – Humayun comes to its aid – He restores Chitor to Bikramajit, who is deposed by the nobles – Election of Banbir – Bikramajit assassinated

Chapter 10

The bastard Banbir rules Mewar – Attempted assassination of the posthumous son of Sanga – Udai Singh’s escape and long concealment – Acknowledged as Rana – The Dauna described – Udai Singh gains Chitor – Deposal of Banbir – Origin of the Bhonslas of Nagpur – Rana Udai Singh – His unworthiness – Humayun expelled the throne of India – Birth of Akbar – Humayun recovers his throne – His death – Accession of Akbar – Characters of Akbar and Udai Singh contrasted – Akbar besieges Chitor, which is abandoned by the Rana – Its defence – Jaimall and Patta – Anecdotes of Rajput females – Sakha or Johar – General assault – Chitor taken – Massacre of the inhabitants – Udai Singh founds the new capital Udaipur – His death

Chapter 11

Accession of Partap – The Rajput princes unite with Akbar – Depressed condition of Partap – He prepares for war – Maldeo submits to Akbar – Partap denounces connexion with the Rajput princes – Raja Man of Amber – Prince Salim invades Mewar – Battle of Haldighat – Partap encounters Salim, is wounded, and saved by the Jhala chief – Assisted in his flight by his brother Sakta – Kumbhalmer taken by Akbar – Udaipur occupied by the Moguls – Partap cuts off Farid and his army – Partap’s family saved by the Bhils – The Khankhanan – Aggravated hardships of Partap – He negotiates with Akbar – Prithiraj of Bikaner – The Khushroz described – Partap abandons Mewar – Departure for the Indus – Fidelity of his minister – Returns – Surprises the Moguls – Regains Kumbhalmer and Udaipur – His successes – His sickness and death

Chapter 12

Amra mounts the throne – Akbar’s death through an attempt to poison Raja Man – Amra disregards the promise given to his father – Conduct of the Salumbar chief – Amra defeats the Imperial armies – Sagarji installed as Rana in Chitor – Resigns it to Amra – Fresh successes – Origin of the Saktawats – The Emperor sends his son Parvez against the Rana, who is defeated – Mahabat Khan defeated – Sultan Khurram invades Mewar – Amra’s despair and submission – Embassy from England – Amra abdicates the throne to his son Amra’s seclusion – His death – Observations

Chapter 13

Rana Karan fortifies and embellishes Udaipur – The Ranas of Mewar excused -attendance at court – Bhim commands the contingent of Mewar – Leagues with Sultan Khurram against Parvez – Jahangir attacks the insurgents – Bhim slain – Khurram flies to Udaipur – His reception by the Rana – Death of Karan – Rana Jagat Singh succeeds – Death of Jahangir and accession of Khurram as Shah Jahan – Mewar enjoys profound peace – The island palaces erected by Jagat Singh – Repairs Chitor – His death – Rana Raj Singh – Deposal of Shah Jahan and accession of Aurangzeb – Causes for attachment to the Hindus of Jahangir and Shah Jahan – Aurangzeb’s character; imposes the Jizya or capitation tax on the Rajputs – Raj Singh abducts the intended wife of the emperor and prepares for war – Aurangzeb marches – The valley of Girwa – Prince Akbar surprised – Defeated – Blockaded in the mountains – Liberated by the heir of Mewar – Diler Khan defeated – Aurangzeb defeated by the Rana and his Rathor allies – Aurangzeb quits the field – Prince Bhim invades Gujarat – The Rana’s minister ravages Malwa – United Rajputs defeat Azam and drive him from Chitor – Mewar freed from the Moguls – War carried into Marwar – Sesodias and Rathors defeat Sultan Akbar – Rajput stratagem – Design to depose Aurangzeb and elevate Akbar to the throne – Its failure – The Mogul makes overtures to the Rana – Peace – Terms – The Rana dies of his wounds – His character, contrasted with that of Aurangzeb. – Lake Rajsamund – Dreadful famine and pestilence

Chapter 14

Rana Jai Singh – Anecdote regarding him and his twin brother – The Rana and Prince Azam confer – Peace – Rupture – The Rana forms the Lake Jaisamund – Domestic broils – Amra, the heir-apparent, rebels – The Rana dies – Accession of Amra – His treaty with the heir of Aurangzeb – Reflections on the events of this period – Imposition of the Jizya or capitation tax – Alienation of the Rajputs from the empire – Causes – Aurangzeb’s death – Contests for empire – Bahadur Shah, emperor – The Sikhs declare for independence – Triple alliance of the Rajput States of Mewar, Marwar, and Amber – They commence hostilities – Death of the Mogul Bahadur Shah – Elevation of Farrukhsiyar – He marries the daughter of the Prince of Marwar – Origin of the British power in India – The Rana treats with the emperor – The Jats declare their independence – Rana Amra dies – His character

Chapter 15

Rana Sangram – Dismemberment of the Mogul Empire – Nizamu-l Mulk establishes the Haidarabad State – Murder of the Emperor Farrukhsiyar – Abrogation of the Jizya-- Muhammad Shah, Emperor of Delhi – Saadat Khan obtains Oudh – Repeal of the Jizya confirmed – Policy of Mewar – Rana Sangram dies – Anecdotes regarding him – Rana Jagat Singh II succeeds – Treaty of triple alliance with Marwar and Amber – The Mahrattas invade and gain footing in Malwa and Gujarat – Invasion of Nadir Shah – Sack of Delhi – Condition of Rajputana – Limits of Mewar – Rajput alliances – Bajirao invades Mewar – Obtains a cession of annual tribute--Contest to place Madho Singh on the throne of Amber – Battle of Rajmahall – The Rana defeated – He leagues with Malharrao Holkar – Isari Singh of Amber takes poison – The Rana dies – His character

Chapter 16

Rana Partap II – Rana Raj Singh II – Rana Arsi – Holkar invades Mewar, and levies contributions – Rebellion to depose the Rana – A Pretender set up by the rebel chiefs – Zalim Singh of Kotah – The Pretender unites with Sindhia – Their combined force attacked by the Rana, who is defeated – Sindhia invades Mewar and besieges Udaipur – Amra Chand made minister by the Rana – His noble conduct – Negotiates with Sindhia, who withdraws – Loss of territory to Mewar – Rebel chiefs return to their allegiance – Province of Godwar lost – Assassination of the Rana – Rana Hamir succeeds – Contentions between the Queen Regent and Amra – His noble conduct, death, and character – Diminution of the Mewar territory

Chapter 17

Rana Bhim – Feud of Sheogarh – The Rana redeems the alienated lands – Ahalya Bai attacks the Rana’s army – Which is defeated – Chondawat rebellion – Assassination of the Minister Somji – The rebels seize on Chitor – Mahadaji Sindhia called in by the Rana – Invests Chitor – The rebels surrender – Designs of Zalim Singh for power in Mewar – Counteracted by Ambaji, who assumes the title of Subahdar, contested by Lakwa – Effects of these struggles – Zalim obtains Jahazpur – Holkar invades Mewar – Confines the priests of Nathdwara – Heroic conduct of the Chief of Kotharia – Lakwa dies – The Rana seizes the Mahratta leaders – Liberated by Zalim Singh – Holkar returns to Udaipur – Imposes a heavy contribution – Sindhia’s invasion – Reflections on their contest with the British – Ambaji projects the partition of Mewar – Frustrated – Rivalry for Krishna Kunwari, the Princess of Mewar, produces war throughout Rajasthan – Immolation of Krishna – Amir Khan and Ajit Singh – Their villainy – British Embassy to Sindhia’s Court at Udaipur – Ambaji is disgraced, and attempts suicide – Amir Khan and Bapu Sindhia desolate Mewar – The Rana forms a treaty with the British

Chapter 18

Overthrow of the predatory system – Alliances with the Rajput States – Envoy appointed to Mewar – Arrives at Udaipur – Reception – Description of the Court – Political geography of Mewar – The Rana – His character – His ministers – Plans – Exiles recalled – Merchants invited – Bhilwara established – Assembly of the nobles – Charter ratified; Resumptions of land; Anecdotes of the Chiefs of Arja, Badnor, Badesar, and Amet – Landed tenures in Mewar – Village rule – Freehold (bapota) of Mewar – Bhumia, or allodial vassals: Character and privileges – Great Register of Patents – Traditions exemplifying right in the soil – The Patel; his origin; character – Assessment of land-rents – General results

List of Illustrations

Bust of Colonel James Tod – Section of Country – List of Thirty-six Royal Races – Salumbar – Sanskrit Grant – Palace of Udaipur – Palace of Rana Blain – Ruins of Fortress of Bayana – Chitor – Rajmahall – Jagmandir – Maharaja Blain Singh – Facsimile of Native Drawing

Original Dedication of the First Volume

To His Most Gracious Majesty, George the Fourth


The gracious permission accorded me, to lay at the foot of the Throne the fruit of my labours, allows me to propitiate Your Majesty’s consideration towards the object of this work, the prosecution of which I have made a paramount duty.

The Rajput princes, happily rescued, by the triumph of the British arms, from the yoke of lawless oppression, are now the most remote tributaries to Your Majesty’s extensive empire; and their admirer and annalist may, perhaps, be permitted to hope that the sighs of this ancient and interesting race for the restoration of their former independence, which it would suit our wisest policy to grant, may be deemed not undeserving Your Majesty’s regard.

With entire loyalty and devotion, I subscribe myself, Your Majesty’s

Most faithful subject and servant,

James Tod,

Bird Hurst, Croydon,

June 20, 1829.

Original Dedication of the Second Volume

To His Most Gracious Majesty, William the Fourth


Your Majesty has graciously sanctioned the presentation of the Second Volume of the Annals of Rajputana to the Public under the auspices of Your Majesty’s name.

In completing this work, it has been my endeavour to draw a faithful picture of States, the ruling principle of which is the paternity of the Sovereign. That this patriarchal form is the best suited to the genius of the people may be presumed from its durability, which war, famine, and anarchy have failed to destroy. The throne has always been the watchword and rallying-point of the Rajputs. My prayer is, that it may continue so, and that neither the love of conquest, nor false views of policy, may tempt us to subvert the independence of these States, some of which have braved the storms of more than ten centuries.

It will not, I trust, be deemed presumptuous in the Annalist of these gallant and long-oppressed races thus to solicit for them a full measure of Your Majesty’s gracious patronage; in return for which, the Rajputs, making Your Majesty’s enemies their own, would glory in assuming the “saffron robe,” emblematic of death or victory, under the banner of that chivalry of which Your Majesty is the head.

That Your Majesty’s throne may ever be surrounded by chiefs who will act up to the principles of fealty maintained at all hazards by the Rajput, is the heartfelt aspiration of,


Your Majesty’s Devoted subject and servant,

James Tod.

This collection transcribed by Chris Gage
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